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3.16. ¶Of ſundry Mineralles. Cap. 16.

¶Of ſundry Mineralles. Cap. 16.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 WYth howe great benefites thys I|lande of oures hathe béene indued from the beginning, I hope there is no god|ly man but wyll redily confeſſe, and yéelde vnto the Lorde God his due honour for the ſame. For we are bleſſed euery way, & there is no temporall commoditie neceſſary to bée had or craued by any nacion at Gods hand, that he hath not in moſt abundaunt maner beſtowed vpon vs Engliſhmen if we coulde ſée to vſe it, and be thankefull for the ſame. But alas (as I ſayd in ye chapter precedent,) wée loue to enrych them that care not for vs, but for our great commodities: and one tryfling toye not woorth the caryage, cõming (as the prouerbe ſaith), in thrée ſhyps from beyonde the ſea is more woorth with vs, thẽ a ryght good Iewel, eaſie to be had at home. They haue alſo the caſt to teach vs to neg|lect our owne thinges, for if they ſée that wée beginne to make any accounte of our com|modities (if it be ſo that they haue alſo ye like, in theyr owne countryes) they will ſodaine|ly abaſe the ſame, to ſo lowe a price that our gaine not beyng woorthy our trauaile, & the ſame commoditie with leſſe coſt ready to be had at home from other countries (though EEBO page image 115 but for a whyle) it cauſeth vs to gyue ouer our indeuours, and as it were by and by to forget the matter whereabout we went be|fore to, obteine them at their hands. And this is the onely cauſe wherefore one commody|ties are oft ſo litle eſtemed. Some of them cã ſay wtout any teacher, that they wil by ye caſe of a Foxe of an Engliſh man for a grote, & make him afterward giue twelue pence for the tayle. Woulde to God wée myght once wexe wyſer, and eache one indeuour that the common wealth of Englande may flouriſh againe in hir olde rate, and that our cõmo|dities may bée fully wrought at home, as cloth if you will, for an example and not ca|ryed out to be ſhorne and dreſſed abroade, whiles our clothworkers here doe ſterue and beg their bread, & for lacke of dayly practiſe, vtterly neglect to be ſkilfull in thys ſcience: But to my purpoſe. We haue in englãd gret plẽty of quick Syluer, Antimony, Sulphur, black Lead, and Orpiment red and yealow. We haue alſo the fineſt Alume (wherein the diligence of one of the greateſt fauourers of the common wealth of England (of a ſub|iect) hath béene of late egregiouſly abuſed, & euen almoſt with barbarous inciuility) the natural Cinnabarum or Vermilion the Sul|phurus glebe called Bitumen, in olde tyme vſed for morter, and yet burned in lampes: where Oyle is ſcant and geaſon, the Cry|ſocolla, Coperous, ye Minerall ſtone, wher|of Petreolum is made) and that which is moſt ſtraunge, the minerall Pearle, which as they are for greatneſſe and coulour moſt excellent of all other, ſo are they digged out of the maine land, and in ſundry places farre diſtãt from the ſhore. Of Colemines we haue ſuch plentie in the North. And Weſterne partes of our Iſlande as may ſuffice for all the Realme of Englande, and ſo muſt they doe hereafter in déede, if woode be not better cheriſhed then it is at this preſent, and to ſay the truth, notwithſtanding that very many of them are caryed into other Countryes of the maine, yet theyr greateſt trade begin|neth nowe to growe from the Forge into ye Kitchin and Hall appeare already as maye in moſt Cities and Townes that lye about the coſt, where they haue little other fewell, except it be turfe, and haſſocke. I marueyle not a little that there is no trade of theſe into Suſſex and Southampton ſhire, for want whereof the Smithes doe worke theyr yron with charre coale. I thinke that farre carri|age be the only cauſe, which is but a ſlender excuſe, to inforce vs to carye them vnto the mayne from thence.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Beſide our coale pittes we haue pyttes in lyke ſorte of white plaſter, and of f [...]lte and white Marie, wherewith in many places the inhabitors doe compeſt their ſoile. We haue Salte Peter for our ordinaunce, and Salt Soda for our glaſſe, and therto in one place a kinde of earth (in Sothe [...]ey as I wéene harde by Codington, and ſometime in the tenure of one Croxton of London) which is ſo fine to make mouldes for goldſmithes & caſters of mettal, that a lode of it was worth fiue ſhyllinges thirtie yeares a gone. None ſuch againe they ſay in England. But whe|ther there be or not, let vs not be vnthanke|full to God for theſe and other his benefites beſtowed vpon vs, wherby he ſheweth hym|ſelfe a louing and mercifull father vnto vs, which contrarywyſe returne vnto hym in lew of humilitie and obedience, nothing but wickedneſſe, auarice, méere contempt of hys will, and notable ingratitude.

3.17. ¶ Of common or artificiall Salt made in Englande. Cap. 17.

¶ Of common or artificiall Salt made in Englande. Cap. 17.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 THere are in Englande certaine welles where Salt is made, whereof Lelande hath written aboundantly in his comenta|ryes of Brytaine, and whoſe words onely. I wyll ſet downe in Engliſhe as he wrate th [...], becauſe he ſéemeth to haue had diligent con|ſideration of the ſame, without adding any thing of my owne vnto hym, except it bée where neceſſitie doth infore me for ye méere aid of the reader, in the vnderſtanding of his mynd. Directing therefore his iourney from Worceſter in his peregrination and labo|rious iourney ouer Englande, he ſaith thus. From Worceſter I rode to the Wiche by incloſed ſoyle, hauing méetely good Corne grounde, ſufficient woode and good paſture, aboute a ſixe myles of. Wiche ſtandeth ſomewhat in a valley or lowe grounde, be|twixt two ſmall hylles on the left ripe (for ſo he calleth the bancke of euery brooke thorow out all his Engliſhe treatizes) of a pretie ryuer which not farre beneathe the Wiche is called Salope brooke. The beautye of the Towne in maner ſtandeth in one ſtreat, yet be there many lanes in the Towne beſides.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 There is alſo a meane Church in ye maine ſtreate and once in the wéeke, an indifferent rounde markette. The Towne of it ſelfe is ſomewhat foule and durty when any rayne falleth by reaſon of much caryage thorowe ye ſtreates, which are very yll paued or rather not paued at all. The great aduauncement alſo here, is by makyng of Salte, and though the commoditye thereof be ſinguler great, yet the Burgeſſes be poore, generally EEBO page image 125 becauſe Gentlemen haue generallye for the moſt parte gotten the great gaine of it into their handes,A cõmon plage in all thinges of any great commodity for one beateth ye buſhe but another catcheth ye the birdes, as we may ſée in Bat|fowling. whileſt the poore Burgeſ|ſes yéelde vnto all the labour. There are at this preſent time thrée honored Salters: and thrée Salt ſprings in the Towne of Wiche, whereof the principall is within a bu [...]ſhoote of the ryght rype (or banke) of the riuer that there commeth downe: and this ſpring is double ſo profitable in yéelding of Salte ly|quor, as both the other. Some ſay (or rather fable) that this Salte ſpring did fayle in the tyme of Richarde dela Wiche Byſhoppe of Chicheſter, and that afterwardes by his in|terceſſion it was reſtored to the profit of the olde courſe (ſuch is the ſuperſtiton of the peo|ple) in remembraunce whereof, or per|aduenture for the zeale which the Wiche men and Salters did beare vnto Rycharde Dela Wiche there countryman, they vſed of late times on his daye (which commeth once in the yere) to hange this Salt ſpring or Wel about which tapiſſery, and to haue ſun|dry games, drinkinges, and fooliſh reuelles at it. But to procede. There be a great num|ber of Salte cotes about this Well, wherin the Salte water is ſodden in leades, and brought to the perfection of pure white ſalt. The other two Salte ſpringes be on the left ſide of the ryuer a prety waye lower then ye firſt, and as I founde at the very ende of the Towne. At theſe alſo be diuers fornaces to make Salt, but the profite & plenty of theſe two are nothing comparable to the gayne, yt ryſeth by the greateſt. I aſked of a Salter how many fornaces they had at all the thrée ſpringes, and he numbred them to eightéene ſcore that is thrée hundred and ſixtie, ſaying howe euery one of them payde yearely ſixe ſhillings and eight pence to the king. The truth is that of olde they had liberties giuen vnto them for thrée hundreth furnaces or mo, and therevpon they gyue a fée farme (or vectigall) of one hunnreth pounde yearely. Certes the penſion is as it was, but the num|ber of fornaces is nowe increaſed, to foure hundreth. There was of late ſerch made for another Salte ſpring there aboutes by the meanes of one Neweport a Gentleman dwelling at the Wiche, and the place where it was appeareth, as doth alſo the woode and Timber which was ſet aboute it, to kéepe vp the earth frõ falling into the ſame. But thys pitte was not ſence occupied, whether it were for lacke of plentie of the ſalt ſpring, or for letting, or hindering of the profite of ye other thrée. Me thinke that if woode and ſale of Salte would ſerue, they might digge and find more ſalt ſpringes about the Wich thẽ thrée, but there is ſomewhat elſe in the w [...] For I hard that of late yeares a ſalt ſpri [...] was founde in an other quarter of Wor+ [...]ſter ſhire, but it grew to be without any [...] ſith the Wich men haue ſuch a priuiledg [...] that they a [...]ne in thoſe quarters ſhall ha [...] the making of ſalte. The Pittes be ſo ſet a|bout with gutters that ye ſalt water is eaſily turned to euerye mans houſe, and at Na [...] wich very many troughes go ouer the riuer for the commoditie of ſuch as dwell on the o|ther ſide of ye ſame. The ſéeth alſo their ſalt water in fornaces of leade, and lade out the Salte ſome in Caſes of wicker, [...]hor [...] which the water draineth, and the Salt re|maineth. There be alſo two or thrée but very lyttle Salt ſpringes at Dertwitche in a lo [...] bottome, where Salt is ſometyme made. Of late alſo a myle from Cumbremere ab|bay a péece of an hill dyd ſincke & in ye ſame pit roſe a ſpring of ſalt water where the Ab|bot begunne to make ſalt, but the men of the Citie compounded with the Abbot and Co|uent that there ſhoulde be none made there, whereby the pit was ſuffered to go to lo [...]. And although it yéelded ſalte water ſtil of it ſelfe, yet it was ſpoyled at the laſt and filled vp with filth. The Wich men vſe the com|moditie of their ſalt ſpring in drawing and decocting the water of them only by ſixe mõ|nethes in the yere, that is from Midſomer to Chriſtmaſſe, as I geſſe to maintayne ye price of ſalte, or for ſauing of wood, which I thinke to be their principall reaſon. For making of ſalt is a great and notable deſtructiõ of wood and ſhall be greater hereafter, except ſome prouiſion be made for the better increaſe of fiering. The lacke of wood alſo is alredy per|ceiued in places néere the Wiche, for where as they vſed to buye and take their woodde néere vnto their occupyings, thoſe woonted ſpringes are nowe decayed, and they be in|forſed to ſéeke their wood ſo farre as Wor|ceſter towne and all the partes about Bre|niſgraue, Alchirche, and Alceſter. I aſked a ſalter how much wood he ſuppoſed yearly to to be ſpent at theſe fornaces, and he aunſwe|red that by eſtimation there was conſumed about ſixe thouſande load, and it was rounde poale woode for the moſt, which is eaſy to be cleft, and handſomely reuen in péeces. The people that are about the fornaces are very ill couloured, and the iuſt rate of euery for|nace is to make foure loades of ſalt yearely and to euery loade goeth fiue or ſixe quar|ters as they make their account. If the for|nace men make more in one fornace then foure loades it is as it is ſayde imployed to their owne auayle. And thus much hath Le|lande EEBO page image 116 left in memorie of our whyte ſalt, who in an other booke not now in my handes hath touched the making alſo of Bay ſalt in ſome part of our coũtry. But ſith yt is boke deliue|red againe to the owner, the tractaciõ of bay ſalt can not be framed in any order, bycauſe my memorie will not ſerue to ſhew the true maner and the place. It ſhall ſuffice therfore to haue gyuen ſuch notice of it, to thende the reader may knowe that aſwell the Baye as whyte are wrought and made in Englande, and more white alſo vpon the weſt coaſt, to|warde Scotlande out of the ſalt water be|twéene Wyre and Cokermouth. Fnally ha|uing thus intermedled our artificiall Salt with our Minerals, let vs giue ouer and go in hande with ſuch mettals as are growing here in Englande.

3.18. Of Mettalles. Cap. 18.

Of Mettalles. Cap. 18.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [...]de. [...]uer.IT was not ſayde of olde tyme without great reaſon that all countries haue néede of Britainc and Britaine it ſelf of none. For truely yf a man regarde ſuch neceſſities as nature onely requireth, there is no Nation vnder the ſun, that can ſay ſo much as ours: ſith we doe want none that are conuenient for vs. Certes if it be a benefite to haue any golde at all, we are not voyde thereof, ney|ther lykewyſe of ſiluer. And albeit that we haue no ſuch aboundaunce of theſe as ſome other countries doe yéelde, yet haue my rych countriemen ſtore ynough of both in theyr purſes, where they were woont to haue leaſt, bycauſe the garniſhing of our churches, ta|bernacles, ymages, ſhrynes and apparell of the Prieſtes conſumed the greateſt part as experience hath confirmed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 [...]ne. [...]de.Tinne and Lead are very plentifull wyth vs, the one in Cornewall, Deuonſhire, & elſe where in the North, ye other in Darby ſhire, Weredale, and ſondry other places of thys Iland: whereby my countreymen doe reape no ſmall commodity, but eſpecially our pew|terers, who in time paſt employed the vſe of pewter only vpon diſhes and pottes, and a fewe other trifles for ſeruice, whereas nowe they are growen vnto ſuch exquiſite cũning, that they can in maner imitate by infuſion a|ny forme or faſhion of cuppe, diſh, ſalt, bowle or goblet, whyche is made by Goldſmithes craft though they be neuer ſo curious & very artificially forged. In ſome places beyond the ſea a garniſh of good flat Engliſh pewter (I ſay flat, becauſe diſhes and platters in my time begyn to be made depe like baſons, and are in déede more conuenient both for ſawſe and kéeping the meat warme) is almoſt eſte|med ſo precious as the like number of veſ|ſels that are made of fine ſiluer, and in man|ner no leſſe deſired amõgſt the great eſtates, whoſe workemen are nothing ſo ſkilfull in that trade as ours, neyther theyr mettall ſo good, nor plenty ſo great, as we haue héere in England. There were mines of Lead ſome|times alſo in Wales, which indured ſo long till the people had conſumed all theyr woode by melting of the ſame, as they did alſo at Comeryſtwith, ſixe miles from Stradfleur. And here by the way it is worthy to be noted of a Crow which a miner of tinne, dwelling néere Comeryſtwith had made ſo tame that it would daily flie & folow him to hys worke and other places where ſo euer he happened to trauaile. Thys laborer working on a time in the bottome where the firſt Myne was knowne to be, did lay his purſe and girdle by him, as men cõmonly doe that addreſſe them ſelues to apply theyr buſineſſe earneſtly, and he him ſelfe alſo had vſed from time to time before. The Crow likewyſe was very buſie flittering about him, and ſo much moleſted hym in déede, that he waxed angry wyth the byrde & in his fury threatned to wring of his necke, if he myght once gette hym into hys hands: To be ſhort, in the ende the Crow ha|ſtily caught vp his girdle and purſſe, & made away wyth all ſo faſt as hir wyngs coulde cary hyr. Héerevpon, the poore man fallyng into great agony (for he feared to loſe perad|uenture all hys money) threwe downe hys mattocke at aduenture and ranne after the bird, curſſing and menacing that he ſhould loſe hys life if euer he gotte him againe: but as it fell out, the Crow was ye meanes wher|by hys lyfe was ſaued, for he had not bene long out of the mine, ere it fell downe and killed all his fellowes. If I ſhould take vpon me to diſcourſe of the dealing of thys byrde at large, I ſhould peraduenture ſet my ſelfe further into the bryers then wel finde which way to come out agayne: yet I am perſwa|ded that the Crow was Gods inſtrument herein, wherby the lyfe of thys poore laborer was preſerued. It was done alſo in an other order then that whych I reade of an other tame Crow kept vp by a ſhomaker of Dutch lãd in hys ſhop or ſtone: who ſéeing the ſame to ſitte vpon the pearch very heauily & drou|ſie, ſayde vnto the birde. What ayleth my Iacke, why art thou ſo ſad and penſiue? The Crow hearyng his maſter ſpeake after this ſort vnto him, anſweared (or elſe the Deuill wythin it) out of the Pſalter.Pſal. 76. Cogitaui dies antiquos & eternos in mente habui, but whe|ther am I digreſſed, frõ lead vnto Crowes, and from Crowes vnto Deuils. Certes it EEBO page image 126 is now high time to retourne vnto our met|tals, and reſume the tractation of ſuch things as I had earſt in hand.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 Iron.Iron is found in many places, as in Suſ|ſex, Kent, Weredale, Mendip, Walſhall, Mancheſter and elſewhere in Wales: of which mines diuers doe bryng forth ſo fine and good ſtuffe as any that commeth from beyond the ſea. It is alſo of ſuch toughneſſe, that it yéeldeth to the makyng of Claricord wire in ſome places of the realme. Copper is lately not foũd,Copper. but rather reſtored againe to light, for I haue read of Copper to haue béene heretofore gotten in our Ilande. How|beit, as ſtraungers haue moſt commonly the gouernaunce of our mines, ſo they hytherto make ſmall gaines of thys in hande in the North partes: for as I am informed the pro|fit doth very hardly counteruaile the char|ges, whereat wyſe men doe not a little mar|uayle, conſidering the aboundaunce whych that mine do ſéeme to offer and as it were at hande. Lelande our countryman noteth ſun|drie great lykelyhoodes of copper Mines to be Eaſtwardes, as betwéene Dudman and Trewardith in the ſea cliffes, beſide ſundry other places, wherof diuers are noted here & there in ſundry places of this booke already, and therfore it ſhalbe but in vaine to repete them here agayne. In Dorſet ſhyre alſo a copper Mine lately found is brought to good perfection.Stéele. As for our ſtéele it is not ſo good for edge toole as that of Cullen, and yet the one is often ſolde for the other, and lyke tale vſed in both, that is to ſay thirtie gaddes to the ſhiefe and ſixe ſhiefes to the burdẽ. Our Alchumy is artificiall & thereof our ſpoones and ſome ſaltes are commonly made & pre|ferred before our pewter. The common ſort call it Alcamine,Some tell me yt it is a mixture of braſſe, lead and tinne. but when I know more of the ſubſtance and mixture of this metall my ſelfe, I will not let to write thereof at large, wheras now I muſt néedes conclude bicauſe I haue no more to ſay of the mettalles of my country, except I ſhould talke of braſſe, bell mettall, & ſuch as are brought ouer for mar|chandize from other countries, but what is that to my purpoſe.

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