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1.15. Of such falles of waters as ioine with the sea, betweene Hum|ber and the Thames. Chap. 16.

EEBO page image 100

Of such falles of waters as ioine with the sea, betweene Hum|ber and the Thames. Chap. 16.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _HAuing in this maner descri|bed the Ouze, and such riuers as fall into the same: now it resteth that I procéed in my voiage toward the Thames, according to my former or|der. Being therefore come a|gaine into the maine sea, I find no water of anie countenance or course (to my remembrance) till I come vnto the Ancolme a good|lie water,Ancolme. which riseth east of Mercate Rafing, and from thence goeth by middle Rafing. Then receiuing a short till from by south, it runneth on vnder two bridges, by the waie, till it come to Wingall, north|east; where also it méeteth with another brooke, from W [...]bie that commeth thither by Uresbie, goeth by Cadneie (taking in the two rilles in one bottome, that descend from Howsham, and north Leiseie) and thence to Newsted, Glanford, Wardeleie, Thorne|ham, Applebie, Horflow, north Ferribie, and so into the sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Being past Ancolme,K [...]lis. we go about the Nesse, and so to the fall of the water which commeth from Kele|die, by Cotham abbeie, Nersham abbeie, Thorneton, and leauing Coxhill by west, it falleth into the Oce|an. The next is the fall of another brooke comming from Fleting, all alongst by Stas [...]ingburne. Then crossed we Grimsbie gullet, which issuing aboue E|rebie commeth to Lasebie, the two Cotes, and then into the sea. After this we passed by another portlet, whose backwater descendeth from Balesbie by Ash|bie, Briggesleie, Wath, and Towneie, and finallie to the next issue, before we come at Saltflete, which branching at the last, leaueth a prettie Iland wherein Comsholme village standeth. This water riseth short (as I heare) of Tathe well, from whence it goeth to Rathbie, Hallington, Estington, Lowth, Kidiring|ton, Auingham, and then branching aboue north So|merton, one arme méeteth with the sea, by Graue|thorpe, the other by north of Somercote.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Saltflete water hath but a short course: for rising among the Cockeringtons, it commeth to the sea,Saltflete. at Saltflete hauen: howbeit the next vnto it is of a longer race, for it riseth (as I take it) at Cawthorpe paroch, and descendeth by Legburne, the Carletons, the west middle and east Saltfletes, and so into the Ocean. The water that riseth aboue Ormesbie and Oribie, goeth to Cawsbie, Swabie abbeie, Cla|thorpe, Belew, Tattle, Witherne, Stane, and north|cast of Thetilthorpe into the maine sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Maplethorpe water riseth at Tharesthorpe, and going by Markeleie, Folethorpe,Maplethorpe. and Truthorpe, it is not long yer it méet with the Germane Ocean. Then come we to the issue that commeth from aboue Hotost, and thence to Mumbie chappell, whither the water comming from Claxbie, Willowbie, and Slouthbie (and whereinto another rill falleth) dooth runne, as there to doo homage vnto their lord and so|uereigne. As for Ingold mill créeke, I passe it ouer, and come streight to another water, descending from Burge by Skegnes. From hence I go to the issue of a faire brooke, which (as I heare) dooth rise at Tetford, and thence goeth by Somerbie, Bagender|bie, Ashwardbie, Sawsthorpe, Partneie, Ashbie, the Stepings, Thorpe croft, and so into the sea. As for Wainflete water, it commeth from the east sea, and goeth betwéene S. Maries & Alhallowes by Wain|flete towne, and treading the path of his predecessors, emptieth his chanell to the maintenance of the sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Now come I to the course of the Witham, a fa|mous riuer, whereof goeth the beword, frequented of old, and also of Ancolme, which I before described:

Ancolme ele, and Witham pike,
Search all England and find not the like.
Leland calleth it Lindis, diuerse the Rhe,Lindis, wi|tham, Rhe. and I haue read all these names my selfe: and thereto that the Lincolneshire men were called in old time Corita|ni, and their head citie Lindus, Lindon, or Linodu|num, in which region also Ptolomie placeth Rage, which some take to be Notingham, except my memo|rie doo faile me. It riseth among the Wickhams, in the edge of Lincolnshire, and (as I take it) in south-Wickham paroch, from whence it goeth to Co [...]ster|worth, Easton, Kirkestoke Paunton, and Paunton Houghton, and at Grantham taketh in a rill from by southwest, as I heare. From Grantham it run|neth to Man, Thorpe, Bolton, and Barneston, where crossing a becke from northeast, it procéedeth further southwest ward by Mereston, toward Faston (there also taking in a brooke that riseth about Denton, and goeth by Sidbrooke) it hasteth to Dodington, Cla|pale, Barmebie, Beckingham, Stapleford, Bassing|ham, Thursbie, and beneath Amburgh crosseth a wa|ter that commeth from Stogilthorpe by Somerton castell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this confluence also, our Witham goeth still foorth on his waie to the Hickhams, Boltham, Bracebridge, and Lincolne it selfe, for which the Nor|mans write Nicholl by transposition of the letters, or (as I may better saie) corruption of the word. But yer it come there, it maketh certeine pooles (whereof one is called Swan poole) and soone after diuiding it selfe into armes, they run both thorough the lower part of Lincolne, each of them hauing a bridge of stone ouer it, thereby to passe through the principall stréet: and as the bigger arme is well able to beare their fisher botes, so the lesser is not without his seue|rall commodities. At Lincolne also this noble riuer méeteth with the Fosse dike, whereby in great floods vessels may come from the Trents side to Lin|colne.Fosse dike. For betweene Torkseie, where it beginneth, and Lincolne citie, where it endeth, are not aboue se|uen miles, as Leland hath remembred. Bishop At|water began to clense this ditch, thinking to bring great vessels from Trent to Lincolne in his time: but sith he died before it was performed, there hath no man beene since so well minded as to prosecute his purpose. The course moreouer of this our streame following, from Lincolne to Boston is fiftie miles by water: but if you mind to ferrie, you shall haue but 24. For there are foure common places where men are ferried ouer; as Short ferrie, fiue miles from Lincolne, Tatersall ferrie, eight miles from Short ferrie, Dogdike ferrie a mile, Langreth fer|rie fiue miles, and so manie finallie to Boston.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But to go forward with the course of Lindis (whereof the whole prouince hath béene called Lin|deseie) when it is past Linclone, it goeth by Shepe|wash, Wassingburg, Fiskerton, and soone after ta|keth in sundrie riuers in one chanell, whereby his greatnesse is verie much increased. From this con|fluence it goeth to Bardolfe, and there receiuing a rill (descending from betwee [...]e Sotbie and Randbie, and going by Harton) it slideth foorth by Tupham to Tatersall castell, taking vp there in like sort thrée small rills by the waie, whereof I haue small notice as yet: and therefore I referre them vnto a further consideration to be had of them hereafter, if it shall please God that I may liue to haue the filling of these rude pamphlets yet once againe, & somewhat more leasure to peruse them than at this time is gran|ted. Finallie, being past Tatersall, and Dogdike EEBO page image 101 ferrie, the Witham goeth toward Boston, & thence into the sea. Thus haue I briestie dispatched this no|ble riuer Witham. But hauing another note deliue|red me thereof from a fréend, I will yéeld so farre vn|to his gratification, that I will remember his trauell here, and set downe also what he hath written there|of, although the riuer be sufficientlie described al|redie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Into Witham therefore from by north, and seuen miles beneath Lincolne,Witham. there falleth a faire water, the head whereof is at Hakethorne, from whence it goeth by Hanworth,Hake. Snarford, Resbie, Stainton, and at Bullington méeteth with a water on ech side, whereof one commeth from Haiton and Turxing|ton, the other from Sudbrooke, and likewise beneath Birlings with the third comming from Barkeworth by Stansted, and ioining all in one, soone after it is not long yer it fall into the chanell of Witham, and so are neuer more heard of. There is also a brooke by southwest, that commeth from Kirbie to Cateleie, Biltingams, and the Ferrie. At Taterfall it méeteth with the Bane,Bane. which riseth aboue Burgh, and néere vnto Ludford goeth downe to Dunnington, Sta|nigod, Hemmingsbie, Bamburgh, Fillington, Horne castell (where it crosseth a rill from Belch|worth) Thornton, Marton, Halton, Kirkebie, Coms|bie, Tatersall, and so to Dogdike ferrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Aboue Boston likewise it taketh in a water com|ming from Lusebie by Bolingbrooke, Stickeford, Stickneie, Sibbeseie and Hildrike. And to Boston towne it selfe doo finallie come sundrie brookes in one chanell, called Hammond becke, which rising at Do|nesbie, runneth on to Wrightbold, where it casteth one arme into Holiwell water. Thence it hasteth to|ward Dunnington, receiuing foure brookes by the waie, whereof the first commeth from Milshorpe, the second from Fokingham,Bolling|borow. Sem|pringham. called Bollingborow, or (after some, I wote not vpon what occasion) Sem|pringham water, the third from Bridge end, the fourth from Sempringham, and afterwards the maine streame is found to run by Kirton holme, and so into the Witham. Into the Wiland likewise falleth the Holiwell, which riseth of a spring that runneth toward the east from Haliwell to Onebie, Esonden, Gretford, and so to Catbridge, where it re|ceiueth another rising at Witham and west of Man|thorpe, and the second comming from Laund, and so run from thence togither to Willesthorpe and Cat|bridge, and then into the Haliwell, which after these confluences goeth to Tetford and Eastcote, where it meeteth with a draine, comming from Bourne, and so through the sennes to Pinchbecke, Surfleet, and Fosdike, where it méeteth with the Welland, in the mouth of the Wash, as I haue noted vnto you.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Hauing thus set foorth the riuers that fall into the Witham,Wiland. now come we to the Wiland or Welland, wherevnto we repaire after we be past Boston, as drawing by litle and litle toward the Girwies, which inhabit in the fennes (for Gir in the old Saxon speach dooth signifie déepe fennes and marishes) and these beginning at Peterborow eastward, extend themselues by the space of thrée score miles & more, as Hugh of Peterborow writeth. This streame ri|seth about Sibbertoft, and running betwéene Bos|worth and Howthorpe, it goeth to Féedingworth, Merson, Bubberham, Trussell, Herborow (recei|uing there the Braie,Braie. which commeth from Braie|brooke castell) to Bowton, Weston, Wiland, Ashleie, Medburne, Rokingham, and Cawcot, where a riue|ret called little Eie méeteth withall, comming from east Norton by Alexstone, Stocke, Faston, and Drie stocke. From Cawcot it goeth to Gritto, Harring|worth, Seton, Wauerlie, Duddington, Collie We|ston, Eston, and there ioineth with the third called Warke,Warke. not far from Ketton, which commeth from Lie by Preston, Wing, Lindon, Luffenham, &c. Thence it goeth on by Tinwell, to Stanford (crossing the Brooke water,Brooke water Whitnell. and Whitnelbecke, both in one bottome) and from Stanford by Talington, Maxeie, to Mercate, Deeping, Crowland (where it almost meeteth with the Auon) then to Spalding, Whap|land, and so into the sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Leland writing of this Wiland, addeth these words which I will not omit, sith in mine opinion they are worthie to be noted, for better consideration to be had in the said water and his course. The Wi|land (saith he) going by Crowland, at Newdrene di|uideth it selfe into two branches, of which one goeth vp to Spalding called Newdrene,Newdrene. and so into the sea at Fossedike Stow: the other named the SouthSouth. in|to Wisbech. This latter also parteth it selfe two miles from Crowland,Writhlake. & sendeth a rill called Writh|lake by Thorneie, where it méeteth with an arme of the Nene, that commeth from Peterborow, and hol|deth course with the broad streame, till it be come to Murho, six miles from Wisbech, where it falleth into the South.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Out of the South in like sort falleth another arme called Sheepes eie,Shéepes eie. and at Hopelode (which is foure|téene miles from Lin) did fall into the sea. But now the course of that streame is ceased, wherevpon the inhabitants susteine manie grieuous flouds, bicause the mouth is stanched, by which it had accesse before into the sea. Hitherto Leland. Of the course of this riuer also from Stanford, I note this furthermore out of another writing in my time. Being past Stanton (saith he) it goeth by Burghleie, Uffington, Tallington, Maxeie, Déeping, east Deeping, and comming to Waldram hall, it brancheth into two armes, whereof that which goeth to Singlesole, recei|ueth the Nene out of Cambridgeshire, and then go|ing by Dowesdale, Trekenhole, and winding at last to Wisbech, it goeth by Liuerington, saint Maries, and so into the sea. The other arme hasteth to Crow|land, Clowthouse, Bretherhouse, Pikale, Cowbecke and Spalding. Here also it receiueth the Baston dreane, Longtost dreane, Déeping dreane, and thence goeth by Wickham into the sea, taking with|all on the right hand sundrie other dreanes. And thus farre he.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Next of all, when we are past these, we come to another fall of water into the Wash, which descen|deth directlie from Whaplade dreane to Whaplade towne in Holland: but bicause it is a water of small importance, I passe from thence, as hasting to the Nene, of both the more noble riuer: and about the middest thereof in place is a certeine swallow, so déepe and so cold in the middest of summer, that no man dare diue to the bottome thereof for coldnesse, and yet for all that in winter neuer found to haue béene touched with frost, much lesse to be couered with ise. The next therefore to be described is the A|uon,Auon. otherwise called Nene,Nene. which the said author de|scribeth after this maner. The Nene beginneth foure miles aboue Northampton in Nene méere, where it riseth out of two heads, which ioine about Northampton. Of this riuer the citie and countrie beareth the name, although we now pronounce Hampton for Auondune, which errour is commit|ted also in south Auondune, as we may easilie see. In another place Leland describeth the said riuer after this maner. The Auon riseth in Nene méere field, and going by Oundale and Peterborow, it diuideth it selfe into thrée armes, whereof one goeth to Hor|neie, another to Wisbech, the third to Ramseie: and afterward being vnited againe, they fall into the sea not verie farre from Lin. Finallie, the descent of these waters leaue here a great sort of Ilands, wher|of EEBO page image 102 of Elie, Crowland, and Merfland, are the chiefe. Hi|therto Leland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Howbeit, because neither of these descriptions touch the course of this riuer at the full, I will set downe the third, which shall supplie whatsoeuer the o|ther doo want. The Auon therefore arising in Nene|mere field, is increased with manie rilles, before it come at Northhampton, & one aboue Kings thorpe, from whence it goeth to Dallington, and so to North|hampton, where it receiueth the Wedon. And here I will staie,Vedunus. till I haue described this riuer. The We|don therefore riseth at Faulesse in master Knight|lies pooles, and in Badbie plashes also are certeine springs that resort vnto this streame. Faulesse pooles are a mile from Chareton, where the head of Chare riuer is, that runneth to Banberie. There is but an hill called Alberie hill betwéene the heads of these two riuers.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 From the said hill therefore the Weldon directeth his course to Badbie, Newenham, Euerton, We|don, betwixt which and Floretowne, it receiueth the Florus (a pretie water rising of foure heads,Florus. whereof the one is at Dauentrie, another at Watford, the third at long Bucke, the fourth aboue Whilton) and then passeth on to Heiford, Kislingberie, Upton, and so to Northhampton, where it falleth into the Auon, receiuing finallie by the waie the Bugbrooke water at He [...]ford, [...]ugius. Pat [...]hall water néere [...]islingberie, and finallie Preston water beneath Upton, which run|ning from Preston by Wootton, méeteth at the last with Milton rill, and so fall into Auon. Now to re|sume the tractation of our Auon. From North|hampton therefore it runneth by Houghton, great Billing, Whitstone, Dodington, and Willingbo|row, where we must staie a while: for betweene Wil|lingborow and Higham Ferries, it receiueth a pre|tie water comming from about Kilmarsh,Kilis. which go|ing by Ardingworth, Daisborow, Rusheton, New|ton, Gaddington, Boughton, Warketon, Kette|ring, Berton, and Burton, méeteth there with Roth|well water,Rother. which runneth west of Kettering to Hi|sham, the greater Haridon, and then into the Auon.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Being therfore past Burton, our maine streame goeth to Higham Ferries, Artleborow, Kingsted, Woodford, and (méeting thereby with Cranford rill) to Thraxston, north whereof it ioineth also with the Ocleie water,Ocleie. that commeth from Sudborow and Lowicke, to old Umkles, Waden ho, Pilketon, Toke (where it taketh in the Liueden becke) and so to Oundell, Cotterstocke, Tansoner, and betweene Tothering and Warmington receiueth the Corbie water,Corbie. which rising at Corbie, goeth by Weldon, De|neshap, Bulwich, Bletherwijc, Fineshed, Axthorpe, Newton, Tothering, and so into the Auon. After this, the said Auon goeth to Elton, Massington, Yer|well, Sutton, Castor, Allerton, and so to Peterbo|row, where it diuideth it selfe into sundrie armes, and those into seuerall branches and draines, among the fennes and medowes, not possible almost to be numbred, before it méet with the sea on the one side of the countrie, and fall into the Ouze on the other.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Ouze, which Leland calleth the third Isis,Isis 3. fal|leth into the sea betwéene Mersland & Downeham. The chiefe head of this riuer ariseth néere to Stanes, from whence it commeth to Brackleie (sometime a noble towne in Northampton shire, but now scarse|lie a good village) and there taking in on the left hand one water comming from the parke betwéene Si|sam and Astwell (which runneth by Whitfield andSisa. Tinweston) and another on the right from Imleie, it goeth on by Westbirie,Imelus. Fulwell, water Stretford, Buckingham, and Berton, beneath which towne the Erin falleth into it, whereof I find this short descrip|tion to be inserted here.Erin. The Erin riseth not farre from Hardwijc Northamptonshire, from hence it goeth by H [...]th, Gunford, Godderington, Twiford, Stéeple C [...]adon, & yer it come at Padbirie, méeteth with the Garan [...]brooke descending fromGaran. Garan|burge, and so they go togither by Padbirie, till they fall into the Ouze, which carieth them after the con|fluence to Thorneton bridge (where they crosse ano|ther fall of water comming from Whitlewood for|rest by Luffe [...]d, Le [...]amsted and Fosent) and so to Beachampton, Culuerton, Stonie Stratford, and Woluerton.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Here the Ouze méeteth with a water (called,Verus. as Leland coniectureth, the Uere or Were) on the left hand, as you go downewards, that commeth be|twéene Wedon and Wexenham in Northampton|shire, and goeth by Towcester, and Alderton, and not farre from Woluerton and Hauersham into the foresaid Ouze, which goeth also from hence to New|portpaganell, where in like sort I must staie a while till I haue described another water, named the Clée, by whose issue the said streame is not a little increa|sed.Cle aliàs Claius. This riuer riseth in the verie confines betwéene Buckingham and Bedfordshires, not farre from Whippesnade, and going on toward the northwest, by Eaton and Laiton, it commeth to Linchlade, where it entreth wholie into Buckinghamshire, and so goeth on by Hammond, Brickle, Fennie Strat|ford, Simpson, Walton and Middleton, beneath which it receiueth the Saw from aboue Halcot, and so goeth on till it meet with the Ouze néere vntoSaw. Newport, as I haue said. Being vnited therefore, we set forward from the said towne, and follow this noble riuer, to Lathbirie, Thuringham, Filgrane, Lawndon, Newington, Bradfield on the one side, and Turueie on the other, till it come at length to Bedford after manie windlesses, and then méeteth with another streame, which is increased with so ma|nie waters, that I was inforced to make an imagi|ned staie here also, and view their seuerall courses, supposing my selfe to looke downe from the highest steeple in Bedford, whence (as best meane to view anie countrie wheresoeuer) I note the same as fol|loweth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Certes on the east side, where I began this specu|lation, I saw one that came from Potton, and met withall néere Becliswade: another that grew of two waters, wherof one descended from Baldocke, the other from Hitchin, which ioined beneth Arleseie, and thence went to Langford and Edworth. The third which I beheld had in like sort two heads, wher|of one is not farre from Wood end,These rise not far from Michelborow & one of them in Higham parke. the other from Wooburne (or Howburne) and ioining about Flit|wijc, they go to Flitton (where they receiue Antill brooke) and so by Chiphill, and Chicksand, they come to Shafford, from whence taking the aforsaid Lang|ford water with them, they go foorth by Becliswade, Sandie, Blumham, and neere vnto Themisford are vnited with the Ouze. And now to our purpose a|gaine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this the Ouze goeth by Berkeford, to Win|teringham (méeting there with the Wareslie becke) and so runneth to S. Neotes (or saint Nedes, Verus or the Were. in old time Goluesburg, as Capgraue saith In vita Neoti) to Paxston, Offordes,Stoueus. and so to Godmanchester, in old time called Gumicester, which (as it should séeme) hath béene a towne of farre greater countenance than at this present it is; for out of the ruines thereof much Romane coine is found, and sometimes with the image of C. Antius which hath long haire, as the Romans had before they receiued barbars into their citie, and therevnto the bones of diuerse men of farre greater stature than is credible to be spo|ken of in these daies. But what stand I vpon these things? From hence therfore our water goeth on to EEBO page image 103 Huntingdon,Stoueus. Wilton, saint Iues, Holiwell, and E|rith, receiueth in the meane time the Stow (néere vnto little Paxton) and likewise the Ellen, and the Emmer,Helenus. Elmerus. in one chanell a little by west of Hunting|don.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Finallie, the maine streame spreading abroad into the Fennes, I cannot tell into how manie branches, neither how manie Ilets are inforced by the same; although of Iles, Marshland, Ancarig or Ancarie be the chiefe, and of which this later is called Crowland (as Crowland also hight thornie A cruda terra, or store of bushes saith Hugo le Blanc) some|time growing in the same, and Ancartjc because sun|drie Ancres haue liued & borne great swaie therein. But howsoeuer this case standeth, this is certeine, that after it hath thus delited it selfe with ranging a while about the pleasant bottoms & lower grounds, it méeteth with the Granta, from whence it goeth with a swift course vnto Downeham. Betwéene it also and the Auon, are sundrie large meeres or pla|shes, by southwest of Peterborow full of powts and carpes, whereof Whittleseie méere, and Ramseie méere (whereinto the Riuall falleth,Riuelus. that commeth from aboue Broughton, Wiston, and great Riuel|leie) are said to be greatest. Of all the riuers that run into this streame, that called Granta (whereof the whole countie in old time was called Granta|brycshire,Granta. as appéereth by the register of Henrie prior of Canturburie) is the most noble and excellent, which I will describe euen in this place, notwith|standing that I had earst appointed it vnto my se|cond booke. But for somuch as a description of Ouze and Granta were deliuered me togither, I will for his sake that gaue them me, not separate them now in sunder.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The verie furthest head and originall of this riuer is in Henham, a large parke belonging to the earle of Sussex, wherein (as the townesmen saie) are foure springs that run foure sundrie waies in|to the maine sea. Leland sought not the course of this water aboue Newport pond, and therefore in his commentaries vpon the song of the swan, he writeth thereof after this maner insuing. Although doctor Iohn Caius the learned physician, and some o|ther are of the opinion, that this riuer comming from Newport, is properlie to be called the Rhée: but I may not so easilie dissent from Leland, whose iudgement in my mind is by a great deale the more likelie. Harken therefore what he saith.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The head of Grantha or Granta, is in the pond at Newport, a towne of the east Saxons, which going in a bottome beside the same, receiueth a pretie rill, which in the middest thereof dooth driue a mill, and descendeth from Wickin Bonhant, that standeth not farre from thence. Being past Newport, it go|eth alongst in the lower ground, vntill it come to Broke Walden, west of Chipping Walden (now Saffron Walden) hard by the lord Awdleis place, where the right honorable Thomas Howard with his houshold doo soiourne, and sometime stood an abbeie of Benedictine moonks, before their generall suppres|sion. From Awdleie end it goeth to Littleburie, the lesse and greater Chesterfords, Yealdune, Hinc|stone, Seoston or Sawson, and néere vnto Shale|ford receiueth the Babren that commeth by Linton, Abbington, Babrenham, and Stapleford: and so go|ing forward it commeth at the last to Tromping|ton,Babren. which is a mile from Cambridge. But yer it come altogither to Trompington, it méeteth with the Barrington water, as Leland calleth it, but some other the RheeRhée. (a common name to all waters in the Saxon speech) whereof I find this description, to be touched by the waie. The Rhée riseth short of Ashwell in Hertfordshire, and passing vnder the bridge be|tweene Gilden Mordon and Downton, and leauing Tadlow on the west side (as I remember) it goeth to|ward Crawden, Malton, Barrington, Haseling|field, and so into Granta, taking sundrie rills with him from south and southwest, as Wendie water southwest of Crawden, Whaddon brooke southwest of Orwell, Mildred becke southwest of Malton, and finallie the Orme which commeth out of Armington or Ormendum well, and goeth by Fulmere and Fox|ton, and falleth into the same betweene Barrington and Harleston, or Harston; as they call it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Now to procéed with our Granta. From Trom|pington on the one side, and Grantcester on the o|ther, it hasteth to Cambridge ward, taking the Burne with it by the waie, which descendeth from a castell of the same denomination, wherein the Pi|cotes and Peuerels sometime did inhabit. Thence it goeth by sundrie colleges in Cambridge, as the queenes college, the kings college, Clare hall, Tri|nitie college, S. Iohns, &c: vnto the high bridge of Cambridge, and betwéene the towne and the castell to Chesterton, and receiuing by and by the Stoure, or Sture (at whose bridge the most famous mart in England is yearelie holden and kept) from Chester|ton it goeth to Ditton,Sturus. Milton, and yer long méeting with two rilles (from Bottesham and Wilberham, in one bottome) it runneth to Horningseie, & Wa|ter Bech: and finallie here ioining with the Bul|becke water, it goeth by Dennie, and so forth into the Ouze,Bulbecke. fiftéene miles from Cambridge, as Leland hath set downe. And thus much of the third Isis or Ouze, out of the aforesaid author: wherevnto I haue not onelie added somewhat of mine owne experi|ence, but also of other mens notes, whose diligent obseruation of the course of this riuer hath not a little helped me in the description of the same. Now it resteth that we come neerer to the coast of North|folke, and set foorth such waters as we passe by vpon the same, wherein I will deale so preciselie as I may: and so farre will I trauell therein, as I hope shall content euen the curious reader: or if a|nie fault be made, it shall not be so great, but that after some trauell in the finding, it shall with ease be corrected.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The first riuer that therefore we come vnto, after we be past the confluence of Granta, and the Ouze, and within the iurisdiction of Northfolke, is called the Burne.Burne. This streame riseth not ve|rie farre from Burne Bradfield, aboue the grea|ter Wheltham, and from thence it goeth on to Nawnton, Burie, Farneham Martin, Farne|ham Alhallowes, Farneham Genouefa, Hen|graue, Flemton, Lackeford, Icklingham, and to Milden hall: a little beneath which, it meeteth with the Dale water,Dale. that springeth not farre from Catilege, and going by Asheleie, Moul|ton (a benefice as the report goeth not verie well prouided for) to Kenford, Kenet, Bradingham, Frekenham, it falleth at the last not farre from Iselham into the Burne, from whence they go togither as one into the Ouze. With the Burne also there ioineth a water comming from about Lid|gate, a little beneath Iselham, and not verie far from Mildenhall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Dune head,Dunus. and rising of Wauenheie, are not much in sunder: for as it is supposed, they are both not farre distant from the bridge betweene Lo|pham and Ford, wherby the one runneth east and the other west, as I haue béene informed. The Dune goeth first of all by Feltham, then to Hopton, & to Kinets hall, where it méeteth with a water cõming out of a lake short of Banham (going by Quidden|ham, Herling, Gasthorpe) and so on, both in one chanell, they run to Ewston. Here they méet in like EEBO page image 104 sort, with another descending from two heads, wher|of the one is néere vnto Pakenham, the other to Tauestocke, as I heare. Certes these heads ioine a|boue Ilesworth, not farre from Stow Langtoft, from whence they go to Yxworth, Thorpe, Berdwell, Hunnington, Fakenham, and so into the Dune at Ewston; as I said. From hence also they hasten to Downeham, which of this riuer doth seeme to borow his name. South Rée rill I passe ouer as not wor|thie the description, because it is so small.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Next vnto this riuer on the south side is the Bra|den, or Bradunus,Bradunus fortè. which riseth at Bradenham, and goeth by Necton, north Peckenham, south Pecken|ham, Kirsingham, Bedneie, Langford, Igbor, Mun|ford, North Old, Stockebridge, Ferdham, Helgie, and so into the Ouze.Linus. The néerest vnto this is ano|ther which riseth about Lukeham, and from thence commeth to Lexham, Massingham, Newton, the castell Acre, Acres, Nerboe, Pentneie, Wrongeie, Rounghton (which at one time might haue béene my liuing if I would haue giuen sir Thomas Rugband monie inough, but now it belongeth to Gundeuill and Caius college in Cambridge) Westchurch, and so to Linne. As so dooth also another by north of this, which commeth from the east hilles by Congenham, Grimston,Congunus. Bawseie, Gaiwood, whereof let this suf|fice. And now giue eare to the rest sith I am past the Ouze. Being past the mouth or fall of the Ouze, we méet next of all with the Rising chase water,Rising. which Ptolomie (as some thinke) doth call Metaris, and descendeth from two heads,Ingeli. and also the Ingell that commeth from about Snetsham. From hence we go by the point of saint Edmund, and so hold on our course till we come vnto the Burne, which falleth in|to the sea by south from Waterden, and going be|twéene the Crakes to Burnham Thorpe, and Burn|ham Norton, it striketh at the last into the sea; east of Burnham Norton a mile at the least, except my con|iecture doo faile me.Glouius. The Glow or Glowie riseth not far from Baconsthorpe, in the hundred of Tunsted; & going by and by into Holt hundred, it passeth by Hunworth, Thornage, Glawnsford, Blackneie, Clare, and so into the sea, receiuing there at hand al|so a rill by east, which descendeth from the hilles li|eng betwéene Killing towne and Waiburne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Wantsume riseth in Northfolke at Gales|end in Holt hundred,Wantsume. from whence it goeth to Wa|tersend. Townton, Skelthorpe, Farneham, Pens|thorpe, Rieburg, Ellingham, and Billingsford. And here it receiueth two waters in one bottome, of which the first goeth by Stanfield and Beteleie, the other by Wandling and Gressonhall, and so run on ech his owne waie, till they méet at Houndlington, southwest of Billingsford with the Wantsume. From hence they go all togither to Below, Ieng, Weston, and Moreton; but yer it come to Moreton, it méeteth with the Yowke, which (issuing about Yex|ham) goeth by Matteshall and Barrow.Yocus. After this th [...] said Wantsume goeth on by Ringland, and so to Norwich the pontificall sée of the bishop, to whome that iurisdiction apperteineth, which seemeth by this memoriall yet remaining in the corrupted name of the water, to be called in old time Venta or (as Le|land addeth) Venta Icenorum. But to procéed. Be|neath Norwich also it receiueth two waters in one chanell, which I will seuerallie describe, according to their courses, noting their confluence to be at Bix|leie, within two miles of Norwich, except my anno|tation deceiue me. The first of these hath two heads wherof one mounteth vp southwest of Whinborow, goeth by Gerneston,Hierus. and is the verie Hiere or Yare that drowneth the name of Wantsume,Gern [...]. so soone as he meeteth withall. The other head riseth at Woo [...] in Mitford hundred, and after confluence with the Hi|ere at Caston, going by Brandon, Bixton, Berford, Erleham, Cringlefield (not farre from Bixleie as I said) doth méet with his companion, which is the se|cond to be described as followeth. It hath two heads also that méet northwest of Therstane; and hereof the one commeth from Findon hall, by Wrenningham from about Wotton, by Hemnall, Fretton, Stret|ton, and Tasborow, till they ioine at Therston, as I gaue notice aforehand. From Therston therefore they go togither in one to Newton, Shotesham, Dunston, Castor, Arminghale, Bixleie, Lakenham, and Trowse, and then fall into the Wantsume be|neath Norwich, which hereafter is named Hiere. The Hiere, Yare, or Gare therefore proceeding in his voiage, as it were to salute his grandame the Oce|an, goeth from thence by Paswijc, Surlingham, Claxton, and Yardleie; and here it meeteth againe with another riueret descending from about Shote|sham to Therstane, Shedgraue, Hockingham, and so into Gare or Yare, whereof Yardleie the towne re|ceiueth denomination. After this it goeth to Fre|thorpe, and aboue Burgh castell meeteth with the Waueneie,Wauen. and so into the sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Into this riuer also falleth the Bure,Bure. which ri|sing at a towne of the same name, passeth by Milton, Buresdune, Corpesteie, Marington, Blekeling, Bure, Alesham, Brampton, Buxton, Horsted, Werxham bridge, Horning, Raneworth; and be|neath Bastewijc receiueth the Thurine which riseth aboue Rolesbie;Thurinus. then to Obie, Clipsbie (there also receiuing another from Filbie) Rimham, Castor, and by Yarmouth into the Ocean. The Waueneie afore mentioned, riseth on the south side of Brising|ham, and is a limit betweene Northfolke and Suf|folke. Going therefore by Dis, Starten, not farre from Octe, it méeteth with the Eie, which riseth néere Ockold, or betwéene it and Braisworth, & goeth on by Brome,Wauen. Octe, and so into the Waueneie. From thence our Waueneie runneth by Silam, Brodish, Nedam, Harleston, Rednam, Alborow, Flixton, Bungeie, Sheepemedow, Barsham, Beckles, Albie, & at Whiteacre (as I heare) parteth in twaine, or re|ceiuing Milford water (which is most likelie) it go|eth along by Somerleie, Hormingfléet, S. Olaues, (there receiuing the Frithstane or Fristan brooke,Einus. out of low or litle England) FristanFritha. & Burgh castell, where it méeteth with the Hiere, & from thencefoorth accompanieth it (as I said) vnto the sea. Willing|ham water commeth by Hensted, Einsted, or Eni|state, and falleth into the sea by south of Kesland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Cokell riseth south southwest of Cokeleie towne in Blithe hundred,Cokelus. & neere vnto Hastelworth it meeteth with the rill that commeth from Wisset, and so going on togither by Wenhaston, and Blibo|row, it falleth into the sea at an hauen betwéene Roidon and Walderswicke. A little rill runneth also thereinto from Eston by Sowold, and another from Dunwich, by Walderswijke: and hereby it wanteth little that Eston Nesse is not cut off and made a pretie Iland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Ford riseth at Poxford,Ford. and going by For|derleie, and Theberton, it falleth at last into the Mis|mere créeke.Orus. Into the Oreford hauen runneth one water comming from Aldborow ward, by a narrow passage from the north into the south. By west wher|of (when we are past a little Ile) it receiueth the se|cond, descending from betwéene Talingston and Framingham in Plomes hundred;Fromus which cõming at last to Marleford, meeteth with a rill southwest of Farnham called the Gleme (that commeth by Ren|dlesham,Glema. the Gleinhams) and so passing foorth, it ta|keth another at Snapesbridge, comming from Carleton by Saxmundham, Sternefield & Snape. Then going to Iken (where it méeteth with the third EEBO page image 105 rill at the west side)I [...]n, or Ike. it fetcheth a compasse by Sud|burne east of Orford, and so into the hauen. Next vnto this by west of Orford, there runneth vp ano|ther créeke by Butleie, whereinto the waters com|ming from Cellesford, and from the Ike, doo run both in one bottome. And thus much of Orford hauen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Deue riseth in Debenham,Deua. in the hundred of Hertesméere, and from thence goeth to Mickford, Winston, Cretingham, Lethringham, Wickham, hitherto still creeping toward the south: but then go|ing in maner full south, it runneth neere vnto Ash, Rendlesham, Ufford, Melton, and Woodbridge, be|neath which it receiueth on the west side, a water comming of two heads, wherof one is by north from Otelcie, and the other by south from Henleie, which ioining west of Mertelsham, go vnto the said towne and so into the Deue, east of Mertelsham abouesaid. From thence the Deue goeth by Waldringfield and Henleie,Clarus fons. and méeting soone after with Brightwell brooke, it hasteth into the maine sea, leauing Bawd|seie on the east, where the fall therof is called Bawd|seie hauen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Ure riseth not farre from Bacton,Urus. in Hertesmeere hundred, and thense descendeth into Stow hundred by Gipping Newton, Dagworth, Stow (beneath which it méeteth with a water comming from Rat|tlesden, by one house) and so going on to Nedeham (through Bosméere and Claidon hundreds) to Bla|kenham, Bramford, Ypswich, receiuing beneath Stoke, which lieth ouer against Ypswich, the Chat|sham water, that goeth by Belsted, and so into the Ure, at the mouth whereof is a maruellous deepe and large pit, whereof some marriners saie that they could neuer find the bottome, and therefore calling it a well, and ioining the name of the riuer withall, it commeth to passe that the hauen there is called Ure|well, for which in these daies we doo pronounce it Or|well. Into this hauen also the Sture or Stoure hath readie passage, which remaineth in this treatise next of all to be described.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Sture or Stoure parteth Essex from Suf|folke,Sturus. as Houeden saith, and experience confirmeth. It ariseth in Suffolke, out of a lake neere vnto a towne called Stourméere. For although there come two rilles vnto the same, whereof the one de|scendeth from Thixlo, the Wratings and Ketton, the other from Horshed parke, by Hauerill, &c: yet in summer time they are often drie, so that they cannot be said to be perpetuall heads vnto the aforesaid ri|uer. The Stoure therefore (being, as I take it, called by Ptolomie, Edomania, for thereon toward the mouth standeth a prettie towne named Manitrée, which carieth some shadow of that ancient name thereof vnto this daie, if my coniecture be any thing) ariseth at Stouremeere, which is a poole conteining twentie acres of ground at the least, the one side whereof is full of alders, the other of réeds, wherin the great store of fish there bred, is not a little succoured. From this méere also it goeth to Bathorne bridge, to Stocke clare, Cawndish, Pentlo, Paules Beau|champe, Milford, Foxerth, Buresleie, Sudburie, Bu|res, Boxsted, Stoke, Nailand, Lanham, Dedham, Strotford, east Baxfold, Brampton, Manitree, Catwade bridge, and so into the sea, where in the vexie fall also it ioineth with Orwell hauen, so néere that of manie they are reputed as one, and parted but by a shingle that dooth run along betwéene them: neither dooth it passe cléere in this voiage, but as it were often occupied by the waie, in receiuing sun|drie brookes and rilles not héere to be omitted.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For on Essex side it hath one from Hemsted, which goeth by Bumsted, and Birdbrooke: another rising short of Foxerth, that runneth by water Beauchampe, Brundon, and falleth into the same at Badlington, west of Sudburie: and the third that glideth by Horkesleie, and méeteth withall west of Boxsted. On the north, or vpon Suffolke side, it re|ceiueth one descending from Catiledge, by Brad|leie, Thurlow, Wratting, Kiddington, and at Haue|rell falleth into this Sture. The second descendeth northward from Posling field, and ioineth therewith east of Clare. It was in old time called Cicux or Ceuxis, and it méeteth with the Stoure in such wise that they séeme to make a right angle, in the point almost wherof standeth a ruinous castell. Howbeit as sithence which time this water (in some mens iudgement) hath béene named Clarus (not so much for the greatnesse as cleerenesse of the streame) euen so the Stoure it selfe was also called Ens as they say, and after their confluence the whole Clarens, which giueth denomination to a duchie of this Iland of no small fame and honour. But these are but meere fa|bles, sith the word Clare is deriued from the towne, wherein was an house of religion erected to one Clara, and Clarens brought from the same, because of an honour the prince had in those parties: which may suffice to know from whence the name procee|deth. The third ariseth of two heads, whereof one commeth from Wickham brooke, the other from Chedbar in Risbie hundred, and ioining about Stan|field, it goeth by Hawton, Somerton, Boxsted, Stansted, and north of Foxerth falleth into Stoure. The fourth issueth from betwéene the Waldingfields, and goeth by Edwardstone, Boxsted, Alington, Pol|sted, Stoke, and so at south Boxsted falleth into the same. The fift riseth northwest of Cockefield, and goeth to Cockefield, Laneham, Brimsleie, Midling,Kettle baston and receiuing Kettle Baston water southwest of Chelsworth (and likewise the Breton that commeth from Bretenham, by Hitcheham, and Bisseton stréet on the south east of the same towne) it goeth in by Nedging, Aldham, Hadleie, Lainham, Shellie, Hi|gham, and so into the Stoure. The sixt is a little rill descending southwest from Chappell. The seuenth ri|seth betweene Chappell and Bentleie, and going be|twéene Tatingston, and Whetsted, Holbrooke, and Sutton, it falleth at length into Stoure, and from thence is neuer heard of.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 As for Ocleie Drill, that riseth betweene Ocleie,Ocleie. and Wikes parkes, and so goeth into the Stoure, on Essex side, west of Harwich, and east of Ree Ile; I passe it ouer, because it is of it selfe but a rill, and not of anie greatnesse, till it come to the mill aboue Ramseie bridge, where I was once almost drowned (by reason of the ruinous bridge which leadeth ouer the streame being there verie great) as an arme of the sea that continuallie ebbeth & floweth. Next vn|to this,Mosa. we came to another that runneth south of Beaumont by Mosse, and falleth into the sea about the middest of the Baie, betwixt Harwich and the Naze. Betwixt the Naze also and the mouth of Colne, is another rill, which riseth at little Bentleie, and thence goeth to Tendring thorpe, through Clac|ton parke by great Holland,Claco. and east of little Hol|land, into the déepe sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Colne hath three heads,Colunus. whereof one is at O|uington that goeth by Tilberie, and east of Yeldam falleth into the chiefe head which riseth about Redge|well in Essex, from whence also it goeth to Yeldam and Hedingham, otherwise called Yngham: also Hedningham or Heuedingham, or Heuedingham of the super [...]oritie which accrued therevnto, because the chiefe lords of the same from time to time kept residence in the towne. For Heued or Hed signifieth The chiefe, in the old English language, which in the name of this and manie other townes and villages yet standing in England cannot esilie be forgotten. EEBO page image 106 The third falleth in south of Yeldam, and being once met all in one chanell, and called the Colne, it goeth (as I said) to Hedningham, Hawsted, Erles Colne, Wakes Colne, Fordon, Bardfold, Colchester, in old time Camalodunum, and so into the sea at Brick|leseie. Some thinke that Colchester and Camalodu|num are sundrie cities and situat in diuerse, places whereby Maldon (or Ithancester out of whose ruines the said towne of Maldon was erected) should rather be Camalodunum than Colchester, but hereof I can|not iudge. Indeed if (as Leland saith) Maldon should be written Malodunum, it were a likelihood that there assertions should be probable. Some reason also may be gathered for the same out of Dion, and such as make the Thames mouth to take his beginning at Colchester water. But I dare not presume to con|clude any thing hereof, least I should séeme rashlie to take hold of euerie coniecture. This I relie vpon rather as a more certeintie, that in the first edition of this treatise I was persuaded, that the sea entring by the Colne made thrée seuerall passages frõ thence into the land: but now I vnderstand that these are seuerall entrances and streames, of which the Colne is one, another is the Salcote water, which commeth in beneath the Stroud (a causeie that leadeth vnto Merseie Ile, ouer which the sea méeteth with a con|trarie course) and the third the faire arme that flow|eth vnto Maldon, and all these thrée haue their falles either ouer against or néere vnto the aforesaid Ile, which at a low water is not halfe a mile from the shore. Into the Colne or Colunus also (whereof Le|land thinketh Colchester to take his name, and not A colonia Romanorum, although I may not con|sent to him herein) doo run manie salt creekes be|neath Fingering ho, of whose names sith I doo not know, nor whether they be serued with anie backe|waters or not, I giue ouer to intreat anie further & likewise of their positions. Into that of Maldon runneth manie faire waters, whereof I will saie so much as I know to be true in maner by experience.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There is a pretie water that beginneth néere vn|to Gwinbach or Winbeche church in Essex,Gwin or Pant. a towne of old, and yet belonging to the Fitzwaters, taking name of Gwin, which is beautifull or faire, & Ba [...]he that signifieth a wood: and not without cause, sith not onelie the hilles on ech side of the said rillet, but all the whole paroch hath sometime abounded in woods; but now in manner they are vtterlie decaied, as the like commoditie is euerie where, not onelie tho|rough excessiue building for pleasure more than pro|fit, which is contrarie to the ancient end of building; but also for more increase of pasture & commoditie to the lords of the soile, through their sales of that emolument, whereby the poore tenants are inforced to buie their fewell, and yet haue their rents in tri|ple maner inhanced. This said brooke runneth di|rectlie from thence vnto Radwinter, now a parcell of your lordships possessions in those parts, descen|ded from the Chamberleins, who were sometime chéefe owners of the same. By the waie also it is in|creased with sundrie pretie springs, of which Pant|well is the chéefe (whereof some thinke the whole brooke to be named Pant) and which (to saie the truth) hath manie a leasing fathered on the same. Certes by the report of common fame it hath béene a pretie water, and of such quantitie, that botes haue come in time past from Bilie abbeie beside Maldon vnto the moores in Radwinter for corne. I haue heard also that an anchor was found there neere to a red willow, when the water-courses by act of parlement wers surueied and reformed throughout England, which maketh not a little with the aforesaid relation. But this is strangest of all, that a lord sometime of Winbech (surnamed the great eater, because he would breake his fast with a whole calfe, and find no bones therein as the fable goeth) falling at conten|tion with the lord Iohn of Radwinter, could worke him none other iniurie, but by stopping vp the head of Pantwell, to put by the vse of a mill which stood by the church of Radwinter, and was serued by that brooke abundantlie. Certes I know the place where the mill stood, and some posts thereof do yet remaine. But sée the malice of mankind, whereby one becom|meth a woolfe vnto the other in their mischeeuous moodes. For when the lord saw his mill to be so spoi|led, he in reuenge of his losse, brake the necke of his aduersarie, when he was going to horsebacke, as the constant report affirmeth. For the lord of Radwin|ter holding a parcell of his manour of Radwinter hall of the Fitzwaters, his sonne was to hold his stirrop at certeine times when he should demand the same. Shewing himselfe therefore prest on a time to doo his said seruice, as the Fitzwater was readie to lift his leg ouer the saddle, he by putting backe his foot, gaue him such a thrust that he fell backward, and brake his necke: wherevpon insued great trou|ble, till the matter was taken vp by publike autho|ritie; and that seruile office conuerted into a pound of pepper, which is truelie paid to this daie. But to leaue these impertinent discourses, and returne a|gaine to the springs whereby our Pant or Gwin is increased. There is likewise another in a pasture belonging to the Grange, now in possession of Wil|liam Bird esquier, who holdeth the same in the right of his wife, but in time past belonging to Til|teie abbeie. The third commeth out of the yard of one of your lordships manors there called Radwin|ter hall. The fourth from Iohn Cockswets house, named the Rotherwell, which running vnder Ro|thers bridge, méeteth with the Gwin or Pant on the northwest end of Ferrants meade, southeast of Radwinter church, whereof I haue the charge by your honours fauourable preferment.

I might take occasion to speake of another rill which falleth into the Rother from Bendish hall: but bicause it is for the most part drie in summer I passe it ouer. Yet I will not omit to speake also of the ma|nor which was the chiefe lordship sometime of a pa|rish or hamlet called Bendishes, now worne out of knowledge, and vnited partlie to Radwinter, and partlie to Ashdon. It belonged first to the Bendishes gentlemen of a verie ancient house yet extant, of which one laieng the said manour to morgags to the moonks of Feuersham, at such time as K. Edward the third went to the siege of Calis, thereby to fur|nish himselfe the better toward the seruice of his prince, it came to passe that he staied longer beyond the sea than he supposed. Wherevpon he came before his daie to confer with his creditors, who commen|ding his care to come out of debt, willed him in friendlie maner not to suspect anie hard dealing on their behalfes, considering his businesse in seruice of the king was of it selfe cause sufficient, to excuse his delaie of paiment vpon the daie assigned. Herevpon he went ouer againe vnto the siege of Calis. But when the day came, the moonks for all this made sei|sure of the manour, and held it continuallie without anie further recompense, maugre all the friendship that the aforsaid Bendish could make. The said gen|tleman also tooke this cousening part in such choler, that he wrote a note yet to be séene among his eui|dences, whereby he admonisheth his posteritie to be|ware how they trust either knaue moonke or knaue frier, as one of the name and bescended from him by lineall descent hath more than once informed me. Now to resume our springs that méet and ioine with our Pant.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The next is namedFroshwell. Froshwell. And of this spring EEBO page image 107 dooth the whole hundred beare the name & after this confluenc [...] the riuer it selfe wher vnto it falleth (from by north) so farre as I remember. Certes, all th [...]se, sauing the first and second, are within your lordships towne aforesaid. The streame therfore running from hence (& now, as I said, called Froshwell, of Frosh, which signifieth a frog) hasteth immediatlie vnto old Sandford, then through new Sandford parke, and afterward with full streame (receiuing by the waie, the Finch brooke that commeth thorough Finching|field) to Shalford, Borking, Stisted, Paswijc, and so to Blackewater, where the name of Freshwell cea|seth, the water being from hencefoorth (as I heare) commonlie called Blackwater, vntill it come to Maldon, where it falleth into the salt arme of the sea that beateth vpon the towne; and which of some (except I be deceiued) is called also Pant: and so much the rather I make this coniecture, for that I|thancester stood somewhere vpon the banks thereof, & in the hundred of Danseie, whose ruines (as they saie) also are swalowed vp by the said streame, which can not be verified in our riuer that runneth from Pantwell, which at the mouth and fall into the great current, excéedeth not (to my coniecture) aboue one hundred foot. But to returne to our Pant, aliàs the Gwin. From Blackwater it goeth to Corall, Ea|sterford, Braxsted and Wickham, where it méeteth with the Barus, and so going togither as one, they descend to Heiebridge, and finallie into the salt wa|ter aboue Maldon, and at hand as is aforesaid. As for the Barus,Barus. it riseth in a statelie parke of Essex called Bardfield, belonging to sir Thomas Wroth whilest he liued, who hath it to him and his heires males for euer, from the crowne. Being risen, it hasteth directlie to old Saling Brainctrée, crossing a rillet by the waie comming from Raine, blacke Notleie, white Notleie, Falkeburne, Wittham, and falleth into the Blackewater beneath Braxsted on the south.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Beside this,Chelmer. the said Pant or Gwin receiueth the Chelme or Chelmer, which ariseth also in Wimbech aforesaid, where it hath two heads: of which the one is not farre from Brodockes (where master Thomas Wiseman esquier dwelleth) the other nigh vnto a farme called Highams in the same paroch, and ioin|ing yer long in one chanell, they hie them toward Thacsted vnder Prowds bridge, méeting in the waie wish a rill comming from Boiton end, whereby it is somewhat increased. Being past Thacsted, it goeth by Tilteie, and soone after receiueth one rill which riseth on the north side of Lindsell,Lind [...]s. & falleth into the Chelmer by northeast at Tilteie aforesaid, & another cõming from southwest, rising southeast from Lind|sell at much Eiston. From thence then holding on still with the course, it goeth to Candfield the more, Dunmow, litle Dunmow, Falsted, Lies, both Wal|tams, Springfield, and so to Chelmeresford. Here vpon the south side I find the issue of a water that ri|seth fiue miles (or thereabouts) south and by west of the said towne, from whence it goeth to Munasing, Buttesburie (there receiuing a rill from by west, to Ingatstone, Marget Inge, Widford bridge, Writ|tle bridge, and so to Chelmeresford (crossing also the second water that descendeth from Roxford south west of Writtle by the waie)Roxford. whereof let this suffice.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 From hence the Chelmer goeth directlie toward Maldon by Badow, Owting, Woodham water, Bilie, and so to Blackwater northwest of Maldon, receiuing neuerthelesse yer it come fullie thither, a becke also that goeth from Lée parke, to little Lées, great Lées,Lée Hatfield, Peuerell, Owting, and so in|to Blackwater (whereof I spake before) as Maldon streame dooth a rill from by south ouer against saint Osithes, and also another by Bradwell. After which the said streame growing also to be verie great, pas|seth by the Tolshunts, Tollesbie, and so foorth into the maine sea néere vnto Merseie: betwéene which fall and the place where Salute water entreth into the land, Plautus abode the comming of Claudius some|time into Britaine, when he being hardlie beeset, did [...]nd unto him for aid and spéedie succour, who also be|ing come did not onelie rescue his legat, but in like manner wan Colchester, and put it to the spoile, if it be Camalodunum.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Burne riseth somewhere about Ronwell,Burne. and thence goeth to Hull bridge, south Fambridge, Kirke shot ferrie, and so to Foulnesse. And as this is the short course of that riuer, so it brancheth, and the south arme thereof receiueth a water comming from Haukewell, to great Stanbridge, and beneath Pakesham dooth méet by south with the said arme, and so finish vp his course, as we doo our voiage also about the coast of England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus haue I finished the description of such ri|uers and streames as fall into the Ocean, according to my purpose, although not in so precise an order and manner of handling as I might, if information promised had been accordinglie performed; or others would, if they had taken the like in hand. But this will I saie of that which is here done, that from the Solueie by west, which parteth England & Scotland on that side; to the Twede, which separateth the said kingdoms on the east: if you go backeward, contra|rie to the course of my description, you shall find it so exact, as beside a verie few by-riuers, you shall not need to vse anie further aduise for the finding and falles of the aforesaid streames. For such hath beene my helpe of maister Sackfords cardes, and confe|rence with other men about these, that I dare pro|nounce them to be perfect and exact. Furthermore, this I haue also to remember, that in the courses of our streames, I regard not so much to name the ve|rie towne or church, as the limits of the paroch. And therefore if I saie it goeth by such a towne, I thinke my dutie discharged, if I hit vpon anie part or par|cell of the paroch. This also hath not a little troubled me, I meane the euill writing of the names of ma|nie townes and villages: of which I haue noted some one man, in the description of a riuer, to write one towne two or thrée manner of waies, whereby I was inforced to choose one (at aduenture most commonlie) that séemed the likeliest to be sound in mine opinion and iudgement.

Finallie, whereas I minded to set downe an especiall chapter of ports and créeks, lieng on ech coast of the English part of this Ile; and had proui|ded the same in such wise as I iudged most conue|nient: it came to passe, that the greater part of my labour was taken from me by stealth, and therefore as discouraged to meddle with that argument, I would haue giuen ouer to set downe anie thing therefore at all: and so much the rather, for that I sée it may prooue a spurre vnto further mischéefe, as things come to passe in these daies. Neuerthelesse, because a little thereof is passed in the beginning of the booke, I will set downe that parcell thereof which remaineth, leauing the supplie of the rest either to my selfe hereafter, (if I may come by it) or to some other that can better performe the same.

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