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5.10. Of sundrie minerals. Chap. 10.

Of sundrie minerals. Chap. 10.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _WIth how great benefits this Iland of ours hath béene in|dued from the beginning, I hope there is no godlie man but will readilie confesse, and yéeld vnto the Lord God his due honour for the same. For we are blessed euerie waie, & there is no temporall commoditie necessarie to be had or craued by anie nation at Gods hand, that he hath not in most aboundant maner bestowed vpon vs Englishmen, if we could sée to vse it, & be thanke|full for the same. But alas (as I said in the chapter precedent) we loue to inrich them that care not for vs, but for our great commodities: and one trifling toie not woorth the cariage, cõming (as the prouerbe saith) in thrée ships from beyond the sea is more woorth with vs, than a right good iewell, easie to be had at home. They haue also the cast to teach vs to neglect our owne things, for if they see that we begin to make anie account of our commodities (if it be so that they haue also the like in their owne countries) they will suddenlie abase the same to so low a price, that our gaine not being woorthie our trauell, and the same commoditie with lesse cost readie to be had at home from other countries (though but for a while) it causeth vs to giue ouer our indeuours, and as it were by and by to forget the matter whereabout we went before, to obteine them at their hands. And this is the onelie cause wherefore our commodities are oft so little estéemed of. Some of them can saie without anie teacher, that they will buie the case of a fox of an Englishman for a groat, and make him af|terward giue twelue pence for the taile. Would to God we might once wax wiser, and each one inde|uor that the common-wealth of England may flou|rish againe in hir old rate, and that our commodities may be fullie wrought at home (as cloth if you will for an example) and not caried out to be shorne and dressed abroad, while our clothworkers here doo starue and beg their bread, and for lacke of dailie pra|ctise vtterlie neglect to be skilfull in this science! But to my purpose.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 We haue in England great plentie of quicke sil|uer, antimonie, sulphur, blacke lead, and orpiment red and yellow. We haue also the finest alume (wherein the diligence of one of the greatest fauou|rers of the common-wealth of England of a subiect hath béene of late egregiouslie abused,The lord Mountioy. and euen al|most with barbarous inciuilitie) & of no lesse force a|gainst fire, if it were vsed in our parietings than that of Lipara, which onlie was in vse somtime amongst the Asians & Romans, & wherof Sylla had such triall that when he meant to haue burned a tower of wood erected by Archelaus the lieutenant of Mithridates, he could by no meanes set it on fire in a long time, bicause it was washed ouer with alume, as were al|so so the gates of the temple of Ierusalem with like ef|fect, and perceiued when Titus commanded fire to be put vnto the same. Beside this we haue also the na|turall cinnabarum or vermilion, the sulphurous glebe called bitumen in old time for morter, and yet [...]: the chrysocolla, coperis, and minerall stone, whereof pe|triolum is made, and that which is most strange the minerall pearle, which as they are for greatnesse and colour most excellent of all other, so are they digged out of the maine land, and in sundrie places far di|stant from the shore. Certes the westerne part of the land hath in times past greatlie abounded with these and manie other rare and excellent commodi|ties, but now they are washed awaie by the violence of the sea, which hath deuoured the greatest part of Cornewall and Deuonshire on either side: and it dooth appéere yet by good record, that whereas now there is a great distance betweene the Syllan Iles and point of the lands end, there was of late yeares to speke of scarselie a brooke or draine of one fadam water betwéene them, if so much, as by those euiden|ces appeereth, and are yet to be séene in the hands of the lord and chiefe owner of those Iles. But to pro|céed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Of colemines we haue such plentie in the north and westerne parts of our Iland, as may suffice for all the realme of England: and so must they doo hereafter in deed, if wood be not better cherished than it is at this present. And to saie the truth, not|withstanding that verie manie of them are caried into other countries of the maine, yet their greatest trade beginneth now to grow from the forge into the kitchin and hall, as may appéere alreadie in most cities and townes that lie about the coast, where they haue but little other fewell, except it be turffe and hassocke. I maruell not a little that there is no trade of these into Sussex and Southhampton shire, for want whereof the smiths doo worke their iron with charcoale. I thinke that far carriage be the onelie cause, which is but a slender excuse to inforce vs to carrie them vnto the maine from hence.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Beside our colemines we haue pits in like sort of white plaster, and of fat and white and other colou|red marle, wherewith in manie places the inhabitors doo compest their soile, and which dooth benefit their land in ample maner for manie yeares to come. We haue saltpeter for our ordinance, and salt soda for our glasse, & thereto in one place a kind of earth (in Sou|therie as I weene hard by Codington, and some|time in the tenure of one Croxton of London) which is so fine to make moulds for goldsmiths and casters of mettall, that a load of it was woorth fiue shillings thirtie yeares agone: none such againe they saie in England. But whether there be or not, let vs not be vnthankefull to God for these and other his benefits EEBO page image 237 bestowed vpon vs, wherby he sheweth himselfe a lo|uing and mercifull father vnto vs, which contrarie|wise returne vnto him in lieu of humilitie and obe|dience, nothing but wickednesse, auarice, meere con|tempt of his will, pride, excesse, atheisme, and no lesse than Iewish ingratitude.

5.11. Of mettals to be had in our land. Chap. 11.

Of mettals to be had in our land. Chap. 11.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _ALl mettals receiue their be|ginning of quicksiluer and sulphur, which are as mother and father to them. And such is the purpose of nature in their generations: that she tendeth alwaies to the pro|creation of gold, neuerthe|lesse she sildome reacheth vnto that hir end, bicause of the vnequall mixture and proportion of these two in the substance ingendered, whereby impediment and corruption [...] induced, which as it is more or lesse, dooth shew it selfe in the mettall that is producted. First of all therefore the substance of sulphur and quicksiluer being mixed in [...] proportion, after long and temperate decoction in the [...]els of the earth, orderlie ingrossed and fixed, becommeth gold, which Encelius dooth call the sunne and right heire of na|ture but if it swarue but a little (saith he) in [...]he com|mixtion and other circumstances, then doo [...]t, it pro|duct siluer the daughter, not so noble a child as g [...]ld hir brother, which among mettall is worthilie called the cheefe. Contrariwise, the substances of the aforesaid parents mixed without proportion, and lesse digested and fixed in the entrailes of the earth, where|by the radicall moisture becommeth combustible and not of force to indure heat and hammer, dooth either turne into tin, lead, copper, or iron, which were the first mettals knowne in time past vnto antiqui|tie, although that in these daies there are diuerse o|ther, whereof neither they nor our alchumists had euer anie knowledge. Of these therfore which are re|puted among the third sort, we here in England haue our parts, and as I call them to mind, so will I in|treat of them, and with such breuitie as may serue the turne, and yet not altogither omit to saie some|what of gold and siluer also, bicause I find by good ex|perience how it was not said of old time without great reason,Gold Siluer. that all countries haue need of Bri|taine, and Britaine it selfe of none. For truelie if a man regard such necessities as nature onelie requi|reth, there is no nation vnder the sunne, that can saie so much as ours: sith we doo want none that are con|uenient for vs. Wherefore if it be a benefit to haue anie gold at all, we are not void of some, neither like|wise of siluer: whatsoeuer Cicero affirmeth to the contrarie, Lib. 4. ad Atticum epi. 16. in whose time they were not found, Britannici belli exitus (saith he) expecta|tur, constat enim aditus insulae esse munitos mirificis molibus: etiam illud iam cognitum est, neque argenti scrupulum esse vllum in illa insula, neque vllam spem praedae nisiex mancipijs, ex quibus nullos puto te litteris aut musicis eruditos expectare. And albeit that we haue no such abundance of these (as some other countries doo yéeld) yet haue my rich countrimen store inough of both in their pursses, where in time past they were woont to haue least, bi|cause the garnishing of our churches, tabernacles, images, shrines and apparell of the preests consumed the greatest part, as experience hath confirmed.

Of late my countriemen haue found out I wot not what voiage into the west Indies, from whence they haue brought some gold, whereby our countrie is inriched: but of all that euer aduentured into those parts, none haue sped better than sir Francis Drake whose successe 1582 hath far passed euen his owne expectation. One Iohn Frobisher in like maner at|tempting to séeke out a shorter cut by the northerlie regions into the peaceable sea and kingdome of Ca|thaie, happened 1577 vpon certeine Ilands by the waie, wherein great plentie of much gold appeared, and so much that some letted not to giue out for cer|teintie, that Salomon had his gold from thence, wherewith he builded the temple. This golden shew made him so desirous also of like successe, that he left off his former voiage, & returned home to bring news of such things as he had seene. But when after another voiage it was found to be but drosse, he gaue ouer both the enterprises, and now keepeth home without anie desire at all to séeke into farre coun|tries. In truth, such was the plentie of ore there séene and to be had, that if it had holden perfect, might haue furnished all the world with abundance of that met|tall; the iorneie also was short and performed in foure or fiue moneths, which was a notable incourage|ment. But to proceed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Tin and lead, mettals which Strabo noteth in his time to be carried vnto Marsilis from hence,Tin. Lead. as Dio|dorus also confirmeth, are verie plentifull with vs, the one in Cornewall, Deuonshire (& else-where in in the north) the other in Darbishire, Weredale, and sundrie places of this Iland; whereby my countrie|men doo reape no small commoditie, but especiallie our pewterers, who in time past imploied the vse of pewter onelie vpon dishes, pots, and a few other tri|fles for seruice here at home, whereas now they are growne vnto such exquisit cunning, that they can in maner imitate by infusion anie forme or fashion of cup, dish, salt, bowle, or goblet, which is made by goldsmiths craft, though they he neuer so curious, exquisite, and artificiallie forged. Such furniture of houshold of this mettall, as we commonlie call by the name of vessell, is sold vsuallie by the garnish, which dooth co [...]eine twelue plaiters, twelue dishes, twelue saucers, and those are either of siluer fashion, or else with brode or narrow brims, and bought by the pound, which is now valued at six or seuen pence, or peraduenture at eight pence. Of poringers, pots, and other like I speake not albeit that in the making of all these things there is such exquisite diligence vsed, I meane for the mixture of the mettall and true making of this commoditie (by reason of sharpe laws prouided in that behalfe) as the like is not to be found in any other trade. I haue béene also informed that it consisteth of a composition, which hath thirtie pounds of kettle brasse to a thousand pounds of tin, whervnto they ad thrée or foure pounds of tinglasse: but as too much of this dooth make the stuffe brickle, so the more the brasse be, the better is the pewter, and more profitable vnto him that dooth buie and purchase the same. But to proceed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In some places beyond the sea a garnish of good flat English pewter of an ordinarie making (I saie flat, bicause dishes and platters in my time begin to be made déepe like basons, and are indéed more con|uenient both for sawce, broth, and kéeping the meat warme) is estéemed almost so pretious, as the like number of vessels that are made of fine siluer, and in maner no lesse desired amongst the great estates, whose workmen are nothing so skilfull in that trade as ours, neither their mettall so good, nor plentie so great, as we haue here in England. The Romans made excellent looking glasses of our English tin, howbeit our workemen were not then so equisite in that feat as the Brundusiens: wherefore the wrought mettall was carried ouer vnto them by waie of merchandize, and verie highlie were those glasses EEBO page image 238 estéemed of till siluer came generallie in place, which in the end brought the tin into such contempt, that in manner euerie dishwasher refused to looke in other than siluer glasses for the attiring of hir head. How|beit the making of siluer glasses had béene in vse be|fore Britaine was knowne vnto the Romans, for I read that one Praxiteles deuised them in the yoong time of Pompeie, which was before the comming of Caesar into this Iland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There were mines of lead sometimes also in Wales, which indured so long till the people had con|sumed all their wood by melting of the same (as they did also at Comeristwith six miles from Stradfluer) and I suppose that in Plinies time the abundance of lead (whereof he speaketh) was to be found in those parts, in the seauentéenth of his thirtie fourth booke: also he affirmeth that it laie in the verie swart of the earth, and dailie gotten in such plentie, that the Ro|mans made a restraint of the cariage thereof to Rome, limiting how much should yearelie be wrought and transported ouer the sea. And here by the waie it is worthie to be noted, of a crow which a miner of tin, dwelling néere Comeristwith (as Le|land saith) had made so tame, that it would dailie flie and follow him to his worke and other places where soeuer he happened to trauell. This labourer wor|king on a time in the bottome or vallie, where the first mine was knowne to be, did laie his pursse and girdle by him, as men commonlie doo that addresse themselues to applie their businesse earnestlie, and he himselfe also had vsed from time to time before. The crow likewise was verie busie flittering about him, and so much molested him, that he waxed angrie with the bird, & in his furie threatened to wring off his necke, if be might once get him into his hands; to be short, in the end the crow hastilie caught vp his girdle and pursse, and made awaie withall so far as hir wings could carrie hir. Héerevpon the pore man falling into great agonie (for he feared to vse perad|uenture all his monie) threw downe his mattocke at aduenture and ran after the bird, curssing and me|nacing that he should lose his life if euer he got him againe: but as it fell out, the crow was the means whereby his life was saued, for he had not béene long out of the mine, yer it fell downe and killed all his fellowes. If I should take vpon me to discourse and search out the cause of the thus dealing of this bird at large, I should peraduenture set my selfe further into the briers than well find which waie to come out againe: yet am I persuaded, that the crow was Gods instrument herein, whereby the life of this poore labourer was preserued. It was doone also in an o|ther order than that which I read of another tame crow, kept vp by a shoomaker of Dutch land in his shop or stoue: who séeing the same to sit vpon the pearch among his shoone, verie heauilie and drousie, said vnto the bird: What aileth my iacke, whie art thou sad and pensiue? The crow hearing his maister speake after this sort vnto him, answered (or else the diuell within him) out of the psalter: Cogitaui dies an|tiquos & aeternos in mente habui. But whither am I di|gressed, from lead vnto crowes, & from crowes vnto diuels? Certes it is now high time to returne vnto our mettals, and resume the tractation of such things as I had earst in hand.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Iron is found in manie places,Iron. as in Sussex, Kent, Weredale, Mendip, Walshall, as also in Shropshire, but chéeflie in the woods betwixt Beluos and Willocke or Wicberie néere Manchester, and elsewhere in Wales. Of which mines diuerse doo bring foorth so fine and good stuffe, as anie that com|meth from beyond the sea, beside the infinit gaines to the owners, if we would so accept it, or bestow a little more cost in the refining of it. It is also of such toughnesse, that it yéeldeth to the making of cla|ricord wire in some places of the realme. Neuerthe|lesse, it was better cheape with vs when strangers onelie brought it hither: for it is our qualitie when we get anie commoditie, to vse it with extremitie to|wards our owne nation, after we haue once found the meanes to shut out forreners from the bringing in of the like. It breedeth in like manner great ex|pense and waste of wood, as dooth the making of our pots and table vessell of glasse, wherein is much losse sith it is so quicklie broken; and yet (as I thinke) easie to be made tougher, if our alchumists could once find the true birth or production of the red man, whose mixture would induce a metallicall tough|nesse vnto it, whereby it should abide the hammer.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Copper is latelie not found,Copper. but rather restored a|gaine to light. For I haue read of copper to haue béene heretofore gotten in our Iland; howbeit as strangers haue most commonly the gouernance of our mines, so they hither to make small gains of this in hand in the north parts: for (as I am informed) the profit dooth verie hardlie counteruaile the charges, whereat wise men doo not a litle maruel, consider|ing the abundance which that mine dooth séeme to of|fer, and as it were at hand Leland our countrie|man noteth sundrie great likelihoods of naturall copper mines to be eastwards, as betwéene Dud|man and Trewa [...]thher places, wherea [...] in sundrie pla [...]es of this booke alreadie, and therefore it shall b [...] but in vaine to repeat them here againe: as for [...]hat which is gotten out of the marchasite, I speake not of it, sith it is not incident to my purpose. In Dorsetshire also a copper mine latelie found is brought to good perfection.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 As for our stéele,Stéele. it is not so good for edge-tooles as that of Colaine, and yet the one is often sold for the other, and like tale vsed in both, that is to saie, thirtie gads to the sheffe, and twelue sheffes to the burden. Our alchumie is artificiall, and thereof our spoones and some salts are commonlie made, and preferred before our pewter with some, albeit in truth it be much subiect to corruption, putrifaction, more heauie and foule to handle than our pewter; yet some ignorant persons affirme it to be a mettall more na|turall, and the verie same which Encelius calleth Plumbum cinereum, the Germans, wisemute, mithan, & counterfeie, adding, that where it groweth, siluer can not be farre off. Neuerthelesse it is knowne to be a mixture of brasse, lead, and tin (of which this latter occupieth the one halfe) but after another proportion than is vsed in pewter. But alas I am persuaded that neither the old Arabians, nor new alchumists of our time did euer heare of it, albeit that the name thereof doo séeme to come out of their forge. For the common sort indeed doo call it alchumie, an vnwhol|some mettall (God wot) and woorthie to be banished and driuen out of the land. And thus I conclude with this discourse, as hauing no more to saie of the mettals of my countrie, except I should talke of brasse, bell mettall, and such as are brought ouer for merchandize from other countries: and yet I can not but saie that there is some brasse found also in England, but so small is the quantitie, that it is not greatlie to be estéemed or accounted of.

5.12. Of pretious stones. Chap. 12.

EEBO page image 239

Of pretious stones. Chap. 12.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _THe old writers remember few other stones of estimati|on to be found in this Iland than that which we call great, and they in Latine Gagates: Geat. wherevnto furthermore they ascribe sundrie properties, as vsuallie practised here in times past,Laon. Chalchon|vtle. whereof none of our writers doo make a|nie mention at all. Howbeit whatsoeuer it hath plea|sed a number of strangers (vpon false surmise) to write of the vsages of this our countrie, about the triall of the virginitie of our maidens by drinking the powder hereof against the time of their bestow|ing in mariage: certeine it is that euen to this daie there is some plentie to be had of this commoditie in Darbishire and about Barwike, whereof rings, salts, small cups, and sundrie trifling toies are made, although that in manie mens opinions no|thing so fine as that which is brought ouer by mer|chants dailie from the maine. But as these men are drowned with the common errour conceiued of our nation, so I am sure that in discerning the price and value of things, no man now liuing can go beyond the iudgement of the old Romans, who preferred the geat of Britaine before the like stones bred about Luke and all other countries wheresoeuer. Marbo|deus Gallus also writing of the same among other of estimation, saith thus:

Nascitur in Lycialapis & propè gemma Gagates,
Sed genus eximium faecunda Britannia mittit,
Lucidus & niger est, leuis & leuissimus idem,
Vicinas paleas trahit attritu calefactus,
Ardet aqua lotus, restinguitur vnctus oliuo.

The Germane writers confound it with amber as if it were a kind therof: but as I regard not their iudgement in this point, so I read that it taketh name of Gagas a citie and riuer in Silicia, where it groweth in plentifull maner, as Dioscorides saith. Nicander in Theriaca calleth it Engangin and Gan|gitin, of the plentie thereof that is found in the place aforesaid, which he calleth Ganges, and where they haue great vse of it in driuing awaie of serpents by the onelie perfume thereof. Charles the fourth em|perour of that name glased the church withall that standeth at the fall of Tangra, but I cannot ima|gine what light should enter therby. The writers al|so diuide this stone into fiue kinds, of which the one is in colour like vnto lion tawnie, another straked with white veines, the third with yellow lines, the fourth is garled with diuerse colours, among which some are like drops of bloud (but those come out of Inde) and the fift shining blacke as anie rauens fea|ther.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Moreouer, as geat was one of the first stones of this Ile, whereof anie forren account was made, so our pearles also did match with it in renowme: in so much that the onelie desire of them caused Caesar to aduenture hither, after he had séene the quantities and heard of our plentie of them, while he abode in France, and whereof he made a taberd which he offe|red vp in Rome to Uenus, where it hoong long af|ter as a rich and notable oblation and testimonie of the riches of our countrie. Certes they are to be found in these our daies, and thereto of diuerse co|lours, in no lesse numbers than euer they were in old time. Yet are they not now so much desired bicause of their smalnesse, and also for other causes, but espe|ciallie sith church worke, as copes, vestments, albes, tunicles, altarclothes, canopies, and such trash, are worthilie abolished; vpon which our countrimen superstitiously bestowed no small quantities of them. For I thinke there were sew churches or religious houses, besides bishops miters, bookes and other pon|tificall vestures, but were either throughlie fretted, or notablie garnished with huge numbers of them. Marbodeus likewise speaking of pearles, commen|deth them after this maner:

Gignit & insignes antiqua Britannia baccas, &c.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Marcellinus also Lib. 23, in ipso, fine, speaketh of our pearls and their generation, but he preferreth great|lie those of Persia before them, which to me dooth séeme vnequallie doone. But as the British geat or o|rient pearle were in old time estéemed aboue those of other countries; so time hath since the conquest of the Romans reuealed manie other: insomuch that at this season there are found in England the Ae|tites (in English called the ernestone, but for erne some pronounce eagle) and the hematite or blood|stone, and these verie pure and excellent: also the cal|cedonie, the porphyrite, the christall, and those other which we call calaminares and speculares, besides a kind of diamond or adamant, which although it be ve|rie faire to sight, is yet much softer (as most are that are found & bred toward the north) than those that are brought hither out of other countries. We haue also vpon our coast the white corall, nothing inferiour to that which is found beyond the sea in the albe, néere to the fall of Tangra, or to the red and blacke, where|of Dioscorides intreateth, Lib. 5. cap. 8. We haue in like sort sundrie other stones dailie found in cliffes and rocks (beside the load stone which is oftentimes taken vp out of our mines of iron) whereof such as find them haue either no knowledge at all, or else doo make but small account, being seduced by outlan|dith lapidaries, whereof the most part discourage vs from the searching and séeking out of our owne com|modities, to the end that they maie haue the more frée vtterance of their naturall and artificiall wares, whereby they get great gaines amongst such as haue no skill.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 I haue heard that the best triall of a stone is to laie it on the naile of the thombe,Triall of a stone. and so to go abroad into the cleare light, where if the colour hold in all places a like, the stone is thought to be naturall and good: but if it alter, especiallie toward the naile, then is it not sound, but rather to be taken for an artificiall péece of practise. If this be true it is an experiment woorthie the noting. Cardan also hath it in his De subtilitate; if not,Lib. 7. I haue read more lies than this, as one for example out of Cato, who saieth, that a cup of iuie will hold no wine at all. I haue made some vessels of the same wood, which refuse no kind of liquor, and therefore I suppose that there is no such Antipathia betweene wine and our iuie, as some of our reading philosophers (without all maner of prac|tise) will seeme to infer amongst vs: and yet I denie not but the iuie of Gréece or Italie may haue such a propertie; but why should not the iuie then of France somewhat participat withall in the like effect, which groweth in an hotter soile than ours is? For as Bap|tista porta saith, it holdeth not also in the French iuie, wherefore I can not beléeue that it hath anie such qua|litie at all as Cato ascribeth vnto it. What should I say more of stones? Trulie I can not tell, sith I haue said what I may alreadie, and peraduenture more than I thinke necessarie: and that causeth me to passe ouer those that are now & then taken out of our oisters, todes, muskels, snailes and adders, and like|wise such as are found vpon sundrie hils in Gloce|stershire, which haue naturallie such sundrie proporti|ons, formes & colours in them, as passe all humane possibilitie to imitate, be the workeman neuer so EEBO page image 240 skilfull and cunning, also those that are found in the heads of our perches and carps much desired of such as haue the stone, & yet of themselues are no stones but rather shels or gristles, which in time consume to nothing. This yet will I ad, that if those which are found in muskels (for I am vtterlie ignorant of the generation of pearls) be good pearle in déed, I haue at sundrie times gathered more than an ounce of them, of which diuerse haue holes alreadie entered by nature, some of them not much inferiour to great peason in quantitie, and thereto of sundrie colours, as it happeneth amongst such as are brought from the esterlie coast to Saffron Walden in Lent, when for want of flesh, stale stinking fish and welked mus|kels are thought to be good meat; for other fish is too déere amongst vs when law dooth bind vs to vse it. Sée more for the generation of pearls in the descrip|tion of Scotland, for there you shall be further infor|med out of Boetius in that behalfe. They are called o|rient, because of the cléerenesse, which resembleth the colour of the cléere aire before the rising of the sun. They are also sought for in the later end of August, a little before which time the swéetnesse of the dew is most conuenient for that kind of fish, which dooth in|gender and conceiue them, whose forme is flat, and much like vnto a lempet. The further north also that they be found the brighter is their colour, & their sub|stances of better valure, as lapidaries doo giue out.

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3.16. ¶Of ſundry Mineralles. Cap. 16.

¶Of ſundry Mineralles. Cap. 16.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 WYth howe great benefites thys I|lande of oures hathe béene indued from the beginning, I hope there is no god|ly man but wyll redily confeſſe, and yéelde vnto the Lorde God his due honour for the ſame. For we are bleſſed euery way, & there is no temporall commoditie neceſſary to bée had or craued by any nacion at Gods hand, that he hath not in moſt abundaunt maner beſtowed vpon vs Engliſhmen if we coulde ſée to vſe it, and be thankefull for the ſame. But alas (as I ſayd in ye chapter precedent,) wée loue to enrych them that care not for vs, but for our great commodities: and one tryfling toye not woorth the caryage, cõming (as the prouerbe ſaith), in thrée ſhyps from beyonde the ſea is more woorth with vs, thẽ a ryght good Iewel, eaſie to be had at home. They haue alſo the caſt to teach vs to neg|lect our owne thinges, for if they ſée that wée beginne to make any accounte of our com|modities (if it be ſo that they haue alſo ye like, in theyr owne countryes) they will ſodaine|ly abaſe the ſame, to ſo lowe a price that our gaine not beyng woorthy our trauaile, & the ſame commoditie with leſſe coſt ready to be had at home from other countries (though EEBO page image 115 but for a whyle) it cauſeth vs to gyue ouer our indeuours, and as it were by and by to forget the matter whereabout we went be|fore to, obteine them at their hands. And this is the onely cauſe wherefore one commody|ties are oft ſo litle eſtemed. Some of them cã ſay wtout any teacher, that they wil by ye caſe of a Foxe of an Engliſh man for a grote, & make him afterward giue twelue pence for the tayle. Woulde to God wée myght once wexe wyſer, and eache one indeuour that the common wealth of Englande may flouriſh againe in hir olde rate, and that our cõmo|dities may bée fully wrought at home, as cloth if you will, for an example and not ca|ryed out to be ſhorne and dreſſed abroade, whiles our clothworkers here doe ſterue and beg their bread, & for lacke of dayly practiſe, vtterly neglect to be ſkilfull in thys ſcience: But to my purpoſe. We haue in englãd gret plẽty of quick Syluer, Antimony, Sulphur, black Lead, and Orpiment red and yealow. We haue alſo the fineſt Alume (wherein the diligence of one of the greateſt fauourers of the common wealth of England (of a ſub|iect) hath béene of late egregiouſly abuſed, & euen almoſt with barbarous inciuility) the natural Cinnabarum or Vermilion the Sul|phurus glebe called Bitumen, in olde tyme vſed for morter, and yet burned in lampes: where Oyle is ſcant and geaſon, the Cry|ſocolla, Coperous, ye Minerall ſtone, wher|of Petreolum is made) and that which is moſt ſtraunge, the minerall Pearle, which as they are for greatneſſe and coulour moſt excellent of all other, ſo are they digged out of the maine land, and in ſundry places farre diſtãt from the ſhore. Of Colemines we haue ſuch plentie in the North. And Weſterne partes of our Iſlande as may ſuffice for all the Realme of Englande, and ſo muſt they doe hereafter in déede, if woode be not better cheriſhed then it is at this preſent, and to ſay the truth, notwithſtanding that very many of them are caryed into other Countryes of the maine, yet theyr greateſt trade begin|neth nowe to growe from the Forge into ye Kitchin and Hall appeare already as maye in moſt Cities and Townes that lye about the coſt, where they haue little other fewell, except it be turfe, and haſſocke. I marueyle not a little that there is no trade of theſe into Suſſex and Southampton ſhire, for want whereof the Smithes doe worke theyr yron with charre coale. I thinke that farre carri|age be the only cauſe, which is but a ſlender excuſe, to inforce vs to carye them vnto the mayne from thence.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Beſide our coale pittes we haue pyttes in lyke ſorte of white plaſter, and of f [...]lte and white Marie, wherewith in many places the inhabitors doe compeſt their ſoile. We haue Salte Peter for our ordinaunce, and Salt Soda for our glaſſe, and therto in one place a kinde of earth (in Sothe [...]ey as I wéene harde by Codington, and ſometime in the tenure of one Croxton of London) which is ſo fine to make mouldes for goldſmithes & caſters of mettal, that a lode of it was worth fiue ſhyllinges thirtie yeares a gone. None ſuch againe they ſay in England. But whe|ther there be or not, let vs not be vnthanke|full to God for theſe and other his benefites beſtowed vpon vs, wherby he ſheweth hym|ſelfe a louing and mercifull father vnto vs, which contrarywyſe returne vnto hym in lew of humilitie and obedience, nothing but wickedneſſe, auarice, méere contempt of hys will, and notable ingratitude.

3.17. ¶ Of common or artificiall Salt made in Englande. Cap. 17.

¶ Of common or artificiall Salt made in Englande. Cap. 17.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 THere are in Englande certaine welles where Salt is made, whereof Lelande hath written aboundantly in his comenta|ryes of Brytaine, and whoſe words onely. I wyll ſet downe in Engliſhe as he wrate th [...], becauſe he ſéemeth to haue had diligent con|ſideration of the ſame, without adding any thing of my owne vnto hym, except it bée where neceſſitie doth infore me for ye méere aid of the reader, in the vnderſtanding of his mynd. Directing therefore his iourney from Worceſter in his peregrination and labo|rious iourney ouer Englande, he ſaith thus. From Worceſter I rode to the Wiche by incloſed ſoyle, hauing méetely good Corne grounde, ſufficient woode and good paſture, aboute a ſixe myles of. Wiche ſtandeth ſomewhat in a valley or lowe grounde, be|twixt two ſmall hylles on the left ripe (for ſo he calleth the bancke of euery brooke thorow out all his Engliſhe treatizes) of a pretie ryuer which not farre beneathe the Wiche is called Salope brooke. The beautye of the Towne in maner ſtandeth in one ſtreat, yet be there many lanes in the Towne beſides.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 There is alſo a meane Church in ye maine ſtreate and once in the wéeke, an indifferent rounde markette. The Towne of it ſelfe is ſomewhat foule and durty when any rayne falleth by reaſon of much caryage thorowe ye ſtreates, which are very yll paued or rather not paued at all. The great aduauncement alſo here, is by makyng of Salte, and though the commoditye thereof be ſinguler great, yet the Burgeſſes be poore, generally EEBO page image 125 becauſe Gentlemen haue generallye for the moſt parte gotten the great gaine of it into their handes,A cõmon plage in all thinges of any great commodity for one beateth ye buſhe but another catcheth ye the birdes, as we may ſée in Bat|fowling. whileſt the poore Burgeſ|ſes yéelde vnto all the labour. There are at this preſent time thrée honored Salters: and thrée Salt ſprings in the Towne of Wiche, whereof the principall is within a bu [...]ſhoote of the ryght rype (or banke) of the riuer that there commeth downe: and this ſpring is double ſo profitable in yéelding of Salte ly|quor, as both the other. Some ſay (or rather fable) that this Salte ſpring did fayle in the tyme of Richarde dela Wiche Byſhoppe of Chicheſter, and that afterwardes by his in|terceſſion it was reſtored to the profit of the olde courſe (ſuch is the ſuperſtiton of the peo|ple) in remembraunce whereof, or per|aduenture for the zeale which the Wiche men and Salters did beare vnto Rycharde Dela Wiche there countryman, they vſed of late times on his daye (which commeth once in the yere) to hange this Salt ſpring or Wel about which tapiſſery, and to haue ſun|dry games, drinkinges, and fooliſh reuelles at it. But to procede. There be a great num|ber of Salte cotes about this Well, wherin the Salte water is ſodden in leades, and brought to the perfection of pure white ſalt. The other two Salte ſpringes be on the left ſide of the ryuer a prety waye lower then ye firſt, and as I founde at the very ende of the Towne. At theſe alſo be diuers fornaces to make Salt, but the profite & plenty of theſe two are nothing comparable to the gayne, yt ryſeth by the greateſt. I aſked of a Salter how many fornaces they had at all the thrée ſpringes, and he numbred them to eightéene ſcore that is thrée hundred and ſixtie, ſaying howe euery one of them payde yearely ſixe ſhillings and eight pence to the king. The truth is that of olde they had liberties giuen vnto them for thrée hundreth furnaces or mo, and therevpon they gyue a fée farme (or vectigall) of one hunnreth pounde yearely. Certes the penſion is as it was, but the num|ber of fornaces is nowe increaſed, to foure hundreth. There was of late ſerch made for another Salte ſpring there aboutes by the meanes of one Neweport a Gentleman dwelling at the Wiche, and the place where it was appeareth, as doth alſo the woode and Timber which was ſet aboute it, to kéepe vp the earth frõ falling into the ſame. But thys pitte was not ſence occupied, whether it were for lacke of plentie of the ſalt ſpring, or for letting, or hindering of the profite of ye other thrée. Me thinke that if woode and ſale of Salte would ſerue, they might digge and find more ſalt ſpringes about the Wich thẽ thrée, but there is ſomewhat elſe in the w [...] For I hard that of late yeares a ſalt ſpri [...] was founde in an other quarter of Wor+ [...]ſter ſhire, but it grew to be without any [...] ſith the Wich men haue ſuch a priuiledg [...] that they a [...]ne in thoſe quarters ſhall ha [...] the making of ſalte. The Pittes be ſo ſet a|bout with gutters that ye ſalt water is eaſily turned to euerye mans houſe, and at Na [...] wich very many troughes go ouer the riuer for the commoditie of ſuch as dwell on the o|ther ſide of ye ſame. The ſéeth alſo their ſalt water in fornaces of leade, and lade out the Salte ſome in Caſes of wicker, [...]hor [...] which the water draineth, and the Salt re|maineth. There be alſo two or thrée but very lyttle Salt ſpringes at Dertwitche in a lo [...] bottome, where Salt is ſometyme made. Of late alſo a myle from Cumbremere ab|bay a péece of an hill dyd ſincke & in ye ſame pit roſe a ſpring of ſalt water where the Ab|bot begunne to make ſalt, but the men of the Citie compounded with the Abbot and Co|uent that there ſhoulde be none made there, whereby the pit was ſuffered to go to lo [...]. And although it yéelded ſalte water ſtil of it ſelfe, yet it was ſpoyled at the laſt and filled vp with filth. The Wich men vſe the com|moditie of their ſalt ſpring in drawing and decocting the water of them only by ſixe mõ|nethes in the yere, that is from Midſomer to Chriſtmaſſe, as I geſſe to maintayne ye price of ſalte, or for ſauing of wood, which I thinke to be their principall reaſon. For making of ſalt is a great and notable deſtructiõ of wood and ſhall be greater hereafter, except ſome prouiſion be made for the better increaſe of fiering. The lacke of wood alſo is alredy per|ceiued in places néere the Wiche, for where as they vſed to buye and take their woodde néere vnto their occupyings, thoſe woonted ſpringes are nowe decayed, and they be in|forſed to ſéeke their wood ſo farre as Wor|ceſter towne and all the partes about Bre|niſgraue, Alchirche, and Alceſter. I aſked a ſalter how much wood he ſuppoſed yearly to to be ſpent at theſe fornaces, and he aunſwe|red that by eſtimation there was conſumed about ſixe thouſande load, and it was rounde poale woode for the moſt, which is eaſy to be cleft, and handſomely reuen in péeces. The people that are about the fornaces are very ill couloured, and the iuſt rate of euery for|nace is to make foure loades of ſalt yearely and to euery loade goeth fiue or ſixe quar|ters as they make their account. If the for|nace men make more in one fornace then foure loades it is as it is ſayde imployed to their owne auayle. And thus much hath Le|lande EEBO page image 116 left in memorie of our whyte ſalt, who in an other booke not now in my handes hath touched the making alſo of Bay ſalt in ſome part of our coũtry. But ſith yt is boke deliue|red againe to the owner, the tractaciõ of bay ſalt can not be framed in any order, bycauſe my memorie will not ſerue to ſhew the true maner and the place. It ſhall ſuffice therfore to haue gyuen ſuch notice of it, to thende the reader may knowe that aſwell the Baye as whyte are wrought and made in Englande, and more white alſo vpon the weſt coaſt, to|warde Scotlande out of the ſalt water be|twéene Wyre and Cokermouth. Fnally ha|uing thus intermedled our artificiall Salt with our Minerals, let vs giue ouer and go in hande with ſuch mettals as are growing here in Englande.

3.18. Of Mettalles. Cap. 18.

Of Mettalles. Cap. 18.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [...]de. [...]uer.IT was not ſayde of olde tyme without great reaſon that all countries haue néede of Britainc and Britaine it ſelf of none. For truely yf a man regarde ſuch neceſſities as nature onely requireth, there is no Nation vnder the ſun, that can ſay ſo much as ours: ſith we doe want none that are conuenient for vs. Certes if it be a benefite to haue any golde at all, we are not voyde thereof, ney|ther lykewyſe of ſiluer. And albeit that we haue no ſuch aboundaunce of theſe as ſome other countries doe yéelde, yet haue my rych countriemen ſtore ynough of both in theyr purſes, where they were woont to haue leaſt, bycauſe the garniſhing of our churches, ta|bernacles, ymages, ſhrynes and apparell of the Prieſtes conſumed the greateſt part as experience hath confirmed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 [...]ne. [...]de.Tinne and Lead are very plentifull wyth vs, the one in Cornewall, Deuonſhire, & elſe where in the North, ye other in Darby ſhire, Weredale, and ſondry other places of thys Iland: whereby my countreymen doe reape no ſmall commodity, but eſpecially our pew|terers, who in time paſt employed the vſe of pewter only vpon diſhes and pottes, and a fewe other trifles for ſeruice, whereas nowe they are growen vnto ſuch exquiſite cũning, that they can in maner imitate by infuſion a|ny forme or faſhion of cuppe, diſh, ſalt, bowle or goblet, whyche is made by Goldſmithes craft though they be neuer ſo curious & very artificially forged. In ſome places beyond the ſea a garniſh of good flat Engliſh pewter (I ſay flat, becauſe diſhes and platters in my time begyn to be made depe like baſons, and are in déede more conuenient both for ſawſe and kéeping the meat warme) is almoſt eſte|med ſo precious as the like number of veſ|ſels that are made of fine ſiluer, and in man|ner no leſſe deſired amõgſt the great eſtates, whoſe workemen are nothing ſo ſkilfull in that trade as ours, neyther theyr mettall ſo good, nor plenty ſo great, as we haue héere in England. There were mines of Lead ſome|times alſo in Wales, which indured ſo long till the people had conſumed all theyr woode by melting of the ſame, as they did alſo at Comeryſtwith, ſixe miles from Stradfleur. And here by the way it is worthy to be noted of a Crow which a miner of tinne, dwelling néere Comeryſtwith had made ſo tame that it would daily flie & folow him to hys worke and other places where ſo euer he happened to trauaile. Thys laborer working on a time in the bottome where the firſt Myne was knowne to be, did lay his purſe and girdle by him, as men cõmonly doe that addreſſe them ſelues to apply theyr buſineſſe earneſtly, and he him ſelfe alſo had vſed from time to time before. The Crow likewyſe was very buſie flittering about him, and ſo much moleſted hym in déede, that he waxed angry wyth the byrde & in his fury threatned to wring of his necke, if he myght once gette hym into hys hands: To be ſhort, in the ende the Crow ha|ſtily caught vp his girdle and purſſe, & made away wyth all ſo faſt as hir wyngs coulde cary hyr. Héerevpon, the poore man fallyng into great agony (for he feared to loſe perad|uenture all hys money) threwe downe hys mattocke at aduenture and ranne after the bird, curſſing and menacing that he ſhould loſe hys life if euer he gotte him againe: but as it fell out, the Crow was ye meanes wher|by hys lyfe was ſaued, for he had not bene long out of the mine, ere it fell downe and killed all his fellowes. If I ſhould take vpon me to diſcourſe of the dealing of thys byrde at large, I ſhould peraduenture ſet my ſelfe further into the bryers then wel finde which way to come out agayne: yet I am perſwa|ded that the Crow was Gods inſtrument herein, wherby the lyfe of thys poore laborer was preſerued. It was done alſo in an other order then that whych I reade of an other tame Crow kept vp by a ſhomaker of Dutch lãd in hys ſhop or ſtone: who ſéeing the ſame to ſitte vpon the pearch very heauily & drou|ſie, ſayde vnto the birde. What ayleth my Iacke, why art thou ſo ſad and penſiue? The Crow hearyng his maſter ſpeake after this ſort vnto him, anſweared (or elſe the Deuill wythin it) out of the Pſalter.Pſal. 76. Cogitaui dies antiquos & eternos in mente habui, but whe|ther am I digreſſed, frõ lead vnto Crowes, and from Crowes vnto Deuils. Certes it EEBO page image 126 is now high time to retourne vnto our met|tals, and reſume the tractation of ſuch things as I had earſt in hand.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 Iron.Iron is found in many places, as in Suſ|ſex, Kent, Weredale, Mendip, Walſhall, Mancheſter and elſewhere in Wales: of which mines diuers doe bryng forth ſo fine and good ſtuffe as any that commeth from beyond the ſea. It is alſo of ſuch toughneſſe, that it yéeldeth to the makyng of Claricord wire in ſome places of the realme. Copper is lately not foũd,Copper. but rather reſtored againe to light, for I haue read of Copper to haue béene heretofore gotten in our Ilande. How|beit, as ſtraungers haue moſt commonly the gouernaunce of our mines, ſo they hytherto make ſmall gaines of thys in hande in the North partes: for as I am informed the pro|fit doth very hardly counteruaile the char|ges, whereat wyſe men doe not a little mar|uayle, conſidering the aboundaunce whych that mine do ſéeme to offer and as it were at hande. Lelande our countryman noteth ſun|drie great lykelyhoodes of copper Mines to be Eaſtwardes, as betwéene Dudman and Trewardith in the ſea cliffes, beſide ſundry other places, wherof diuers are noted here & there in ſundry places of this booke already, and therfore it ſhalbe but in vaine to repete them here agayne. In Dorſet ſhyre alſo a copper Mine lately found is brought to good perfection.Stéele. As for our ſtéele it is not ſo good for edge toole as that of Cullen, and yet the one is often ſolde for the other, and lyke tale vſed in both, that is to ſay thirtie gaddes to the ſhiefe and ſixe ſhiefes to the burdẽ. Our Alchumy is artificiall & thereof our ſpoones and ſome ſaltes are commonly made & pre|ferred before our pewter. The common ſort call it Alcamine,Some tell me yt it is a mixture of braſſe, lead and tinne. but when I know more of the ſubſtance and mixture of this metall my ſelfe, I will not let to write thereof at large, wheras now I muſt néedes conclude bicauſe I haue no more to ſay of the mettalles of my country, except I ſhould talke of braſſe, bell mettall, & ſuch as are brought ouer for mar|chandize from other countries, but what is that to my purpoſe.