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3.19. Of precious ſtones. Cap. 19.

Of precious ſtones. Cap. 19.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 THe olde writers remember fewe other ſtones of eſtimation to be founde in this Iſland then that which we call Geat,Geat. & they in latine Gagates: wherevnto furthermore they aſcribe ſundry properties as vſually practized here in times paſt, whereof none of our writers doe make any mencion at all.Laon. Calchõ|dyle. Howbeit whatſoeuer it hath pleaſed a num|ber of ſtrangers to write of ye vſages of thi [...] oure Countrie, aboute the tryall of the vir|ginitie of our maidens by drincking of the powder of thys ſtone againſt the tyme of their beſtowing in maryage: certaine it is than euen to this day there is ſome plenty to be had of this commoditie in Darby ſhyre & about Barwticke, although that in many mens opinions nothing ſo fine as that which is brought ouer by marchauntes from the mayne. But as theſe men are drowned with the common errour of our nation, ſo I am ſure that in diſcerning the price and value of things, no man now liuing can go beyond ye iudgemẽt of the old Romaines, who prefer|red the geate of Britain before ye like ſtones bred about Luke & all other coũtries. Moreo|uer as Geat was one of ye firſt ſtones of this Iſle wherof any forrein account was made, [...] ſo our pearles alſo did match with it in re|nowne, in ſo much that the only deſire of thẽ cauſed Caeſar to aduenture hyther, [...] after h [...] had ſéene the quantities & hard of our plenty of them, whyleſt he abode in France. Certes they are to be founde in theſe our dayes, and thereto of diuers coulours, in no leſſe num|bers then euer they were in olde tyme. Yet are they not now ſo much deſired bycauſe of theyr ſmallneſſe, and alſo for other cauſes, but eſpecially ſith churchwork as copes, ve|ſtements, Albes, Tunicles, altar clothes, canapies, and ſuch traſh are woorthily abo|liſhed, vpon which our countrymen hereto|fore beſtowed no ſmall quantities. For I thinke there were fewe churches and Reli|gious houſes beſides Biſhoppes Myters & Põtifical veſtures, but were either thorow|ly fretted or notably garniſhed wt huge nũ|bers of them. But as the Brittiſh Geat or o|rient Pearle were in olde tyme eſtéemed a|boue thoſe of other countries, ſo tyme hath ſince the conqueſt of the Romaines reuealed many other: in ſo much yt at this ſeaſon there are founde in Englande the Aetites and the Hematite and theſe very pure and excellent, alſo ye Calcedony, the Porphyrite, ye Chriſtal, & thoſe other, which we call Calaminares, & ſpeculares beſide a kinde of Diamõd or Ada|mant, which although it be very fair to ſight is yet much ſofter thẽ [...] thoſe yt are brought hyther out of other countries. We haue alſo vpon our coaſtes the white corall and other ſtones dayly founde in cliffes and rockes, whereof ſuch as finde them haue eyther no knowledge at all, or elſe doe make but ſmall account, being ſeduced by outlãdiſh Lapida|ries, whereof the moſt part diſcourage vs frõ the fetching and ſéeking out of our owne cõ|modities, to the ende that they may haue the EEBO page image 117 more frée vtterance of their naturall and ar|tificial wares, wherby they get great gaines amongſt ſuch as haue no ſkill. [...]all of [...]ne. I haue harde that the beſt triall of a ſtone is to laye it on the nayle of our thombe, and ſo to go abroade into the cléere light, where if the coulour hold in all places a like, the ſtone is thought to be natural. &c. But if it alter eſpecially towarde ye nayle, thẽ is it not ſound, but rather an ar|tificiall practize. If this be true it is an expe|riment worthy ye noting. (Cardane alſo hath it in his De ſubtilitate) yf not I haue reade néere more lies then this, as one example out of Cato, who ſayeth that a cuppe of Iuy will holde no wine at all, but I haue made ſome veſſels of ye ſame wood, which refuſe no kind of liquor, and therefore I ſuppoſe that there is no ſuch Antipatha betwéene wyne & Iuy as ſome of our reading Philoſophers with|out all maner of practize wil ſéeme to inferre amongeſt vs. What ſhoulde I ſaye more of ſtones? truely I can not tell, ſith I haue ſayde what I may already & peraduenture more then I thought. This yet will I adde that yf thoſe which are founde in Muſkelles (for I am vtterly ignoraunt of the generatiõ of pearles) be good pearle in déede I haue at ſundrie times gathered more then an ounce of them, of which diuers haue holes already entred by nature, ſome of them not much in|feriour to great peaſon in quantitie, & there|to of ſundrie colours as it happeneth amõgſt ſuch as are brought from the Eaſterly coaſt to Saffron Walden in Lent, when for want of fleſhe,Neuer [...]s our [...]ed and [...]ſh fiſhe [...]eare as [...]w ſith [...]n muſt [...]s haue ſtale ſtincking fiſhe & welked Muſ|kles are thought to be good meate for other fiſhe is to to déere amongſt vs.

3.20. ¶Of the Coynes of Englande. Cap. 20.

¶Of the Coynes of Englande. Cap. 20.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 THe Saxon Coyne before the Conqueſt is vtterly vnknowne vnto me: how bée it if my coniecture be any thing, I ſuppoſe that the ſhillynges of ſiluer, in thoſe dayes did counterpeiſe our common ounce, though afterwarde it came to paſſe that it aroſe to twentie pence, and ſo continued vntyll the tyme of King Henry the eyght, who firſt brought it to thrée ſhillings and foure pence, [...]pper [...]oney. and afterwarde our Syluer Coyne vnto braſſe & copper monies, by reaſon of thoſe in|eſtimable charges, which dyuers wayes op|preſſed him. But as king Edward his ſonne began to reſtore ye aforeſayde Coine againe vnto fine ſiluer: ſo Quéene Mary his ſucceſ|ſour did continue his good purpoſe: notwith|ſtanding that in hir time the Spaniſh mo|ney was very common in England, by rea|ſon of hir mariage with Philyp King of Spayne.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After hir diſceaſe the Lady Elizabeth hyr ſiſter, and now our moſt gracious Quéene,Siluer re|ſtored. and ſouereigne Princes, did finiſh the mat|ter wholly, vtterly aboliſhing the vſe of cop|per Coine, and conuerting the ſame into fine Syluer, as péeces of halfpeny fardyng, of a po [...]y, of thrée half pens, péeces of twoo pence, of thrée pence, of foure pence (called ye groate) of ſixe pence vſually named the teſ|tone, and ſhilling of twelue pence, whereon ſhée hath imprinted hir owne ymage, & em|phaticall ſuperſcription.Olde gold Our Gould is ey|ther olde or new. The old is that which hath remained ſince ye time of king Edwarde the thirde, or béene Coyned by ſuch other Prin|ces, as haue reigned ſince his diſceaſe, with|out abaſing of the fyneſt of that mettall. Therof alſo wée haue yet remayning, the Ryall, the George noble, the Henry Ryall, the Saint, the Angell, and their ſmaller pée|ces, as halfes or quarters, though theſe in my time, are not ſo common to be ſéene. I haue alſo behelde the Souereine of twen|ty ſhillinges, & the péece of thirtie ſhillyngs, I haue harde lykewiſe of péeces of forty ſhil|lings, thrée pounde, fiue pounde, and tenne pound. But ſith there were fewe of them coi|ned, and thoſe only at the commaundement of the kings, yearely to beſtow where their maieſties thought good in lieu of new yeres gyftes and rewardes: it is not requiſite that I ſhould remember them here amongſt our currant coynes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The newe Golde is taken for ſuch as be|ganne to be coyned in the latter dayes of king Henry the eyght,New gold at which time the fi|neſſe of the mettall began to be very much alayed, and is not likely to bée reſtored for ought that I can ſée: & yet is it & ſuch as hath béene coyned ſince by hys ſucceſſours prin|ces of this Realme in value and goodneſſe equall and not inferiour to the coyne and currant Golde of other nations, where eche one doth couet to gather vppe our olde finer Golde: ſo that the Angels, Ryalles, & No|bles, are more plentifully ſéene in Fraunce and Flanders, then they be by a great deale within the Realme of England. Our péeces nowe currant are of tenne ſhillinges, fiue ſhillings, & two ſhillinges and ſixe pence on|ly: and thoſe of ſundry ſtampes and names, as half ſouereines, quarters of Soueraines, (otherwyſe called Crownes,) & halfe Crow|nes: lykewiſe Angels, halfe Angels, & quar|ters of Angels, or if there be any other, in good ſooth I knowe them not, as one ſcaſely acquainted with any ſiluer at all, much leſſe then God it wote with any ſtore of Goulde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 EEBO page image 127The firſt currant ſhilling, or péeces of twelue pence were coyned by kyng Henry the eight: thoſe of fyue ſhillinges, & of 2. ſhil. & 6. pence, & the half ſhil. by king Edward ye ſixt: but the odde péeces aboue remẽbred vn|der the groat, by our high & mighty Pryn|ces Quéene Elizabeth, the name of ye groat peny: 2. pence: ob. & farding, being more aun|cient then yt I can wel diſcuſſe of the time of their beginnings. Yet thuſmuch I read that king Edwarde the firſt in the eight yeare of his reigne, did firſt come the peny & ſmalleſt péeces of ſiluer roundewyſe, which before were ſquare, and woont to haue a doubble croſſe wyth a creſt, in ſuch ſorte that the peny might eaſily be brokẽ, eyther into halfs or quarters, by which ſhift onely the people came by halfe pence and fardinges, that o|therwyſe were not ſtamped nor coyned of ſet purpoſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Of forren coynes we haue both the Duc|cates, the ſingle and the double: the Cruſa|does, with the lõg croſſe & the ſhort: ye Por|tigue, a péece very ſolemly kept of dyuers, & yet oft times abaſed with waſhing, or elſe abſolutely coũterfeicted: and finally yne french and flemiſh crownes, onely currant among vs, ſo long as they holde weight. But of ſil|uer coynes none at all: yet are the Dalders and ſuch, often tymes brought ouer, but neuertheleſſe exchanged as Bullion, accor|ding to their fineneſſe and weight, and after|warde conuerted into coyne, by ſuch as haue authority.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In olde time we had ſundrye Mintes in Englande, and thoſe commonly kept in Ab|baies and religious houſes before the con|queſte, where true dealing was commonly ſuppoſed: moſt of all to dwel. As at Ram|ſeye, Bury, Caunterbury, Glaſſenbury and ſuch like, ſundry exemplificats of ye graunts whereof are yet to be ſéene in wryting. But after the Normans had once gotten the ma|ſterye, they truſted themſelues beſt wyth the ouerſight of their Mintes, and therefore erected diuers of their owne, although they afterwarde permitted ſome for ſmall péeces of Siluer, vnto ſundry of the houſes afore|ſayd. In my time diuers mints are ſuppreſ|ſed as Southworke, Bryſtow, &c. and al coi|nage is brought into one place, that is to ſay the Tower of London, where it is continu|ally holden and peruſed, but not without great gaine to ſuch as deale wtall. There is alſo coinage of Tin holdẽ yearly at two ſe|uerall times, that is to ſaye Midſomer and Michaelmas in the weſt country, which at the firſt hearing, I ſuppoſed to haue béene of money of the ſayde metall and graunted by Priuiledge from the Prince, vnto ye townes of Haylſtone, Trury, & Loſtwithiel. How|beit vpon farder examinatiõ of the matter, I finde it to be nothing ſo, but an office one|ly erected for the Prince, wherein he is al|lowed the ordinary cuſtomes of the mettall and ſuch blockes of Tinne as haue paſſed ye handes of his Officers, are marked wyth an eſpeciall ſtampe, whereby it is knowne that the cuſtome due for the ſame, hath ordinari|ly béene aunſwered. It ſhould ſéeme & in my opinion is very likely to be true, that whyle Romains reigned here, Kingſtone vppon Thames was the chiefe place of their coy|nage for this prouince. For in earing of the grounde about that Towne in tymes paſt, and nowe of late (beſides the curious funda|tion of many goodly buyldinges that haue béene ripped vp, and diuers coines of braſſe, ſiluer, and Golde, with Romaine letters in painted pots that haue béene found there) in the dayes of Cardinall Wolſey, one ſuch pot was diſcouered ful as it were of new ſil|uer lately coined. Another with plates of ſil|uer ready to be coyned. And the thirde wyth cheanes of ſiluer, ready as it ſhould appears to bée melted into coine, whereof let thys ſu|ffice to countenaunce out my coniecture.

3.21. Of our accompt of time, and partes thereof. Cap. 21.

Of our accompt of time, and partes thereof. Cap. 21.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 AS Libra is As or Aſsis vnto ye Romains for theyr waight, & the foote in ſtandard meaſure: ſo in our accompt of the partes of time, we take the houre to be the greateſt of ye leaſt, and leaſt of the greateſt, wherby we kéepe our reckening. For my part I do not ſee any great difference vſed in the obſerua|tyon of tyme and hir partes betwéene oure owne and any other forreine nation, where|fore I ſhal not néede to ſtand long vpon this matter. Howbeit, to the ende our exact order héerein ſhall appeare vnto all men, I wil ſet downe ſome ſhort rehearſall therof, and that in ſo briefe maner as vnto me is poſſible. As for our Astronomicall practiſes, I meane not to meddle wyth them, ſith theyr courſe is v|niformely obſerued ouer all. Our common order therfore is to begin at the minute, as at the ſmalleſt part of time knowne vnto the people, notwythſtanding that in moſt places they deſcend no lower then the halfe quarter or quarter of the howre, and from whence they procéede vnto the houre, whych is the 24. part of that whych we call the common and naturall day, & doth begin at midnight. Of vnequall houres or dayes, our natiõ hath no regard, and therefore to ſhew theyr quan|tities EEBO page image 118 & differences, it ſhould be [...]t in value. In lyke ſort, whereas the Egyptiand, Itali|ans, Bohemians, and Iewes begin their day at the Sunne ſet ouer night i [...] the P [...]rſians, Babylonians, Grecians, and Northergians at the Sunne riſing (each of them accoũting theyr dayes and nights by vnequall houres) alſo the Athenienſes, Arabians, Dutchmen and Aſtronomers at hygh [...] W [...] after the Romain maner vſed in the Church there of long time choſe the very poynte of mid|night, from whence we accompt [...] 2. equall houres vnto midday enſuing, and other 12. againe vnto the aforeſaid poynt. And this is our generall order for the naturall day. Of the artificiall we make ſo farre account, as that we recken it to be day when the Sunne is vp, and nyght when it leaueth our Horri|zon: otherwyſe alſo we deuide it into two partes, that is to ſay, forenoone and after|noone, not regarding the ruddy, ſhining, bur|ning and warming ſeaſons (of thrée vnequal houres a péece,) whych other ſéeme to ob|ſerue, and wherof I read theſe verſes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1
Solis equi lucis dicuntur quatuor horae.
Haec rubet, haec ſplender, hae c [...]ilec, illa teper:

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In déede out Phiſitians haue another par|tition of the day, as men of no halfe learning no doubt then the beſt of for [...]ir countryes if we could ſo conceaue of them. And héerein they concurre wyth thoſe of other nations, who for diſtinction in regiment of our hu|mours, diuide the artificiall day and night in ſuch wiſe as theſe verſes doe import, and are in déede a generall rule whych each of them doth follow.

Compare 1587 edition: 1
Tres lucis primas, noctis tres ſanguinis imas.
Vis cholere medias lucis ſex vendicat horas.
Dat melam primas noctis, tres lucis & imas.
Centrales ponas ſex noctis phlegmatis horas.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Or thus, as Tanſteter hath geuen them forth in hys Prelections.

Compare 1587 edition: 1
A nona noctis donec ſit tertia lucis,
Eſt dominus ſanguis, ſex inde ſequẽtib horis
Eſt dominans ch [...]lera, dum lucis nona ſit hora
Poſt niger humid ineſt donec ſit tertia noctis.
Poſthaec phlegma venit, donec ſit nona quietis

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In Engliſh thus in effect.

Compare 1587 edition: 1
Three houres ere ſun do riſe, & ſo many after, Blud,
Frõ 9. to 3. at after none, hot choler beares the ſway,
Euen ſo to 9. at night, ſwart Choler hath to rule,
As Phlegme from thence to 3. at morne: 6. houres eache one I ſay.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 [...]ght.In like ſort for the nyght we haue none o|ther partes then the twylight, darkenyght, midnight, and cockes crowing. Wheras the Latines diuide the ſame into .7. partes, as Veſper the Euening, which is immediately after the ſetting of the Sunne. Crepuſculum the twylight, when it is betwéene day and night, lyght and darkneſſe or properly ney|ther day nor night. Conticirium the ſtill of the nyght when each one is layd to reſt. In|tempeſt [...] the [...] or dead of the night, when [...] in theyr firſt or dead ſléepe Gallicinium the [...]ch [...]s [...] r [...]wing. Matutinum the breache of the day: and Diliculum ſiue aurora, the rud|dy, orenge, golden or ſhining coloure, ſéene immediately before the riſing of the Sunne. Other there are whych doe recken by wat|ches, diuiding the nyght into 4. equal partes. Of whych the firſt beginneth at Euening;watche. called the firſt watch, and continueth by 3. vnequall [...]ras, and ſo forth vntill the ende of the nynth h [...]e, wherat the fourth watch entreth whych is called the morning watch, becauſe it partly concurreth with ye morning & breache of the day before the riſing of the Sunne.Houre. As for the originall of the worde houre, it is very auncient, but yet not ſo olde as that of the watch whych was deuiſed firſt among ſouldiers for theyr better ſafegarde and chaunge of watchmen in theyr campes, the lyke whereof is almoſt vſed among our ſeafaring men whych they call clearing of the g [...]affe, and performed from time to time wyth great héede and ſome ſolemnitie. Cer|teſſe the worde Hora among the Grecians, ſignified ſo well the 4. quarters of the yeare, as the 24. part of ye day, but what ſtand I vp|on theſe things to let my purpoſe ſtay. To procéede therefore.wéeke. Of naturall dayes is the wéeke compacted, which conſiſteth of 7. of them. The firſt entreth with Monday, wher|by it commeth to paſſe that we reſt vpon the Sunday, whych is the 7. in number, as al|mighty God hath commaunded in his word, The Iewes begin theyr weke vpon our Sa|terday at the ſetting of the Sunne, and the Turkes with the Saterday: wherby it com|meth to paſſe; that as the Iewes make our laſt day the firſt of theyr wéeke, ſo the Turks make the Iewiſh Sabaoth the beginning of theyr Hebdoma becauſe Mahomet theyr pro|phet (as they ſay) was borne & dead vpõ ye fri|day, & ſo he was in dede, except their Alcharõ deceaue me. The Iewes doe recken theyr dayes by theyr diſtance from theyr ſabaoth, ſo that the firſt day of theyr wéeke, is the firſt day of the ſabaoth, and ſo forth vnto the ſixte. The Latines accompted theyr dayes after the 7. Planets, choſing the ſame for the deno|minator of the daye, that entreth hys regi|ment wyth the firſt vnequall houre of the ſame after the Sunne be riſen. Howbeit, as thys order is not wholly reteined wyth vs, ſo the vſe of the ſame is not yet altogither a|bolyſhed, as may appeare by our Sonday, EEBO page image 128 Monday, and Saturday. The reſt were chã|ged by the Saxons, who in remembrance of Woden, Oth [...]n, or Oden, The [...] tſometime theyr prince called the ſecond day of ye wéeke Theweſday the iij. day Wodenſdach. Lyke|wiſe of Thor, they called the iiij day Thorſ|dach, and of Frea wyfe to Woden the v. was named Freadach. Albeit there are (and not amiſſe as I thinke) that ſuppoſe them to meane by Thor, Iupiter, by Woden Mercu|ry, by Frea Venus, and finally by Theut Mars: which if it be ſo, then it is an eaſie ma|ter to find out the Germaine Mars, Venus, Mercury and Iupiter, wherof you may read more héereafter in my Chronologie. The truth is, that Frea had 7. ſonnes by Woden, as Woden the firſt, father to Wecca, of whome deſcẽded thoſe that were afterwards kings of Kent, Fethelgeta was the ſeconde. and of hym came the kings of Mertia. Bal|day 3. father to the kings of the Weſtſaxõs. Beldagius 4. parent to the kings of Bren|nicia or Northumberland. Weogodach 5. author of the kings of Deyra. Caſer. 6. rote of the Eſtangle race, and Naſcad originall burgeaunt of the kings of Eſſex. As for the kings of Suſſex, although they were of the ſame people, yet were they not of the ſame ſtreigne, as our old monuments do expreſſe. But to procéede. Of wéekes, our monethes are made whych are ſo called of the Moone, each one conteing 28. dayes, or 4. wéekes, wythout any further curioſity. For we reckẽ not our time by the yeare of the Moone, as the Iewes, Grecians or Romains did at the firſt, or as the Turks, Arabians & Perſians do now: neyther any parcell therof by ye ſayd part as they do in ye Weſt Indies, wher they haue neither weke, moneth nor yere, but on|ly a general accoũt of hundreds & thouſands of Moones, wherfore if we ſay or wryte a mo|neth, it is to be expounded of 28. dayes or 4. wéekes only. Or if you take it at large for a moneth of the common Kalender, whych ne|uertheleſſe in plées and ſutes is nothyng at all allowed of, ſith the Moone maketh hir ful reuolutiõ in 28. dayes, that is, vnto the place where ſhe left the Sunne, notwythſtanding that he be now gone, and at hir returne not to be found where ſhée departed from hym.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 In olde time eche Moneth of the Romaine Calender, was reconed after the courſe of ye Moone, and theyr entraunces were incer|taine, as were alſo the changes of that Pla|net. But after Iulius Caeſar had once correc|ted the ſame, the ſeuerall beginninges of e|uerye one of them dyd not onely remayne fyxed, but alſo the olde order in the deuiſi|on of their partes continued ſtill vnaltered: ſo that the Moneth is yet deuided as before i [...] Calendes, Ides, and Nones, albeit that [...]+mydaies, the vſe of the ſame be but ſmall, & their order retained only in our Calenders for the better vnderſtanding of ſuch tymes as the hiſtoriographers and olde authors do remember. The reconing alſo of ech of the [...] goeth as you ſée after a prepoſterous order whereby the Romaynes dyd rather now howe many daies were to the next chaunge from the precedent then contraywyſe, as b [...] peruſall of ye ſame you ſhall more eaſily per|ceyue. The daies alſo of the change; of ye Mo|neth of ye Moone, called are Callendae, which in time of Paganiſme were conſecrated by Iuno, & ſacrifice made to that goddeſſe on ye ſame. On theſe daies alſo, and on ye Ides an Nones they would not marye. Likewiſe the morow after eche of thẽ, were called dies A|cri, blacke daies, as ſome bookes doe yet re|member. The word Calendae in Gréeke Ne|omenia, is deriued of the worde Calo, to call: for vpon the firſt daye of euery Moneth, the Prieſt vſed to call the people of the Citie & country togither, and ſhewe them by a cuſ|tome howe many daies were from the ſaide Calendes to the Nones, and what feaſts were to be celebrated betwéene that and the nexte chaunge. The Nones commonly are not a+boue 4. or 6. in euery Moneth, and ſo long as the Nones laſted, ſo long did the Mercates continue, & therfore they were called Nones quaſi Nundinae. In them alſo were neyther Hollydayes (more then at thys preſent ex|cept ye day of the Purification of our Lady) nor ſacrifice offred to the gods, but each one applied hys buſineſſe, and kept hys market, reckening the firſt day after the Calends or chaũge, to be the 4. or 6. day before the faire ended. Some thinke that they were called Nonae, of the word Non, quia in ijſdem dij non coluntur, or as Ouide ſayeth. Nonarum tutela deo caret. But howſoeuer it be, ſure it is that they were ye mart dayes of euery mo|neth wherein the people bought, ſolde, and dyd nothing elſe. The Idus are ſo named of the Hethruſcien word Iduare to deuide, and before that Ceſar altered the Calender, they deuided the moneth commonly by the myd|deſt. But afterward when he had added cer|taine dayes thereto, thereby to make it a|grée wyth the yeare of the ſunne (whych he intruded about the ende of euerye mo|neth, becauſe he woulde not alter the ce|lebration of theyr vſuall Feaſtes: then came they ſhorte of the myddeſt, ſome|time by two or thrée daies. In theſe theefore which alwaies are eyght, the Marchauntes had layſure to packe vp and conueigh them EEBO page image 119 marchaundiſe, to paye their creditors and make merry with their friendes. After the Idus do the Calendes followe, but in a decrea|ſing order, as the Moone doth in light when ſhée is paſt the full. But herein lyeth all the myſterie, if you can ſaye ſo many dayes be|fore the next chaunge or newe Moone, as the number there expreſſed doth betoken. As for 16. cal. ſo many dayes before the next con|iunctiõ. &c. Of theſe Calendes, I meane touch|ing their number in euery Moneth, I fynde theſe verſes inſuing.

Compare 1587 edition: 1
Ianus & Auguſtus denas nouem Decẽber,
Iunius, Aprilis, Septẽber & ipſe Nouember,
Ter ſenas retinent, Februus bis Oeto. Calẽdas
Iulius October Mars Mains Epadecem

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In Engliſhe thus,

December, Ian, and August moneth full nyneteene
Calendes haue.
September, Iune, Nouember and Aprill twyſe nine deſire,
Syxteene foule Februarie hath, no more can he well craue.
October, Maye and Iuly hote, but ſeauenteene doe require,

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In lyke maner of nones and Ides.

Compare 1587 edition: 1
Sex maius Nonas, October, Iulius & Mars;
Quatuor at reliqui, dabit Idus quilibet octo.
To Iuly, March, October, May, ſixe nones I hight,
The reſt but 4, as for your Ides they aske but eight

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Agayne touching the number of dayes in euery moneth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1
Iunius, Aprilis, Septem, Nouem tricenos
vnũ plus reliqui, Febru tenet octo vicenos,
At ſi biſſextus fuerit ſuper additur vnus.
Thirty dayes hath Nouember
Aprill, Iune and September,
Twentie and eyght hath February alone,
and all the reſt thirty and one,
But in the leape you muſt adde one.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 [...]re.Our yeare is accounted after the courſe of the ſunne, and although the church hath ſome vſe of that of the Moone for the obſeruation of certaine mooueable feaſtes, yet it is reduc|ted to that of the Sunne, which in our ci|uile dealinges is chiefly had in vſe. Herein onely I finde a ſcruple that the beginning thereof is not vniforme and certaine, for our recordes beare Date the 25. of March, and our Calenders of the firſt of Ianuary. Our ſundrie officers alſo haue ſundrie enteraun|ces into their charges of cuſtome, which bréedeth great confuſion, whereas if all theſe might be referred to one originall (and that to be the firſt of Ianuarie) I do not thincke but there would be more certaintie and leſſe trouble for our hiſtoriographers and offices in their account of the yeare. Furthermore, whereas our intercalation for the Leape yeare is ſomewhat to much by certayne mi|nutes (which in 309. yeares do amount vnto an whole day) yf one intercalation in [...]o ma|ny were o [...]ted, our Calender would be the more perfite: & I woulde wiſh that the ſame yeare wherein the ſaide intercalation ſhould be ouerpaſſed, might be called Annus mag|nus Elizabethae in perpetual remembrance, of our noble and ſoueraign princeſſe Certes the next [...] is to be performed yf all Princes woulde agree thereto in the Leape yeare that ſhall be about the yeare of grace 1700. If it ſhall pleaſe God that the worlde may laſt ſo long. Aboue the yeare we haue no mo partes of Time, that cary any ſeuerall names with them, except you will affirme the worde age, to be one which is taken for 100 yeares, & ſignifieth in Engliſhe ſo much as Seculum or Euum doth in latine, whereof this may ſuffice. But to conclude withal, you ſhall haue a table of the names of the dayes of the wéeke, after the olde Saxon and Scot|tiſh maner, which I haue borowed from a|mongeſt our auncient wryters.

The preſent names.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • Monday.
  • Tueſday.
  • Wedneſday.
  • Thurſday.
  • Fryday.
  • Saterday.
  • Sunday.

The olde Saxon names.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • Monendeg.
  • Tueſdeg.
  • Wodneſdeg.
  • Thunreſdeg.
  • Firgeſdeg.
  • Saterdeg.
  • Sunnandeg.

The Scottiſh vſage.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • Diu Luna.
  • Diu Mart.
  • Diu Yath.
  • Diu Ethamon.
  • Diu Friach.
  • Diu Satur.
  • Diu Serol.

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