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3.12. The Romans get to land on the Eng|lish coast, the Britains send to Caesar for a treatie of peace, they staie the Romane ambas|sadour as prisoner, Caesar demandeth hostages of the Britains, the Romane nauie is driuen diuers waies in a great tempest, the British princes steale out of Caesars campe and gather a fresh power against the Romans, their two armies haue a sharpe encounter. The twelfe Chapter.

The Romans get to land on the Eng|lish coast, the Britains send to Caesar for a treatie of peace, they staie the Romane ambas|sadour as prisoner, Caesar demandeth hostages of the Britains, the Romane nauie is driuen diuers waies in a great tempest, the British princes steale out of Caesars campe and gather a fresh power against the Romans, their two armies haue a sharpe encounter. The twelfe Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _CAesar perceiuing the ma|ner of this fight, caused his men of warre to enter into boates and other small ves|sels, which he commanded to go to such places where most néed appeared. And relieuing them that fought with new supplies,The Romans get to land. at length the Romans got to land, and as|sembling togither, they assailed the Britains a fresh, and so at last did put them all to flight.The want of horssemen. But the Ro|mans could not follow the Britains farre, because they wanted their horssemen which were yet behind, & through slacking of time could not come to land. And this one thing séemed onelie to disappoint the luckie fortune that was accustomed to follow Ce|sar in all his other enterprises.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Britains after this flight were no sooner got togither,The Britans send to Cesar. but that with all speed they sent ambassa|dours vnto Cesar to treat with him of peace, offe|ring to deliuer hostages, and further to stand vnto that order that Cesar should take with them in anie reasonable sort. With these ambassadours came al|so Comius,Comius of Arras. whome Cesar (as you haue heard) had sent before into Britaine, whome notwithstanding that he was an ambassadour, and sent from Cesar with commission and instructions sufficientlie fur|nished, yet had they staied him as a prisoner. But now after the battell was ended, they set him at li|bertie, and sent him backe with their ambassadours, who excused the matter, laieng the blame on the peo|ple of the countrie, which had imprisoned him through lacke of vnderstanding what apperteined to the law of armes and nations in that behalfe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Cesar found great fault with their misdemenor, not onelie for imprisoning his ambassador, but also for that contrarie to their promise made by such as they had sent to him into Gallia to deliuer hostages, in lieu thereof they had receiued him with warre: yet in the end he said he would pardon them, and not séeke anie further reuenge of their follies. And herewith required of them hostages,Cesar deman|deth hostages. of which, part were deliuered out of hand, and made promise that the residue should likewise be sent after, crauing some respit for performance of the same, bicause they were to be fetched farre off within the countrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Peace being thus established after the fourth day of the Romans arriuall in Britaine, the 18 ships which (as ye haue heard) were appointed to conuey the horssemen ouer, loosed from the further hauen with a soft wind. Which when they approched so néere the shore of Britaine, that the Romans which were in Cesars campe might see them, suddenlie there a|rose so great a tempest, that none of them was able to kéepe his course, so that they were not onelie dri|uen in sunder (some being caried againe into Gal|lia, and some westward) but also the other ships that lay at anchor, and had brought ouer the armie, were so pitifullie beaten, tossed and shaken, that a great number of them did not onelie lose their tackle, but also were caried by force of wind into the high sea; EEBO page image 26 the rest being likewise so filled with water, that they were in danger by sinking to perish and to be quite lost. For the moone in the same night was at the full, & therefore caused a spring tide, which furthered the force of the tempest, to the greater periall of those ships and gallies that lay at anchor. There was no way for the Romans to helpe the matter: wherefore a great number of those ships were so bruised, rent and weather-beaten, that without new reparation they would serue to no vse of sailing. This was a great discomfort to the Romans that had brought ouer no prouision to liue by in the winter season, nor saw anie hope how they should repasse againe in|to Gallia.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the meane time the British princes that were in the Romane armie, perceiuing how greatlie this mishap had discouraged the Romans, and a|gain by the small circuit of their campe, gessing that they could be no great number, and that lacke of vit|tels sore oppressed them, they stale priuilie away one after another out of the campe, purposing to assem|ble their powers againe, and to forestall the Ro|mans from vittels, and so to driue the matter off till winter: which if they might doo (vanquishing these or closing them from returning) they trusted that none of the Romans from thencefoorth would attempt eftsoones to come into Britaine. Cesar mis|trusting their dealings, because they staid to deliuer the residue of their hostages, commanded vit|tels to be brought out of the parties adioining, and not hauing other stuffe to repaire his ships, he caused 12 of those that were vtterlie past recoue|rie by the hurts receiued through violence of the tempest, to be broken, wherewith the other (in which some recouerie was perceiued) might be repaired and amended.

3.13. The maner of the Britains fighting in charets, the Romans giue a fresh sallie to the Britains and put them to flight, they sue to Caesar for peace; what kings and their powers were assistants to Cassibellane in the battell against Caesar, and the maner of both peoples encounters by the report of diuers Chronologers. The xiij. Chapter.

The maner of the Britains fighting in charets, the Romans giue a fresh sallie to the Britains and put them to flight, they sue to Caesar for peace; what kings and their powers were assistants to Cassibellane in the battell against Caesar, and the maner of both peoples encounters by the report of diuers Chronologers. The xiij. Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _WHilest these things were a dooing, it chanced that as one of the Romane legions na|med the seuenth, was sent to fetch in corne out of the coun|trie adioining (as their cu|stome was) no warre at that time being suspected, or once looked for, when part of the people remained abroad in the field, and part repaired to the campe: those that warded before the campe, informed Cesar, that there appeared a dust greater than was accustomed from that quarter, into the which the legion was gone to fetch in corne. Cesar iudging therof what the matter might meane, commanded those bands that warded to go with him that way foorth, and appointed other two bands to come into their roomes, and the residue of his people to get them to armor, and to follow quicklie after him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He was not gone anie great way from the campe, when he might sée where his people were ouermat|ched by the enimies, and had much a doo to beare out the brunt: for the legion being thronged together, the Britains pelted them fore with arrowes and darts on ech side: for sithens there was no forrage left in anie part of the countrie about, but onelie in this place, the Britains iudged that the Romans would come thither for it: therefore hauing lodged them|selues within the woods in ambushes the night be|fore; on the morrowe after when they saw the Ro|mans dispersed here & there, and busie to cut downe the corne, they set vpon them on a sudden, and slea|ing some few of them, brought the residue out of or|der, compassing them about with their horssemen and charets, so that they were in great distresse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The maner of fight with these charets was such, that in the beginning of a battell they would ride a|bout the sides and skirts of the enimies host, and be|stow their darts as they sate in those charets, so that oftentimes with the braieng of the horsses, and cra|king noise of the charet whéeles they disordered their enimies, and after that they had woond themselues in amongst the troops of horssemen, they would leape out of the charets and fight on foot. In the meane time those that guided the charets would withdraw them selues out of the battell, placing themselues so, that if their people were ouermatched with the multitude of enimies, they might easilie withdraw to their cha|rets, and mount vpon the same againe, by meanes wherof they were as readie to remooue as the horsse|men, and as stedfast to stand in the battell as the foot|men, and so to supplie both duties in one. And those charetmen by exercise and custome were so cunning in their feat, that although their horsses were put to run and gallop, yet could they stay them and hold them backe at their pleasures, and turne and wind them to and fro in a moment, notwithstanding that the place were verie stéepe and dangerous: and a|gaine they would run vp and downe verie nimblie vpon the cops, and stand vpon the beame, and conuey themselues quicklie againe into the charet.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Cesar thus finding his people in great distresse and readie to be destroied, came in good time, and de|liuered them out of that danger: for the Britains vpon his approch with new succors, gaue ouer to as|saile their enimies any further, & the Romans were deliuered out of the feare wherein they stood before his comming. Furthermore, Cesar considering the time serued not to assaile his enimies, kept his ground, and shortlie after brought backe his legi|ons into the campe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 While these things were thus a dooing, & all the Ro|mans occupied, the rest that were abroad in the fields got them away. After this there followed a sore sea|son of raine and fowle weather, which kept the Ro|mans with in their campe, and staid the Britains from offering battell. But in the meane time they sent messengers abroad into all parts of the coun|trie, to giue knowledge of the small number of the Romans, and what hope there was both of great spoile to be gotten, and occasion to deliuer them|selues from further danger for euer, if they might once expell the Romans out of their campe. Here|vpon a great multitude both of horssemen and foot|men of the Britains were spéedilie got togither, and approched the Romane campe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Cesar although he saw that the same would come to passe which had chanced before, that if the enimies were put to the repulse, they would easilie escape the danger with swiftnesse of foot; yet hauing now with him thirtie horssemen (which Comius of Arras had brought ouer with him, when he was sent from Ce|sar as an ambassador vnto the Britains) he placed his legions in order of battell before his campe, and so comming to ioine with the Britains, they were not able to susteine the violent impression of the ar|med men, and so fled. The Romans pursued them so farre as they were able to ouertake anie of them, and so slaieng manie of them, & burning vp all their EEBO page image 27 houses all about, came backe againe to their campe. Immediatlie wherevpon, euen the same day, they sent ambassadors to Cesar to sue for peace, who glad|lie accepting their offer, commanded them to send ouer into Gallia, after he should be returned thither, hostages in number duble to those that were agréed vpon at the first. After that these things were thus ordered, Cesar because the moneth of September was well-neare halfe spent, and that winter hasted on (as season not méet for his weake and bruised ships to brooke the seas) determined not to staie anie lon|ger, but hauing wind and weather for his purpose, got himselfe aboord with his people, and returned in|to Gallia.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 ¶Thus writeth Cesar touching his first iournie made into Britaine.Caesar de bello Gallieo lib. 4. But the British historie (which Polydor calleth the new historie) declareth that Ce|sar in a pitcht field was vanquished at the firt en|counter, and so withdrew backe into France. Beda also writeth, that Cesar comming into the countrie of Gallia, where the people then called Morini inha|bited (which are at this day the same that inhabit the diocesse of Terwine) from whence lieth the shortest passage ouer into Britaine, now called England, got togither 80 saile of great ships and row gal|lies, wherewith he passed ouer into Britaine, & there at the first being wearied with sharpe and sore fight, and after taken with a grieuous tempest, he lost the greater part of his nauie, with no small number of his souldiers, and almost all his horssemen: and ther|with being returned into Gallia, placed his souldi|ors in stéeds to soiourne there for the winter season. Thus saith Bede. The British historie moreouer ma|keth mention of thrée vnder-kings that aided Cassi|bellane in this first battell fought with Cesar, as Cridiorus alias Ederus, king of Albania, now cal|led Scotland: Guitethus king of Uenedocia, that is Northwales: and Britaell king of Demetia, at this day called Southwales.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The same historie also maketh mention of one Be|linus that was generall of Cassibellanes armie, and likewise of Nenius brother to Cassibellane, who in fight happened to get Cesars swoord fastened in his shield by a blow which Cesar stroke at him. Andro|geus also and Tenancius were at the battell in aid iof Cassibellane. But Nenius died within 15 daies after the battell of the hurt receiued at Cesars hand, although after he was so hurt, he slue Labienus one of the Romane tribunes: all which may well be true, sith Cesar either maketh the best of things for his owne honour, or else coueting to write but com|mentaries, maketh no account to declare the néede|les circumstances, or anie more of the matter, than the chiefe points of his dealing.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Againe,Hector Boet. the Scotish historiographers write, that when it was first knowne to the Britains, that Ce|sar would inuade them, there came from Cassibel|lane king of Britaine an ambassador vnto Ederus king of Scots, who in the name of king Cassibellane required aid against the common enimies the Ro|mains, which request was granted, and 10 thousand Scots sent to the aid of Cassibellane. At their com|ming to London, they were most ioifullie receiued of Cassibellane, who at the same time had know|ledge that the Romans were come on land, and had beaten such Britains backe as were appointed to re|sist their landing. Wherevpon Cassibellane with all his whole puissance mightilie augmented, not onlie with the succours of the Scots, but also of the Picts (which in that common cause had sent also of their people to aid the Britains) set forward towards the place where he vnderstood the enimies to be.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 At their first approch togither, Cassibellane sent foorth his horssemen and charets called Esseda, by the which he thought to disorder the araie of the enimies. Twice they incountred togither with doubtfull vic|torie. At length they ioined puissance against puis|sance, and fought a verie sore and cruell battell, till fi|nally at the sudden comming of the Welshmen and Cornishmen, so huge a noise was raised by the sound of bels hanging at their trappers and charets, that the Romans astonied therewith, were more easilie put to flight. The Britains, Scots, and Picts fol|lowing the chase without order or araie, so that by reason the Romans kept themselues close togi|ther, the Britains, Scots, & Picts did scarse so much harme to the enimies as they themselues receiued. But yet they followed on still vpon the Romans till it was darke night.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Cesar after he had perceiued them once with|drawne, did what he could to assemble his compa|nies togither, minding the next morning to séeke his reuenge of the former daies disaduantage. But for|somuch as knowledge was giuen him that his ships (by reason of a sore tempest) were so beaten and rent, that manie of them were past seruice, he doubted least such newes would incourage his enimies, and bring his people into despaire. Wherfore he determi|ned not to fight till time more conuenient, sending all his wounded folks vnto the ships, which he com|manded to be newlie rigged and trimmed. After this, kéeping his armie for a time within the place where he was incamped without issuing foorth, he shortlie drew to the sea side, where his ships laie at anchor, and there within a strong place fortified for the purpose he lodged his host, and finallie without hope to atchieue anie other exploit auaileable for that time, he tooke the sea with such ships as were apt for sailing, and so repassed into Gallia, leauing be|hind him all the spoile and baggage for want of ves|sels and leisure to conueie it ouer. ¶Thus haue the Scots in their chronicles framed the matter, more to the conformitie of the Romane histories, than ac|cording to the report of our British and English writers: and therefore we haue thought good to shew it héere, that the diuersitie of writers and their affec|tions may the better appéere.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Of this sudden departing also, or rather fléeing of Iulius Cesar out of Britaine, Lucanus the poet maketh mention, reciting the saieng of Pompeius in an oration made by him vnto this souldiers, wher|in he reprochfullie and disdainfullie reprooued the doo|ings of Cesar in Britaine, saieng:

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Territa quaesitis ostendit terga Britannis.

3.14. Caesar taketh a new occasion to make warre against the Britains, he arriueth on the coast without resistance, the number of his ships, both armies incounter, why Caesar forbad the Romans to pursue the discomfited Britains, he repaireth his nauie, the Britains choose Cassibel|lane their cheefe gouernour, and skirmish a|fresh with their enimies, but haue the repulse in the end. The xiiij. Chapter.

Caesar taketh a new occasion to make warre against the Britains, he arriueth on the coast without resistance, the number of his ships, both armies incounter, why Caesar forbad the Romans to pursue the discomfited Britains, he repaireth his nauie, the Britains choose Cassibel|lane their cheefe gouernour, and skirmish a|fresh with their enimies, but haue the repulse in the end. The xiiij. Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _NOw will we returne to the sequele of the matter, as Ce|sar himselfe reporteth. After his comming into Gallia, there were but two cities of all Britaine that sent ouer their hostages according to their couenant, which gaue occasion to Cesar to picke a new quarrel againstDion Cassius. them, which if it had wanted, he would yet (I doubt EEBO page image 28 not) haue found some other: for his full meaning was to make a more full conquest of that Ile. There|fore purposing to passe againe thither, as he that had a great desire to bring the Britains vnder the obe|dience of the Romane estate, he caused a great number of ships to be prouided in the winter season and put in a readinesse, so that against the next spring there were found to be readie rigged six hundred ships, beside 28 gallies. Héerevpon hauing taken or|der for the gouernance of Gallia in his absence, Caesar de bell. Gal. lib. 5. a|bout the beginning of the spring he came to the ha|uen of Calice, whither (according to order by him prescribed) all his ships were come, except 40 which by tempest were driuen backe, and could not as yet come to him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 After he had staied at Calice (as well for a conue|nient wind, as for other incidents) certeine daies, at length when the weather so changed that it serued his purpose, he tooke the sea, & hauing with him fiue legi|ons of souldiers, and about two thousand horssemen, he departed out of Calice hauen about sun setting with a soft southwest wind, directing his course for|ward: about midnight the wind fell, & so by a calme he was carried alongst with the tide, so that in the morning when the day appéered, he might behold Britaine vpon his left hand. Then following the streame as the course of the tide changed, he forced with [...]ares to fetch the shore vpon that part of the coast, which he had discouered, and tried the last yeere to be the best landing place for the armie. The dili|gence of the souldiers was shewed héere to be great, who with continuall toile droue foorth the heauie ships, to kéepe course with the gallies, & so at length they landed in Britaine about noone on the next day, finding not one to resist his comming ashore: for as he learned by certeine prisoners which were taken after his comming to land, the Britains being as|sembled in purpose to haue resisted him, through feare striken into their harts, at the discouering of such an huge number of ships, they forsooke the shore and got them vnto the mountaines. There were in deed of vessels one and other, what with vittellers, & those which priuat men had prouided and furnished foorth for their owne vse, being ioined to the ordina|rie number, at the least eight hundred saile, which appeering in sight all at one time, made a wonderfull muster, and right terrible in the eies of the Britains.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But to procéed: Cesar being got to land, incam|ped his armie in a place conuenient: and after lear|ning by the prisoners, into what part the enimies were withdrawne, he appointed one Quintus Atri|us to remaine vpon the safegard of the nauie, with ten companies or cohorts of footmen, and three hun|dred horssemen: and anon after midnight marched foorth himselfe with the residue of his people toward the Britains, and hauing made 12 miles of way, he got sight of his enimies host, who sending downe their horssemen and charets vnto the riuer side, skir|mished with the Romans, meaning to beate them backe from the higher ground: but being assailed of the Romane horssemen, they were repelled, & tooke the woods for their refuge, wherein they had got a place verie strong, both by nature and helpe of hand, which (as was to be thought) had béene fortified be|fore, in time of some ciuill warre amongst them: for all the entries were closed with trées which had béene cut downe for that purpose. Howbeit the souldiers of the 7 legion casting a trench before them, found meanes to put backe the Britains from their defen|ses, and so entring vpon them, droue them out of the woods. But Cesar would not suffer the Romans to follow the Britains, bicause the nature of the coun|trie was not knowne vnto them: and againe the day was farre spent, so that he would haue the resi|due thereof bestowed in fortifieng his campe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The next day, as he had sent foorth such as should haue pursued the Britains, word came to him from Quintus Atrius, that his nauie by rigour of a sore and hideous tempest was gréeuouslie molested, and throwne vpon the shore, so that the cabels and tackle being broken and destroied with force of the vnmer|cifull rage of wind, the maisters and mariners were not able to helpe the matter. Cesar calling backe those which he had sent foorth, returned to his ships, and finding them in such state as he had heard, tooke order for the repairing of those that were not vtter|lie destroied, and caused them so to be drawne vp to the land, that with a trench he might so compasse in a plot of ground, that might serue both for defense of his ships, and also for the incamping of those men of warre, which he should leaue to attend vpon the safe|gard of the same. And bicause there were at the least a fortie ships lost by violence of this tempest, so as there was no hope of recouerie in them, he saw yet how the rest with great labour and cost might be re|paired: wherefore he chose out wrights among the legions, sent for other into Gallia, and wrote ouer to such as he had left there in charge with the gouern|ment of the countrie, to prouide so manie ships as they could, and to send them ouer vnto him. He spent a ten daies about the repairing of his nauie, and in fortifieng the campe for defense thereof, which done, he left those within it that were appointed there be|fore, and then returned towards his enimies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 At his comming backe to the place where he had before incamped, he found them there readie to re|sist him, hauing their numbers hugelie increased: for the Britains hearing that he was returned with such a mightie number of ships assembled out of all parts of the land, and had by general consent appoin|ted the whole rule and order of all things touching the warre vnto Cassiuellane or Cassibelane, whose dominion was diuided from the cities situat néere to the sea coast,Cassibellane as should séeme, ruled in the parties of Oxfordshire, Barkshire, Bucking|hamshire, and Bedfordshire. by the riuer of Thames, 80 miles di|stant from the sea coast. This Cassibellane before time had bin at continuall warre with other rulers, and cities of the land: but now the Britains moued with the comming of the Romans, chose him to be chiefe gouernour of all their armie, permitting the order and rule of all things touching the defense of their countrie against the Romans onelie to him. Their horssemen and charets skirmished by the waie with the Romans, but so as they were put backe of|tentimes into the woods and hills adioining: yet the Britains slue diuers of the Romans as they follow|ed anie thing egerlie in the pursute.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Also within a while after, as the Romans were busie in fortifieng their campe, the Britains sudden|lie issued out of the woods, and fierselie assailed those that warded before the campe, vnto whose aid Cesar sent two of the chiefest cohorts of two legions, the which being placed but a little distance one from ano|ther, when the Romans began to be discouraged with this kind of fight, the Britains therewith burst through their enimies, and came backe from thence in safetie. That daie Quintus Laberius Durus a tribune was slaine. At length Cesar sending sundrie other cohorts to the succour of his people that were in fight, and shrewdlie handled as it appéered, the Britains in the end were put backe. Neuerthelesse, that repulse was but at the pleasure of fortune; for they quited themselues afterwards like men, defen|ding their territories with such munition as they had, vntill such time as either by policie or inequali|tie of power they were vanquished; as you shall sée after in the course of the historie. Howbeit in fine they were ouer-run and vtterlie subdued, but not without much bloudshed and slaughter.

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