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1.10. The description of the Thames, and such riuers as fall into the same. Cap. 11.

The description of the Thames, and such riuers as fall into the same. Cap. 11.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _HAuing (as you haue séene) at|tempted to set downe a full discourse of all the Ilands, that are situat vpon the coast of Britaine, and finding the successe not correspondent to mine intent, it hath caused me somewhat to restreine my purpose in this description also of our riuers. For whereas I intended at the first to haue written at large, of the number, situation, names, quantities, townes, villages, castels, mounteines, fresh waters, plashes or lakes, salt waters, and other commodi|ties of the aforesaid Iles, mine expectation of infor|mation from all parts of England, was so deceiued in the end, that I was fame at last onelie to leane to that which I knew my selfe either by reading, or such other helpe as I had alreadie purchased and gotten of the same. And euen so it happeneth in this my tractation of waters, of whose heads, courses, length, bredth, depth of chanell (for burden) ebs, flow|ings, and falles, I had thought to haue made a per|fect description vnder the report also of an imagined course taken by them all. But now for want of in|struction, which hath béene largelie promised, & slack|lie perfourmed, and other sudden and iniurious de|niall of helpe voluntarilie offered, without occasion giuen on my part, I must needs content my selfe with such obseruations as I haue either obteined by mine owne experience, or gathered from time to time out of other mens writings: whereby the full discourse of the whole is vtterlie cut off, and in steed of the same a mangled rehearsall of the residue set downe and left in memorie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wherefore I beséech your honour to pardon this imperfection and rudenesse of my labour, which not|withstanding is not altogither in vaine, sith my er|rors maie prooue a spurre vnto the better skilled, ei|ther to correct or inlarge where occasion serueth, or at the leastwise to take in hand a more absolute péece of worke, as better direction shall incourage them thereto. The entrance and beginning of euerie thing is the hardest; and he that beginneth well, hath atchi|ued halfe his purpose. The ice (my lord) is broken, and from hencefoorth it will be more easie for such as shall come after to wade through with the rest, sith Facile est inuentis addere; and to continue and finish, is not so great a matter in building, as to attempt and laie the foundation or platforme of anie noble péece of workmanship, though it be but rudelie hand|led. But to my purpose. As I began at the ThamesThamesis. in my description of Ilands, so will I now doo the like with that of famous riuers; making mine en|trie at the said riuer it selfe, of whose founteine some men make as much adoo, as in time past of the true head of Nilus, which, till of late (if it be yet descried) was neuer found: or the Tanais, whose originall was neuer knowne, nor shall be: for whilest one placeth it here, another there; there are none at all that deale with it exactlie. Wherefore leaning to such mens writings as haue of set purpose sought out the spring of the Thames; I affirme, that this famous streame hath his head or beginning out of the side of an hill, standing in the plaines of Cotswold, about one mile from Tetburie , néere vnto the Fosse (an high waie so called of old) where it was sometime named Isis , or the Ouse, although diuerse doo ignorantlie call it the Thames euen there, rather of a foolish custome than anie skill, bicause they either neglect or vtterlie are ignorant how it was named at the first. From hence it runneth directlie toward the east (as all good riuers should) and méeteth with the Cirne or Churne , (a brooke called in Latine Corinium) whereof Cirn|cester Corinium. towne (by which it commeth) doth take the denomination.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 From hence it hasteth vnto Créekelade , aliàs Crekanford, Lechlade , Radcotebridge , Newbridge , and Eouesham , receiuing by the waie an infinit sort of small streames, brookes, beckes, waters, and rundels: and here on this side of the towne diuideth it selfe into two courses, of which the one goeth straight to Botleie and Hinkseie , the other by God|stow , a village not farre off. This latter spreadeth it selfe also for a while into sundrie smaller branches, which run not farre yer they be reunited, and then beclipping sundrie pleasant medowes, it passeth at length by Oxford,Charwell. of some supposed rather to be cal|led Ouseford of this riuer, where it m [...]eteth with the Charwell , and a litle from whence the originall bran|ches doo ioine and go togither by Abbandune (aliàs Sensham or Abington as we call it) although no part of it at the first came so néere the towne as it doth now,Some write, that the maine streame was brought thi|ther which ranne before betweene An|dredeseie and Culenham. till a branch thereof was led thither from the maine streame, thorough the industrie of the moonks , as (beside the testimonie of old records thereof yet extant to be séene) by the decaie of Cair Dour now Dorchester it selfe, sometime the through|fare from Wal [...]s and the west countrie to London, which insued vpon this fact, is easie to be seene. From hence it goeth to Dorchester, and so to Thame , where ioining with a riuer of the same denomination, it looseth the name of Isis or Ouse (whereof Ousencie at Oxford is producted) and from thenceforth is called Thamesis. From Thame it goeth to Wallingford, and so to Reding,Pontium. which in time past, of the number of bridges there, was called Pontium ; albeit that the English name doth rather proceed from Rhe, or Ree, Saint Marie ouer Rhee. the Saxon word for a water-course or riuer, which maie be séene in Ouerée, or Sutherée, for ouer the Ree, or south of the Rhee, as to the skilfull doth readi|lie appéere; yet some hold (and not altogither against probabilitie and likelihood) that the word Sutherée is so called of Sudrijc, to wit, the south kingdome, EEBO page image 46 wherevnto in part the Thames is a bound. But that holdeth not in denomination, either of the said church or name of the foresaid countie. Other affirme like|wise, that Reding is so called of the Greeke word ( [...]) which is to ouer flowe. Certes, as neither of these coniectures are to be contemned, so the last cõmeth most neere to mine aid, who affirme, that not onelie the course of euerie water it selfe, but also his ouer flowing was in time past called Rhe, by such Saxons as inhabited in this Iland: and euen to this daie in Essex I haue oft obserued, that when the low|er grounds by rage of water haue béene ouerflow|en, the people beholding the same, haue said; All is on a Rhe, as if they should haue said; All is now a riuer, albeit the word Riuer be deriued from the French, and borrowed by them from the Latins: but not without corruption, as it was brought vnto them. I will not here giue notice how farre they are decei|ued, which call the aforesaid church by the name of S. Marie Auderies , or S. Marie ouer Isis, or Ise. But I will procéed with the course of this noble streame, which, howsoeuer these matters stand it hath passed by Reding, and there receiued the Kenet ,Kenet. which commeth from the hilles that lie west of Marlebo|rough, & then the Thetis,Thetis. commonlie called the Tide that commeth from Thetisford: it hieth to Sudling|ton otherwise called Maiden head , and so to Win|dleshore (or Windsore) Eaton , and then to Chertseie , where Erkenwald bishop of London, sometime buil|ded a religious house or cell, as I doo read.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 From Chertseie it hasteth directlie vnto Stanes, and receiuing an other streame by the waie, called the Cole Cole. (wherevpon Colbrooke standeth) it goeth by Kingstone , Shene , Sion , and Brentford or Bregent|ford , where it méeteth the Brane or the Brene , ano|ther brook descending from Edgeworth , whose name signifieth a frog, in the Brittish speach. Upon this also sir Iohn Thin had sometime a statelie house, with a maruellous prouision to inclose and reteine such fish as should come about the same.Brene. From Brentfoord it passeth by Mortlach , Putneie , Fulham , Batterseie , Chelseie , Lambeth , and so to London. Finallie going from thence vnto the sea, it taketh the Lée with it by the waie vpon the coast of Essex, and the Darnt vpon Kent side, which riseth néere to Tanrige , and commeth by Shoreham , vnto Dernt|ford ,Darwent. wherevnto the Craie Craie. falleth. And last of all the Medwaie a notable riuer (in mine opinion) which watereth all the south and southwest part of Kent, and whose description is not to be omitted heereafter in this place.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Hauing in this maner bréefelie touched this noble riuer, and such brookes as fall into the same; I will now adde a particular description of each of these last by themselues, whereby their courses also shall be se|uerallie described to the satisfaction of the studious. But yer I take the same in hand, I will insert a word or two of the commodities of the said riuer, which I will performe with so much breuitie as is possible; héereby also finding out his whole tract and course from the head to the fall thereof into the sea. It appeareth euidentlie that the length thereof is at the least, one hundreth and eightie miles, if it be mea|sured by the iourneies of the land. And as it is in course, the longest of the thrée famous riuers of this Ile, so it is nothing inferiour vnto them in aboun|dance of all kind of fish, whereof it is hard to saie, which of the three haue either most plentie, or greatest varietie, if the circumstances be duelie weighed. What some other write of the riuers of their coun|tries it skilleth not, neither will I (as diuerse doo) in|uent strange things of this noble streame, therewith to nobilitate and make it more honorable: but this will I in plaine termes affirme, that it neither swal|loweth vp bastards of the Celtish brood, or casteth vp the right begotten that are throwne in without hurt into their mothers lap, as Politian fableth of the Rhene, Epistiloram lib. 8. epi. 6. nor yéeldeth clots of gold as the Tagus dooth: but an infinit plentie of excellent, swéet and pleasant fish, wherewith such as inhabit néere vnto hir bankes are fed and fullie nourished.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 What should I speake of the fat and swéet sal|mons,Salmons. dailie taken in this streame, and that in such plentie (after the time of the smelt be past) as no riuer in Europa is able to excéed it. But what store also of barbels, trouts, cheuins, pearches, smelts, breames, roches, daces, gudgings, flounders, shrimps, &c: are commonlie to be had therein, I refer me to them that know by experience better than I, by reason of their dailie trade of fishing in the same. And albeit it see|meth from time to time, to be as it were defrauded in sundrie wise of these hir large commodities, by the insatiable auarice of the fishermen, yet this fa|mous riuer complaineth commonlie of no want, but the more it looseth at one time, the more it yéeldeth at another. Onelie in carps it séemeth to be scant,Carps a fish late brought into England and later into the Thames. sith it is not long since that kind of fish was brought o|uer into England, and but of late to speake of into this streame, by the violent rage of sundrie land|flouds, that brake open the heads and dams of diuers gentlemens ponds, by which means it became some|what partaker also of this said commoditie, whereof earst it had no portion that I could euer heare. Oh that this riuer might be spared but euen one yeare from nets, &c! But alas then should manie a poore man be vndoone. In the meane time it is lamentable to see, how it is and hath béene choked of late with sands and shelues, through the penning and wresting of the course of the water for commodities sake. But as this is an inconuenience easilie remedied, if good order were taken for the redresse thereof: so now, the fine or paie set vpon the ballaffe sometime freelis giuen to the merchants by patent, euen vnto the lands end (Iusques au poinct) will be another cause of harme vnto this noble streame, and all through an aduantage taken at the want of an (i) in the word ponct: which grew through an error committed by an English notarie vnskilfull in the French toong, wherein that patent was granted.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Furthermore, the said riuer floweth and filleth all his chanels wise in the daie and night, that is in euerie twelue houres once; and this ebbing & flow|ing, holdeth on for the space of seauentie miles, within the maine land: the streame or tide being al|waies highest at London, when the moone dooth ex|actlie touch the northeast and south or west points of the heauens, of which one is visible, the other vnder the earth, and not subiect to our sight. These tides also differ in their times, each one comming latter than other, by so manie minuts as passe yer the reuoluti|on and naturall course of the heauens doo reduce, and bring about the said planet vnto those hir former places:The iust di|stãce betwéen one tide and another. whereby the common difference betwéene one tide and another, is found to consist of twentie foure minuts, which wanteth but twelue of an whole houre in foure and twentie, as experience dooth con|firme. In like sort we sée by dailie triall, that each tide is not of equall heigth and greatnesse. For at the full and change of the moone we haue the greatest flouds, and such is their ordinarie course, that as they dimi|nish from their changes and fuls, vnto the first and last quarters; so afterwards they increase againe, vntill they come to the full and change. Sometimes also they rise so high (if the wind be at the north or northeast, which bringeth in the water with more ve|hemencie, bicause the tide which filleth the chanell, commeth from Scotland ward) that the Thames EEBO page image 47 ouerfloweth hir banks néere vnto London: which hapneth especiallie in the fuls and changes of Ianu|arie and Februarie, wherein the lower grounds are of custome soonest drowned. This order of flowing in like sort is perpetuall, so that when the moone is vpon the southwest and north of points, then is the water by London at the highest: neither doo the tides alter, except some rough winds out of the west or south|west doo kéepe backe and checke the streame in his entrance,The streame oft checked in hir entrance into the land. as the east and northeast doo hasten the comming in thereof, or else some other extraordina|rie occasion, put by the ordinarie course of the nor|therne seas, which fill the said riuer by their naturall returne and flowing. And that both these doo happen eft among, I refer me to such as haue not sildome obserued it, as also the sensible chopping in of thrée or foure tides in one naturall daie, wherof the vnskilfull doo descant manie things.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But how so euer these small matters doo fall out, and how often soeuer this course of the streame doth happen to be disturbed; yet at two seuerall times of the age of the moone, the waters returne to their naturall course and limits of time exactlie. Polydore saith, that this riuer is seldome increased or rather neuer ouerfloweth hir banks by landflouds: but he is herein verie much deceiued, as it shalbe more appa|rantlie séene hereafter. For the more that this riuer is put by of hir right course, the more the water must of necessitie swell with the white waters which run downe from the land: bicause the passage can|not be so swift and readie in the winding as in the streight course. These landflouds also doo greatlie straine the finesse of the streame, in so much that af|ter a great landfloud, you shall take haddocks with your hands beneath the bridge, as they flote aloft vp|on the water, whose eies are so blinded with the thicknesse of that element, that they cannot see where to become, and make shift to saue themselues before death take hold of them. Otherwise the water of it selfe is very cléere, and in comparison next vnto that of the sea, which is most subtile and pure of all other; as that of great riuers is most excellent, in compa|rison of smaller brookes: although Aristotle will haue the salt water to be most grosse, bicause a ship will beare a greater burden on the sea than on the fresh water; and an eg sinke in this that swimmeth on the other. But he may easilie be answered by the quantitie of roome and aboundance of waters in the sea; whereby it becommeth of more force to susteine such vessels as are committed to the same, and wher|vnto the greatest riuers (God wot) are nothing com|parable. I would here make mention of sundrie bridges placed ouer this noble streame, of which that of London is most chieflie to be commended,London bridge. for it is in maner a cõtinuall street, well replenished with large and statelie houses on both sides, and situat vpon twentie arches, whereof ech one is made of ex|cellent free squared stone, euerie of them being thrée|score foot in heigth, and full twentie in distance one from another, as I haue often viewed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In like maner I could intreat of the infinit num|ber2000 boates vpon the Thames and 3000 pooreinẽ mainteined by the same whose gaines come in most plentifullie in the tearme tune. of swans dailie to be séene vpon this riuer, the two thousand wherries and small boats, whereby thrée thousand poore watermen are mainteined, through the cariage and recariage of such persons as passe or repasse, from time to time vpon the same: beside those huge tideboats, tiltbotes, and barges, which ei|ther carrie passengers, or bring necessarie prouision from all quarters of Oxfordshire, Barkeshire, Buc|kinghamshire, Bedfordshire, Herfordshire, Midle|sex, Essex, Surrie, and Kent, vnto the citie of Lon|don. But for somuch as these things are to be repea|ted againe in the particular description of London, annexed to his card; I surceasse at this time to speake anie more of them here, as not lingering but hasting to performe my promise made euen now, not yet forgotten, and in performance where|of I thinke it best to resume the description of this noble riuer againe into my hands, and in adding whatsoeuer is before omitted, to deliuer a full and perfect demonstration of his course. How and where the said streame ariseth, is alreadie & with sufficien|cie set downe, noting the place to be within a mile of Tetburie, whereof some doo vtterlie mislike, bi|cause that rill in summer drouths is oft so drie, that there is little or no water at all séene running aboue ground in the same. For this cause the therefore manie affirme the verie head of IsisIsis. to come from the poole aboue Kemble. Other confound it with the head of the Cirne or Chirne, called in Latine Corinium that riseth aboue Coberleie . For my part I follow Le|land, as he dooth the moonke of Malmesburie, which wrote the historie intituled Eulogium historiarum , who searched the same of set purpose, and pronoun|ced with Leland, although at this present that course be verie small, and choked vp (as I heare) with grauell and sand. Procéeding therefore from the head, it first of all receiueth the Kemble water called the Coue, which riseth aboue Kemble towne,Couus. goeth by Kemble it selfe vnto Poole and Somerford , and then (accompanieth the Thames) vnto Canes , Ash|ton, Canes , and Howston , holding on in one chanell vntill they méet with the Chirne, the next of all to be described.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Chirne is a faire water arising out of the ground aboue Coberleie ,Corinium. from whence it runneth to Cowleie , Cowlesburne , Randcome , and so into the Isis on the left side aboue Crekelade . These thrée waters being thus vnited and brought into one cha|nell, within a little space of the head of Isis, it run|neth on by Crekelade, beneath which towne it recei|ueth the Rhe , descending from Elcombe ,Rhe. Escot , Redburne , Widhill , & at the fall into Isis, or not far off ioineth with another that runneth west of Pur|ton by Braden forrest, &c. Next of all our Isis mée|teth with the Amneie on the left hand, which com|ming from aboue Holie roode Amneie ,Amneie. runneth by Downe Amneie , and finallie into the Isis a little a|boue Iseie . In like sort I read of another that mée|teth withall on the right hand aboue Iseie also, which so far as I can call to remembrance, commeth from about Orifield and falleth so into our Isis, that they run as one vntill they come at the Colne , although not so nakedlie and without helpe, but that in this voiage, the maine streame dooth crosse one water that descendeth from Swindon, and going also by Stratton toward Seuingham , is it selfe increa|sed with two rils by the waie, whereof one commeth from Liddenton by Wambreie , as I haue béene in|formed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Colne is a faire riuer rising by north neere to Witchington ,Colneius, Co|lineus, or Co|lunus. & from thence goeth to Shiptons , Compton Abdale , Wittenton , Yarneworth , Colne Deanes , and Colne Rogers , Winston , Biberie , Colne Alens , Quenington , Faireford , and west of Lachelade into the riuer Isis, which hereabout on the southside also taketh in another, whereof I find this remembrance. The Isis being once past Se|uingham, crosseth a brooke from southest that moun|teth about Ashbirie , and receiuing a rill from by|west (that commeth from Hinton ) beneath Shrine|ham , it afterward so diuideth it selfe, that the armes therof include Inglesham , and by reason that it fal|leth into the Isis at two seuerall places, there is a plesant Iland producted, whereof let this suffice.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Being past Lechelade a mile,Lecus or Leche. it runneth to saint Iohns bridge , & the reabout méeteth with the Leche on the left hand. This brooke, whereof Lechlade ta|keth EEBO page image 48 the name (a towne wherevnto one péece of an old vniuersitie is ascribed, which it did neuer possesse, more than Crekelade did the other) riseth east of Hampnet , frõ whence it goeth to north Lech , Esten|ton , Anlesworth , east Lech , south Thorpe , Faren|don , & so into the Isis. From hence this famous wa|ter goeth by Kenskot toward Radcote bridge (ta|king in the rill that riseth in an od péece of Barke|shire , and runneth by Langford ) and being past the said bridge (now notable through a conspiracie made there sometimes by sundrie barons against the e|state) it is not long yer it crosse two other waters, both of them descending from another od parcell of the said countie, whereof I haue this note giuen me for my further information. There are two fals of water into Isis beneath Radcote bridge, wherof the one commeth from Shilton in Barkeshire by Ares|cote , blacke Burton and Clarrefield . The other also riseth in the same péece, and runneth by Brisenorton vnto Bampton , and there receiuing an armelet from the first that breake off at blacke Burton, it is not long yer they fall into Isis, and leaue a pretie I|land. After these confluences, the maine course of the streame hasteth by Shifford to Newbridge , where it ioineth with the Winrush .Winrush. The Winrush riseth a|boue Shieburne in Glocestershire, from whence it goeth to Winrush , & cõming by Barrington , Bur|ford , Widbrooke , Swinbecke castell, Witneie , Duc|kington , Cockthorpe , Stanlake , it méeteth with the Isis west by south of Northmore . From hence it go|eth beneath Stanton, Hartingcourt and Ensham , betwéene which and Cassinton , it receiueth (as Le|land calleth it) the Bruerne water.Briwerus.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 It riseth aboue Limington, and going to Norton in the Marsh, and through a patch of Worcestershire vnto Euenlode, betweene it and the foure shire|stones,Comus. it taketh in a rill called Come, comming by the long and the little Comptons. After this also it goeth by Bradwell, Odington, and so to Bledden|ton, aboue which towne it taketh in the Rolrich wa|ter that issueth at two heads, in the hils that lie by west of little Rolrich,Rolrich. and ioine aboue Kenkeham, and Church hill. From thence also it goeth vnto Bruerne, Shipton vnderwood, Ascot, Short hamton, Chorleburie, Corneburie parke, Stonfield, Long|combe, and southeast of Woodstocke parke, taketh in the Enis, that riseth aboue Emstone,Euis. and goeth to Ciddington, Glimton, Wotton (where it is increa|sed with a rill that runneth thither from stéeple Barton, by the Béechin trée) Woodstocke, Blaidon, so that after this confluence, the said Enis runneth to Casũnton, and so into the Isis, which goeth from hence to Oxford, and there receiueth the Charwell, now presentlie to be described.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The head of Charwell is in Northamptonshire,Charwell. where it riseth out of a little poole, by Charleton vil|lage, seuen miles aboue Banberie northeast, and there it issueth so fast at the verie surge, that it grow|eth into a pretie streame, in maner out of hand. Soone after also it taketh in a rillet called the Bure,Bure. Culen. which falleth into it, about Otmere side: but foras|much as it riseth by Bincester, the whole course ther|of is not aboue foure miles, and therefore cannot be great. A friend of mine prosecuting the rest of this description reporteth thereof as followeth. Before the Charwell commeth into Oxfordshire, it recei|ueth the Culen, which falleth into the same, a little a|boue Edgcote, and so descending toward Warding|ton, it méeteth with another comming from by north west, betweene Wardington and Cropreadie. At Banberie also it méeteth with the ComeCome. (which fal|leth from fennie Conton by Farneboro, and after|wards going by kings Sutton, not far from Aine, it receiueth the discharge of diuerse rillets, in one bot|tome before it come at Clifton. The said water ther|fore ingendred of so manie brookelets, consisteth chiefelie of two, whereof the most southerlie called Oke,Ocus. commeth from Oke, Norton, by Witchington or Wiggington, and the Berfords; and carieng a few blind rils withall, dooth méet with the other that falleth from by northwest into the same, within a mile of Charwell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 That other (as I coniecture) is increased of thrée waters, wherof each one hath his seuerall name. The first of them therefore hight Tudo,Tudo. which comming betwéene Epwell and the Lée by Toddington, ioi|neth about Broughton with the second that runneth from Horneton, named Ornus, Ornus. as I gesse. The last falleth into the Tude or Tudelake, beneath Brough|ton; and for that it riseth not far from Sotteswell in Warwikeshire, some are of the opinion, that it is to be called Sotbrooke.Sotbrooke. Souarus. The next water that méeteth without Charwell beneath Clifton commeth from about Croughton, and after this is the SowarSowar. or Swere, that riseth north of Michaell Tew, and run|neth by nether Wotton. The last of all is the Reie aliàs Bure,Burus. whose head is not far aboue Burcester, aliàs Bincester, and Burncester: and from whence it goeth by Burecester to Merton, Charleton, Fen|cote, Addington, Noke, Islip, and so into Charwell, that holdeth on his course after this augmentation of the waters, betwéene Wood and Water Eton, to Marston, and the east bridge of Oxford by Mag|dalene college, and so beneath the south bridge into our aforesaid Isis.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In describing this riuer,Middest of England whereabouts. this one thing (right honorable) is come vnto my mind, touching the cen|ter and nauill as it were of England. Certes there is an hillie plot of ground in Helledon parish, not far from Danberie, where a man maie stand and behold the heads of thrée notable riuers, whose waters, and those of such as fall into them, doo abundantlie serue the greatest part of England on this side of the Humber. The first of these waters is the Charwell, alreadie described. The second is the Leme that go|eth westward into the fourth Auon. And the third is the head of the Nene or fift Auon it selfe, of whose courses there is no card but doth make sufficient mention; and therefore your honour maie behold in the same how they doo coast the countrie, and also measure by compasses how this plot lieth in respect of all the rest, contrarie to common iudgement, which maketh Northampton to be the middest and center of our countrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But to go forward with my description of the Ouse, which being past Oxford goeth to Iflie, Ken|nington, Sanford, Rodleie, Newnham, and so to A|bington, somtime called Sensham, without increase, where it receiueth the Oche,Ocus. otherwise called the Coche, a little beneath S. Helens, which runneth thi|ther of two brooklets, as I take it, whereof one com|meth from Compton, out of the vale and west of the hill of the White horsse, the other from Kings Let|combe, and Wantage in Barkshire, and in one cha|nell, entreth into the same, vpon the right side of his course.Arun. From Abington likewise (taking the Arun withall southwest of Sutton Courtneie) it goeth by Appleford, long Wittenham, Clifton, Wittenham the lesse, & beneath Dorchester, taketh in the Thame water, from whence the Isis loseth the preheminence of the whole denomination of this riuer, and is con|tented to impart the same with the Thame, so that by the coniunction of these two waters Thamesis is producted, and that name continued euen vnto the sea.

Thame riuer riseth in the easterlie parts of Chil|terne hils,Thame. towards Penleie parke, at a towne called Tring west of the said parke, which is seauen miles EEBO page image 49 from the stone bridge, that is betweene Querendon and Ailsburie (after the course of the water) as Le|land hath set downe. Running therefore by long Merston, and Puttenham, Hucket, and Bearton, it receiueth soone after a rill that commeth by Que|rendon from Hardwike, and yer long an other on the other side that riseth aboue Windouer in the Chilterne, and passing by Halton, Weston, Turrill, Broughton, and Ailsburie, it falleth into the Tame west of the said towne (except my memorie doo faile me. From this confluence the Tame goeth by E|thorpe, the Winchingtons, Coddington, Chersleie, Notleie abbeie: and comming almost to Tame, it receiueth one water from southeast aboue the said towne, and another also from the same quarter be|neath the towne; so that Tame standeth inuironed vpon thrée sides with thrée seuerall waters, as maie be easilie séene. The first of these commeth from the Chiltern east of Below or Bledlow, from whence it goeth to Hinton, Horsenden, Kingseie, Towseie, and so into the Tame. The other descendeth also from the Chilterne, and going by Chinner, Crowell, Sid|denham, and Tame parke, it falleth in the end into Tame water, and then they procéed togither as one by Shabbington, Ricot parke, Dracot, Waterstoke, Milton, Cuddesdon, and Chiselton. Here also it ta|keth in another water from by-east, whose head com|meth from Chilterne hils, not farre from Stocking church, in the waie from Oxford to London. From whence it runneth to Weston (and méeting beneath Cuxham with Watlington rill) it goeth on to Chal|graue, Stadham, and so into the Tame. From hence our streame of Thame runneth to Newen|ton, Draton, Dorchester (sometime a bishops see, and a noble citie) and so into the Thames, which hasteth in like sort to Bensington, Crowmarsh, or Walling|ford, where it receiueth the Blaue, descending from Blaueburg,Blauius. now Blewberie, as I learne.

Thus haue I brought the Thames vnto Wal|lingford, situate in the vale of White horsse that run|neth a long therby. From hence it goeth by Newen|ham, north Stoke, south Stoke, Goring, Bassilden, Pangburne, where it meeteth with a water that commeth from about Hamsted Norris, runneth by Frizelham, Buckelburie, Stanford, Bradfeld, Tid|marsh and Pangburne. After which confluence it go|eth on betweene Mapledorham and Purleie, to Ca|uersham, and Cauersham manour, and a little be|neath receiueth the Kenet that commeth thereinto from Reading.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Kenet riseth aboue Ouerton 5 or 6 miles west of Marleborow,Cenethus. or Marlingsborow, as some call it; & then going by Fifeld; Clatfor, Maulon, & Preshute, vnto Marleburie: it holdeth on in like order to Ramsburie, and northwest of little Cote, taketh in a water by north descending from the hilles aboue Alburne chase west of Alburne town. Thence it run|neth to little Cote, Charnhamstréet, & beneth Charn|hamstréet it crosseth the Bedwin,Bedwiine. which (taking the ChalkburneChalkeburne. rill withall) commeth from great Bed|wiine, & at Hungerford also two other in one botom somewhat beneath the towne. From hence it goeth to Auington, Kinburie, Hamsted marshall, Eu|burne, Newberie; and beneath this towne, taketh in the Lamburne water that commeth by Isberie,Lamburne. Egerston, the Sheffords, Westford, Boxford, Do|nington castell, and Shaw. From Newberie it go|eth to Thatcham, Wolhampton, Aldermaston, a little aboue which village it receiueth the Alburne,Alburnus. another brooke increased with sundrie rils: and thus going on to Padworth, Oston, and Michaell, it com|meth at last to Reading, where (as I said) it ioineth with the Thames, and so they go forward as one by Sonning to Shiplake, and there on the east side re|ceiue the Loddon that commeth downe thither from the south, as by his course appéereth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Loddon riseth in Hamshire betwéene west Shirburne and Wooton toward the southwest,Lod [...]nus. after|ward directing his course toward the northwest, tho|rough the Uine, it passeth at the last by Bramlie, and thorough a peece of Wiltshire, to Stradfield, Swal|lowfield, Arberfield, Loddon bridge, leauing a patch of Wiltshire on the right hand (as I haue béene in|formed.) This Loddon not far from Turges towne receiueth two waters in one bottome, whereof the westerlie called Basing water, commeth from Ba|singstoke, and thorough a parke vnto the aforesaid place.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The other descendeth of two heads from Mapledour well, and goeth by Skewes, Newenham, Rother|wijc, and yer it come at Hartlie, ioineth with the Ba|sing water, from whence they go togither to Tur|ges, where they méet with the Loddon (as I haue said alreadie.) The next streame toward the south is called Ditford brooke.Ditis vadum. It riseth not farre from Up|ton, goeth by Gruell, and beneath Wharnborow castell receiueth the IkellIkelus. (comming from a parke of the same denomination) from whence they go togi|ther by Maddingleie vnto Swalowfield, and so into the Loddon. In this voiage also the Loddon méeteth with the Elwie or Elueie that commeth from Alder|share, not farre by west of Euersleie:Elueius. and about Eluesham likewise with another running from Dogmansfield named the Douke:Ducus. and also the third not inferior to the rest comming from Erin,Erin. whose head is in Surreie, and going by Ash becommeth a limit, first betwéene Surreie and Hamshire; then betwéene Hamshire and Barkeshire, and passing by Ash, Erinleie, Blacke water, Yerleie, and Fin|chamsted; it ioineth at last with the Ditford, before it come at Swalowfield. To conclude therefore with our Loddon, hauing receiued all these waters; and after the last confluence with them now being come to Loddon bridge, it passeth on by a part of Wilt|shire to Twiford bridge, then to Wargraue, and so into the Thames that now is maruellouslie increa|sed and growen vnto triple greatnesse (to that it was at Oxford.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Being therefore past Shiplake and Wargraue, it runneth by Horsependon, or Harding: then to Henleie vpon Thames, where sometime a great rill voideth it selfe in the same. Then to Remenham, Greneland (going all this waie from Shiplake iust north, and now turning eastwards againe) by Me|denham, Hurleie, Bisham, Marlow the greater, Marlow the lesse, it meeteth with a brooke soone after that consisteth of the water of two rilles, whereof the one called the Use,Us [...]. riseth about west Wickham, out of one of the Chilterne hilles, and goeth from thence to east Wickham or high Wickham, a pre|tie market towne. The other named Higden,Higden. des|cendeth also from those mounteines but a mile be|neath west Wickham, and ioining both in one at the last, in the west end of east Wickham towne, they go togither to Wooburne, Hed [...]or, & so into the Thames. Some call it the Tide; and that word doo I vse in my former treatise: but to procéed. After this confluence our Thames goeth on by Cowkham, Topleie, Mai|denhead, aliàs Sudlington, Braie, Dorneie, Clure, new Windsore (taking in neuerthelesse, at Eaton by the waie, the Burne which riseth out of a Moore, & commeth thither by Burnham) old Windsor, Wrai|borow, and a little by east therof doth crosse the Cole, whereof I find this short description insuing.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Cole riseth néere vnto Flamsted, Colus, ali [...]s Uere and Uertume. from whence it goeth to Redburn, S. Michaels, S. Albons, Aldenham, Watford, and so by More to Richmans|worth, where there is a confluence of three waters, of EEBO page image 50 which this Cole is the first. The second called GadusGadus. riseth not farre from Ashridge, an house or palace belonging to the prince: from whence it runneth to great Gaddesdin, Hemsted, betwéene Kings Lang|leie, and Abbots Langleie, then to Hunters, and Ca|shew bridges, and so to Richman swoorth, receiuing by the waie a rill comming from Alburie by north|west, to Northchurch, Barkehamsted, and beneath Hemsted ioining with the same. The last commeth in at northwest from aboue Chesham, by Chesham it selfe, then by Chesham Bois, Latimers, Mawd|lens, Cheinies, Sarret and Richmanswoorth, and so going on all in one chanell vnder the name of Cole, it runneth to Uxbridge, where it taketh in the Mis|senden water, from northwest, which rising aboue Missenden the greater goeth by Missenden the lesse, Hagmondesham (now Hammersham) the Uach, Chalfhunt Giles, Chalfhunt S. Peters, Denham, and then into the Cole aboue Uxbridge (as I haue said.) Soone after this our Cole doth part it selfe in|to two branches, neuer to ioine againe before they come at the Thames, for the greater of them goeth thorough the goodlie medows straight to Colebrooke, the other vnto two milles, a mile and a halfe east of Colebrooke, in the waie to London, leauing an I|land betwéene them of no small size and quantitie.

Being past the Cole,Uindeles. we come to the fall of the Uindeles, which riseth by northwest néere vnto Bag|shot, from whence it goeth to Windlesham, Chob|ham, and méeting with a brooklet comming west|ward from Bisleie, they run togither toward Cher|teseie, where when they haue met with a small rill ri|sing north of Sonning hill in Windlesoure great parke, it falleth into the Thames on the northeast side of Cherteseie. When we were come beyond this water, it was not long yer we came vnto another on the same side, that fell into the Thames betweene Shepperton on the one side, and Oteland on the o|ther,Ueius. and is called the Waie. The Weie or the Waie rising by west, commeth from Olsted, & soone after taking the Hedleie brooke withall (which riseth in Wulmere forrest, and goeth by Hedleie and Fren|sham) hasteth by Bentleie, Farnham, Alton, Wai|berleie, Elsted,Thuresbie. and so to Pepper harrow, where it ioineth with the Thuresbie water, which commeth not farre off from a village of the same denominati|on. From hence also it goeth to Godalming, and then toward Shawford, but yer it come there, it cros|seth Craulie becke, which rising somewhere about the edge of Sussex short of Ridgewtjc, goeth by Uache|rie parke,Crawleie. Knoll, Craulie, Bramleie, Wonarsh, and so into the Waie. From hence then our riuer goeth to Shawford, and soone after (méeting with the Ab|binger water that commeth by Shere, Albirie,Abbinger. and the chappell on the hill) it proceedeth to Guldeford, thence to Stoke, Sutton in the parke, Send, Wo|king, and at Newarke parke side taketh in a brooke that riseth of two heads, whereof one dooth spring be|twéene two hils north of Pepper harrow, and so run|neth through Henleie parke, the other aboue Pur|bright, and afterward ioining in one, they go foorth vnto Newarke, and being there vnited, after the con|fluence it goeth to Purford court, to Bifler, Wai|fred, Oteland, and so into the Thames.

From Oteland the Thames goeth by Walton, Sunburie,Molis. west Moulse [...]e, Hampton, and yer it come at Hampton court on the northside, and east Moulseie on the other, it taketh in the Moule water, which giueth name vnto the two townes that stand on each side of the place, where it falleth into our streame. It riseth in Word forrest, and going by Burstow, it méeteth afterward with another gullet, conteining a small course from two seuerall heads, whereof one is also in the forrest aforenamed, the o|ther runneth from Bebush wood, and comming by Iseld, méeteth with the first aboue Horleie, and so run on in one chanell, I saie, till they ioine with the Moule water, whereof I spake before.

After this confluence in like sort, it is not long yer the Moule take in another from by north, which commeth from about Mesham on the one side, and another on the other side, running by Ocleie and Capell, and whereinto also a branch or rill com|meth from a wood on the northwest part. Finallie, being thus increased with these manie rilles, it go|eth by east Becheworth, west Becheworth, and ouer against the Swalow on the side of Drake hill, ta|king in another that cõmeth thither from Wootton by Darking and Milton, it runneth to Mickleham, Letherhed, Stoke, Cobham, Ashire parke, east Moulseie, and so into the Thames, which after this coniunction goeth on to Kingston, and there also méeteth with another becke, rising at Ewell south of Nonsuch. Certes, this rill goeth from Ewell by the old parke, then to Mauldon, & so to Kingston towne. The Thames in like maner being past Kingston, go|eth to Tuddington, Petersham, Twickenham, Richmond, and Shene, where it receiueth a water on the northwest side, which comming from about Har|row on the hill, and by west of the same, goeth by Haies, Harlington, Felthan, and Thistle worth into the Thames.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The next fall of water is at Sion,Brane. néere vnto new Brainford, so that it issueth into the Thames betwéen them both. This water is called Brane, that is in the Brittish toong (as Leland saith) a frog. It riseth about Edgeworth, and commeth from thence by Kinges|burie, Twiford, Periuall, Hanwell, and Austerleie. Thence we followed our riuer to old Brentford, Mortlach, Cheswtjc, Barnelmes, Fulham, and Put|neie, beneath which townes it crossed a becke from Wandlesworth, that riseth at Woodmans turne, and going by Easthalton, méeteth another comming from Croidon by Bedington, and so going on to Mitcham, Marton abbeie, and Wandlesworth, it is not long yer it fall into the Thames.Mariburne. Next vnto this is Mariburne rill on the other side, which commeth in by S. Iames, so that by this time we haue either brought the Thames, or the Thames conueied vs to London, where we rested for a season to take view of the seuerall tides there, of which each one differeth from other, by foure & twentie minuts, that is fortie eight in a whole daie, as I haue noted before, except the wether alter them. Being past London, and in the waie toward the sea: the first water that it mée|teth withall, is the Brome on Kent side, west of Gréenewich, whose head is Bromis in Bromleie pa|rish, and going from thence to Lewsham,Bromis. it taketh in a water from by east, and so directeth his course foorth right vnto the Thames.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The next water that it méeteth withall, is on Es|sex side, almost against Woolwich, and that is the LéeLée. or Luie, whose head riseth short of Kempton in Hert|fordshire,Logus. foure miles southeast of Luton, sometime called Logodunum or Logrodunum, & going through a péece of Brokehall parke (leauing Woodhall parke on the north, and Hatfield on the south, with another parke adioining) it goeth toward Hartford towne. But yer it come there, it receiueth a water (perad|uenture the Marran) rising at northwest in Brode|water hundred,Marran. from aboue Welwin, northeast of Digeswell, and going to Hartingfeld burie, where the said confluence is within one mile of the towne. Beneath Hatfield also it receiueth the Beane (as I gesse) comming from Boxwood by Benington,Beane. A|ston, Watton, and Stapleford, and a little lower, the third arme of increase from aboue Ware, which des|cendeth from two heads: whereof the greatest com|meth EEBO page image 51 from Barkewaie in Edwinster hundred, the other Sandon in Oddesey hundred, and after they be met beneath little Hornemeade, they go togither by Pulcherchurch, or Puckrich, Stonden, Thunderidge Wadesmill, Benghoo, and so into the Lée, which from hence runneth on till it come at Ware, which was drowned by the rage of the same 1408, and so to Am|well, where on the north side it receiueth the water that commeth from little Hadham, through a péece of Singleshall parke, then by great Hadham, and so from Widford to the aforesaid towne. From hence also they go as one to old Stansted called Le Veil, branching in such wise yer it come there, that it run|neth through the towne in sundrie places. Thence it goeth foorth to Abbats Stansted, beneath which it méeteth with the Stoure, west (as I remember) of Roidon.Sturus. This Sture riseth at Wenden lootes, from whence it goeth to Langleie, Clauering, Berden, Manhuden, & Birchanger (where it taketh a rill com|ming from Elsingham, & Stansted Mountfitchet.) The [...] it hieth on to Bishops Stourford, Sabrich|foord, and beneath this towne crosseth with another from the east side of Elsingham, that goeth to Hat|field, Brodocke, Shiring, Harlo, & so into the Stoure, and from whence they go togither to Eastwic, Par [...]edon, and next into the Lée. These things be|ing thus performed, the Lée runneth on beneath Hoddesdon, Broxburne, and Wormleie, where a wa|ter breaketh out by west of the maine streame, a mile lower than Wormeleie it selfe, but yet within the paroch, and is called Wormeleie locke.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 It runneth also by Cheston nunrie, and out of this a little beneath the said house, breaketh an arme called the Shirelake, bicause it diuideth Eastsex and Hartford shire in sunder, and in the length of one medow called Fritheie. This lake runneth not but at great flouds, and méeteth againe with a succor of ditchwater, at a place called Hockesdich, halfe a mile from his first breaking out, and halfe a mile lower at Marsh point ioineth againe with the streame from whence it came before. Thence commeth the first arme to S. Maulie bridge (the first bridge westward vpon that riuer) vpon Waltham causie, & halfe a mile lower than Maulie bridge, at the corner of Ramnie mead, it méeteth with the kings streame & principall course, of Luy, or Lee, as it is commonlie called. The second arme breaketh out of the kings streame at Halifield halfe a mile lower than Cheston nunrie, and so to the fulling mill, and two bridges by west of the kings streame, wherinto it falleth about a stones cast lower at a place called Malkins shelffe, except I was wrong informed. Cheston & Hartfordshire men doo saie, that the kings streame at Waltham dooth part Hartfordshire and Essex, but the Essex men by forrest charter doo plead their liberties to hold vnto S. Maulies bridge. On the east side also of the kings streame breaketh out but one principall arme at Ha|lifield, three quarters of a mile aboue Waltham, & so goeth to the corne mill in Waltham, and then to the K. streame againe a little beneath the kings bridge.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 From hence the Lée runneth on by south on Wal|tonstow till it come to Stretford Langthorne,Alfred. where it brancheth partlie of it selfe, and partlie by mans industrie for mils. Howbeit heerein the dealing of Alfred (sometimes king of England) was not of smallest force, who vnderstanding the Danes to be gotten vp with their ships into the countrie, there to kill and slaie his subiects, in the yeere of grace 896, by the conduct of this riuer: he in the meane time be|fore they could returne, did so mightilie weaken the maine chanell, by drawing great numbers of tren|ches from the same; that when they purposed to come backe, there was nothing so much water left as the ships did draw: wherefore being set on ground, they were soone fired, & the aduersaries ouercome. By this policie also much medow ground was woone, & made firme land, whereby the countrie about was not a lit|tle inriched, as was also a part of Assyria by the like practise of Cyrus with the Ganges, at such time as he came against Babylon, which riuer before time was in maner equall with Euphrates. For he was so of|fended, that one of his knights whom he loued déerlie, was drowned and borne awaie with the water in his passage ouer the same, that he sware a deepe oth yer long to make it so shallow that it should not wet a woman to the knées. Which came to passe, for he cau|sed all his armie to dig 46 new draines frõ the same, wherby the vow that he had made was at the full per|formed. Senec. de Tra. li. 3. But to conclude with the Lee that somtime ouerflowed all those medowes, through which it passeth (as for a great waie not inferior to the Thames) and I find that being past Westham, it is not long yer it fall into that streame. One thing I read more of this riuer before the conquest, that is, how Edward the first, & sonne of Alfred, in the yeare of grace 912, builded Hartford towne: at which time also he had Wittham a towne in Essex in hand, as his sister called Aelfled repaired Oxford & London, and all this foure yeares before the building of Mal|don, of some called Hertford or Herudford betweene three waters, that is, the Lée, the Benefuth, and Memmarran, or rather Penmarran: but how these waters are distinguished in these daies, as yet I cannot tell. It is possible, that the Bene may be the same which commeth by Benington, and Benghoo: which if it be so, then must the Memmarran be the same that descendeth from Whitwell, for not farre from thence is Branfield, which might in time past right well be called Marranfield, for of like inuersi|on of names I could shew manie examples.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Being past the Lee (whose chanell is begun to be purged 1576, with further hope to bring the same toRodon or Rodunus. the north side of London) we come vnto the Rodon, vpon Essex side in like maner, and not verie farre (for foure miles is the most) from the fall of the Lée. This water riseth at little Canfield, from whence it goeth to great Canfield, high Roding, Eithorpe Ro|ding, Ledon Roding, White Roding, Beauchampe Roding, Fifeld, Shelleie, high Ongar, and Cheping Ongar, where the Lauer falleth into it,Lauer. that ariseth betwixt Matching and high Lauer; and taking ano|ther rill withall comming from aboue Northweld at Cheping Ongar, they ioine (I saie) with the Ro|don, after which confluence Leland coniectureth that the streame is called Iuell:Iuelus. for my part, I wot not what to say of it. But héerof I am sure, that the whole course being past Ongar, it goeth to Stansted riuers, Theidon mount, Heibridge, Chigwell, Woodford bridge, Ilford bridge, Barking, & so into the Thames.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The DarwentDarwent. méeteth with our said Thames vp|on Kents side, two miles and more beneath Erith. It riseth at Tanridge, or there abouts, as I haue beene informed by Christopher Saxtons card late made of the same, and the like (I hope) he will doo in all the se|uerall shires of England at the infinit charges of sir Thomas Sackford knight, & maister of the requests, whose zeale vnto his countrie héerin I cannot but re|member, & so much the rather, for that he meaneth to imitate Ortelius, & somewhat beside this hath holpen me in the names of the townes, by which these riuers for the Kentish part do run. Would to God his plats were once finished for the rest! But to procéed. The Darwent therefore, rising at Tanridge, goeth on by Titseie toward Brasted, and receiuing on ech side of that towne (& seuerall bankes) a riuer or rill, it goeth on to Nockhold, Shorham, Kinsford, Horton, Darn|hith, Dartford or Derwentford, & there taking in the Craie on the left hand that coms from Orpington byCraie. EEBO page image 52 Marie Craie, Paules Craie, North Craie, and Craiford, it is not long yer it fall into the Thames. But after I had once passed the fall of the brooke, it is a world to sée what plentie of Serephium groweth vpon the Kentish shore, in whose description Fuich|fius hath not a little halted; whilest he giueth foorth the hearbe Argentaria for Serephium, betwéene which there is no maner of likelihood. This neuerthe|lesse is notable in the said hearbe, that being transla|ted into the garden, it receiueth another forme cleane different from the first, which it yéelded when it grew vpon the shore, and therevnto appeareth of more fat & foggie substance. Which maketh me to thinke that our physicians do take it for a distinct kind of worme|wood, whereof controuersie ariseth among them. The next water that falleth into the Thames, is west of the Wauie Iles, a rill of no great fame, neither long course, for rising about Coringham, it runneth not manie miles east and by south, yer it fall into the mouth of this riuer, which I doo now describe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 I would haue spoken of one créeke that commeth in at Cliffe, and another that runneth downe from Haltsto by S. Maries: but sith I vnderstand not with what backewaters they be serued, I let them passe as not skilfull of their courses. And thus much of the riuers that fall into the Thames, wherein I haue doone what I maie, but not what I would for mine owne satisfaction, till I came from the head to Lechlade, vnto which, as in lieu of a farewell, I will ascribe that distichon which Apollonius Rhodius wri|teth of the Thermodon:

Huic non est aliud flumen par, nec tot in agros
Vllum dimittit riuos quot fundit vtrinque.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Next vnto the Thames we haue the Midwaie water,Midwaie. whereof I find two descriptions, the first be|ginneth thus. The Midwaie water is called in La|tine Medeuia (as some write) bicause the course ther|of is midwaie in a manner betwéene London and Dorobernia, or (as we now call it) Canturburie. In British it hight Dourbrée: and thereof Rochester was sometime called Durobreuum. But in an old charter which I haue seene (conteining a donation sometime made to the monasterie of saint Andrews there by Ceadwalla) I find that the Saxons called this riuer Wedring; and also a towne standing be|twéene Malling and east Farleie, Wedrington; and finallie, a forrest also of the same denomination, Wedrington, now Waterdon, wherby the originall name appeareth to be fetched from this streame. It ariseth in Waterdon forrest east of Whetlin or We|dring, and ioineth with another brooke that descen|deth from Ward forrest in Sussex: and after this confluence they go on togither, as one by Ashhirst, where hauing receiued also the second brooke, it hast|eth to Pensherst, and there carrieth withall the E|den, that commeth from Lingfield parke. After this it goeth to the southeast part of Kent, and taketh with it the Frith or Firth, on the northwest side,Frethus. and an other little streame that commeth from the hilles, betwéene Peuenburie and Horsemon on the south|east. From thence also, and not farre from Yalling it receiueth the Theise (a pretie streame that ariseth about Theise Hirst) & afterward the Gran or Crane,Theise. Grane aliàs Cranus. which hauing his head not farre from Cranbrooke, and méeting with sundrie other riuelets by the waie, whereof one branch of Theise is the last, for it parteth at the Twist, and including a pretie Iland, doth ioine with the said Midwaie, a little aboue Yal|ding, and then with the Lowse. Finallie at Maid|stone it méeteth with another brooke, whose name I know not, and then passeth by Allington, Duton, Newhide, Halling, Cuckestane, Rochester, Chat|tham, Gillingham, Upchurch, Kingsferrie, and fal|leth into the maine sea betwéene Shepeie and the Grane.

And thus much out of the first authour, who com|mendeth it also, for that in time past it did yéeld such plentie of sturgeon, as beside the kings portion, and a due vnto the archbishop of Canturburie out of the same, the deane and chapter of Rochester had no small allowance also of that commoditie: likewise for the shrimps that are taken therein, which are no lesse estéemed of in their kind, than the westerne smelts or flounders taken in the Thames, &c. The second authour describeth it after this manner, and more copiouslie than the other.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The cheefe head of this streame riseth in Water|don forrest, from whence after it hath runne a pretie waie still within the same, east of Whetlin, it méeteth with a brooke, whose head is in Ward forrest, south|west of Greenested, which goeth to Hartfield, and so to Whetlin, and yer long ioineth with the Midwaie. After this confluence it is not long yer it take in an|other by-west from Cowden ward, and the third a|boue Pensherst, growing from two heads, whereof one is in Lingfield parke, the other west of Craw|herst; and ioining aboue Edinbridge, it doth fall in|to the midwaie beneath Heuer towne, and Chidding|ston. From Pensherst our maine streame hasteth to Ligh, Tunbridge, and Twidleie, and beneath the towne, it crosseth a water from North, whereof one head is at the Mote, another at Wreteham, the third at west Peckham, & likewise another from southest, that runneth east of Capell. Next after this it recei|ueth the These, whose forked head is at Theise Hirst, which descending downe toward the north, taketh in not farre from Scotnie a brooke out of the northside of Waterden forrest, whose name I find not, except it be the Dour. After this confluence our riuer go|eth to Goldhirst, and comming to the Twist, it brancheth in such wise, that one part of it runneth into Midwaie, another into the Garan, or rather Cranebrooke (if my coniecture be anie thing.) The Garan (as Leland calleth it) or the Crane (as I dooGarunus, Cranus. take it) riseth néere to Cranebrooke, and going by Sissinghir [...]t, it receiueth yer long one water that commeth by Fretingdon, and another that runneth from great Chard by Smerdon, and Hedcorne, cros|sing two rilles by the waie from by north, Hedcorne it selfe standing betwéene them both. Finallie, the Garan or Crane meeting with Midwaie south of Yalling, they on the one side, and the These on the other, leaue a pretie Iland in the middest, of foure miles in length, and two in breadth, wherein is some hillie soile, but neither towne nor village, so farre as I remember.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 From Yalling forward, the Midwaie go|eth to west Farlegh, east Farlegh: and yer it come at Maidstone, it interteineth a rill that riseth short of Ienham, and goeth by Ledes and Otteringden, which is verie beneficiall to clothiers in drie yéeres: for thither they conueie their clothes to be thicked at the fulling milles, sometimes ten miles for the same: there is also at Ledes great plentie of fulling earth, which is a necessarie commoditie.

Being past Maidstone, it runneth by Allington, Snodland, Halling, Cuckstane, and Rochester, where it passeth vnder a faire bridge of stone, with a verie swift course, which bridge was begun 1388 by the lord Iohn Cobham, the ladie Margaret his wife, and the valiant sir Robert Knolles, who gaue the first on|set vpon that péece of worke, and therevnto builded a chappell of the Trinitie at the end therof, in testimo|nie of his pietie. In processe of time also one Iohn Warner of Rochester made the new coping there|of; and archbishop Warham of Canturburie the iron barres: the bishops also of that see were not slacke in their beneuolence and furtherances toward EEBO page image 53 that worke, especiallie Walter Merton founder of Merton college in Oxford, who by misfortune perish|ed by falling from the same, as he rode to surueie the workemen. Being past Rochester, this noble riuer goeth to Chatham, Gillingham, Upchurin, and soone after branching, it imbraceth the Greene at his fall, as his two heads doo Ashdon forrest, that lieth be|twéene them both.

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