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And forsomuch as you are to answer before the high and strict iudge, hauing nothing for your ex|cuse and defense than as before is said, for the so much innocent bloud by your father and your selfe al|redie shed, and which hereafter maie be shed: you ought to be verie carefull and diligent, that Gods an|ger maie be appeased, and your fathers promise be performed: that God being thus honored for this con|quest, you maie haue a prosperous successe, and all yours in this world: and also after this life inioie that perpetuall felicitie, which surpasseth all ioie and felicitie. And because you haue not kept nor performed these promises, these two defects by Gods iust iudgement are befallen vnto you. The one is, that this con|quest could neuer be brought to his full effect and perfection. The other is, that they which were the chee|fest and most principall seruitors in this conquest, namelie Robert Fitzstephans, who first entered in|to the land, and made waie vnto others, Henrie of monte Moris, Reimond, Iohn de Courcie, and Mei|lerius, neuer had anie lawfull issue of their bodies begotten. And no maruell: for notwithstanding the happie and fortunat successe of the conquest, the poore cleargie was neuer considered, but were driuen to beg; and the cathedrall churches which were richlie indued with great liuelehoods, possessions, and territories, were altogither wasted and spoiled. These things a good prince of his honor ought to see to be redressed, and to prouide that the cleargie, who are and ought faithfullie to assist and serue him in all weightie causes of councell and importance, should be releeued, and inioie the honor vnto them belon|ging, and that small portion which was promised vnto them; that God in some things maie be appea|sed and satisfied for these cruell and bloudie conquests. And moreouer, vnder your patience we saie also, that for the perpetuall memorie of this conquest made by Englishmen, and because in processe of time, and course of yeares, there happeneth great change of lords, and manie times the inheritance commeth to such as are furthest remoued in kinred, that therefore there be a yearelie tribute rated and yeelded vn|to the king, to be paied in gold or such commodities as that land best yeeldeth: and that this be comprised in a publike instrument, that the whole world maie know how the realme and land of Ireland is subiect to the crowne of England. And forsomuch as things doone, being put and registred in writing, and to be read by an interpretor, are not sensible, nor so well vnderstanded of the hearer, as when he maie or dooth read the same in his owne speech and language; it were verie good (in my opinion) that some learned man, and skilfull in the French toong, should translate the same into French.

SYLVESTER GIRAL|dus Cambrensis, his vaticinall historie of the Conquest of Ireland.

The figures of (1) (2) (3) &c: set before certeine words of the chapters, are to be conferred with the like in the scholies or interpre|tations following euerie chapter, whereby the authors meaning is opened: this by the waie of a necessarie caueat to the reader in breuitie.

10.1. How Dermon Mac Morogh king of Leinster fled out of his countrie vnto Henrie the second king of England for aid and succour. Chap. 1.

How Dermon Mac Morogh king of Leinster fled out of his countrie vnto Henrie the second king of England for aid and succour. Chap. 1.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 _DErmon (1) Mac Morogh prince of (2) Leinster & go|uernour of the fift part or portion of Ireland, did in our time possesse & in|ioie the east part of the land, which bor|dereth and lieth to wards England: being disseuered from the same by the maine seas. This man from his verie youth, and first entrie into his kingdome, was a great oppressor of his gentlmen, and a cruell tyrant ouer his nobles: which bred vnto him great hatred and malice. Be|sides this, there befell to him an other mischéefe: for Ororike prince of (3) Meth was gone in a iornie, lea|uing his wife the daughter of Omolaghlin behind, in a certeine Iland in Meth: there to remaine and tarie vntill his returne. She (I saie) and this Der|mon had béene long inamoured and in loue the one with the other: and she watching a time how to haue loue and lust satisfied, taketh the aduantage of hir husbands absence, and yéeldeth hir selfe to be raui|shed, bicause she would be rauished: for by hir owne procurement and intisings, she became and would needs be a preie vnto the preier. Such is the variable & fickle nature of a woman, by whome all mischiefes in the world (for the most part) doo happen and come, as maie appeare by (4) Marcus Antonius, and by the destruction of (5) Troie. King Ororike being ad|uertised hereof, was foorthwith maruellouslie trou|bled & in a great choler, but more grieued for shame of the fact than for sorrow or hurt; and therefore is ful|lie determined to be auenged: and foorthwith assem|bleth all his people and neighbors, as also procu|red into his aid and for his helpe Rothorike king of (6) Connagh and then monarch of all Ireland. The people of Leinster considering in what distresse their prince was, and how on euerie side he was be|set of his enimies, they also call to mind the old sores and griefes, which they of long time had dissembled: & to be auenged & awrecked thereof, they make league and become friends with their enimies, and vtterlie leaue and forsake their king. Dermon séeing him|selfe thus forsaken and left destitute, and that for|tune frowned vpon him (for he had oftentimes in|countered with his enimies and euer had the woorst) determined at length, as to his last refuge to flie o|uer the seas, and to séeke for some better chance. By this euent and sequele of this man, as also by manie other like examples it appeareth, that it is better for a prince to rule ouer a people, which of a good will and loue doo obeie him, than ouer such as be froward and stubborne. This (6) Nero well felt and (7) Domitia|nus well knew (8) and Henrie duke of Saxonie and Bauire well tried. It is more necessarie and expedi|ent for a prince to be rather beloued than feared. In deed it is good to be feared; so that the feare doo pro|céed rather from a good will than of compulsion. For whatsoeuer is outwardlie onelie and to the shew lo|ued and receiued, the same of consequence must be feared: but whatsoeuer is feared, that is not forthwith loued. Wherefore feare must be so tempered with loue, that neither a remisse good will doo wax into a coldnesse, neither feare grounded vpon a rash inso|lencie be turned and become tyrannie. Loue did in|large the empire of (9) Augustus, but feare shorte|ned the life of (10) Iulius Cesar. Well, Mac Morogh following fortune, and yet in hope that once againe she will turne hir whéele, hauing wind and wether at will, taketh ship, passeth ouer the seas, and went vnto Henrie the second king of England, and most humblie and earnestlie praieth his helpe and succor. Who being then in the remote places in France and Aquitaine, and busied in great and weightie affaires; yet most courteouslie he receiued him and liberallie rewarded him. And the king hauing at large and or|derlie heard the causes of his exile and of his repaire vnto him, he tooke his oth of allegiance and swore him to be his true vassall and subiect: and therevpon granted and gaue him his letters patents in maner and forme as followeth. Henrie king of England, Henrie the 2. king of Eng|lands stile and letter. duke of Normandie and Aquitaine, and earle of An|iou, vnto all his subiects, Englishmen, Normans, Scots, and all other nations and people being his subiects sendeth greeting. Whensoeuer these our let|ters will come vnto you, know ye that we haue re|ceiued Dermon prince of Leinster into our protec|tion, EEBO page image 2 grace, and fauour: wherefore whosoeuer within our i [...]diction will aid and helpe him, our trustie subiect, for the recouerie of his land, let him be assu|red of our fauour and licence in that behalfe.

(1) Dermon is in Latine Dermitius, and Morogh is in Latine Murchardes, and are méere Irish names: and for a difference giuen commonlie to a child at his birth or christening: Mac Morogh is a word compounded of Mac which is a sonne and of Morogh the proper name of a man, and so Mac Morogh is the sonne of Morogh: the Latine name is Murchardides, which is to saie De Murcharde, or of Morogh: accor|ding to the Welsh phrase in which the word ap is vsed in the same sense. And this is common to the Irish & Welsh, for they call not anie man by the name of his familie or nation as is vsed in England: but by the name of difference giuen to his father, as in this example: Dermon being Moroghs sonne is called Dermon Mac Morogh. But this name of Mac Mo|rogh is since turned and become the name of a fami|lie or nation: for by reason that this Mac Morogh was a noble and valiant man aboue all the rest of his nation in his daies: therefore his sequele and po|steritie haue euer since and doo yet kéepe that name. Some are of the mind that Morogh and Maurice are one name: but the Latine differences impor|teth the contrarie, and the one is a meere Irish name, and the other a Welsh, and borowed out of Wales.

(2) Leinster in Latine Lagenia, is one of the fiue parts or portions of Ireland (for into so manie is the whole land diuided.) It lieth vpon the east seas, and extendeth in length from the further point of the territorie of Dublin, which is at the riuer of the Boine by Drogheda in the north, vnto the riuer of the Surie which fléeteth by the citie of Waterford in the south. In it are one and thirtie cantreds other|wise named baronies or hundreds. It was some|times diuided into fiue, but now into seauen coun|ties, that is, Dublin, Kildare, Catherlogh, Kilken|nie, Werford, Lear, now called the queenes countie, and Offalie called the kings countie. There are also in it one archbishop; namelie Dublin, and foure bishopriks; that is, Kildare, Fernes, Leighlin, and Ossorie.

(3) Meth in Latine Media is one of the fiue por|tions of Ireland according to the first diuision. It is the least portion being but of eightéene cantreds, but yet the best and most fertile, and lieth for the most part all within the English pale: and euer since the conquest of king Henrie the second, hath béene sub|iect and obedient to the English lawes and gouerne|ment: and bicause it lieth as it were in the nauill or bowels of the land, it taketh the name accordinglie, being called Media, which is the middle. In it is but one bishop and the suffragan, and vnder the primat or archbishop of Ardmach. His see is at Trim and his house at Arbraghin. There was no prince sole gouernour of this as was of the other portions: bi|cause it was alwaies allowed & allotted to the mo|narch, whome they called Maximum regem, or Regem Hiberniae, as a surplus towards his diet.

(4) Marcus Antonius was a famous and a no|ble Romane, excelling in wisdome, knowledge and learning all the Romane princes in his daies; as al|so a verie noble and a valiant man in the fields, ha|uing atteined to great victories and atchiued to sun|drie conquests. And yet notwithstanding being ma|ried to Cleopatra queene of Egypt, he so doted vpon hir, and was so bewitched in loue of hir: that leauing all his woonted manners, he consumed his whole time in hir companie, and in the end was more infamous for his vitious, disordered, and loose life, than before commended for his prowesse and vertue.

(5) Troia called also Ilion, was an ancient and a famous citie in Asia the lesse, and situated in the prouince of Dardania, builded by Tros the sonne of king Ericthonius, who called it after his owne name. It was a citie verie large, strong, and rich, and in those daies thought impregnable; & yet by means that Helena was rauished, the same was in the end vtterlie subuerted and destroied: the historie is this. Priamus the king of Troie had by his wife Hecu|ba a sonne named Paris or Alexander: he dreamed on a time that Mercurius should bring vnto him the thrée ladies, Uenus, Iuno, & Minerua, that he should giue his iudgement which was the fairest and most beautifull of them. Then Uenus, to haue the iudge|ment for hir and in hir behalfe, did promise him that he should haue for the same the fairest woman in all Gréece. Not long after, Paris being in his fa|thers court in Troie, there were great spéeches made of Helena and of hir passing beautie. She was wife to Menelaus king of Sparta in Gréece. Wher|vpon Paris calling to memorie his former dreame, and also inflamed with a feruent desire to see so faire a ladie, maketh preparation both of ships and of men to saile into Greece. Howbeit, some write that he was sent by the king his father in an ambassage to king Menelaus: but whether it was so or not, certeine it is he went thither, and was receiued with all courtesie, and had his interteinement in king Menelaus house. Paris hauing viewed and be|holden quéene Helena, he was not so much war|med before vpon the onelie report of hir, as now inflamed with hir passing forme and beautie; and taking the aduantage of king Menelans absence, perforce taketh Helena, spoileth the kings house, and carieth all awaie with him. Menelans at his returne home, being dismaied at so sudden a change and chance, and gréeued with such an iniurie, sen|deth his messenger first to Paris, and then his ambassadours to king Priamus for restitution and amends. But when no intreatie could take place nor requests be heard, the Grecians not minding to beare with such an iniurie, doo all consent to be auenged thereof: and therefore with all their force and power doo prepare to giue warres vnto Troie, and make choise of Agamemnon the kings brother to be their capteine. The warres were cruell and long, and endured for the space of ten yeares, but in the end Troie was taken, spoiled, and also de|stroied.

6 Nero, whose name at the first was Claudius Domitius, was in his youthfull yeares well dispo|sed to good letters, & giuen to honest exercises. And Claudius the emperor hauing good liking of him, adopted him to be emperour, and married him vn|to his daughter. After the death of Claudius, he be|ing emperour, did gouerne well enough the first fiue yeares: but thensefoorth he waxed so vicious, and became so horrible in all dissolute wanton|nesse, prodigalitie, monstruous lecherie, couetous|nesse, and all other most wicked vices: that he sée|med to be borne to the destruction of the whole world. And in the end he was and became so odi|ous to the whole world, that it was decréed by the senat, and sentence giuen, that he should be bea|ten and whipped to death. Which thing he perceiuing, fled out of Rome, and finding none that would kill him, did runne himselfe thorough with his owne sword, saieng; Most wickedlie haue I liued, and most shamfullie shall I die.

7 Domitianus, the brother of Titus, and sonne of Uespasian the emperors, was nothing like vnto them, but altogither resembled & was of the nature EEBO page image 3 and disposition of Nero: for at the first entrie into the empire, he did to his commendation sundrie good acts; but in the end he became so wicked a man and so cruell a tyrant, that he generallie was hated of all men, and abhorred of his owne familie, of whom some of them, to rid the common wealth from so wic|ked a member, did murther and kill him in his owne chamber.

(8) This Henrie was the sonne of Henrie the third of that name, and emperor of Rome, he was king of the Romans in his fathers time, and empe|ror next after him. His father died, he being verie yoong, and left him to the gouernement of the em|presse his mother; who during his minoritie did rule and gouerne the empire in verie good order: but when he himselfe came to the sole gouernment, great dis|sentions fell betwéene him and his nobles, bicause he contemned, despised, & oppressed them. He gaue him|selfe to wantonnesse and pleasure, and little estée|med the execution of iustice; by means whereof he had manie enimies, who sought what they might to depose him both of empire and of his life. The pope also and he were for the most part in continuall de|bates and strifes, and who was the cheefe cause whie he was so ouerset and hated of his nobles. And be|ing thus ouermatched and in the hatred both of the temporall and ecclesiasticall estates, he for verie sor|row languished and pined awaie, and so died.

(9) Augustus was the sonne of Octauianus a se|nator in Rome, who married Accia the daughter of Iulius Cesar, and was first named Octauianus Iu|lius Cesar. His vncle hauing no son, adopted him, made him his heire, and appointed him to be his suc|cessor in the empire. After the death of the said Iuli|us, the state by reason he was so cruellie murthered, was maruelouslie troubled and in great perils. But this Octauianus hauing atteined to si [...] in Iulius Cesars seat, did so prudentlie order and direct his go|uernement, that he did not onelie reduce and restore the citie and empire of Rome to a quietnesse; but also increased the same with the conquests of sundrie na|tions. Such also were his excellent vertues in wise|dome, magnanimitie, courtesie, affabilitie, & liberali|tie, and such others; that all people were not onelie rauished in loue with him, but also came and resorted of all nations vnto Rome, to visit, see, and heare him. And hauing stablished the empire in quietnesse, in|larged it with manie nations, & increased vnto him|selfe the vniuersall loue of all people, the senat gaue him not onelie the name of Augustus, but gaue vn|to him also the titles of the highest and greatest ho|nors, and was called Summus pontifix perpetuus dictator & pater patriae, and yéelded vnto him the whole power and empire of the sole monarch of the world, now re|posing that in him alone, which rested before in the se|nat and people of Rome. These be the fruites when a prudent magistrat and a wise gouernour ruleth in loue and gouerneth in wisedome.

(10) Iulius Cesar was the sonne of Lucius Iu|lino a noble Romane, and came and descended of the ancient house of the Iulies, who were of the race of Aeneas: he was as noble a man as euer Rome brought fourth, and excellent in all respects: most va|liant and fortunate in the warres, and verie prudent in the ciuill gouernement, verie well learned, and a notable orator: he deserued well of his common wealth, for he inriched the same with the conquests which he made ouer sundrie nations. But his ambi|tious mind and immoderate desire to reigne alone, and to be the sole monarch of the world, drowned all the good vertues which were in him, and for which all the nations feared him, the citizens of Rome hated him, and the senators enuied him: and in the end a conspiracie was made for the murthering of him, and by the senators executed. For he on a certeine daie, vpon occasion being come into the senat house, and mistrusting nothing, although he wanted not sufficient warnings before giuen him, was there wounded in two and thirtie places to death, and so murthered.

10.2. The returne of Dermon Mac Morogh from king Henrie through England, and of his abode at Bristow and other places in Wales. Chap. 2.

The returne of Dermon Mac Morogh from king Henrie through England, and of his abode at Bristow and other places in Wales. Chap. 2.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 DErmon Mac Morogh, hauing recei|ued great comfort and courtesie of the king, taketh his leaue, and returneth home|ward through England. And albeit he had béene verie honourablie and liberallie rewarded of the king: yet he comforted himselfe more with the hope of good successe to come, than with liberalitie re|ceiued. And by his dailie iornieng he came at length vnto the noble towne of (1) Bristow, where bicause ships and botes did dailie repaire and come from out of Ireland, and he verie desirous to heare of the state of his people and countrie, did for a time soiorne and make his abode: and whilest he was there he would oftentimes cause the kings letters to be openlie red, and did then offer great interteinment, and promi|sed liberall wages to all such as would helpe or serue him; but it serued not. At length Gilbert the sonne of Gilbert, earle of Chepstone (2) came to sée him and to talke with him: and they so long had conferred to|gither, that it was agréed and concluded betwéene them, that the erle in the next spring then following, should aid and helpe him: and in consideration there|of, the said Dermon should giue him his onelie daughter and heire to wife, togither with his whole inheritance, and the succession into his kingdome. These things orderlie concluded, Dermon Mac Mo|rogh being desirous (as all others are) to sée his natu|rall countrie, departed and tooke his iourneie to|wards S. Dauids head or stone (3) in south Wales: for from thence is the shortest cut ouer into Ireland, the same being not a daies falling, and which in a faire daie a man may ken and discerne. At this same time Rice Fitzgriffith was cheefe ruler vnder the king in those parties; and Dauid the second, then bi|shop of S. Dauids, had great pitie and compassion vpon his distresse, miserie, and calamitie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Dermon thus languishing and lieng for passage, comforted himselfe as well as he might, sometime drawing and as it were breathing the aire of his countrie, which he séemed to breath and smell, some|times viewing and beholding his countrie, which in a faire daie a man may ken and descrie. At this time Robert Fitzstephans vnder Rice had the gouerne|ment, & was constable of Abertefie the cheefe towne in Caretica (4) and by the treacherie and treason of his owne men was apprehended, taken and deliue|red vnto Rice, and by him was kept in prison thrée yeares, but now deliuered, vpon condition he should take part and ioine with Griffith against the king. But Robert Fitzstephans, considering with him|selfe that on his fathers side (who was a Norman) he was the kings naturall subiect, although by his mo|ther the ladie N [...]sta, daughter to the great Rice Fitz|griffith, he were coosen germane to the said Fitzgrif|fith, chose rather to aduenture his life, and to séeke fortune abrode and in sorren countries, than to ha|zard his faith, credit, and same, to the slander, reproch, and infamie of himselfe, and of his posteritie. At length by the earnest mediation and intercession of Dauid then bishop of S. Dauids, and of Paurice EEBO page image 4 Fitzgerald, which were his halfe brothers by the mo|thers side, he was set frée and at libertie: and then it was agréed and concluded betwéene them and Mac Morogh, that he the said Mac Morogh should giue and grant vnto the said Robert Fitzstephans, and Maurice Fitzgerald, the towne of (5) Wexford, with two (6) cantreds of land adioining, & to their heires in fée for euer: and they in consideration thereof, pro|mised to aid and helpe him to recouer his lands the next spring then following: and to be then with him without all faile if wind and weather so serued. Der|mon being wearie of his exiled life and distressed estate, and therfore the more desirous to draw home|wards for the recouerie of his owne, and for which he had so long trauelled and sought abroad: he first went to the church of S. Dauids to make his ori|sons and praiers, and then the wether being faire, and wind good, he aduentureth the seas about the middle of August; and hauing a merrie passage, he shortlie landed in his ingratefull (7) countrie: and with a verie impatient mind, hazarded himselfe among and through the middle of his enimies; and com|ming safelie to (8) Fernes, he was verie honorablie receiued of the cleargie there: who after their abili|tie did refresh and succour him: but he for a time dis|sembling his princelie estate, continued as a priuat man all that winter following among them.

(1) Bristow in the old time was named Odera, afterwards Uenta, and now Bristolium, and standeth vpon the riuer Hauinum which is nauigable, & flée|teth into Seuerne or the Seuerne seas: in it there are two rodes, the one named Kingrode, fiue miles distant from Bristow, in which the ships doo ride. The other is named Hongrode, a place where the ships lie bedded, and this is thrée miles from Bristow. It standeth vpon the borders or confines of the pro|uince of Glocestershire and Summersetshire: some would haue it to be in the marches and vnder the principalitie, but in the old times it was parcell of the valleie of Bath, which was the metropole of Summersetshire. It is verie old, ancient and hono|rable, and sometimes named but a towne: but since for desert and other good considerations, honoured with the name and title of a citie, as also is made a seuerall prouince or countie of it selfe, being distinct from all others; hauing a maior and aldermen accor|ding to the ancient times, as also two shiriffes ac|cording to the latter grants, by whome the same is directed and gouerned. It is the chéefest emporium in that part of England, the inhabitants being for the most part merchants of great wealth, aduen|tures, and traffikes with all nations: great delings they haue with the Camber people and the Irish na|tion, the one of them fast bordering vpon them, and the other by reason of the néerenesse of the seas, and pleasantnesse of the riuer, dailie resorting by water to and from them.

(2) Chepstone is a market towne in Wales, in that prouince named in old time Uenta, being now vnder the principalitie of Wales. In times past it was named Strigulia, whereof Richard Strang|bow being earle he tooke his name, being called Co|mes Strigulensis.

(3) S. Dauids head or stone is the promontorie in west Wales, which lieth and reacheth furthest into the seas towards Ireland: and the same being a ve|rie high hill, a man shall the more easilie discerne in a faire daie the countrie of Wexford: for that is the neerest part of Ireland vnto that part of Wales. Not farre from this promontorie or point is the ca|thedrall church of saint Dauids, which is the sée of the bishop there: it was and is called Meneuia, and was in times past an archbishoprike. But as it is written in the annales of the said church, that in the time of Richard Carew and two of his predecessors bishops there, they were by the kings commandement made to yeeld, and submit themselues vnto the metropoli|tane sée of Canturburie.

(4) Aberteife is an old ancient towne standing vpon the mouth of the riuer of Teife, and thereof it taketh his name, that is to saie the mouth of Teife, but now it is called Cardigan. The countrie about it was in times past named Caretica, but now Cardi|ganshire, so Aberteife is Cardigan towne, and Ca|retica Cardiganshire.

(5) Wexford in Latine named Guesfordia, is next after Dublin the chiefest towne in Leinster, it lieth full vpon the seas, but the hauen is a barred hauen and dangerous: from it is the shortest cut out of I|reland into England, if you doo touch and take land either at saint Dauids or at Milford.

(6) A cantred (as Giraldus saith) is a word com|pounded of the British and of the Irish toongs, and conteineth so much ground as wherein are one hun|dred villages: which in England is termed a hun|dred. Men of later time to declare the same more plainelie, doo saie that it conteined thirtie villages, & euerie village conteined eight plough lands. O|ther saie that a cantred conteineth twentie townes, and euerie towne hath eight plough lands arable, be|sides sufficient pasture in euerie for thrée hundred kine, and none to annoie another; and euerie plough land conteineth six score acres of land Irish, and eue|rie Irish acre farre exceedeth the content of the com|mon acre.

(7) The place where Dermon landed is named Glasse caerge, it is a creeke or a baie lieng vpon the open seas, and in the countie of Wexford, sithence there was builded a monasterie which was and is dissolued.

(8) Fernes is the sée and cathedrall church of the bishop, whose diocesse is the countie of Wexford, it lieth néere in the midle of the prouince of Leinster, and was somtimes a church well adorned and main|teined, but now in great ruine and decaie, the bishop & chapiter not remaining there at all. There is also a strong fort of the princes, wherein sometimes was kept a garrison at the princes charges, but now one|lie a constable is placed therein, and he hath the sole charge thereof.

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