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1.13. Of the foure hyghe wayes ſometyme made in Brytaine, by the Princes of thys Lande. Chap. 12.

Of the foure hyghe wayes ſometyme made in Brytaine, by the Princes of thys Lande. Chap. 12.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 THere are, which indeuoring to bring all things to their Saxon Originall, doe affirme that this diuiſiõ of waies whereof we now intreate, ſhould ap|parteine to ſuch Princes of that Nation, as reigned here, ſith the Romaines gaue vs o|uer. But how weake their coniectures are in this behalfe, the antiquity of theſe ſtréetes it ſelfe ſhal eaſily declare, whereof ſome per|celles after a ſorte are alſo ſet downe by An|toninus, and thoſe that haue written of the ſe|uerall iourneyes from hence to Rome, al|though peraduenture not in ſo directe an or|der, as they were at the firſt eſtabliſhed. For my parte if it were not that I deſire to be ſhort in this behalfe, I could with ſuch notes as I haue already collected for that purpoſe, make a large confutation of diuers of theyr opinions cõcerning theſe paſſages, but ſith I haue ſpent more time in ye tractatiõ of the ri|uers, then was allotted vnto me, I will omit at this time to diſcourſe of theſe things as I would, and ſay what I may for the better knowledg of their courſes, procéeding there|in as followeth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Firſt of all, I finde that Dunwallon King of Britayne, about 483. yeares before ye birth of our ſauior Ieſus Chriſt, ſeing the ſubiects of his Realme, to be in ſundry wyſe oppreſſed by theeues and robbers, as they traueiled too and fro, and being willing (ſo much as in him laye) to redreſſe theſe inconueniences, cauſed his whole kingdome to be ſurueyed, and then commaunding foure principall wayes to be made, which ſhoulde leade ſuch as traueyled into all partes thereof, from ſea to ſea, he gaue ſundry large priuileges vnto the ſame, whereby they became ſafe, and verye much frequented. And as he had regarde herein, to the ſecuritie of hys Subiectes, ſo he made ſharp lawes, grounded vpõ Iuſtice, for ye ſup|preſſion of ſuch wicked mẽbers as did offer violence to any trauayler that ſhould be met wyth al or found within the limites of thoſe paſſages. How by what partes of this Iſland theſe wayes were conueighed at the firſt, it is not ſo wholy left in memory but that ſome queſtion is mooued among the learned, con|cerning theyr auncient courſes, howbeit ſuch is the ſhadowe remaining hitherto of theyr extenſions, that if not at this preſent perfect|ly yet hereafter it is not impoſſible but that they maye be founde out, and left certaine vnto poſteritye. It ſéemeth by Galfride, EEBO page image 46 that the ſayd Dunwallon did limite out thoſe wayes by dooles and markes, which beyng in ſhort tyme altered by the auarice of ſuch irreligious perſons as dwelt nere and incro|ched vpon the ſame (a fault yet iuſtly to bée found almoſt in euery place) and queſtiõ moo|ued for their boundes before Bellinus hys ſonne, he to auoyde all further controuerſie that might from thenceforth inſue, cauſed the ſame to be paued with hard ſtone, of 18. foote in bredth, and 10. foote in depth, and in the bo|tome thereof huge flint ſtones alſo to be pit|ched, leſt the earth in tyme ſhould ſwalow vp his workmanſhip, & the higher ground ouer|grow their riſing creſts. He indued thẽ alſo wt larger priuiledges thẽ before, proteſting that if any man whoſoeuer ſhoulde preſume to in|fringe his peace, & violate the lawes of hys kingdome in anye maner of wiſe néere vnto or vpon thoſe wayes, he ſhould ſuffer ſuch pu|niſhmẽt without all hope to eſcape (by frend|ſhip or mercy (as by ye ſtatutes of his realme lately prouided in thoſe caſes, are due vnto ye offenders: The names of theſe foure wayes are the Foſſe, the Gwethelin, or Watling, the Ermyng, and the Ychenild.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Foſſe.The Foſſe goeth not directly, but ſlopewiſe ouer the greateſt part of this Iſland, begyn|nyng at Dotneſſe or Totneſſe in Deuõſhire, where Brute ſometymes landed (or as Ra|nulphus ſayeth) which is more likely at the point of Cornwall though the eldeſt writers do ſéeme to note the contrary. From hence it goeth thorow the middle of Deuonſhire and Somerſetſhire, and commeth to Briſtow, from whence it runneth manifeſtly to Sud|bery market, Tetbury, and ſo forth holdeth on as you go almoſt to ye midde way betwene Glouceſter and Cirneceſter (where the wood faileth, and the Champeigne country appea|reth toward Cotteſwald) ſtreight as a lyne vntill you come to Cirneceſter it ſelf. Some hold opinion that the way which lyeth from Cirneceſter to Bathe, ſhoulde be the very Foſſe, and that betwixt Cirneceſter & Glou|ceſter, to be another of the 4. wayes made by the Britons: but auncient report grounded vpon great likelyhoode, and confirmed alſo by ſome experience, iudgeth that moſt of the wayes croſſed eche other in this part of the realme, and of this mynd is Leland alſo, who learned it of an Abbote of Cirneceſter that ſhewed great likelyhoode in ſome recordes therof: but to procéede. From Cirneceſter, it goeth by Chepingnorton to Couentrey, Leirceſter, Newarke, and ſo to Lincolne o|uerthwart the Watling ſtreate, where by generall conſent of all the writers (except Alfrede of Beuerley, who extendeth it vnto Catheneſſe in Scotland) it is ſayde to haue an ende.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Watling ſtréete beginneth at Douer in Kent, [...] and ſo ſtretcheth thorow the middeſt of Kent vnto London, and ſo forth (peraduen|ture by the midſt of ye city) vnto Verolamium or Verlamceſter, now S. Albons, where in ye yeare of grace 1531 the c [...]urſe thereof was found by a mã that digged for grauel where|with to mende the highway. It was in this place 18. foote brõde, and about 10. foote déepe, and ſtoned in the botome as afore, and perad|uenture alſo on the toppe, but theſe are gone, and the reſt remayneth equall in moſt places with the fields. The yelow grauell alſo that was brought thether in cartes 2000. yeares paſſed, remayned there ſo freſh and ſo ſtrõg, as if it had bene digged out of ye natural place where it grew not many yeares before. Frõ hence it goeth hard by Margate, leauyng it on the weſt ſide, and a little by ſouth of this place, where the Priory ſtoode, is a long tho|row fare vpon the ſayd ſtréete, méetely well builded (for low houſing) on both ſides. After this, it not onely becommeth a bound vnto Leiceſterſhire toward Lugby, but alſo paſ|ſeth from Caſtleford to Stamforde, and ſo forth by the weſt of Marton, which is a myle from Torkeſey.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Here by the waye I muſt touche the opi|nion of a traueyler of my tyme, who noteth the ſayde ſtreate to go another waye, inſo|much that he would haue it to croſſe the third Auon, betwixt Newton and Dowbridge, & ſo go on to Binforde bridge, Wibto [...], the highe croſſe, and thence to Atherſton vpon An|cre. Certes it maye be, that the Foſſe had his courſe by the countrye in ſuch ſort as hée deſcribeth, but that ye Watling ſtreat ſhould paſſe by Atherſtõ, I can not as yet be perſua|ded. Neuertheleſſe his coniecture is not to be miſliked, ſith it is not vnlikelye that thrée ſe|uerall wayes myght méete at Alderwaye (a towne vpon Tame, beneath Salters bridge) for I do not doubt that the ſayd towne, dyd take his name of all three wayes, as Alder|mary churche in London, did of all thrée Ma|ryes vnto whome it hath béene dedicated, but that the Watling ſtreate ſhoulde be one of them, the compaſſe of his paſſage will in no wiſe permit. And thus much haue I thought good to note by the waye, nowe to returne a|gayne to Leland, and other mens collections. The next tydings that we here of the Wat|lyng ſtreate is, that it goeth thorowe the Parke at Pomfret, as the common voyce of the country confirmeth: thẽce it paſſeth haſti|ly ouer Caſtelford bridg, to Aberford, (which is fiue myles from thence, & where are moſt EEBO page image 37 manifeſt tokens of thys waye and his broad creſt) to Yorke, to Witherby, & then to Bo|rowbrig, where on the left hand therof ſtood certain monumentes, or Pyramides of ſtone, ſometyme placed there by the Romaines. Theſe ſtones (ſayth Leland) ſtande 8 myles weſt from Bowis, & almoſt weſt from Rich|monde a little thorowe fare called may|den caſtel ſcituate vpon the ſide of this ſtreat, and here is one of thoſe Pyramides or great rounde heapes, which is thrée ſcore foote cõ|paſſe in the bottome. There are other alſo of leſſe quantities, and on the very top of eche of them are ſharp ſtones of a yard in length, but the greateſt of all is eightéene foote hyghe at the leaſt, from the grounde to the verye head. He addeth moreouer howe they ſtande on an hyll: in the edge of Stanes moore, and are as boundes betwéene Richmonde ſhyre, and Weſtmerland. But to procéed this ſtreat lying a myle from Gilling, and two myles from Richmonde commeth on from Borow|brigge, to Catericke eightéene myles, that is twelue to Leuing, and ſixe to Catericke, then eleuen myles to Gretey, or Gritto, fyue myles to Bottles, eight myles to Burghe on Stanes moore, foure myles from Appleby, & fiue to Browham, where the ſayde ſtreate commeth thorowe Winfoll parke, and ouer the bridge, on Eymouth and Loder, and lea|uing Perith, a quarter of a myle or more, on the weſt ſide of it, goeth to Carleil ſeuentéene myles from Browham, which hath béene ſome notable thing. Hetherto it appeareth e|uidently, but going from hence into Scot|lande, I heare no more of it, vntill I come to Cathneſſe, which is two hundred and thirtye myles or thereabouts, out of Englande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [...]rming ſtréte.The Erming ſtreate, which ſome call the Lelme, ſtretcheth out of the eaſt, as they ſaye into the ſoutheaſt, yt is, from Meneuia or S. Dauids in Wales vnto Southãpton, wher|by it is ſomewhat lykely in déede that theſe two wayes, I meane the Foſſe, and the Er|ning, ſhoulde méete about Cirneceſter, as it commeth from Gloceſter, according to the opinion conceyued of them in that countrye. Of thys way I finde no more written, and therefore I can ſaye no more of it, except I ſhoulde indeuour to dryue awaye the tyme, in alleadging what other men ſaye thereof, whoſe mindes doe ſo farre diſagrée one from another, as they doe all from a truth, and therefore I gyue them ouer, as not delight|ing in ſuch dealing.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Ikenild or Rikenild, begã ſome where in the ſouth, [...]enilde. and ſo held on toward Cirnece|ſter, then to Worceſter, Wicom [...], Brimmi|cham, Lichfield, Darby, Cheſterfield, and [...]ſſing the Watlingſtréete: ſome where in Yorkeſhire, ſtretched forth in the [...]e vnto ye mouth ye of Tine, where it ended at ye maine ſea, as moſt men doe confeſſe. I take it to be called the Ikenild, becauſe it paſſed thorow the kingdome of the Icenes: for albeit that Lelande and other followyng him doe ſeme to place the Icenes in Norfolke & Suffolke, yet in myne opinion that cannot wel be done, ſith it is manifeſt by Tacitus; that they laye nere vnto the Sylures, and as I geſſe, ey|ther in Stafford and Worceſter, or in both, except my coniecture do fayl me. The author of the booke entituled Eulogi [...] hiſtorianum, doth call this ſtréete the Lel [...] [...]e: but as herein he is deceyued, ſo haue I delt withal ſo fayth|fully as I may among ſuch diuerſitie of opi|nions, yet not deniyng but that there is much confuſion in the names and courſes of theſe two latter, the diſcuſſing whereof, I muſt leaue to other men yt be better lerned then I.

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