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1.16. How Britayne grew at the firſt to be deuided into three portions. Chap. 1.

How Britayne grew at the firſt to be deuided into three portions. Chap. 1.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 AFter the commyng of Brutus into this Iſland (which was as you haue red in the aforeſayd treatize, about the yere of ye world, 2840 or 1127 before ye incarnation of Chriſt) he made a general ſuruey of the whole Iſlãd from ſide to ſide, by ſuch meanes to view and ſearch out not onely the limites and boundes of his dominions, but alſo what commodities this new atchieued conqueſt might yeld vnto hys people. Furthermore, findyng out at the laſt alſo a couenable place wherein to erect a citie, he began there euen ye very ſame, which at this day is called London, namyng it Tre|nouanton, in remembraunce of olde Troye, from whence hys aunceſters procéeded, & for which the Romaines pronounced afterward Trinobantum, although the Welchmen doe call it ſtill Trenewith. This city was builded as ſome write, much about the tenth yeare of his raigne, ſo yt he lyued not aboue 15. yeares EEBO page image 49 after he had finiſhed ye ſame. But of ye reſt of hys other actes attempted and done, before or after the erection of this city, I finde no cer|tayne report, more then that when he had raigned in this Iſland after his arriuall by the ſpace of 24. yeares, he finiſhed his dayes at Trenouanton aforeſayde, beyng in hys young and floriſhyng age, where at his car|caſe was honorably interred. As for the ma|ner of hys death, I finde as yet no mention therof among ſuch writers as are extant. I meane whether it grew vnto him by defect of nature, or force of grieuous woundes recey|ued in hys warres agaynſt ſuch as withſtood him from tyme to tyme in this Iſlande, and therefore I can ſay nothing of that matter. Herein onely all agrée, that duryng the tyme of his languiſhing paynes, he made a diſpoſi|tion of his whole kyngdome, deuiding it into thrée partes or portions, according to the nũ|ber of his ſonnes then liuing, whereof the ol|deſt excéeded not 28. yeres of age, as my con|iecture gaueth me.Locrine. To the eldeſt therefore, whoſe name was Locrine, he gaue the grea|teſt and beſt Region of all the reſt,Loegria. whiche of hym to this day is called Lhoegres among the Britons, but in our language Englande, of ſuch Engliſh Saxons as made conqueſt of the ſame. This portiõ alſo is included on the ſouth with the Brittiſh ſea, on the eaſt wyth the Germaine Ocean, on the north wyth the Humber, and on the weſt with the Iriſh ſea, and the riuers Dée and Sauerne, wherof in the general deſcription of this Iſland, I haue ſpoken more at large. To Camber his ſecõd ſonne,Camber. Cambria. he aſſigned all that lyeth beyonde the Sauerne and Dée towarde the weſt, (whiche parcel in theſe dayes conteineth Southwales and Northwales) with ſondry Iſlandes ad|iacent to the ſame, the whole beyng in maner cut of and ſeperated from England or Loe|gria by the ſaid ſtreames, wherby it ſéemeth almoſt Pemuſula, or a bye land, if you reſpect the ſmall hilly portion of ground that lyeth indifferently betwene their maine courſes or ſuch branches at the leaſt as run and fall in|to them. The Welchmen or Brytons call it by the auncient name ſtill vnto this day, but we Engliſhmen terme it Wales, which de|nomination we haue from the Saxons, who in time paſt did vſe the word Walſhe in ſuch ſort as we do ſtraunge: for as we cal all thoſe ſtraungers that are not of our nation, ſo dyd they name them Walſhe which were not of their countrey. The third and laſt part of the Iſland he allotted vnto Albanacte hys youn|geſt ſonne (for he had but thrée in all,Albanact. as I haue ſayd before) whoſe portion ſéemed for circuite to be more large, then that of Cam|ber, and in maner equall in greatneſſe wyth the dominions of Locrinus: But if you haue regard to the ſeuerall commodities that are to be reaped by eche, you ſhal find them to be not much diſcrepaunt or differing one from another: for what ſo euer the firſt and ſecond haue in plenty of corne, fine graſſe, and large cattell. This latter wanteth not in excéedyng ſtore of fiſhe, rich mettall, quarries of ſtone, and aboundaunce of wylde foule: ſo that in myne opinion, there coulde not be a more e|quall particion then this made by Brute, and after the aforeſayd maner. This later parcel at the firſt, toke the name of Albanactus, who called it Albania. But now a ſmall portion onely of the Region (beyng vnder the regi|ment of a Duke) reteyneth the ſayd denomi|nation, the reaſt beyng called Scotlande, of certayne Scottes that came ouer from Ire|land to inhabite in thoſe quarters. It is deui|ded from Loegres alſo by the Humber, [...] ſo that Albania as Brute left it, conteyned all the north part of the Iſland that is to be foũd beyond the aforeſayd ſtreame, vnto the point of Catheneſſe. To conclude, Brute hauyng deuided hys kingdome after this maner, and therin conteniyng himſelfe as it were wyth the general title of the whole, it was not lõg after ere he ended his life, and being ſolemn|ly interred at his new city by his thrée chil|dren, they parted eche from other, and tooke poſſeſſion of their prouinces. But Scotland after two yeres fell agayn into the handes of Locrinus as to the chiefe Lord, by the death of his brother Albanact,Locri [...] king [...] of Sc [...]+land. who was ſlayne by Humber kyng of the Seithiẽs, and left none iſſue behynde hym to ſuccéede hym in that kyngdome.

1.17. That notwithſtanding the former diuiſion made by Brute vnto his children, the ſoue|reigntie of the whole Iſlande remained ſtill to the prince of Lhoegres and his poſteritie after him. Chap. xvj.

That notwithſtanding the former diuiſion made by Brute vnto his children, the ſoue|reigntie of the whole Iſlande remained ſtill to the prince of Lhoegres and his poſteritie after him. Chap. xvj.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 IT is poſſible that ſome of the Scottiſh na|tion reading the former chapter will take offence with me for meaning yt the principa|litie of the North partes of this Iſle, hath al|wayes belonged to the kinges of Lhoegres.The Scot [...] alway [...] deſinr [...] to [...] the [...] ſubi [...] haue o [...]|ten [...] cruell [...] odious tempta [...] to be, [...] in [...] For whoſe more ample ſatiſfaction in this behalfe, I will here ſet downe therfore a diſ|courſe therof at large, written by diuers, and nowe finally brought into one Treatiſe, ſuf|ficient as I thinke to ſatiſfie the reaſonable, although not halfe ynough peraduenture to content a wrangling minde, ſith there is or at the leaſt wyſe hath béene nothing more o|dious amõg ſome, then to heare that the king EEBO page image 40 of England hath oughtes to doe in Scotland. How their Hiſtoriographers haue attempted to ſhape a couloured excuſe to auoyde ſo ma|nifeſt a tytle, all men maye ſée that reade their bookes indifferently, whereunto I doe referre them. For my part there is little or nothing of myne herein, more then onely the collection of a number of fragmentes to|gither, wherein chiefly I haue vſed the helpe of Nicholas Adams, who wrate thereof of ſet purpoſe to king Edward the ſixt, as Leland dyd the lyke to king Henry the eyght, Iohn Harding vnto Edwarde the fourth, beſide thrée other, whereof the firſt dedicated hys Treatiſe to Henry the fourth, the ſeconde to Edwarde the thirde, and the thirde to Ed|warde the firſt, as their writinges yet extant doe abund [...]ntly beare witneſſe. The tytle alſo that Lelande giueth his booke, which I haue had written with his owne hands, beginneth in this maner.

Theſe remembraunces follo|wing are found in Chronicles authorized re|maining in diuers nonaſteries both in Eng|lande and Scotlande, by which it is euident|ly knowen & ſhewed, that the kinges of En|gland haue had, and nowe ought to haue the ſouereignetie ouer Scotlande, wyth the ho|mage and fealtie of the kings their reigning from time to time. Herevnto you haue heard already what diuiſiõ Brute made of this Iſ|lande not long before his death, wherof eche of his childrẽ ſo ſone as he was enterred toke ſeiſure and poſſeſſion.
Howbeit after two yeres it happened that Albanact was ſlayne, wherevpon Locrinus and Camber rayſed their powers reuenged his death, and finally the ſayde Loctinus, made an entraunce vpõ Albania, ſeyzed it into his owne handes (as ex|cheated wholly vnto himſelfe) without yéel|ding any part therof vnto his brother Cam|ber, who made no clayme nor title vnto any portion of the ſame. Herby then ſayth Adams it euidently appeareth that the entier ſeignio|rie ouer Albania conſiſted in Locrinus, accor|ding to which example lykeland among bre|thren euer ſince hath continued, in preferring the eldeſt brother to the onely benefite of the collaterall aſſencion from the youngeſt, aſ|ſwell in Scotlande as in England vnto this daye.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Ebranke the lineall heire from the bodie of this Locrine, that is to ſay the ſonne of Mem|pris; ſonne of Madan, ſonne of the ſame Lo|crine, buylded in Albania the caſtle of May|dens nowe called Edenbrough: and the Ca|ſtle of Alcluith or Alclude, now called Dun|briton; as the Scottiſh Hector Boethius con|feſſeth: wherby it moſt euidently appeareth that our Ebranke was then thereof ſeaſed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Ebranke reigned in the [...] ouer thẽ a long time, after whoſe death Alba|nia as annexed to the empire of the Britaine, deſcended to the onely king of Britons, vntill the diſcent to the two ſiſters ſonnes, M [...]gan and Conedage, lineall heires from the ſayde Ebranke, who brotherly vpõ the firſt exam|ple deuided ye realme. Morgã had Lhoegr [...], and Conedage ha [...] Alban [...]: but ſhortly af|ter Morgan the elder brother ponde [...]g in hys hed, the loue to his brother with the loue to a kingdome, excluded nature & gaue place to ambition, and therupõ denouncing warre, death miſerably ended hys life (as the re|warde of his vntruth) wherby Conedage ob|tayned the whole Empire of all Britaine, in which ſtate he remayned during his naturall lyfe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 From him the ſame lineally deſcended to the onelye king of Britons, vntill after the reigne of Gorbodian, who had iſſue two ſons, Ferres, and Porres: This Porres requy|ring lyke diuiſion of the lande, affirming the for [...]er particions to be rather of lawe then fauour, was by the handes of his elder bro|ther, both of his lyfe and hoped kingdome be|reued at once: whereupon their vnnaturall mother vſing hir natural malice, for the deth of hir one ſonne, without regard of the loſſing of both, miſerably ſlew the other.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 Cloten by all writers aſwell Scottiſhe as other, was the next inheritour to the whole Empire, but lacking power (the only meane in thoſe dayes to obtayne right) he was con|tented to deuide the ſame among thrée of his kinſmen, ſo that Scater had Albania. But af|ter the death this Cloten his ſonne Dunnal|lo Mulmutius made war [...]e vpon theſe thrée Kinges, and at laſt ouercame them, and ſo re|couered the whole dominion, in token of which victorie, he cauſed himſelfe to be crow|ned with a crowne of gold, the very firſt that was worne among the kinges of this nation. This Dunuallo erected temples, wherein the people ſhoulde aſſemble for Prayer, to which temples he gaue benefite of Sanctuarie: he made the [...] for wager of battaile, in caſes of murder and [...]lonte, whereby a théefe that lyued and made his art of [...]ighting, ſhoulde for his purgation fight wyth the true man, which he had robbed: but he beléeued that the Goddes (for then they ſuppoſed many) would by myracle aſſigne victorie to the innocent partie. The priuileges of which firſt ſawe & benefite of the latter, aſwell in Scotlande as in Englande, be midyed to this day few cau|ſes by late poſitiue lawes among vs excep|ted, wherein the benefite of wager of bat|ta [...]le is expelled [...] by which obedience to hys EEBO page image 50 lawes, it doth manifeſtly appeare, that thys Dunuallo was then ſeaſed of Albania nowe called Scotland: This Dunuallo reigned in thys eſtate ouer them many yeares. Beline & Brenne the ſonnes of this Dunuallo, dyd af|ter theyr fathers death, fauourably deuide the land betwéene them: ſo that Beline had Lo|gres, and Brenne had Albania: but for that this Brenne (a ſubiect) without the conſent of his elder brother and Lord, aduentured to marry with the daughter of the king of Den|marke: Beline ſeaſed Albania into his owne handes, and thereuppon cauſed the notable wayes priuileged by Dunuallons Lawes to be newly wrought by mens handes, which for the length was from the furder part of Cornewall, vnto the the ſea by North Cath|nes in Scotland: & for religion in thoſe daies, he cõſtituted miniſters called Archeflamines in their functions moſt like the aucthoritie of Biſhoppes at this daye, the one of which re|mained at Ebranke now called Yorke, and whoſe power extẽded to ye vttermoſt bondes of Albany, wherby lykewyſe appeareth that it was then within his dominion. After his death the whole Iſle was enioyed by the on|lye kings of Britaine, vntill the tyme of Vi|genius and Perydurus lineall heires from the ſayde Belyne who fauourably made par|ticion, ſo that Vigenius had all the land from Humber ſouth, and Perydurus from thence North all Albania. This Vigenius died, and Perydurus ſuruiued, and thereby obtayned the whole, from whome the ſame quietly diſ|cended, and was by his poſteritie according|ly enioyed, vnto the reigne of king Coell, of that name the firſt. In hys tyme an obſcure nation by moſt writers ſuppoſed Scithians, paſſed by ſeas from Irelande, and arriued in that part of Britaine called Albania: againſt, whome this Coell aſſembled his power, and being entred Albania to expell thẽ, one Fer|gus in the night diſguiſed, entered the tent of this Coell, and in his bed traiterouſly ſlew him. This Fergus was therefore in reward of ſuch vertue made there King, whereupon they ſat downe in that part, with their wiues and children, and called it Scotlande, and themſelues Scottes: from the beginning of the worlde,After the Scottiſhe accompt. foure thouſande and ſixe hundred and ſeuentéene yeares, which by iuſt compu|tacion and confeſſion of all their owne wry|ters, is ſixe hundred yeares lacking tenne, after that Brutus had reigned ouer ye whole Iſland, the ſame land being enioyed by him and his poſteritie before their comming, du|ring two and fiftie diſcentes of the kinges of Britaine. Certes this intruſion into a land ſo many hundred yeares before inhabited, and by ſo many diſcẽts of kings quietly enioyed, is the beſt tytle that all their owne writers alledge for them. This Fergus hereupõ im|mediately did deuyde Albania alſo amõg his Capitaines and their people: whereby it moſt euidently appeareth that there were no people of that nation inhabiting there before, in proofe wherof, the ſame particion ſhall fol|lowe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The landes of Cathnes lying againſt Ork|nay, [...] betwéene Dummeſbey and the Water of Thane, was giuen vnto one Cornath, a ca|pitaine and his people. The landes betwéene the Water of Thane and Nes, nowe called Roſſe, lying in bredth from Cromart to the mouth of the water of Lochte, were giuen to Lutorke, another Capitaine and his people. The landes betwéene Spay and Nes, from the Almaine ſeas to the Ireland Seas, now called Murray land, were giuẽ to one War|roche and his people.

The lande of Thalia now called Boyn Aynze, Bogewall, Gariot, Formartine, and Bowguhan, were giuen to one Thalis and his people. The landes of Marr Badezenoche, & Lochquhaber, were giuen to Marrache and his people. The lands of Lorne and Kintier, with the hilles & moun|taynes thereof, lying from Mar to the Ire|lande ſeas, were giuen to Capitaine No|naunce and his people. The landes of Athole were giuen to Atholus, another capitaine & his people.
The landes of Strabraun, and Brawdawane lying Weſt from Dunkell, were giuen to Creones and Epidithes two Capitaynes. The landes of Argile, were gi|uen to Argathelus a Capitaine. The landes of Linnor & Clidiſdale, were allotted to Lol|gona a captaine. The landes of Silu [...]ia now called Kile, Carrike and Cunyngham, were giuen to Silurche another Capitaine. The landes of Brigance nowe called Gallowaie, were giuen to the compaignie called Bri|gandes, which as their beſt menne, were ap|pointed to dwell next the Britons, who after|warde expulſed the Britons from Aunan|dale in Albany, whereby it is confeſſed to be before inhabited by Britons. The reſidue of the lande now called Scotland, that is to ſay: Meirnis, Angas, Steremõde, Gowry, Stra|hern, Pirth, Fiffe, Striucling, Callendes, Calderwoode, Lougthian, Mers, Teuedale, with other the rement Dales, and the She|rifdome, of Berwicke were then enioyed by a nacion mingeled in marriage wyth Bri|tons, and in their obedience whoſe capitaine called Berynger, buylded the caſtle & towne of Berwicke vpon Twede, and theſe people were called Pictes, vppon whome by the death of this Coell, theſe Scottes had opor|tunitie EEBO page image 41 to vſe warre, wherof they ceaſed not, vntill ſuch time as it pleaſed God to appoint an other Coli king of Britõs, agaynſt whoſe name, albeit they hoped for a like victory to ye firſt, yet he preuayled and ceaſed not his [...]ar, vntill theſe Scot [...]es were vtterly expulſed out of all the boundes of Britayne, in which they neuer dared to reenter, vntill the trou|bleſome raigne of Scicill kyng of Britones, which was the xij. king after this Coll. Du|ryng all which tyme the countrey was reen|habited by the Britons. But then the Scots turning the ciuill diſcord of this realme, be|twene this Sycill and his brother Blede to their beſt auauntage, arriued agayne in Al|bania, & there made one Reuther theyr king.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Vpon this their new arriuall, new warre was made vpon them by this Sicill kyng of Britons, in which warre Reuther their new kyng dyed, and There as ſuccéeded agaynſt whom the warre of Britones cea [...]ed not, vn|till he fréely ſubmitted himſelfe vnto the ſaid Sicill king of Britones at Ebranke, that is Yorke, where ſhortly after the tenth yeare of his raigne he dyed. Fynnane brother of Io|ſine ſucceded by their election to the kingdom of Scottes, who ſhortly after compelled by the warres of the ſame Sicill, declared hym|ſelfe ſubiect, and for the better aſſuraunce of his fayth and obeſſaunce to the kyng of Bri|tons, deliuered his ſonne Durſtus into the handes of this Sicill: who fanteſ [...]yng ye child and hopyng by his owne ſucceſſion to alter their ſubtiltle (I will not ſay duplicitie) ma|ried hym in the ende to Agaſia hys owne daughter.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Durſtus was their next kyng, but for that he had maried a Britton woman, (thoughe ſhe was a kynges daughter) the ſcots hated hym for the ſame cauſe, for which they ought rather to haue liked hym [...]he bet|ter, and therfore not onely traiterouſly ſlewe hym: but further to declare the ende of theyr malice, diſhenheri [...] as much as in them was, the [...]hes of the ſame Durſtus and A|gaſia. Hherupon new warre ſprong betwene them and vs, which [...] not vntill they were contented to receyue Edeir to theyr kyng, the [...] in bloud [...] then liuyng, diſcen|ded from Durſtus and Agaſia, and thereby the bloud of Britons of the part [...] of the mo|ther, was reſtored to the crowne of Albania, ſo that nature whoſe law is immutable, cau|ſed this hand of loue to hold. For ſhortly af|ter this Edeir attended vpon Caſtibelane king of Britons, for the repulſe of Iulius Cae|ſar, as their owne author Boctius confeſſeth. Who cõmaũded the ſame as his ſubiect, but Iulius Caeſar after his third arriual by tre [...]ſon of [...], preuayled againſt the [...] and thereupon [...] this Eder into ſcotland, and as [...] mentalies, subdued all the Iſle of [...] which, thoughe the liuyng Scottes [...] their head writers confeſſe that he cauſe be|yond Callender woode, and call downe Ca|melon, the principall city of Pic [...]tes, and in token of this victory not [...]ere from [...], builded a round Temple [...], which re|mayned in ſome perfection vnto the raign of our king Edwarde called the firſt after the Conqueſt, by whome it was [...], but the monumẽt therof remayneth to thys [...].

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Marius the ſon of Ar [...]ragus, being king of all Britaine, in his tyme one Rodericke a Scythian, with a great [...]rable of needy ſouldi|ours, came to the water of Frithe in Scot|land, which is an arme of the ſea, deuidyng Pentland from Fiffe, againſt whome thys Marius aſſembled a power, by whiche he ſlew this Rodericke, and diſcomfited his peo|ple in Weſtmerland: but to thoſe that remai|ned in lyfe, he gaue the countrey of Cathenes in Scotlande, which prooueth it to be within hys owne dominion.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Coill the ſonne of this Marius, had [...] Lucius, counted the firſt chriſtiã king of this nacion he conue [...]ed the thrée [...] of this land into Biſhoprikes, and ordeyned biſhops vnto eche of them: the firſt remained at London, and his power extended from the fartheſt part of Cornewall, to Humber wa|ter, the ſecond remayned at Yorke, and hys power ſtretched from Humber to ye fartheſt part of all Scotland. The third remayned at Caerles vpõ the riuer of Wiſke in Glamor|gan in Wales, and his power extended frõ Seuerne thorough all Wales. Some write that he made but two, & turned their names to Archbiſhops, the one to remayne at Can|terbury, the other at Yorke: yet they confeſſe that [...] of Yorke had iuriſdiction through all Scotland, eyther of which is ſufficient to proue ſcotlãd to be then vnder his dominion.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Seuerus by birth & Romaine, but in bloud a Briton, and the lineall heire of the body of Androgius, ſon of Lu [...], and Nephwe of Caſ|ſibelaine, was ſhortly after Emperour and king of Britons, in whoſe tyme the people to whom his aunceſter Marius gaue the land of Cathenes in Scotland, conſpired wyth the Scottes and receyued them from the Iſles into Scotland. But hereupon this Seuerus came into Scotland, and méetyng with their fayth and falſe hartes together, droue them all out of the mayne lande into Iſles, the vt|termoſt bondes of all great Britayne. But notwithſtanding this glorious victory, the EEBO page image 51 Britons conſidering their ſeruitude to the Romaines, impoſed by treaſon of Androge|us, aunceſter to this Seuerus began to hate hym, whome yet they had no tyme to loue, & who in their defence and ſuretie, had ſlayne of the Scottes and their confederates in one battaile xxx. thouſandes: but ſuch was the cõ|ſideration of the common ſort in thoſe dayes, whoſe malice no tyme could deminiſhe, nor iuſt deſert appeaſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Antoninus Baſſianus born of a Britõ womã, and Geta borne by a Romayn woman, were the ſonnes of this Seuerus, who after the death of their father, by the contrary voyces of their people, contended for the crown. Few Britones helde with Baſſianus, fewer Ro|maynes with Geta: but the greater number with neither of both. In the ende Geta was ſlayne, and Baſſianus remayned Emperor, againſt whom Carauſius rebelled, who gaue vnto the Scottes, Pichtes, and Scithians, the countrey of Cathenes in Scotland, which they after inhabited, wherby appeareth hys ſeiſon thereof.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Coill diſcended of the bloude of auncient kinges of this land, was ſhortly after kyng of the Britons, whoſe onely daughter & heire called Helene, was maried vnto Conſtanti|us a Romaine, who daunted the rebellion of all partes of great Britayne, and after the death of this Coil, was in ye right of his wife kyng thereof, and raigned in his ſtate ouer them 13. or 14. yeares.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Conſtantine the ſonne of thys Conſtance, and Helen, was next King of Britons by the ryght of hys mother, who paſſing to Rome, to receyue the Empyre thereof, deputed one Octauius king of Wales & Duke of the Gwiſ|ſes, (which ſome expounde to be afterwarde called weſt Saxons) to haue the gouernemẽt of thys dominion. But abuſing the kinges innocent goodneſſe, thys Octauius defrau|ded thys truſte, and tooke vppon himſelfe the Crowne, for which traytorys albeit he was once vanquiſhed by Leonine Traheron, vncle to Conſtantine: yet after the death of thys Traheron, he preuayled agayne and reigned ouer all Briteygne. Conſtantine beyng nowe Emperour, ſent to Maximius his kinſeman hether to deſtroy the ſame Oc|tauius, whom in ſingular battail diſcomfited Octauius, whereupon thys Maximius, aſwel by the conſent of great Conſtãtine, as by the election of all the Brytons, for that he was a Bryton in bloude, was made King of Bryteigne. This Maximius made war vpon the Scottes and Scythians wythin al Bry|teygne, and cea [...]ed not vntill he had ſlayne Eugenius theyr King, & expulſed and dryuen them out of the whole bounds of Briteygne. Finally he inhabited al Scotland with Bri|tons, no man, woman nor child of the Scot|tiſh natiõ, ſuffred to remain within [...]t, which as theyr Hector Boetius ſaith, was for theyr rebellion, & rebelliõ properly could it not be; except they had béene ſubiectes. He ſuffered the Pichtes alſo to remaine his ſubiects, who made ſolemne othes to hym after, neuer to erect any peculiar King of theyr owne natiõ, but to remaine vnder the olde Empyre, of the onely kyng of Brytons.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 About xlv. yeres after this (beyng long time after the death of this Maximius) wyth the helpe of Gonnan or Gonan and Melga, the Scottes newly arriued in Albania, and there created one Fergus the ſecond of that name to be their kyng. But becauſe they were be|fore baniſhed the continent land, they crow|ned him kyng of their auenture in Argile, in the fatall chaire of Marble, the yeare of our Lord, CCCC.xxij. as they write.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Maximian ſonne of Leonine Traheron, brother to kyng Coil, and vncle to Helene, was by line all ſucceſſion next kyng of Bri|tons. But to appeaſe ye malice of Dionothus king of Wales, who alſo claimed ye kingdõ, he maried Othilia eldeſt daughter of Diono|thus, and afterward aſſembled a great pow|er of Britons, and entered Albania, inuading Galloway, Mers, Annandale, Pentlande, Carrike, Kyll, and Cuningham, and in bat|taile ſlew both this Fergus then kyng of Scottes, and Durſius the king of Pichtes, & exiled all their people, out of the continent land: wherupon the few number of Scottes then remainyng on her, went to Argila, and made Eugenius their kyng.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 When this Maximian had thus obteyned quietnes in Britain, he departed wt hys coſin Conã Meridocke into Armerica, where they ſubdued the kyng [...] and depopulated the countrey, which he gaue to Conan his coſin, to be afterward inh [...]bited by Britons by the name of Britayne the leſſe: and hereof this realme tooke name of Britayne the greate, which name by conſent of forreine writers, in kepeth vnto this day.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 After the death of Maximian, diſſenti|on beyng betwene the nobles of great Bri|tayne, the Scottes ſwarmed together again, and came to the wall of Adrian, where thys realme being deuided in many factions, they ouercame one. And hereupon their Hector Boetius, (as an henne that for laying of one egge, will make a great cakelyng) ſolemnly triumphing of a conqueſt before the victory, alleageth that herebye the Britons were made tributaries to the Scottes, and yet he EEBO page image 42 confeſſeth that they wonne no more land, by that ſuppoſed conqueſt, but the ſame porcion betwene them and Humber, which in the old partitions before, was annexed to Albania. It is hard to be beleued, that ſuch a broken nacion as the Scottes at that tyme were re|turning from baniſhment within foure yeres before, and ſince in battaile loſing both theyr kinges, and the great number of theyr beſt men, to be thus able to make a conqueſt of great Britayne, & very vnlikely if they had cõquered it, they woulde haue left the whote ſunne of the Eaſt partes, to dwell in the cold ſnow of Scotlãd. Incredible it is, that if they had cõquered it, they would not haue deputed officers in it, as in caſes of conqueſt behoo|ueth. And it is beyonde all beliefe, that great Britayne or any other countrey, ſhoulde be woon without the comming of any enimy in|to it, as they did not, but taried at the ſame wall of Adrian. But what néede I ſpeake of theſe defences, when the ſame Boetius ſcant|ly truſteth his owne beliefe in this tale. For he ſayeth that Galfride and ſundry other au|tentike writers, diuerſlye vary frõ this part of his ſtory, wherein his owne thought accu|ſeth his conſcience of vntruth: Herein alſo, he further forgetting how it behooueth a lyer to be myndefull of his aſſertion in the fourth chapiter next followyng, wholly bewrayeth hymſelfe, ſaying that the confederate kinges of Scottes and Pictes, vpon ciuill warres betwene the Britons which then was folow|yng, hoped ſhortly to enioy all the lande of great Britayne, from beyond Humber vnto the freſh ſea, which hope had bene vayne, and not leſſe then voyde, if it had bene their owne by any conqueſt before.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Conſtantine of little Britayne, deſcended from Conan king thereof, coſine of Brutes bloud to thys Maximian, & his nereſt heyre was next king of Britayne, he immediately purſued the Scots with warres, & ſhortly in battaile ſlue their kyng Dongard, in the firſt yeare of his raygne, whereby he recouered Scotlande out of their handes, and tooke all the holdes thereof into hys owne cuſtody.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Vortiger ſhortly after obteined the crowne of Britayne, againſt whome the Scottes newly rebelled: for ye repreſſing wherof (miſ|truſting the Britons, to hate hym for ſundry cauſes, as one that to auoyd the ſmoke, doth oft fall into ye fire) receyued Hengeſt a Saxõ, and a greate number of his coũtrimen, with whom & a few Britons, he entered ſcotland and ouercame them, whereupon they tooke the Iſles, which are theyr common refuge. He gaue alſo much of Scotlande, as Gallo|way, Pentland, Mers and Annandale, with ſundry other landes to thys Hengeſt and his people to inhabite, which they did according|lye. But when thys Hengeſt in proceſſe of tyme, thirſted after the whole Kingdome, he was baniſhed, and yet afterwarde beyng re|ſtored, he conſpired with the ſcottes againſt Aurilambroſe the ſonne of Conſtantine, the iuſt inheritour of this whole dominion. But his vntruth and theirs both were recompen|ſed togither, for hée was taken priſoner by Eldulph de Samor a noble man of Bry|teyne, and his heade for his traitory,Some thinke the Seymors to come from this man by li|neal diſcẽt. ſtriken of at the cõmandement of Aurilambros. In the fielde the ſcottes were vanquiſhed: but Octa the ſonne of Hengeſt was receiued to mercye, to whome and his people this Auril|ambroſe gaue the countrye of Galloway in ſcotlande, for which they became his Sub|iectes: And hereby appeareth that Scotland was then againe in his handes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Vter called alſo Pendragon, brother to Aurilambros was next king of ye Britons, a|gaynſt whome, theſe ſworne Saxons newe foreſworne ſubiectes (confederate wyth the Scottes) newely rebelled: but by his power aſſembled againſt thẽ in Galloway in Scot|lande, they were diſcomfited, and Albania a|gaine recouered into his handes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Arthur the ſonne of this Vter begotten be|fore the marriage, but lawfully borne, in ma|trimony ſuccéeded next to ye crowne of great Britayne, whoſe noble actes, though manye vulgare fables haue rather ſteigned, then commended: yet al the ſcottiſh writers con|feſſe, that he ſubdued great Britayne, & made it tributary to him, & ouercame the Saxons then ſcattered as farre as Cathenes in ſcot|land: and in all theſe warres againſt them, he had the ſeruice and obeyſance of ſcottes and Pictes. But at the laſt ſettyng their féete in the guilfull paths of their predeceſſours, they rebelled, & beſieged the city of Yorke, Howel king of the leſſe Britayne, coſin to king Ar|thur, being therin. But he with an hoſte came thither and dyſcomfited the Scottes, cha|ſed them into a marſhe, and beſieged them there ſo lõg, that they were almoſt famiſhed: vntyll the biſhoppes, Abbotes, and men of religion (for as much as they were chriſtened people) beſought hym to take thẽ to his mer|cy and grace, and to graunt them a portion of the ſame countrey to dwell in vnder euer|laſting ſubiection. Vppon this he tooke them to hys grace, homage and fealtle: and when they were ſworne hys ſubiectes and liegemẽ: he ordeyned his kinſmã Anguiſan to be their king & gouernor, Vrian king of Iſlãd, & Mu|refrẽce king of Orkney. He made an Archbi|ſhoppe of Yorke alſo, whoſe authoritie exten|ded EEBO page image 52 through all Scotland.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Finally, the ſaid kyng Arthur holding his royall feaſt at Cairleon, had there all ye kings that were ſubiectes vnto hym, among the which, Anguſian the ſayd king of Scots did his due ſeruice for the realme of Scotlande, and bare kyng Arthurs ſworde afore hym.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Malgo ſhortly after ſuccéeded in the whole kingdõ of great Britaine, who vpon new re|ſiſtaunce, newly ſubdued Ireland, Iſlande, the Orchads, Norway & Denmarke, & made Ethelfrede a Saxon king of Bernicia, that is, Northumberland, Louthian, and much o|ther land of Scotland, which Ethelfrede by the ſword obteyned at the handes of the wil|full inhabitantes, and continued true ſubiect to this Malgo.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Cadwan ſuccéeded in the kingdom of great Britayne, who in defence of his ſubiectes the ſcottes, made warre vppon this Ethelfrede, but at the laſt they agréed, and Cadwan vpõ their rebellion gaue all Scotland vnto this Ethelfrede, which he therupon ſubdued and enioyed: but afterward in the raigne of Cad|wallo that next ſuccéeded in great Britaine, he rebelled, whereupon the ſame Cadwallo came into Scotland, and vpon his treaſon reſeized the country into his owne handes, and hauyng with hym all the Viceroyes of Saxõs which then inhabited here as hys ſub|iectes, in ſinguler battaile ſlew the ſame E|thelfrede.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Oſwald was ſhortly after by Cadwallõs gift made kyng of Bernicia, and he as ſub|iect to Cadwallo, and by his commaundemẽt diſcomfited the Scottes and Pictes, and ſub|dued all Scotland. Oſwy the brother of thys Oſwald, was by the lyke gift of Cadwallo, made next kyng of Bernicia, and he by lyke commaundement newely ſubdued the ſcots and Pictes, and held them in that obeyſaunce to this Cadwallo, during xxviij. yeres. Thus Cadwallo reigned in the whole monarchy of great Britayne, hauing all the vij. kynges therof, as well Saxõs as others his ſubiects: for albeit the number of Saxons from tyme to tyme greatly increaſed, yet were they al|wayes either at the firſt expelled, or els made tributary to the onely kinges of Britons for the tyme being, as all their owne writers confeſſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Cadwallader was next kyng of the whole great Britayne, he raigned xij. yeres ouer al the kinges thereof, in great peace and tran|quillitie: & then vpon the lamentable death of hys ſubiectes, which dyed of ſundry diſeaſes innumerably, he departed into litle Britaine. His ſonne and coſin Iuor and Iue, being ex|pulſed out of england alſo by the Saxones, went into Wales, where among the Britõs they and their poſteritie remayned Princes. Vpon this great alteracion, & warres being through the whole dominion betwene Bri|tons and Saxons; the Scottes thought tyme to ſlip the coller of obedience, and thereupon entred in league with Charles then kyng of Fraunce eſtabliſhing it, in this wyſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 1. The iniury of Engliſhmen done to any of theſe people, ſhall be perpetually holden common to both.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2. When Frenchmen be inuaded by En|gliſhmen, the Scottes ſhall ſend their army in defence of Fraunce, ſo that they be ſup|ported with mony and victuals of Fraunce.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 3. When Scottes be inuaded by Engliſh|men, the Frenchmen ſhall come vpon theyr owne expences, to their ſupport.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 4. None of theſe people ſhall take peace or truce with Engliſhmen, without the aduiſe of other. &c.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Many diſputable opinions may be had of warre, without the prayſing of it,Nic [...] Ada [...] as onely admittible by inforced neceſſitie, and to bée vſed for peace ſake onely, where here ye Scots ſought warre for the loue of warre only. For their league giueth no benefite to thẽſelues, either in frée trafique of their owne commo|dities, or benefite of the French, or other pri|uiledge to the people of both: what diſcõmo|ditie riſeth by looſing the entercourſe and ex|chãge of our cõmodities (being in neceſſaries more aboundant then Fraunce,) ye ſcots féele and we perfectly know. What ruine of theyr townes, deſtruction of countries, ſlaughter of both peoples, haue by reaſon of this bloudy league chaunced, the hiſtories be lamenta|ble to reade, & horrible among chriſtian men to be remembred: but God gaue the increaſe accordyng to their ſéede, for as they did here|by ſowe diſſention, ſo did they ſhortly after reape a bloudy ſlaughter. For Alpine theyr kyng poſſeſſing a light mynde that would be loſt with a little wynde, hoped by this league ſhortly to ſubdue all great Britayne, and to that ende not onely rebelled in his own king|dome, but alſo vſurped vpon the kingdome of Pictes, wherupon Edwine king of england, made one Brudeus king of Pictes, whom he ſent into Scotlãd with a great power, where in battail he tooke this Alpine king of Scots priſoner, and diſcomfited his people: and this Alpine beyng their king found ſubiect and re|bell, his hed was ſtrikẽ of at a place in Scot|land, which thereof is to this day called Pa|ſalpine, that is to ſay, the hed of Alpine. And this was the firſt effecte of theyr Frenche league.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Oſbright king of england, with Ella hys EEBO page image 43 ſubiect, and a great number of Britons and Saxons ſhortly after, for that the Scots ha [...] of thẽſelues elected a new king, entred Scot|land, and ceaſſed not his warre againſt them, vntil their king and people fled into the Iles, with whom at the laſt vpon their ſubmiſſion, peace was made in this wyſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1

The water of Frith ſhalbe March betwene Scots and engliſhmẽ in the eaſt partes, and ſhalbe named the ſcottiſh ſea.

Compare 1587 edition: 1

The water of Cluide to Dunbriton, ſhal be March in the weſt partes betwene the Scots and Britones. This caſtle was before called Alcluide and now Dunbriton, that is to ſay, the caſtle of Britons.
So the Britons had all the landes frõ Sterlyng to the Ireland ſeas, and from the water of Frithe and Cluide, to Cumber, with all ye ſtrengthes and commo|dities therof, and the engliſhmen had ye lands betwéene Sterlyng and Northumberlande. Thus was Cluide March, betwene ſcots and Britones on the one ſide, and the water of Frithe named the Scottiſh ſea, Marche be|twene them and engliſhmẽ on the other ſide, and Sterlyng common March to thrée peo|ple, Britons, Engliſhmen, and Scottes, and king Oſbright had the Caſtle of Sterlyng, where firſt he cauſed to be coyned Sterlyng mony. The Engliſh mẽ alſo builded a bridge of ſtone, for paſſage ouer the water of Frith, in the middes wherof they made a croſſe, vn|der which were written theſe verſes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1
I am free March, as paſſengers may ken,
To Scottes, to Britons, and to Engliſhmen.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Not many yeres after this, Hinguar & Hub|ba, two Danes, with a great number of peo|ple, arriued in Scotland, and ſlew Conſtan|tine, whom Oſbright had before made kyng [...] whereupon Edulfe or Ethelwulfe then kyng of englãd, aſſembled his power againſt Hin|guar and Hubba, & in one battaile ſlue them both, but ſuch of their people as woulde re|mayne and become chriſtians, he ſuffered to tary, the reſt he baniſhed or put to death. &c.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [...]ome.This Ethelwulf graunted the Peter pẽ [...], of which albeit Peter and Paule had lit [...] néede and leſſe right: yet the payment therof continued in this realm euer after vntil now of late yeres, but the Scottes euer ſince vnto this day, haue, and yet do pay it, by reaſon of that graunt, which proueth them to be then vnder his obeyſaunce.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Alurede or Alfrede ſuccéeded in the kyng|dome of England, and reigned nobly ouer the whole monarchie of great Britayne: He made lawes, that perſons excommunicated ſhould be diſabled to ſue or clayme any pro|pertie, which law Gregour whom this Alu|rede had made king of Scottes obeyed, and the ſame law as well in Scotland as in En|gland is holden to this day, which alſo pro|ueth hym to be high lord of Scotland.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thys Alurede conſtreyned Gregour king of Scots alſo, to breake the league with Fraunce, for generally he concluded wyth hym, and ſerued hym in all his warres, as well agaynſt Danes as others, not reſeruing or making any exceptiõ of the former league with Fraunce.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The ſayd Alurede, after the death of Gre|gour, had the lyke ſeruice and obeyſaunce of Donald king of Scottes wyth fiue thouſand horſemen, againſt one Gurmonde a Dane that then infeſted the realme, and this Do|nald dyed in this faith and obeiſaunce wyth Alurede.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Edward the firſt of that name called Chifod ſonne of this Alurede ſuccéeded next kyng of englãd, againſt whom Sithrijc a Dane & the Scottes conſpired: but they were ſubdued, and Conſtantine their kyng brought to obei|ſance. He held the realme of ſcotland alſo of kyng Edwarde, and thys doth Marian their owne country man a Scotte confeſſe: beſide Roger Houeden, & Williã of Malmeſbury.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the yere of our Lord 923. the ſame king Edward was Preſident and gouernor of all the people of England, Cumberland, Scots, Danes and Britones.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 King Athelſtane in like ſort cõquered ſcot|land, and as he lay in his tentes beſide Yorke whyleſt the warres laſted, the king of Scots fayned hymſelfe to be a minſtrel, and har|ped before him onely to eſpy his ordinaunce & his people. But beyng as their writers con|feſſe, corrupted with money, he ſold his fayth & falſe hart together to the Danes, and ay|ded them againſt king Athelſtane at ſondry times. Howbeit he met wtall their vntruthes at Bre [...]gfield in the weſt countrey, as is mentioned in the 9. chapter of the firſt booke of thys deſcription, where hée diſcomfited the Danes, and ſlew Malcolme deputie in that behalfe to the king of Scottes: in which battaile, the Scottes confeſſe themſelues to haue loſt more people then were remembred in any age before. Then Athelſtane folowing hys good lucke, went throughout all ſcotland and wholy ſubdued it, and being in poſſeſſion therof, gaue land there lying in Annãdale by his déede, the copy wherof doth followe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 I kyng Athelſtane, giues vnto Paulan, Od|dam and Roddam, als good and als faire, as e|uer they mine were, and therto witnes Mauld my wyfe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 By which courſe wordes, not onely appea|reth ye plaine ſimplicitie of mens doinges in thoſe dayes: but alſo a ful proofe that he was EEBO page image 53 then ſeized of Scotlande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 At the laſt alſo he receyued homage of Mal|colme king of Scottes, but for that he coulde not be reſtored to his whole kingdome, he en|tered into Religion, and there ſhortely after dyed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Then Athelſtane for his better aſſuraunce of that countrey there after, thought it beſt to haue two ſtringes to the bowe of their obe|dience, and therefore not onelye conſtituted one Malcolme to be their king, but alſo ap|pointed one Indulph, ſonne of Conſtantine the thirde, to be called prince of Scotlande, to whome he gaue much of Scotlande: and for this, Malcolme did homage to Athelſtane.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Edmund brother of Athelſtane ſuccéeded next king of Englande to whome this In|dulph then kyng of Scottes not only dyd ho|mage, but alſo ſerued him wyth ten thouſand Scottes, for the expulſion of the Danes out of the realme of Englande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Edred or Eldred, brother to thys Edmund ſuccéeded next king of Englande,Some re|ferre this to an Ed|ward. he not one|lye receyued the homage of Iriſe then kyng of Scottes, but alſo the homage of all the Barons of Scotlande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Edgar the ſonne of Edmund, brother of A|thelſtane being nowe of full age, was next kyng of England the reigned onely ouer the whole Monarchie of great Britaine, and re|ceyued homage of Keneth king of Scots for the kingdome of Scotlande, and made Mal|colme prince thereof.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thys Edgar gaue vnto the ſame Keneth the countrey of Louthian in Scotland, which was before ſeized into the hands of Oſbright king of England for their rebellion, as is be|fore declared. He enioined this Keneth their king alſo once in euery yere at certaine prin|cipall feaſtes (whereat the king dyd vſe to weare his crowne) to repaire vnto him into Englande for the making of lawes, which in thoſe daies was done by ye noble mẽ or peres according to the order of France at this day, To thich end he allowed alſo ſundry lodgings in England, to him & his ſucceſſours, wher|at to lye & refreſhe themſelues in their tour|neyes, and finally a péece of ground lying be|ſide the newe palace of Weſtminſter, vppon which this Keneth buylded a houſe, that by him and his poſteritie was enioyed vntill the reigne of King Henry the ſeconde, in whoſe tyme vpon the rebelliõ of William thẽ king of Scottes, it was reſumed into the king of Englands handes. The houſe is decayed, but the grounde where it ſtoode is called Scot|lande to this day.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Moreouer Edgar made this lawe, that no man ſhoulde ſuccéede to his patrimonie or in|heritaunce holden by knightes ſeruice, vntill he accompliſhed the age of one and twentie yeares, bycauſe by intendement vnder that age, he ſhoulde not be able in perſon to ſerue hys king and countrey according to the te|nour of his déede and the cõdition of his pur|chaſe.

This lawe was receyued by the ſame Keneth in Scotlande, and aſwell there as in Englande is obſerued to this day, which proo|ueth alſo that Scotlande was then vnder hys obeyſaunce.

Compare 1587 edition: 1

In the yeare of our Lorde 1974. Kinalde king of Scottes, & Malcolin king of Cum|breland, Macon king of Man, and the Iſles, Duuenall bing of ſouthwales, Siferth and Howell kings of the reſt of wales, Iacob or Iames of Galloway, and Iukill of weſtmer|lande, did homage to king Edgar at Cheſter.
And on the morow going by water to ye mo|naſtery of ſ. Iohns to ſeruice and returning home againe, ye ſaid Edgar ſitting in a barge & ſtiering the ſame vpon the water of Dée, made the ſayd kings to rowe ye barge, ſaying that his ſucceſſors might well be ioyefull to haue the prerogatiue of ſo great honour, and the ſuperiority of ſo many mightie princes to be ſubiect vnto their monarchie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Edward the ſonne of this Edgar was next king of Englande, in whoſe tyme this Ke|neth kyng of Scots cauſed Malcolme prince of Scotlande to be poyſoned, wherupon king Edwarde made warre agaynſt him, which ceaſſed not vntill this Keneth ſubmitted him|ſelfe, and offered to receyue him for prince of Scotlande whome king Edward woulde ap|point: herevpon Edwarde proclaymed one Malcolme to be prince of Scotlande, who immediately came into Englande and there dyd homage vnto the ſame King Edwarde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Etheldred brother of thys Edwarde ſuc|céeded next ouer Englande, againſt whome Swayn kyng of Denmarke conſpired with this laſt Malcolme then king of Scots: But ſhortly after this Malcolme ſorowfully ſub|mitted himſelf into the defence of Etheldred, who conſidering how that which coulde [...] be amended muſt only be repented, benigne|lye receyued him, by helpe of whoſe ſeruice at laſt Etheldred recouered hys realme a|gaine out of the handes of Swayn, and reig|ned ouer the whole Monarchy eyght & thirtie yeares.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Edmund ſurnamed Ironſide ſonne of this Etheldred was next king England, in whoſe tyme Canutus a Dane inuaded the realme with much crueltie, but at laſt he marryed wt Emme ſometime wyfe vnto Etheldred and mother of this Edmund: which Emme as arbitratrix betwéene hir naturall loue to the EEBO page image 44 one and [...] procured ſuch [...] them in the ende, that [...] the realme with Canutus, & kéeping to him|ſelfe all [...] all the r [...] [...] Humber with the ſeig|norie of Scotlande to this Canutus wher|vpon Malcolme then king of Scottes after a little cuſtomable reſiſt [...]nce & dyd homage to the ſame Canutus for kingdome of Scotlãd, and thus the ſayde. Canutus helde the ſame ouer of this Edmond king of Englande by the lyke ſeruices.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Canutus in memorie of his victorie and glorie of his ſeignorie ouer the Scottes, commaunded this. Malcolme their king, to buylde a Church in B [...]h [...]ha [...] in Scotland (where a fielde betwéene him and them wa [...] fought) to be dedicate to Ol [...]u [...] patrone of Norway and Denmark, which Church was by the ſame Malcolme accordingly perfour|med.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Edwarde called the confeſſour ſonne of Etheldred and brother to Edmond Ironſide was afterward king of england. He toke frõ Malcolme king of Scottes his lyfe and hys kingdome, and made Malcolme ſonne to the king of Cumbrelande and Northumbreland [...] king of Scottes, who dyd him h [...]age; and fealtie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thys Edwarde peruſed the olde lawes of the realme, and ſomewhat added to ſome of them, as to the lawe of Edgar for the ward|ſhippe of the landes vntyll the heirs ſhoulde accompliſhe the age of one & twentie yeares, he added that the marryage of ſuch heire, ſhoulde alſo belong to the Lorde of whom the ſame lande was holden.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Alſo that euery woman marrying a frée man, ſhoulde notwithſtanding ſhe had no children by that huſbande, enioye the thirde part of his inheritaunce during hir lyfe, with many other lawes which the ſame Malcolme king of Scottes obeyed. And which aſwel by them in Scotlande as by vs in Englande be obſerued to this day, and directly prooueth the whole to be then vnder his obeyſaunce.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 By reaſon of this law Malcolme the ſonne of Duncane next inheritour to the crowne of Scotlande being within age, was by the nobles of Scotlande deliuered as warde to the cuſtome of this king Edwarde, during whoſe minoritie one Makebeth a Scot tray|terouſly vſurped the crowne of Scotland, a|gainſt whom this king Edward made warre in which the ſaid Makebeth was ouercome and ſlayne, whervpon ye ſaid Malcolme was crowned king of Scottes at Stone, in the viij. yere of the reigne of this king Edward.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thys Malcolme by [...] of the ſayde n [...] [...] of wardſhip was marryed vnto Margar [...] the daughter of Edward, ſonne of Edmond. Ironſide and Agatha, by the diſpo|ſition of the ſame king Edward, and at his ful age dyd homage to this king Edward for this kingdome of Scotland.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Moreouer Edwarde of Englande, hauing no issue of his body, and mistrusting that Harolde the sonne of Goodwyn descended of the daughter of Harolde Harefoote the Dane woulde usurpe the crowne, if he should leaue it to his cosin Edgar Edling (being the(n) within age) and partly by the peticion of his subiectes, who before had sworne neuer to receiue any kings ouer them of the Danish nation, did by his substa(n)cial wil in writing as all our clergy writers affirme, deuise the crown of great Britaine unto William then duke of Normandie and to his heires, constituting him his heire testamentarie. Also there was proximitie in bloude betweene the(m) for Emme daughter of Richarde duke of Normandye was wife unto Etheldred, on whom he begat Alured and this Edward: and this William was sonne of Robert, sonne of Richarde, brother of the whole bloud to the same Emme: whereby appeareth that this William was heire by tytle and not by conquest, albeit that partly to extinguish the mistrust of other tytles and partely for the glory of hys victory, he chalenged in the ende, the name of a conquerour, & hath bene so written euer sithens his arriuall.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This king William called the conquerour ſuppoſed not his conqueſt perfite, tyll he had lykewyſe ſubdued ye Scots, wherfore to bring the Scottes to iuſt obeyſaunce after hys Co|ronation as heire teſtamentary to Edward the Co [...]feſſour, he entred Scotland, where after a litle reſiſtance made by the Scottes, the ſayde Malcolme then their king did ho|mage to hym at Abir [...]ethy in Scotlande for the kingdome of Scotlande, as to hys ſupe|riour alſo by means of conqueſt.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Willyam ſurnamed Wi [...]us ſonne of thys William called the conquerour, ſuccéeded next to the crowne of England, to whom the ſayde Malcolme king of Scottes dyd like ho|mage for the kingdom of Scotland. But af|terwarde he rebelled and was by this Wil|liam Rufus ſlayne in the fielde, where vpon the Scottiſhmen dyd choſe one Donald or Dunwal to be theyr kyng. But this Williã Rufus depoſed hym and created Dunkane ſonne of Malcolme to be theyr king, who dyd like homage to him: finally this Duncã was ſlayne by the Scottes & Dunwall reſtored, who once agayne by this Wylliam Rufus EEBO page image 54 was depoſed, and Edgar ſonne of Malcolme & brother to the laſt Malcolme, was by him made theyr king, who dyd lyke homage for Scotlande to this William Rufus.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Henry called Beauclerke the ſon of Wil|liam, called the conquerour, after the death of his brother William Rufus, ſuccéeded to the crowne of England, to whome the ſame Edgar kyng of Scottes dyd homage for Scotland. This Henry Beauclerke married Mawde the daughter of Malcolme king of Scottes, and by hir had iſſue Mawde after|warde empreſſe. Alexandre the ſonne of Mal|colme brother to this Mawde, was next king of Scottes, he dyd lyke homage for the king|dome of Scotlande to this Henry the firſt.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Mawde called the empreſſe daughter and heire to this Henry Beauclerke and Mawde hys wyfe, receiued homage of Dauid bro|ther to hir and to this Alexandre next king of Scottes, before all the temporall men of En|glande for the kyngdome of Scotlande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thys Mawde the empreſſe gaue vnto Dauid in the marriage, Mawd the daughter and heire of Voldoſius earle of Huntingdon & Northumberlande. And herein their euaſion appeareth, by which they allege that their kinges homages were made for the earle|dome of Huntingdon: for this Dauid was ye firſt that of their kinges was Earle of Hun|tingdon, which was ſince all the homages of their kinges before recited, and at the time of thys marryage, and long after the ſayde A|lexander his brother was king of Scots: do|ing the homage aforeſayde to Henry Bew|clerke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the yeare of our Lorde 1136. and firſte yeare of the reigne of king Stephen, the ſaid Dauid king of Scottes, being required to doe his homage refuſed it, for as much as he had done homage to Mawde the empreſſe be|fore tyme, notwithſtanding the ſonne of the ſayde Dauid dyd homage to king Stephane.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Henry called Fitz emprice, the ſon of Mawd the emprice daughter of Mawde, daughter of Malcolme king of Scottes, was next king of England. He receyued homage for Scotland of Malcolme, ſonne of Henry, ſonne of the ſayd Dauyd their laſt king, which Malcolme after thys homage, attended vpon the ſame kyng Henry in his warres agaynſt Lewys then king of Fraunce: whereby appeareth that their Frenche league was neuer renued after the laſt diuiſiõ of their countrey by Oſ|bright king of Englande. But after theſe warres finiſhed with the Frenche king, this Malcolme being againe in Scotlande rebel|led: wherevppon, king Henry immediate|lye ſeized Huntingdon, and Northumber|land into hys owne h [...]es by [...] made warres vpon him in Scotland, [...] which the ſame Malcolme dyed without [...] of hys bodie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 William brother of thys Malcolme [...] next kyng of Scottes, he wyth all the nobled of Scotland, (which could not be now for [...] earledome) did homage to the ſonne of thys king Henry the ſecond, wyth a reſeruat [...] of the duetie to king Henry the ſeconde, hys father: alſo the earledome of Huntingd [...] was as ye haue hearde before thys, forfaited by Malcolme his brother, and neuer after r [...]+ſtored to the crowne of Scotlande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thys William king of Scottes, did after+warde attend vpon the ſame king Henry the ſeconde in his warres in Normandie again [...] the Frenche kyng, notwithſtanding theyr Frenche league, and then dyd him homage for Scotlande, and thereupon was licenſed to depart home in Scotlande, where imme|diately he mooued cruell warre in Northum|berlande againſt the ſame king Henry being yet in Normandy. But God tooke the defence of king Henries parte, and deliuered the ſame William kyng of Scottes into the handes of a fewe Engliſhmen, who brought him priſoner to kyng Henry into Norman|die, in the tenth yeare of hys reigne. But at the laſt at the ſuite of Dauid his brother, Ri|charde Biſhop of ſ. Andrewes and other Bi|ſhoppes and Lordes, he was put to this fine for the amendement of his treſpaſſe, to paye tenne thouſande pounde ſterling, and to ſur|render all hys lytle of the earledome of Hun|tingdõ, Cumberland, and Northumberland, into the handes of thys kyng Henry: which he did in all thinges accordingly, ſealing hys charters therof with the great ſeale of Scot|lande and ſignettes of hys nobilitie, where in it was alſo compriſed that hée and his ſuc|ceſſours, ſhould hold the realme of Scotland of the king of Englande and his ſucceſſours for euer. And herevpon he once again dyd ho|mage to the ſame king Henry, which nowe coulde not be for the earledome of Hunting|don, the ryght wherof was alrealdie by hym ſurrẽdred. And for the better aſſurãce of this faith alſo, the ſtrengthes of Berwick, Eden|brough, Roxbrough and Striueling were de|liuered into the handes of our king Henry of Englande which their owne writers con|feſſe: but Hector Boetius ſaieth that this treſ|paſſe was amended by fine of twentie thou|ſande poundes ſterling, & that the earledome of Huntingdon, Cumberland, and Northum|berlande were deliuered as Morgage into the handes of king Henry vntill other tenne thouſande poundes ſterling ſhoulde be to him EEBO page image 45 payd, but though the [...], yet [...] he not ſhe that money [...] payde, not the lande otherwiſe redéemed, or euer [...] to any Scottiſhe kinges handes. A [...] [...] appeareth that the earledome of Hunting [...] was neuer occaſion of the homages of the Scottiſhe kinges to the kinges of Englande eyther before this tyme or after.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This was done 1175. Moreouer I red this note hereof gathered out of Robertus Mon|tanus that liued in theſe, and was as I take it cõfeſſor to king Henry. The king of Scots doth homage to king Henry for ye kingdome of Scotlande and is ſent home againe, hys Biſhops alſo did promiſe to doe the lyke, to the Archebiſhoppe of Yorke, and to acknow|ledge themſelues to be of his prouince & iuriſ|dictiõ. By vertue alſo of this compoſition the ſayde Robert ſayth, that Rex Angliae dabat honores, Epiſcopatus, Abbatias & alias digni|tates in Scotia, vel ſaltem eius conſilio daban|tur, that is, the king of England gaue, Ho|nors, Biſhopricks, Abbateſhips, & other dig|nities in Scotland, or at the leaſtwyſe they were not giuen without his aduiſe and coun|ſell.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 At this tyme Alexander biſhop of Rome (ſuppoſed to haue general iuriſdiction eccle|ſiaſticall thorough Chriſtendome) conferred the whole clergy of Scotland, accordyng to the olde lawes, vnder the iuriſdiction of the Archbiſhop of Yorke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the yeare of our Lord 1185. in the month of Auguſt at Cairleil. Roulande Talnante lord of Galway, did homage and fealty to the ſaid king Henry with all that held of hym.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the 22. yeare of the raigne of king Hen|ry the 2. Gilbert ſonne of Ferguſe prince of Galway, did homage and fealtie to the ſayd king Henry, and left Dunecan his ſonne in hoſtage for conſeruation of peace.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Richard ſurnamed Coeur de Lyon, ſonne of this Henry was next king of england, to whõ the ſame William king of Scottes dyd ho|mage at Caunterbury for the kyngdome of Scotland.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This king Richard was taken priſoner by the Duke of Oſtrich, for whoſe redemptiõ the whole realme was taxed at great ſummes of money, vnto the which this William king of Scots (as a ſubiect) was contributory, and payed two M. markes ſterlyng.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the yere of our Lord 1199. Iohn kyng of england, ſent to William king of Scottes to come & do his homage, which William came to Lincolne in the moneth of December the ſame yeare, and did his homage there vpon an hill in the preſence of Hubert, Archbiſhop of Caunterbury, and of all the people there aſſemble [...], and there was ſworne vpon the croſſe of the ſaid Hubert: Alſo he gr [...]ted by his charter con [...]ed, that he ſhould haue the mariage of Alexander hys [...], as hys liegeman, alwayes to hold of the king of eng|land: promiſing more [...]er that he the ſayde king William & his ſo [...]e Alexander ſhould kepe and hold faith and allegeance to Henry [...] of the ſayd king Iohn, as to their chiefe Lord againſt all maner of men.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Alſo where as William king of Scots had put Iohn Biſhoppe of ſ. Andrewe out of his Biſhopricke, Pope Clemente wrote to Hen|ry kyng of englande, that he ſhoulde [...] and indure the ſame William, and if néede were requyre by hys Royall power com|pell hym to leaue his rancour agaynſt ye ſayd Biſhop and ſuffer him to haue, and occupye his ſayde Biſhopricke againe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the yeare of our Lorde 1216. and fiue and twenty of ye reign of king Henry, ſonne to king Iohn, the ſame king Henry and the Quéene were at Yorke at ye feaſt of Chriſt|maſſe for the ſolemnization of a marryage made in the feaſt of ſ. Stephane the Martir the ſame yeare, betwéene Alexander king of Scottes, & Margarete the kings daughter, and there the ſayde Alexander dyd homage to Henry king of Englande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In Buls of diuers Popes were admoniti|ons geuẽ to the kings of Scottes, that they ſhould obſerue & truly kéepe all ſuch appoint|ments, as had ben made betwéene the kings of england and Scotland. And that the kings of Scotland ſhould holde the realme of Scot|lande of the kings of englande vpon payne of curſe and interditing.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After the deathe of Alexander kyng of Scottes, Alexander his ſonne beyng nyne yeres of age, was by the lawes of Edgar, in+warde to king Henry the 3. and by the nobles of Scotland brought to Yorke, and there de|liuered to him. During whoſe minoritie king Henry gouerned Scotland, and to ſubdue a commocion in this realme, vſed the ayde of v.M. Scottiſhmen, but king Henry dyed du|ring the nonage of this Alexander, whereby he receiued not his homage, which by reaſon and law was reſpited vntil his full age of xxj. yeares.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Edward the firſt after the conqueſt, ſonne of this Henry, was next king of england, im|mediately after whoſe coronation, Alexãder king of Scottes, being then of ful age did ho|mage to hym for Scotlande at Weſtmin|ſter, ſwearyng as all the reaſt did after this maner.

Compare 1587 edition: 1

I.D.N. king of Scottes ſhalbe true and faith|full vnto you Lorde E. by the grace of God EEBO page image 55 king of England, the noble and ſuperior lord of the kingdome of Scotland, and vnto you I make my fidelitie for the ſame kingdome, the which I hold and claime to hold of you. And I ſhall beare you my faith and fidelitie of lyfe and limme, and worldly honour againſt all mẽ faithfully I ſhall knowledge and ſhall doe you ſeruice due vnto you of the kingdom of Scot|land aforeſayde, as God me ſo helpe and theſe holy Euangelies.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Alexander king of Scottes died, lea|uing one only daughter called Margaret for his heire, who before had maried Hanygo, ſonne to Magnus king of Norway, which daughter alſo ſhortly after died, leauyng one onely daughter her heire, of the age of two yeares, whoſe cuſtody and mariage by the lawes of king Edgar, and Edward the con|feſſour, belonged to Edward the firſt: wher|vpon the nobles of Scotland were commaũ|ded by our king Edward to ſend into Nor|way, to conuey this yong Quéene into Eng|land to him, whom he entended to haue mari|ed to his ſõne Edward: and ſo to haue made a perfite vnion betwéene bothe Realmes. Hereuppon their nobles at that tyme con|ſidering the ſame tranquillitie, that many of them haue ſithens refuſed, ſtoode not vpon ſhiftes and delayes of minoritie nor contẽpt, but moſt gladly conſented, and therupon ſent two noble men of Scotlande into Norway, for hir to be brought to this king Edwarde, but ſhe died before their comming thither, & therefore they required nothing but to enioye the lawful liberties that they had quietly poſ|ſeſſed in the laſt king Alexander his tyme.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After the death of this Margaret, the Scots were deſtitute of any heire to the crown from this Alexander their laſt king, at which time this Edwarde diſcended from the bodye of Mawde daughter of Malcolme ſometyme king of Scottes, beyng then in the greateſt broile of his warres with Fraunce, mynded not to take the poſſeſſion of that kingdome in his own right, but was contented to eſtabliſh Balioll to be king therof, the weake title be|twene him, Bruſe, & Haſtings, being by the humble peticion of all the realme of Scot|land committed to the determination of this king Edward, wherin by autentique writing they confeſſed the ſuperioritie of the realme, to remaine in king Edward, ſealed with the ſeales of iiij. Biſhops vij. earles, and xij. ba|rons of Scotland, & which ſhortly after was by the whole aſſent of ye thrée eſtates of Scot|land, in their ſolemne Parliament confeſſed and enacted accordingly, as moſt euidently doth appeare.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Balioll in this wiſe made kyng of Scotlãd did immediately make hys homage and fealty at Newcaſtle vpon ſaint Fre [...] day (as [...] likewiſe all the Lordes of Scot|land,) [...]he one ſetting his hand to the compo| [...]ion in writing to king Edward of Eng|land for the kingdom of Scotland: but ſhort|ly after defrauding the benigne goodneſſe [...] this king Edward; he rebelled, and did [...] much hurt in englande: Hereupon king Ed|ward inuaded Scotland, ſea [...]d into his hãd [...] the greater part of the countrey, and tooke all the ſtrengthes thereof, whereuppon Baliol king of Scottes came vnto king Edwarde at Mauntroſſe in Scotland with a white [...] in his hand, and there reſigned the crown [...] of Scotland, with all his right, title, and inte|reſt to the ſame, into the handes of this kyng Edward, and therfore made his Charter in writyng, dated and ſealed the fourth yeare of his raigne. All the nobles and gentlemen of Scotlande alſo repayred to Barwike, and did homage & fealtie to king Edwarde, there becõmyng his ſubiectes. For the better aſſu|rance of whoſe othes alſo, king Edward kept all the ſtrengths & holdes of Scotland in his owne handes, and hereupon all their lawes, proceſſe; all iudgement, all giftes of a [...]ices and others, paſſed vnder the name and auto|ritie of king Edwarde. Lelande touchyng the ſame rehearſall, writeth thereof in this maner.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the yere of our lord 1295. the ſame Iohn king of Scottes, contrary to his faith and al|leageaunce, rebelled againſt king Edward, and came into england, and burnt and ſlew without all modeſty and mercy. Whereupon king Edwarde with a great hoſte went to Newcaſtle vppon Tine, paſſed the water of Twéede, and beſieged Barwike, and gote it. Alſo he wan the caſtell of Dunbar, & there were ſlaine at this brunt 15700. Scots. Then he procéeded further, and gate the Caſtle of Rokeſborow, and the caſtle of Edẽborough, Striuelin and Gedworth, and his people her|ried all the lande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the meane ſeaſon, ye ſayd king Iohn of Scots conſidering yt he was not of power to wtſtand ye ſaid king Edward ſent his letters and beſought him of treatie and peace, which king Edward benignly graunted, and ſent to him againe that he ſhould come to the towne of Brethin, and bring thither the great lords of Scotland wt him. The king of england ſẽt thither Antony Beke, biſhop of Durhã, with his royall power to conclude the ſaide trea|tice: and there it was agréed that ye ſaid Iohn and all the Scottes ſhould vtterly ſubmitte thẽſelues to the kings will, & to the end ye ſaid ſubmiſſiõ ſhould be performed accordingly, ye EEBO page image 46 king of Scottes laid his ſonne in hoſtage and pledge. There alſo he made his letters ſealed with the common ſeale of Scotland, by the which he knowledging his ſimplenes & great offence done to his lord king Edward of eng|lande, by his full power & frée will, yelded vp all the lande of Scotland, with all the people & homage of the ſame. Then ye ſaid king Ed|ward went forth to ſée the mountaines, and vnderſtandyng that all was in quyete and peace, he turned to ye Abbey of Stone of Cha|nons regular, where he tooke the ſtone called the Regall of Scotland, vpõ which the kings of Scotland were wont to ſitte, at the time of their coronations for a throne, and ſent it to the Abbey of Weſtminſter, commaundyng to make a chaire thereof for the prieſtes that ſhould ſing maſſe at the high altare: which chaire was made, and ſtandeth yet there at this day.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the yere of our Lord 1296. the king held his Parliament at Barwike: and there he tooke homage ſingularly of all the lordes and nobles of Scotland. And for a perpetuall me|mory of the ſame, they made their letters pa|tentes ſealed with their ſeales, & thẽ the king of england made William Warreine earle of Surrey and Southſaxe, Lord Warden of Scotland, Hugh of Creſſingham treaſorer, and William Ormeſby iuſtice of Scotland, and foorthwith ſent king Iohn to the tower of London, and Iohn Comyn, and the earle Badenauth, the erle of Bohan & other lordes into england to diuers places on this ſyde of the Trent.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And after that in the yere of our lord, 1297 at the feaſt of Chriſtmas, the kyng called be|fore him the ſayd Iohn king of Scottes, al|though he had committed hym to warde: and ſaide that he would burne or deſtroy their ca|ſtels, townes & landes, if he were not recom|penced for hys coſtes & damages ſuſtained in the warres, but king Iohn & the other that were inwarde, aunſwered that they had no|thing, ſith their liues, their deathes, and goods were in his handes. The king vpon that aun|ſwer mooued with pity, graunted them theyr lyues, ſo that they would doe their homage & make their othe ſolemnly at the high altar (in the church of the Abbey of Weſtminſter) vp|pon the Euchariſt, that they and euery of thẽ ſhould holde and kepe true fayth, obedience, and allegiaunce to the ſaid king Edward and his heires kinges of englande for euer. And where the ſaid king of Scots ſaw the kinges banner of england diſplayed, he and all hys ſhould draw there vnto. And that neyther he nor any of his from thenceforth ſhould beare armes againſt the king of england or any of his bloud. Finally, the king rewarding wyth great giftes the ſayd king Iohn & his lordes, ſuffered them to departe. But they went into Scotland alway imagining (notwithſtãding this their ſubmiſſiõ) how they might oppreſſe king Edward and diſturbe his realme. The Scottes ſent alſo to the king of Fraunce for ſuccour and helpe, who ſent them ſhippes to Barwike furniſhed with men of armes, the king of england then beyng in Flaunders.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the yeare of our lord 1298. the king wẽt into Scotland with a great hoſt, and ye Scots alſo aſſembled in great number, but the king faught with them at Fawkirke on S. Mary Magdalenes daye, where were ſlayne lx. M. Scots, and William Walleys that was their captayne fled, who beyng taken after|ward, was hanged, drawen, and quartered at London.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After this the Scottes rebelled agayne, and all ye lordes of Scotland choſe Robert Bruis to be king, except only Iohn Cõmyn earle of Carrike, who would not conſent thereto be|cauſe of his othe made to ye king of england. Wherefore Robert Bruis This was done, vpon the 29. of Ian. 1306. ſlewe hym at Dumfriſe, and the ſame Robert Bruis was crowned at Schone Abbay. Hereupon the king of england aſſembled a great hoſte, and rode thorough all Scotland, and diſcomfited Robert Bruis, and ſlue viij. M. Scottes, and tooke the moſt part of all the lordes of Scot|lande, putting the temporall lordes to death becauſe they were foreſworne.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Edward borne at Carnaruan ſonne of this Edward, was next king of England, who frõ the beginning of his reigne enioyed Scotlãd peaceably, dooing in all thinges as is aboue ſayde of king Edwarde his father, vntill to|warde the latter ende of his reigne, about which time thys Robert Bruſe conſpired a|gainſt him & with the helpe of a few forſworn Scottes, forſwore himſelfe king of Scottes. Hereupon this Edward with Thomas earle of Lancaſter and many other Lords made warre vpõ him about the feaſt of Mary mag|dalene, the ſayde Bruſe and hys partakers being already accurſed by the Pope for brea|king the truce that he had eſtabliſhed betwixt thẽ But being infortunate in his firſt warres againſt him, he ſuffered Edwarde the ſonne Baliol to proclaime himſelf king of Scottes, and neuertheleſſe héelde forth his warres a|gaynſt Bruſe, before the ending of which he dyed, as I reade.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Edwarde borne at Windſore ſonne of Ed|ward ye ſecond was next king of england at ye age of fiftéene yeares, in whoſe minoritie the Scots practiſed with Iſabell mother to this Edwarde and wyth Roger Mortymer earle EEBO page image 56 of the March to haue their homages releaſed, whoſe good will therin they obtayned, ſo that for the ſame releaſe they ſhoulde pay to thys king Edward thirtie thouſand poundes ſter|ling in thrée yeares next following, that is to ſay, tenne thouſand pounde ſterling yearely. But bicauſe the nobilitie & commons of this realme woulde not by parliament conſent vnto it their king being within age, the ſame releaſe procéeded not, albeit the Scottes cea|ſed not their practiſes with thys Quéene and Earle. But before thoſe three yeres in which their money (if ye bargaine had taken place) ſhoulde haue béene payed were exſpired, our king Edwarde inuaded Scotlande and cea|ſed not the warre vntill Dauid the ſonne of Robert le Bruſe then by their election king of ſcotlande abſolutelye ſubmytted hymſelfe vnto hym. But for that the ſayde Dauid Bruſe had before by practiſe of the Quéene and the Earle of Marche, marryed Iane the ſiſter of this king Edward: he mooued by na|turall zeale to his ſiſter, was contented to giue the realme of ſcotlande to this Dauid Bruſe, & to the heires that ſhoulde be degot|ten of the body of the ſayde Iane (ſauing the reuerſion and meane homages to this king Edwarde and to his owne children) where|with the ſame Dauid Bruſe was right well contented, and therevpon immediately made his homage for ſcotlande vnto him.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Howbeit ſhortly after cauſeleſſe contey|ning cauſe of diſpleaſure, this Dauid procu|red to diſolue this ſame eſtate ta [...]ly, and ther|vpon not onely rebelled in ſcotlande, but al|ſo inuaded englande, whyleſt king Edwarde was occupyed about hys warres in France. But this Dauid was not onely expelled eng|lãd in thend, but alſo thinking no place a ſuffi|cient defence to his vntrueth, of his owne ac|corde fled out of ſcotlãd: wherby the coũtreis of Annandale, Gallaway, Mars, Teuydale, Twedale, and Ethrike were ſeaſed into the king of englandes handes, and new Marches ſet betwéene englande and ſcotland at Cock|burnes pathe and Sowtry hedge, which whẽ this Dauid wẽt about to recouer againe, his power was diſcomfited, and himſelf by a few engliſhmen taken and brought into englande where he remayned pryſoner eleuen yeres.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Duryng thys tyme, kyng Edwarde en|ioyed Scotlande peaceably, and then at the contemplacion and wery ſuite of his ſorow|full ſiſter wyfe of this Dauid, he was conten|ted once againe to reſtore him to the king|dome of Scotlande, wherevpon it was con|cluded, that for this rebellion Dauid ſhoulde paye to king Edward the ſomme of one hun|dred thouſande markes ſterling, and thereto deſtroy all his holdes and fortreſſes ſtanding agaynſt the engliſh borders, & further aſſure the crowne of ſcotland to the children of th [...] kyng Edward for lacke of heire of his ow [...] bodye, all which thinges he dyd accordingly. And for the better aſſurance of his obeiſance alſo, he afterward deliuered into the hãds of king Edward ſundry noble men of ſcotlãd in this behalf as his pledges. And this is the ef|fect of the hiſtory of Dauid, touching his d [...]|lings: now let vs ſée what was done by Ed|warde Bailioll, whereof our Chronicles doe make report as followeth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In ye yere of our lord 1326. Edward ye third king of england was crowned at Weſtmin|ſter, and in the 5. yere of his reigne Edward Bailiol right heire to ye kingdome of ſcotlãd came in & claymed it as due to him. Sundry lordes and gentlemen alſo, which had title to diuers landes there, either by themſelues, or by their wiues did ye like, wherupõ the ſayde Bailiol & they went into ſcotland by ſea, and landing at Kinghorne with 3000. Engliſh|men, diſcomfited 10000. Scottes, and ſlewe 1200. and thẽ went forth to Dunfermeline, where the ſcots aſſembled againſt them with 40000. men, and in the feaſt of ſ. Laurence, at a place called Gaſtmore (or otherwyſe Gladmore) were ſlaine v. Erles, xiij. Barõs, a hundred and thrée ſcore knightes, two M. men of armes, and many other, in all xl.M. and there were ſlaine on the engliſh part but xiij. perſons only.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the eight yere of the raign of kyng Ed|ward, he aſſembled a great hoſte and came to Barwike vpon Twéede, & laid ſiege thereto To him alſo came Edward Bailiol king of ſcots, wt a great power to ſtrength & aide him againſt the ſcottes who came out of ſcotland in foure battailes well armed and arayed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Edwarde kyng of england, and Edwarde king of ſcottes, apparelled their people either of them in foure battailes: and vppon H [...]|lidon hyll, beſide Barwike, met theſe two hoſtes, and there were diſcomfited of ye ſcots, xxv.M. and vij.C. whereof were ſlayne viij. erles, a thouſand and thrée hundred knightes and gentlemen. This victory done, the kyng returned to Barwike, and the towne wyth the caſtell were yelded vp vnto him.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the eyght yeare of the reigne of king Edward of englande, Edward Bailiol kyng of ſcottes came to Newcaſtell vpon tine and dyd homage.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the yeare of our Lorde 1346. Dauid Bruys by exhortacion of the king of France rebelled, and came into england with a great hoſte vnto Neuilles croſſe: But the Archbi|ſhoppe of Yorke with diuers temporall men, EEBO page image 47 fought wt him and the ſaid king of ſcots was takẽ, and William earle Duglas & Morriſe earle of Strathorne were brought to Londõ, & many other Lords ſlayne, which wyth Da|uid dyd homage to Edward king of england.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And in the thirtie yere of the kings reigne, and the yeare of our Lorde 1355. the ſcottes wanne the towne of Barwicke, but not the Caſtell. Hereupon the king came thither wt a great hoſte, and anone the towne was yéel|den without any reſiſtance.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Edwarde Bailiol, conſidering that God dyd ſo many marueylous & gracious thinges for kyng Edwarde, at his owne will gaue vp the crowne and the realme of ſcotland to king Edwarde of england at Rokeſborough, by his letters patents.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And anon after the king of england, in pre|ſence of all his Lordes ſpirituall and tempo|rall, let crowne himſelfe kyng there of the realme of ſcotlande, and ordayned all thinges to hys intent, and ſo came ouer in englande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Richarde the ſonne of Edward, called the blacke prince, ſonne of this kyng Edward, was next king of Englande, who for that the ſayde Iane, the wyfe of the ſayde king Da|uyd of Scotland was d [...]ed without iſſue, and being enformed how [...] Scottes deuiſed to their vttermoſt power to breake the limi|tacion of this inheritance touching ye crowne of ſcotland, made forthwith war againſt thẽ, wherin he brent Edẽbrough, ſpoyled all their countrey, tooke all their holdes, and maintai|ned continually warre againſt them vnto his death, which was Anno domi. M.CCC.xcix.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Henry the fourth of that name was next kyng of englande, he continued theſe warres begun againſt them by king Richard, & ceaſ|ſed not vntyll Robert king of ſcots (the third of ye name) reſigned hys crowne by appoint|ment of this kyng Henry, and deliuered hys ſonne Iames beyng then of the age of nyne yeares, into his handes to remayne at his cu|ſtodie, wardſhip and diſpoſition, as of his ſu|periour Lord, according to the olde lawes of king Edwarde the confeſſour. All this was done Anno dom. M.CCCC.iiij. which was within fiue yeares after the death of kyng Richarde: This Henry the fourth reigned in this ſtate ouer them fouretéene years.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Henry the fift of that name ſonne to thys king Henry the fourth was next king of eng|land. He made warres againſt ye french king, in all which this Iames then king of ſcottes attended vpon him as vpon his ſuperior lord, with a conuenient number of ſcots, notwith|ſtanding their league with fraunce. But this Henry reigned but nine yeares, whereby the homage of this Iames their king (hauing not fully accompliſhed the age of one and twen|tye yeares) was by reaſon and lawe reſpited. Finallye the ſayd Iames wyth dyuers other lordes attended vpon the corpes of the ſayde ſaide Henry vnto Weſtminſter, as to his du|tie appertayned.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Henry the ſixt, the ſonne of this Henry the fift, was next king of englande to whome the ſeignorie of ſcotlande and cuſtodye of thys Iames by right lawe and reaſon diſcended, marryed the ſame Iames king of ſcottes to Iane daughter of Iohn earle of Sommerſet, at ſ. Mary [...]er Iſe in ſouth [...]arke, and tooke for the value of thys marryage, the ſumme of one hundreth thouſand markes ſterling.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Iames king of ſcottes at his full age, did homage to the ſame king Henry the ſixt, fo [...] the kingdome of ſcotland at Wynd|ſore, in the moneth of Ianuary.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Since which tyme vnto the dayes of king Henry the ſeauenth, graundfather to our ſo|uereigne lord that now is, albeit this realme hath béene moleſted with diuerſitie of titles, in which vnméete tyme neither lawe nor rea|ſon admit preſcription to the preiudice of any ryght: yet did king Edwarde the fourth next king of englande by preparation of war [...]e a|gainſt the ſcottes in the latter ende of hys reigne, ſufficiently by al lawes indure to the continua [...]e of his claime to the ſame ſupe|rioritie ouer them.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After whoſe death, vnto the beginning of the reigne of our ſouereigne lorde king Hen|ry the eight, excéeded not the number of xxvij yeares, about which tyme the impediment of our clayme of the ſcottes part, chaunced by the nonage of Iames their laſt king, which ſo cont [...]d the ſpace of one & twentie yeres. And like as his minoritie was by all law and reaſon an impediment to himſelf to make ho|mage, ſo was the ſame by like reaſõ an impe|diment to ye king of this realme to demaunde any, ſo that the whole time of intermiſſion of our claime in the time of the ſayde king Hen|ry the eyght, is [...] vnto the number of thirtéene yeres, & thus much for this matter.

1.18. Of the wall ſometime buylded for a parti|cion betweene Englande and the Pictes. Cap. 17.

Of the wall ſometime buylded for a parti|cion betweene Englande and the Pictes. Cap. 17.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 HAuing hitherto diſcourſed vpon the title of the kings of england, vnto the ſcottiſh kingdome. I haue nowe thought good to adde hereunto the deſcription of the wall that was in times paſt, a limite vnto both the ſayde re|gions, & therefore to be touched in this firſt booke as generallye apperteinent vnto the e|ſtate, EEBO page image 57 of the whole Iſlande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The firſt beginner of the Picts walThe firſt author and beginner therefore of this wall was Hadriane the emperour, who as Aelius Spartianus ſayth, erected the ſame of foure ſcore miles in length, to deuide the bar|barous Brytons from the more ciuile ſort, which thẽ were generally called by the name of Romaines.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The fini|ſher of the wall.After hys tyme Seuerus the emperour cõ|ming againe into this Iſle, (where he had ſer|ued before in repreſſion of the tumultes here begun, after ye death of Lucius) amongſt other thinges he finiſhed the wall that Hadriane had begunne and extended it euen vnto the the weſt ſea, that earſt went no farder then foure ſcore myles, from the eaſt part of the Ocean, as I haue noted already. It is wor|thy ye noting how that in thys voyage he loſt 50000. men in the ſcottiſh ſide, by one occa|ſion and other, which hinderaunce ſo incen|ſed him, that he determined vtterlye to extin|guiſh theyr memory from vnder heauen, and had ſo done in déede, if his life had indured but vntill another yeare. Sextus Aurelius wri|ting of Seuerus, addeth howe that the percell of the wall,The wall goeth not ſtreight by a line but in and out in many places. which was left by Hadriane, and finiſhed by this prince, conteyned two & thir|tye miles, whereby the bredth of this Iſland there, and length of the wall conteyneth on|lye 112. miles, as maye be gathered by hys wordes, but chiefly for the length of the wall Spartianus who touchting by it among o|ther thinges ſaieth of Seuerus as followeth,

Brittaniam (quod maximum eius imperij de|cus eſt) muro per tranſuerſam inſulam ducto, vtrin ad finẽ Oceani muniuit,
that is, he for|tified Brytaine (which is one of the chiefe acts recorded of his time) with a wall made ouer|thwart the Iſle, that reached on both ſides e|uen to the very Ocean.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 The ſtuffe of the walThat this wal of ſtone alſo, the ruines ther|of which haue miniſtred much matter to ſuch as dwell nere therunto in their buildinges is triall ſufficient. Hereby in lyke ſorte it com|meth to paſſe, that where the ſoile about it is leaſt inhabited, there is moſt mention of the ſayde wall, which was wroughte of ſquared ſtone, as vnto this day may euidently be con|firmed. Howbeit this Wall was not the one|lye partition betwene theſe two kingdomes, ſith Iulius Capitolinus in vita Antonini Pij doth write of another that Lollius Vrbicus did make beyond the ſame, of Turffe, which ne|uertheleſſe was often throwen downe by the ſcottes,Two o|ther wals. and eftſoones repayred againe vntill it was geuen ouer and relinquiſhed altoge|ther. The like mudde wal hath bene ſéene al|ſo within the wall about an arrow ſhot from that of ſtone, but how farre it went, as yet I cannot finde, this onely remayneth certaine, that the wall made by Hadrian and Seuerus was ditched with a notable ditch, [...] and a ram|pire made theron in ſuch wiſe, that the ſcot|tiſh aduerſary had much adoe to enter & ſcale the ſame in his aſſaults. Betwixt Thirlewal, and the Northe Tine, are alſo in the waſte groundes, manye parcelles of that walle yet ſtanding, wherof the common people doe babble many thinges. Beginning therefore with the courſe thereof, from the weſt ſea, [...] I finde that it runneth frõ Bolneſſe to Burgh, about foure miles, and likewiſe from thence within halfe a mile of Caerleil, and leſſe on the north ſide, and beneath the confluence of the Peder and the Eden. From hence it go|eth to Terreby a village about a myle from Caerleil, then thorow the Barrony of Lin|ſtocke, and Gilleſland, on the north ſide of the riuer Irding or Arding, & a quarter of a mile from the Abbey of Leuercoſt. Then 3. myles aboue Leuercoſt, and aboue the confluence of Arding, and the Pultroſe becke (which deui|deth Gilleſland in Cumberlande, from ſouth Tindale in Northũberland) it goeth to Thirl|wall caſtle, thẽ to the Wall towne, next of all ouer the riuer to Swenſheld, Carraw (per|aduenture Cair [...]ren) tower, to Walwijc, and ſo ouer ſouth Tine, to Cockely tower, Portgate, Halton ſheles, Wincheſter, Rut|cheſter, Heddon, Walhottle, Denton, and to Newcaſtle, where it is thought that ſ. Nicho|las churche ſtandeth on the ſame. Howbeit, Leland ſayth, that it goeth within a myle of Newcaſtle, and thẽ crooketh vp toward Tin|mouth vnto Walleſende, ſo called becauſe the aforeſaid wall did ende at the ſame place. And thus much I read of the Pictiſh wal. As for the Romaine coyne that is often found in the courſe thereof, the curious brickes about the ſame nere vnto Carleil, beſide the excel|lent Cornellines and other coſtlye ſtones al|ready entailled for Seales oftentymes takẽ vp in thoſe quarters, I paſſe thẽ ouer as not incidẽt to my purpoſe. In like maner I wold gladly alſo haue ſet downe the courſe of Of|faes ditch: but foraſmuch as ye tractatiõ ther|of is not to be referred to this place, becauſe it is not a thing generall to ye whole Iſland, I omitte to ſpeake of that alſo. Yet thus much will I note here by the reporte of one (who ſaith how he did tread it out) that he followed it from the Dée to Kyrnaburgh hill thorow Treuelach forreſt, by eaſt af Crekith, Cauch hil, Mountgomery caſtle, the new caſtle and Diſcoid, & hauing brought it hitherto, either loſt it, or ſought after it no further, & ſo much of ſuch thinges as concerne the generall e|ſtate of the whole Iſland.

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