Line 5b

'Wyrd bið ful aræd' - M-Rs translation ('fate is wholly inexorable!') has been criticised (Griffith 1996); wyrd is etymologically related to weorðan 'become' and it literally means 'what comes to pass'. Aræd suggests that wyrd is 'set', as in the modern idiom, 'set in one's ways'. Timmer 1941 translates 'man's lot is fully determined!'.

The scribe wrote aręd: what is the significance of ę?

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