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Compare 1587 edition: 1 The ſame tyme, there were planted in Wales two Gentlemen,

  • Robert Fitz Stephans and
  • Maurice Fitz Geralde.
  • Rice ap Grif|fin Prince of Wales.
  • The Lady Ve|ſta mother to Fitz Stephans and Fitz Ge|ralde.
  • Aberteiui.
the one named Roberte Fitz Stephens, and Maurice Fitz Geralde, brethren of one Mother, alied to Riſe ap Griffin then Prince of Wales, whoſe Grandfather was ſur|named Riſe the greate, whoſe daughter named Veſta, was Mother to the ſayd Fitz Stephans, and Fitz Gerald.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Fitz Stephãs dwelled at Aberteiui in South|wales, and had bin high Conneſtable there vnder the King of England, and for his rigorous dea|ling againſt the Prince of Wales his ſeruantes, hee was layde for, and through treaſon of hys owne menne taken, and kepte in priſon three yeeres by the Prince,Fitz Stephans taken and committed to priſon and woulde neyther raun|ſome nor accept libertie promiſed him, but with ſuche conditions as ſtoode with his honor, and ſo as his loyaltie to the Crowne myghte in each behalfe remayne vnſpotted. At length, by the me|diation of Dauid Biſhop of Sainte Dauid (that was brother vnto the ſaid Fitz Stephans) and of his other brother Fitz Gerald, and alſo at the in|ſtante ſuite of Dermote (whome the Prince of Wales fauored in his enterpriſe for recouerie of his Kingdome,Fitz Stephans deliuered.) Fitz Stephans was conditio|nally deliuered, that hee and his brother Maurice ſhould the next Spring (while the Earle of Pen|broke prouided his army) aſſiſt Dermote to make entrie into his countrey, who in conſideration thereof, aſſured them of an eſtate for euer in the towne of Wexforde,Promiſe of reward to Fitz Stephans and Fitz Geralde. with two cantredes adioy|ning. Thus muche firmely concluded on eache ſide, King Dormote came to the towne of Saint Dauid about the Kalendes of Auguſt, and wat|ching till a fauorable winde blewe, when the ſame came once about, hee ſtale ouer into Ire|lande and at Fernes wintered in ſecrete wiſe a|mongſt the Cleargie there, that receyued hym with as muche fauour as coulde bee deuiſed, kee|ping hym cloſe withoute making any greate bruite of his there being, till the next ſpring, that Robert Fitz Stephans with thirtie Knightes of his bloud,Fitz Stephans paſſeth ouer into Irelande. threeſcore Eſquires or men at armes (as wee may tearme them) and three hundred archers footemen, according to couenaunte, em|barqued in three Shippes, paſſed ouer, and lan|ded at Banman aboute the kalendes of May.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The morrowe after their arriuall,


Maurice de Prendelgaſt.

a righte valiaunte Captayne, one Maurice de Prendel|gaſt, following Fitz Stephans to the ayde of King Dermote, landed there alſo with a tenne Knightes, and a good bande of Archers, whome hee hadde Shipped at Milleforde Hauen in Wales in two veſſels prouided for that purpoſe.

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10.2. The returne of Dermon Mac Morogh from king Henrie through England, and of his abode at Bristow and other places in Wales. Chap. 2.

The returne of Dermon Mac Morogh from king Henrie through England, and of his abode at Bristow and other places in Wales. Chap. 2.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 DErmon Mac Morogh, hauing recei|ued great comfort and courtesie of the king, taketh his leaue, and returneth home|ward through England. And albeit he had béene verie honourablie and liberallie rewarded of the king: yet he comforted himselfe more with the hope of good successe to come, than with liberalitie re|ceiued. And by his dailie iornieng he came at length vnto the noble towne of (1) Bristow, where bicause ships and botes did dailie repaire and come from out of Ireland, and he verie desirous to heare of the state of his people and countrie, did for a time soiorne and make his abode: and whilest he was there he would oftentimes cause the kings letters to be openlie red, and did then offer great interteinment, and promi|sed liberall wages to all such as would helpe or serue him; but it serued not. At length Gilbert the sonne of Gilbert, earle of Chepstone (2) came to sée him and to talke with him: and they so long had conferred to|gither, that it was agréed and concluded betwéene them, that the erle in the next spring then following, should aid and helpe him: and in consideration there|of, the said Dermon should giue him his onelie daughter and heire to wife, togither with his whole inheritance, and the succession into his kingdome. These things orderlie concluded, Dermon Mac Mo|rogh being desirous (as all others are) to sée his natu|rall countrie, departed and tooke his iourneie to|wards S. Dauids head or stone (3) in south Wales: for from thence is the shortest cut ouer into Ireland, the same being not a daies falling, and which in a faire daie a man may ken and discerne. At this same time Rice Fitzgriffith was cheefe ruler vnder the king in those parties; and Dauid the second, then bi|shop of S. Dauids, had great pitie and compassion vpon his distresse, miserie, and calamitie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Dermon thus languishing and lieng for passage, comforted himselfe as well as he might, sometime drawing and as it were breathing the aire of his countrie, which he séemed to breath and smell, some|times viewing and beholding his countrie, which in a faire daie a man may ken and descrie. At this time Robert Fitzstephans vnder Rice had the gouerne|ment, & was constable of Abertefie the cheefe towne in Caretica (4) and by the treacherie and treason of his owne men was apprehended, taken and deliue|red vnto Rice, and by him was kept in prison thrée yeares, but now deliuered, vpon condition he should take part and ioine with Griffith against the king. But Robert Fitzstephans, considering with him|selfe that on his fathers side (who was a Norman) he was the kings naturall subiect, although by his mo|ther the ladie N [...]sta, daughter to the great Rice Fitz|griffith, he were coosen germane to the said Fitzgrif|fith, chose rather to aduenture his life, and to séeke fortune abrode and in sorren countries, than to ha|zard his faith, credit, and same, to the slander, reproch, and infamie of himselfe, and of his posteritie. At length by the earnest mediation and intercession of Dauid then bishop of S. Dauids, and of Paurice EEBO page image 4 Fitzgerald, which were his halfe brothers by the mo|thers side, he was set frée and at libertie: and then it was agréed and concluded betwéene them and Mac Morogh, that he the said Mac Morogh should giue and grant vnto the said Robert Fitzstephans, and Maurice Fitzgerald, the towne of (5) Wexford, with two (6) cantreds of land adioining, & to their heires in fée for euer: and they in consideration thereof, pro|mised to aid and helpe him to recouer his lands the next spring then following: and to be then with him without all faile if wind and weather so serued. Der|mon being wearie of his exiled life and distressed estate, and therfore the more desirous to draw home|wards for the recouerie of his owne, and for which he had so long trauelled and sought abroad: he first went to the church of S. Dauids to make his ori|sons and praiers, and then the wether being faire, and wind good, he aduentureth the seas about the middle of August; and hauing a merrie passage, he shortlie landed in his ingratefull (7) countrie: and with a verie impatient mind, hazarded himselfe among and through the middle of his enimies; and com|ming safelie to (8) Fernes, he was verie honorablie receiued of the cleargie there: who after their abili|tie did refresh and succour him: but he for a time dis|sembling his princelie estate, continued as a priuat man all that winter following among them.

(1) Bristow in the old time was named Odera, afterwards Uenta, and now Bristolium, and standeth vpon the riuer Hauinum which is nauigable, & flée|teth into Seuerne or the Seuerne seas: in it there are two rodes, the one named Kingrode, fiue miles distant from Bristow, in which the ships doo ride. The other is named Hongrode, a place where the ships lie bedded, and this is thrée miles from Bristow. It standeth vpon the borders or confines of the pro|uince of Glocestershire and Summersetshire: some would haue it to be in the marches and vnder the principalitie, but in the old times it was parcell of the valleie of Bath, which was the metropole of Summersetshire. It is verie old, ancient and hono|rable, and sometimes named but a towne: but since for desert and other good considerations, honoured with the name and title of a citie, as also is made a seuerall prouince or countie of it selfe, being distinct from all others; hauing a maior and aldermen accor|ding to the ancient times, as also two shiriffes ac|cording to the latter grants, by whome the same is directed and gouerned. It is the chéefest emporium in that part of England, the inhabitants being for the most part merchants of great wealth, aduen|tures, and traffikes with all nations: great delings they haue with the Camber people and the Irish na|tion, the one of them fast bordering vpon them, and the other by reason of the néerenesse of the seas, and pleasantnesse of the riuer, dailie resorting by water to and from them.

(2) Chepstone is a market towne in Wales, in that prouince named in old time Uenta, being now vnder the principalitie of Wales. In times past it was named Strigulia, whereof Richard Strang|bow being earle he tooke his name, being called Co|mes Strigulensis.

(3) S. Dauids head or stone is the promontorie in west Wales, which lieth and reacheth furthest into the seas towards Ireland: and the same being a ve|rie high hill, a man shall the more easilie discerne in a faire daie the countrie of Wexford: for that is the neerest part of Ireland vnto that part of Wales. Not farre from this promontorie or point is the ca|thedrall church of saint Dauids, which is the sée of the bishop there: it was and is called Meneuia, and was in times past an archbishoprike. But as it is written in the annales of the said church, that in the time of Richard Carew and two of his predecessors bishops there, they were by the kings commandement made to yeeld, and submit themselues vnto the metropoli|tane sée of Canturburie.

(4) Aberteife is an old ancient towne standing vpon the mouth of the riuer of Teife, and thereof it taketh his name, that is to saie the mouth of Teife, but now it is called Cardigan. The countrie about it was in times past named Caretica, but now Cardi|ganshire, so Aberteife is Cardigan towne, and Ca|retica Cardiganshire.

(5) Wexford in Latine named Guesfordia, is next after Dublin the chiefest towne in Leinster, it lieth full vpon the seas, but the hauen is a barred hauen and dangerous: from it is the shortest cut out of I|reland into England, if you doo touch and take land either at saint Dauids or at Milford.

(6) A cantred (as Giraldus saith) is a word com|pounded of the British and of the Irish toongs, and conteineth so much ground as wherein are one hun|dred villages: which in England is termed a hun|dred. Men of later time to declare the same more plainelie, doo saie that it conteined thirtie villages, & euerie village conteined eight plough lands. O|ther saie that a cantred conteineth twentie townes, and euerie towne hath eight plough lands arable, be|sides sufficient pasture in euerie for thrée hundred kine, and none to annoie another; and euerie plough land conteineth six score acres of land Irish, and eue|rie Irish acre farre exceedeth the content of the com|mon acre.

(7) The place where Dermon landed is named Glasse caerge, it is a creeke or a baie lieng vpon the open seas, and in the countie of Wexford, sithence there was builded a monasterie which was and is dissolued.

(8) Fernes is the sée and cathedrall church of the bishop, whose diocesse is the countie of Wexford, it lieth néere in the midle of the prouince of Leinster, and was somtimes a church well adorned and main|teined, but now in great ruine and decaie, the bishop & chapiter not remaining there at all. There is also a strong fort of the princes, wherein sometimes was kept a garrison at the princes charges, but now one|lie a constable is placed therein, and he hath the sole charge thereof.

10.3. The going ouer and landing of Ro|bert Fitzstephans and of his companie in Ireland, and of the winning of the towne of Wexford, Cap. 3.

The going ouer and landing of Ro|bert Fitzstephans and of his companie in Ireland, and of the winning of the towne of Wexford, Cap. 3.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 IN the meane time Robert Fitzste|phans, not vnmindfull nor carelesse of his word and promise, prepareth and prouideth all things in a readinesse, and being accom|panied with thirtie gentlmen of seruice of his owne kinsfolks & Thrée sco [...] other in [...]. certeine armed men, and about thrée hundred of archers and footmen, which were all of the best chosen and piked men in Wales, they all ship and imbarke themselues in thrée sundrie barkes, and sailing towards Ireland, they land about the ca|lends of Maie at the (1) Banne. Then was the old prophesie of Merlin fulfilled, which was, that A (2) knight biparted should first enter with force in arms & breake the bounds of Ireland. If you will vn|derstand the mysterie herof, you must haue respect to his parents, for his father was a Norman and an Englishman, his mother the noble ladie Nesta was a Camber or a Britaine, in his companie also was Herueie of Mont Maurice, a man infortunat, vn|armed, EEBO page image 5 and without all furniture: but he trauelling in the behalfe of the earle Richard, to whome he was vncle, was rathe [...]a (3) spie than a souldier. On the next daie following: Maurice of Prendelgast a (4) lustie and a hardie man, and borne about Milford in west Wales, he with ten gentlemen of seruice, and a good number of archers imbarke themselues in two ships, and arriue also at the Banne. These men thus landed at the Banne, and not standing well assured of their safetie, by reason their comming was blowen abroad through the whole countrie, they with all hast sent messengers to Dermon, aduerti|sing him of their comming. Wherevpon diuerse of that countrie, who dwelling vpon the sea coasts, and who when fortune frowned had and did shrinke a|waie from Dermon, now perceuing that she fauo|red him againe, returned and fawned vpon him; ac|cording to the saieng of the poet in these words:

As fortune so the faith of man doth stand or fall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Mac Morogh, assoone as he heard of their landing and comming, sent his base son Donold, a valiant gentleman vnto them with fiue hundred men: and verie shortlie after he himselfe also followed with great ioie and gladnesse. And then when they had re|newed their former couenants and leagues, and had sworne each one to the other, to obserue the same and to kéepe faith: then, though they were people of contrarie dispositions, yet now being good fréends and all of one mind, they ioine their forces togither, and with one consent doo march towards the towne of Wexford, which is about twelue miles distant from the Banne. When they of the towne heard ther|of, they being a fierce and vnrulie people, but yet much trusting to their woonted fortune, came foorth about two thousand of them, and were determined to wage and giue battell. But when they saw their aduersaries armie to be better set in order than in times past, and that the horsiemen were well armed with armour and shield shining bright: then vpon new chances & changes taking new counsels, they set on fire and burned their suburbs, and retired into the towne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Fitzstephans minding and preparing to giue the assault, filleth the ditches with armed men, and setteth his archers to marke and watch well the turrets of the wals: which things doone, he with great showtes and force giueth the assault. The townesmen within being readie to stand at defense, cast ouer the wals great peeces of timber & stones, and by that meanes hurting manie, made the rest to giue ouer and retire. Among whom a lustie yoong gentleman named Ro|bert Barrie, being hot and of a lustie courage, and nothing afraid of death, so he might atchiue vn|to honour, giueth the first aduenture to scale the wals: but he was striken with a great stone vpon the headpeece, wherwith he fell he adiong downe into the ditch and escaped verie hardlie, for with much a|doo did his fellowes draw & pull him out of the place. About sixtéene yeares after, all his great teeth with the force and violence of this stroke fell out; and that which is verie strange, new téeth grew vp in their places. Upon this repulse they all retired and with|drew themselues from the wals, & assembled them|selues vpon the sea strands, where foorthwith they set on fire all such ships and vessels as they could there find. Among whome was one merchant ship latelie come out of England laden with wines and come, which there laie then at anchor, and a compa|nie of these lustie youths hauing gotten botes for the purpose, would haue taken hir: which the mari|ners perceiuing, suddenlie cut their cabels and hoi|sed vp their sailes, & the wind being westerlie and blowing a good gale, they recouered the seas. These youths still follownig them, had almost lost all and marred the market: for if others their fellowes had not made good shift and rowed a good pace after them they would scarselie haue recouered the land againe. Thus fortune, which is onlie constant in inconstan|cie, séemed to haue forsaken Morogh and Fitzste|phans, and to haue left them destitute of all hope and comfort: neuerthelesse, on the next morow hauing heard diuine seruice through the whole campe, they determine with better aduise and circumspection to giue a new assault, & with lustie courages drew to the wals. The townesmen within séeing this, began to distrust themselues, & to consider how most vnnatu|rallie and vniustlie they had rebelled against their prince & souereigne: whervpon being better aduised, they send messengers to him to intreat for peace. At length by the earnest intercession and mediation of two bishops, and certeine good and peaceable men which were within the towne, peace was granted; and foure of the best & chiefest men within the towne were deliuered and giuen for pledges and hostages, for the true kéeping of the peace and their fidelitie. Mac Morogh, to gratifie his men in these his first successes, and to acquit the first aduenturors, did (ac|cording to his former promise and couenant) giue vnto Robert Fitzstephans and Maurice Fitzgerald the towne of Wexford, and the territories therevn|to adioining and apperteining, and vnto Herucie of Mont Morice he gaue in fee two cantreds, lieng on the sea side betwéene Wexford and Waterford.

(1) The Banne is a little créeke lieng in the coun|tie of Wexford, neere to Fither a fisher towne, which is belonging to the bishop of that diocesse, the open seas being on the east and not farre from the hauen mouth of Waterford on the south: and as it should séeme, Fitzstephans and his companie mistooke the place or were driuen in there, the same being verie vnapt for a harborow: but the same being the place of the first receipt of Englishmen, there were cer|teine monuments made in memorie thereof, and were named the Banna & the Boenne, which were the names (as the common fame is) of the two grea|test ships in which the Englishmen there arriued.

(2) A knight biparted. The prophesie was not one|lie verified in respect of the parents of Robert Fitz|stephans, the one being a Norman Saxon, and the o|ther a Camber: but also in respect of his armes and ensigne which were biparted being of two sundrie changes, namelie partie per pale gules, and ermine a saltier counterchanged. For commonlie all pro|phesies haue their allusions vnto armes, and by them they are discouered, though at the first not so appea|ring before the euent thereof.

(3) Gentlemen. The Latine word is Milites, which in the now common spéeches is termed knights, a name of worship and honour: but the word it selfe importeth and meaneth men expert and skilfull to serue in the wars, whether it be on foot or horssebacke. In times past when men ruled by the sword, then such as were valiant and of good experience grew in|to credit and estimation; and the people did make choise of such to gouerne, rule, and defend them, and who for their excellent vertues were called Nobiles, which in English is gentlemen. And then men being ambitious of honour, did contend who might best ex|cell in feats of prowesse and chiualrie: some deliting to excell in the seruice on foot: and bicause they vsed chieflie the target and shield, they tooke their name thereof, & were called Scutiferi. Some practised chief|lie the seruice on horssebacke, and they (according to the manner of their seruice) were named Equites: but both the one and the other were in processe of time called Armigeri, in English esquiers: and this is ta|ken for a degrée somewhat aboue the estate of a one|lie EEBO page image 6 gentleman. And for somuch as seruice in the fields did carie awaie with it the greatest honor and credit, and princes willing & desirous to incourage gentlemen to excell that waie and in that kind of seruice, they deuised a third degree of honour named knighthood. And this, as it excelleth the others before and not to be giuen but for great desert: so to in|crease the credit and estimation thereof, it was not to be giuen but with great solemnities and ceremo|nies; and the person so to be honored, was to be ador|ned with such ornaments as doo speciallie apperteine to the furniture of such seruice, as namelie a sword, a target, a heime, a paire of spurres, and such like: and they which were thus aduanced were named Mi|lites or knights, and thus the name of seruice was turned to the name of worship: yea this degree did grow and wax to be of such credit, honor and estima|tion, that kings and princes were and would be ve|rie circumspect and aduised, before they would dub or promote anie man to this estate. Wherefore consi|dering the estate, nature & worship of a knight, and weieng also the course of this historie, it cannot be intended that all they which went ouer and serued in this conquest, though they were named Milites, that therfore they should be compted & taken for knights of worship and high calling: but that they were such as were expert and skilfull to serue in warres accor|ding to the nature of the word Miles. Wherefore I haue and doo English the word Miles in this historie a gentleman of seruice.

(4) A spie, not to watch the dooings of his coun|trimen, whereby to take them in a trip, but to note, marke and consider the nature, maner, and disposi|tion of the countrie and people: whereby to aduer|tise the earle how he should prouide and order his doo|ings against his comming ouer into the land.

(5) Maurice of Prendalgast was doubtlesse a vali|ant gentleman, and borne and bred in west Wales, in or about the prouince of Penbroke. He is not named nor mentioned in some books of this historie; but I finding in such exemplars as I haue of best credit, doo thinke I should haue doone wrong to haue omitted him. There are yet of his race, posteritie and name, remaining at these daies in the countie of Wexford, and elsewhere.

10.4. Of the ouerthrow giuen in Ossorie, and of the submission of the king thereof. Chap. 4.

Of the ouerthrow giuen in Ossorie, and of the submission of the king thereof. Chap. 4.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 THese things thus doone and ended as they would themselues, they increase their ar|mie with the townesmen of Wexford, and being then about thrée thousand men, they march towards (1) Ossorie, whereof Donald was then the prince, & who of all the rebels was the most mortall enimie which Mac Morogh had. For on a time he hauing the said Dermons eldest son in his ward and hand fast, was in gealousie of him, and mis|trusted him with his wife: wherevpon he did not on|lie shut him vp in a closer prison; but also to be auen|ged thereof, and of other supposed iniuries, putteth out both of his (2) eies. First then Dermon and his companie enter into Ossorie, but they durst not march or aduenture anie further than to the midst of the countrie, because the whole countrie else was full of woods, streicts, passes, and bogs, and no waie at all for men to trauell. But when they met and in|countered with the Ossorians, they found nor co|wards nor dastards, but valiant men, and who stood well to the defense of their countrie, and manfullie resisted their enimies. For they trusted so much to their woonted good fortune and successe in such like af|faires, that they shroonke not a whit from them, but braue them perforce out of the bogs and woods, and followed them into the champaine countrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Robert Fitzstephans being in the plaine and o|pen fields with his horsemen, and seeing that the Os|sorians being there he had the aduantage of them, gi|ueth most fiercelie the onset vpon them, and flue a great number of them; and such as straied and were scattered abrode, they either slue them or ouerthrew them: and such as were ouerthrowne, the footmen with their Galloglasses axes did cut off their heads. And thus hauing gotten the victorie, they gathered vp and brought before Dermon Mac Morogh three hundred of their enimies heads, which they laid & put at his féet; who turning euerie of them one by one to know them, did then for ioy hold vp both his hands, and with a lowd voice thanked God most highlie. Among these there was the head of one, whom espe|ciallie and aboue all the rest he mortallie hated. And he taking vp that by the heare and eares, with his téeth most horriblie and cruellie bit awaie his nos [...] and lips.

After this, they made a rode through the whole countrie, & marched almost to the vttermost parts, and still as they passed they murthered the people, spoiled, burned, and wasted the whole countrie. And therevpon the prince of Ossorie by the aduise of his friends, maketh sute and intreateth for peace: which obteined (although in verie déed it was but a colou|red and a dissembled peace on both sides) they put in their hostages, made fealtie, and were sworne to bee faithfull and true to Mac Morogh, as vnto their law|full and true lord. In these seruices, as in all other, Robert of Barrie, and Meilerius had the pricke and praise, and shewed themselues of all others the most valiant. Both these yoong gentlemen were ne|phues to Fitzstephans (4) the one being his brothers sonne, and the other his sisters sonne. They both were of like valiantnesse, but of sundrie dispositions and natures. For Meilerius being ambitious and dest|rous of honour, referred all his dooings to that end; and whatsoeuer he attempted, was to aduance his fame and credit, making more account to be repor|ted and haue the name of a valiant man, than to be so in déed. The other being of a certeine naturall dis|position both noble and valiant, was neither a grée|die séeker of land and praise, nor an ambitious cra|uer of fame and honour; but being alwaies among the best, did rather séeke and trauell to the best, than to be onelie counted the best.

Besides, he was naturallie indued with such a maidenlie shamefastnesse, and no bragger nor boa|ster, would neither glorifie his dooings, nor yet like well of anie others which would so doo of him. By means whereof it came to passe, that the lesse ambi|tious and desirous he was of honour, the more the same followed him: for glorie and honour follow al|waies vertue, as the shadow the bodie, shunning them who doo most séeke for hir, & following them who do lest regard hir. And manie men are the more liked of manie, bicause they séeme not to like of anis: and praise, fame, and honour most commonlie, the lesse it is estéemed, the more sooner it is had & gotten. It for|tuned on a time that the armie thus being in Osso|rie, they did on a night incampe themselues about an old castell. These two gentlemen as they were e|uer woont, laie togither, and suddenlie there was a great noise, as it were of an infinit number of men, which séemed to breake in and rush in among them, with great force and a rage, destroieng all that euer was, and making a great noise with clashing of their harnesse, and striking of their bils togither, and therewithall such a noise and a showt, as though hea|uen EEBO page image 7 and earth would haue come togither.

These kind of phantasmes and illusions doo often|times happen in Ireland, especiallie when there be a|nie hostings. With this noise the more part of the ar|mie was so afraid and dismaid, that for the most part they all fled, some into the woods, and some into the bogs, euerie one séeking a place where to hide and succour himselfe. But these two onelie tarieng be|hind, raught to their weapons, and foorthwith full boldlie ran to Fitzstephans tents, and called againe togither all such as were thus scattered, and incoura|ged them to take their weapons, and to stand to de|fense. Robert of Barrie in all his hurlie burlie, stan|ding alone by himselfe musing, except a man or two of his owne men about him, did aboue all others not without anie great admiration of manie, and to the great gréefe of such as enuied him, best acquit him|selfe. For among other good gifts which were in him, this was speciallie reported of him; that no feare, or force, no sudden mishap or misaduenture whatsoeuer, could at anie time make him afraid or discomforted, and to flie awaie. For howsoeuer things fell out and happened, he was alwaies at hand, and in a readines with his weapons to the fight. And such a one as is alwaies readie to abide whatsoeuer shall happen, and to preuent what mischeefs maie insue, is by all mens iudgements counted the best and valiantest man. This man was he, who in this Irish warres was the first who either was striken or hurt. As concerning the foresaid phantasine, this one thing is much noted of it; that in the morning following, when all things were pacified and quieted, the grasse and weeds which the night before stood there vpright and of a great height, did now in the morrow lie downe flat vpon the ground, as though the same had bin troden with great multitude of people, and yet was it most cer|teine that none had béene there at all.

(1) There be two Ossories, the one named the vp|per Ossorie, which is of the ancient inheritance of the Macguilfathrikes, and who are the barons therof; and this lieth in the diocesse of Leighling: the other lieth on the north of Ormond, and is vnder the iurisdiction of the earle of Ormond, who is also the earle thereof, being named earle of Ormond and Ossorie. It is a diocesse of it selfe, and the bishop thereof is na|med the bishop of Ossorie, whose sée and house is at Kilkennie. It is parcell of the prouince of Leinster and vnder the obeisance then of Dermon Mac Mo|rogh.

(2) This was a courteous kind of punishing, for cõmonlie such is the reuenging nature of the méere Irishman, that albeit he can or doo laie neuer so ma|nie plagues and punishments vpon his enimie: yet is he neuer satisfied, vnlesse he haue also his life, yea and manie not therewith contented, but will vtter their wicked nature euen vpon the dead carcase, as dooth appeare in this chapter of the same Mac Mo|rogh, who finding one of his enimies heads, was not satisfied, vntill in most cruell maner he did with his téeth bite awaie his nose and his lips.

(3) There are in Ireland thrée sorts or degrées of soldiers: the first is the horsseman, who commonlie is a gentleman borne, and he is armed with such armor as the seruice of that countrie requireth: the second degree is the Kernaugh, & he also is a gentleman or a fréeholder borne, but not of that abilitie to main|teine a horsse with his furniture, and therefore he is a light souldier on foot; his armor is both light and slender, being a skull, a left gantlet or [...] target, a sword and skeine, and thrée or foure daris: the third degree is the Galloglasse, who was first brought in to this land by the Englishmen, and thereof taketh his name. For Galloglas is to saie, an English year man or seruant; his armor is a skull, a iacke, an ha|bergeon or shirt of male, a sword and a sparre, other|wise named a Galloglasse ax or halbert, & this man is counted the best souldier on foot, and the strength of the battell. These in all hostings haue attending vp|on them a number of boies and Kernes, and who doo spoile and kill all such as be ouerthrowne and hurt in the fields.