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Compare 1587 edition: 1 Howbeit, although the gloſe of his fine a|bridgement, being macht with other mens dooings, bare a ſurpaſſing kinde of excellen|cie, yet it was ſo hudled vp in haſte, as in re|ſpect of a Campion his abſolute perfection, it ſéemed rather to be a work roughly hewed, then ſmoothly planed. Vpon which grounde the gentleman being willing, yt his ſo tender a ſuckling, hauing as yet but gréene bones, ſhould haue béene ſwadled and rockt in a cra|dle, till in tract of tyme the ioynctes thereof were knit, and growen ſtronger, yet notwith|ſtanding he was ſo croſt in the nycke of thys determination, that his hyſtorie in mitching wyſe wandred through ſundry hands, and be|ing therwithall in certaine places ſome what tyckle tongued (for M. Campion dyd learne it to ſpeake) and in other places ouer ſpare, it twi [...]led more tales out of ſchoole, and drow|ned weightyes matters in ſilence, then the [...]uctor vpon better view, and longer ſearche woulde haue permitted. This much being by the ſager ſorte poudered, and the perfection of the hyſtorie earneſtly deſired, I as one of the moſt, that could doe leaſt, was fully reſolued, to enriche M. Campion his Chronicle, with further additiõs. But weighing on the other ſide, that my courſe pack thréede coulde not haue béene ſ [...]tably knit with his ſine ſticke, & what a diſgrace it were, hungerly to botch vp a riche garment, by clowting it with pat|ches of ſundrye coulours, I was foorthwyth reclaymed from my former reſolution, rec|kening it for better, that my penne ſhoulde walke in ſuch wyſe in that craggie and bal|kiſhe way, as the truth of the matter being forepriced, I would neyther openly borrow, nor priuily imbezell, ought to any great pur|poſe from his hyſtorie. But as I was ham|mering that worke by ſtealthes on ye anuille, I was giuen to vnderſtande by ſome of mine acquaintaunce, that others had brought our rawe hyſtorie to that rypeneſſe as my paine, therein woulde ſéeme but néedeleſſe. Where|vpon being willing to be eaſed of the burden, and loath alſo in lurching wiſe to foreſtall a|ny man his trauayle, I was contented, to leaue them thumping in the forge, and quiet|lye to repayre to mine vſuall and priſtinate ſtudies, taking it not to ſtande with good ma|ners, lyke a flittering flye, to fall in an other man his diſhe. Howbeit, the little payne I tooke therin was not ſo ſecretly mewed with|in my cloſet, but it ſlipt out at one chincke or other, and romed ſo farre abroade, as it was whiſpered in their eares, who before were in the hyſtorie buſied. The gentlemen concey|uing a greater opinion of mée, then I was well able to vpholde, dealt very effectually with mée, that aſwell at their inſtaunce, as for the affection I bare my natiue countrey, I woulde put mine helping hand, to the buil|ding and perfecting of ſo commendable a EEBO page image 574 worke. Hauing breathed for a fewe dayes on this motion, albeit I knewe, that my worke was plumed with Doime, and at that time, was not ſufficientlye feathered to flée, yet I was by them weighed not to beare my ſelfe coy, by giuing mine entier friendes in ſo rea|ſonable a requeſt a ſquaimiſh repulſe. Wher|fore, my ſingular good Lorde, her [...] is layde downe to your Lordſhippe his view a briefe diſcourſe, with a iagged hyſtorie of a ragged Weale publicke. Yet as naked as at the firſt bluſhe it ſeemeth, if it ſhall ſtande wyth your Honour his pleaſure (whome I take to be an experte Lapidarie) at vacant houres to inſearche it, you ſhall finde therein ſtones of ſuch eſtimatiõ, as are woorthy to be coucht in riche and precious collets. And in eſpeciall your Lordſhip, aboue all others, in that you haue the charge of that countrey, may here be ſchooled, by a right line to leuell your go|uernement. For in peruſing this hyſtorie, you ſhall finde vice puniſhed, vertue rewar|ded, rebellion ſuppreſſed, loyaltie exalted, hautineſſe diſly [...]ed, courtiſie beloued, brybery deteſted, iuſtice embraced, polling Officers to there parpetuall ſhame reproued, and vp|right gouernours to their eternall fame ex|tolled. And [...]ruely, to my thinking, ſuch magi|ſtrates, as meane to haue a vigilant eye to their charge, can not beſtow their tyme bet|ter, then when they ſequence themſelues frõ the affayres of the wealpublicke, to recreate & quicken their ſpirites by reading the Chro|nicles, that decipher the gouernement of a wealepublicke. For as it is no ſmall commẽ|dacion, for one to beare the dooings of many, ſo it breedeth great admiration, generally to haue all thoſe qualities in one mã herboured, for which particularly diuers are eternized. And who ſo will be addicted to the reading of hyſtories, ſhall readily finde diuers euentes woorthy to be remembred, and ſundry ſounde examples daily to be followed. Vpon which grounde the learned haue, not without cauſe, adiudged an hyſtorie to be, the Marrowe of reaſon, the creame of experience, the ſappe of wyſedome, the pith of iudgement, the library of knowledge, the kernell of pollicie, the vn|foldreſſe of treacherie, the kalender of tyme, the lanterne of trueth, the lyfe of memorie, the doctreſſe of behauiour, the regiſter of an|tiquitie, the trumpet of chiualrie. And that our Iriſhe hyſtorie being diligently héeded, yéeldeth al theſe commodities. I truſt the in|different reader, vpon the vntwyning there|of, will not denie. But if any man his ſto|macke ſhall be founde ſo tenderly niced, or ſo deintily ſpyced, as that he may not, forſooth, digeſt the groſe draffe of ſo baſe a countrey, I doubt not, but your Lordſhip, who is throu|ghly acquaynted with the woorthineſſe of the Iſland, [...] perſwaded, [...] [...]eaue [...]h quaint and [...]courous repaſt [...]s, to féede on their coſtly and delicate Woodcockes, & wil|lingly to accept the louing preſent of your hearty welwiller.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The gift is ſmall, the giuer hys good wyll is great, I ſtand in good hope, that the great|neſſe of the one wyll countrepoiſe the ſmal|neſſe of the other. Wherefore, that I may the ſooner vnbrayde ye pel [...]ſh t [...]ſh, that is wrapt wythin thys Treatiſe, I ſhall craue your Lordſhippe, to lende me eyther your eares [...] hearing, or your eyes in reading the tenour of the diſcourſe following.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The greater parte as well of Coſ [...]nogra|phers, as Chronographers, with one a [...]e affirme,The [...] and bred [...] of Ireland that Irelande (the vttermoſt We|ſterne Iſle knowne) is halfe as bigge as Bri|tannia. Which I take to be true, if the worde Britannia ſo farre diſplaye the ſignification, that it compriſe England, Wales, & Scot|land. To which opinion,Girald. Cambrie [...] lib. 1. to po [...] diſt. 1. ru [...] Polich. lik [...] cap. 32. Giraldus Cambrien| [...]e [...]elyeth, ſaying, that Britannia condemeth in length 800. myles, and 200. in breadth Ireland he taketh to be in length from the mountaynes called Torrache (the author of Polychronicon termeth them Brend [...]n hys hils) to ſ. Colũ [...]e his Iſland, eight dayes iour|ney, rating of long Iriſh myles, 40. miles to the day: and in breadth from Dublin to [...]. Pa|trike his hilles, & the ſea of Comaght foure dayes iourney, according to the former rate. So as by Cambrienſe his ſuruey (who was a curious enſearcher thereof) Ireland is 320. myles long of Iriſh myles, and 160. myles broade. And accompting 320. Iriſh myles to amount to 400. engliſh miles, which maye well be reckoned accordyng to their iudge|mentes, that haue trauayled in the Iriſh ter|ritories. Ireland wil be found halfe as big as Britannia, which Giraldus Cambrienſe auou|cheth, ſaying: that Irelande is as bigge as Wales and Scotland. Irelande hath on the eaſt, England, within one dayes ſaylyng: on the ſouth eaſt, it hath Fraunce: Hiſpayne on the ſouth, diſtant thrée dayes ſayling: on the weſt the mayne Ocean ſea.

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Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Howbeit, although the glose of his fine abbridgement, being matcht with other mens dooings, bare a surpassing kind of excellencie: yet it was so hudled vp in hast, as in respect of a Campion his absolute perfection, it seemed rather to be a woorke roughlie hewed, than smoothlie planed. Vpon which ground the gentleman being willing that his so tender a suckling, hauing as yet but greene bones, should haue beene swadled and rockt in a cradle, till in tract of time the ioints thereof were knit, and growen stron|ger: yet notwithstanding he was so crost in the nicke of this determination, that his historie in mitching wise wandred through sundrie hands, and being therewithall in certeine places somewhat tickle toon|ged (for maister Campion did learne it to speake) and in other places ouer spare, it twitled more tales out of schoole, and drowned weightier matters in silence, than the author (vpon better view and longer search) would haue permitted. Thus much being by the sager sort pondered, and the perfection of the historie earnestlie desired: I, as one of the most that could doo least, was fullie resolued to inrich maister Campion his chronicle, with further additions. But weighing on the other side, that my course packthred could not haue beene sutablie knit with his fine silke, and what a disgrace it were, bungerlie to botch vp a rich garment, by clouting it with patches of sundrie colours, I was forthwith reclai|med from my former resolution, reckoning it for better, that my pen should walke in such wise in that craggie and balkish waie, as the truth of the matter being forprised, I would neither openlie borrow, nor priuilie imbezell ought to anie great purpose from his historie. But as I was hammering that worke by stealths on the anuill, I was giuen to vnderstand by some of mine acquaintance, that o|thers had brought our raw historie to that ripenesse, as my paine therein would seeme but needlesse. Wherevpon being willing to be eased of the burden, and loath also in lurching wise to forstall anie man his trauell, I was contented to leaue them thumping in the forge, and quietlie to repaire to mine vsuall and pristinat studies, taking it not to stand with good maners, like a flittering flie to fall in an other man EEBO page image 6 his dish. Howbeit the little paine I tooke therein was not so secretlie mewed within my closet, but it slipt out at one chinke or other, and romed so farre abroad, as it was whispered in their eares, who before were in the historie busied. The gentlemen conceiuing a greater opinion of me, than I was well able to vphold, dealt verie effectuallie with me, that as well at their instance, as for the affection I bare my natiue coun|trie, I would put mine helping hand to the building and perfecting of so commendable a worke. Hauing breathed for a few daies on this motion, albeit I knew that my worke was plumed with downe, and at that time was not sufficientlie feathered to flie: yet I was by them weied not to beare my selfe coy, by gi|uing my entier friends in so reasonable a request a squemish repulse. Wherefore, my singular good lord, here is laid downe to your lordship his view a briefe discourse, with a iagged historie of aragged weale|publike. Yet as naked as at the first blush it seemeth, if it shall stand with your honor his pleasure (whom I take to be an expert lapidarie) at vacant houres to insearch it, you shall find therein stones of such estima|tion, as are worth to be coucht in rich and pretious collars. And in especiall your lordship, aboue all others, in that you haue the charge of that countrie, maie here be schooled, by a right line to leuell your gouerne|ment. For in perusing this historie, you shall find vice punished, vertue rewarded, rebellion suppressed, loi|altie exalted, hautinesse disliked, courtesie beloued, briberie detested, iustice imbraced, polling officers to their perpetuall shame reprooued, and vpright gouernours to their eternall fame extolled. And trulie to my thinking, such magistrats as meane to haue a vigilant eie to their charge, can not bestow their time better, than when they sequester themselues from the affaires of the wealepublike, to recreat and quicken their spirits by reading the chronicles that decipher the gouernement of a wealepublike. For as it is no small commendation for one to beare the dooings of manie, so it breedeth great admiration, ge|nerallie to haue all those qualities in one man harboured, for which particularlie diuerse are eternised. And who so will be addicted to the reading of histories, shall readilie find diuerse euents worthie to be re|membred, and sundrie sound examples dailie to be followed. Vpon which ground the learned haue, not without cause, adiudged an historie to be the marrow of reason, the creame of experience, the sap of wis|dome, the pith of iudgement, the librarie of knowledge, the kernell of policie, the vnfoldresse of trea|cherie, the kalendar of time, the lanterne of truth, the life of memorie, the doctresse of behauiour, the register of antiquitie, the trumpet of chiualrie. And that our Irish historie being diligentlie heeded, yeeldeth all these commodities, I trust the indifferent reader, vpon the vntwining thereof, will not de|nie. But if anie man his stomach shall be found so tenderlie niced, or so deintilie spiced, as that he maie not, forsooth, digest the grosse draffe of so base a countrie, I doubt not, but your lordship, who is thoroughlie acquainted with the woorthinesse of the Iland, will be soone persuaded to leaue such quaint and licou|rous repastours, to feed on their costlie and delicate woodcocks, & willinglie to accept the louing present of your heartie welwiller. The gift is small, the giuer his good will is great, I stand in good hope, that the greatnesse of the one will counterpoise the smalnesse of the other. Wherefore that I maie the sooner vnbroid the pelfish trash that is wrapt within this treatise, I shall craue your lordship to lend me either your eares in hearing, or your eies in reading the tenor of the discourse following.


EEBO page image 9

A TREATISE CON|teining a plaine and perfect description of Ire|land, with an Introduction to the better vnderstan|ding of the histories apperteining to that Iland: compiled by Richard Stanihurst.

1.1. The names of Ireland, with the com|passe of the same, also what shires or coun|ties it conteineth, the diuision or partition of the land, and of the language of the people. The first chapter.

The names of Ireland, with the com|passe of the same, also what shires or coun|ties it conteineth, the diuision or partition of the land, and of the language of the people. The first chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _THe more part aswel of Cosmo|graphers, as Chrono|graphers, do with on accorde af|firme, that the nation of Ireland (the vtter|most wea|sterne Ile known) is halfe as big as Britannia. Which I take to be true, if the word Britannia so farre displaie the significati|on, that it comprise England, Wales, and Scotland. To which opinion Giraldus Cambrensis relieth, sai|eng, The length and breadth of Ireland. Girald. Cam|brens. lib. 1. topog. dist 1. rub. 2. Polych. lib. 1. cap. 32. that Britannia conteineth in length eight hun|dred miles, and two hundred in breadth. Ireland he taketh to be in length from the mounteins called Torrach (the author of Polychronicon termeth them Brendane his hilles) to saint Columbe his Iland eight daies tourneie, rating of long Irish miles for|tie miles to the daie: and in breadth from Dublin to saint Patrike his hilles and the sea of Connaght foure daies torneie, according to the foriner rate. So as by Cambrensis his surueie, who was a curious insearcher therof, Ireland is thrée hundred & twentie miles long of Irish miles, and one hundred and three score miles broad. And accounting thrée hundred and twentie Irish miles to amount to foure hundred English miles, which may well be reckoned accor|ding to their indgements that haue trauelled in the Irish territories; Ireland will be found halfe as big as Britannia: which Girald. Cambrensis anoucheth, saieng, that Ireland is as big as Wales and Scot|land. Ireland hath on the east, England, within one daies sailing; on the southeast it hath France; His|paine on the south, distant thrée daies sailing; on the west the maine ocean sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Touching the name Ibernia, historiographers The name Iberni [...] whense it procéedeth. are not yet agreed from whense it is deducted. Some write it Hibernia corruptlie, and suppose that the strangers finding it in an od end of the world, foistie and moistie, tooke it at the first for a verie cold coun|trie, and thereof named it Hibernia, as to saie, the Winterland. But this error being vpon short expe|rience reformed, it could not be that the name should haue liued long, especiallie the first impositors suru [...]|uing the triall, and able to alter the first nomination. Others bring a ghesse, that it should be named of Ir|lamale. Ireland. But because I read nothing of them in anie probable historie, I purpose not to build vpon that coniecture.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Most crediblie it is holden, that the Hispaniards (the founders of the Irish) for deuotion towards Hispaine, called then Iberia of Iberius the sonne of Iberus the Hispanish riuer. Iuball, and the rather, for that themselues had dwel|led beside the famous riuer Iberus, named the land Iberia (for so Leland and manie forren chroniclers Leland. in cyg. cant. write it) or Ibernia, adding the letter (n) for diffe|rence sake. And from Ibernia procéedeth Iberland, or Iuerland; from Iuerland, by contraction Ireland: forsomuch as in corruption of common talke we find that (u) with his vocale is easilie lost and suppres|sed; so we saie ere for euer, nere for neuer, shoole for shoouell, ore for ouer, ene for euen, dile for diuell. At the same time it was also named Scotia, in reue|rence Scotia. Scotach. Gathelus. of Scotach the wife of Gathelus, ancient cap|teine of those Iberians that flitted from Hispaine into Ireland: & the said Scotach was old grandame to Hiberus and Hermon after the Scotish chroni|cles, who in anie wise will haue their countrimen deriued from the Irish, and not from the Britons. The name Scotia is of late yeares so vsuallie taken Iohan. maior. Scot. lib. 1. ca. 9. for that part of Britaine that compriseth Scotland, that diuerse ancient Irish authors are holden to be borne in Scotland, wheras in verie déed their natiue soile is Ireland. As the famous schooleman Io|hannes Iohannes do|minus Scotus borne in Ire|land. Duns Scotus, otherwise named Doctor subti|lis, for his subtill quiddities in scholasticall contro|uersies, was an Irish man borne, and yet is taken for a Scot.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Some hold opinion that he was borne in Thash|mon, a market towne fiue miles distant from Weiseford. Others anouch, and that more trulie, that he was borne in Downe, an old ancient ciuitie in the north of Ireland, and thereof they ghesse him to be named Dunensis, and by contraction Duns, Why schoole|men are cal|led Dunses. which tearme is so triuiall and common in all schools, that whoso surpasseth others either in cauilling sophi|strie, or subtill philosophie, is forthwith nickenamed a Duns. Wherefore as Scotland is named Scotia mi|nor, EEBO page image 10 so Ireland is tearmed Scotia maior, as the head Scotia maior. Scotia minor. from [...]hense the name of Scotia minor tooke his of|spring. The Irish also were named of the foresaid Gathelus, or Gaudeilus, Gaudeili. In their Irish Gaudeili. rithmes, they tearme Ireland verie often Banno. I cannot diuine what reason should lea [...] their makers Banno. therto, vnlesse it be the riuer in the countie of Weise|ford, named the Banne, where the Britons vpon the conquest first arriued. The place otherwise is called The riuer Bann [...]. Bagganbun, according to the old ancient rithme:

At the creeke of Bagganbun,
Ireland was lost and wun. Bagganbun.
For the remembrance of which riuer so notoriouslie famosed, it carieth great likelihood, that the name should be to the whole realme generallie ascribed. Sundrie Latine authors write Ireland Inuerna, o|thers Inuerna. Ioan. Camet|te [...] in cap. 35. Solini. Iuerna, diuerse Ijerna. Claudius nameth it Iberna. The diuersitie of which names grew, for that in their time the true and certeine name was not knowne, so that they were contented to take it as they found it, which matter is handled by Hermo|laus Barbarus.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 There are some of the ruder sort so quaint in seue|ring Hermol. Barb. ca. 16. in lib. 4. Plin. castig. The name I|r [...]sh and Ire|land curiously seuered. the name Irish and Ireland, as that they would be named Ireland men, but in no wise Irishmen. But certes, in my fantasie such curious distinctors may be verie aptlie resembled to the foolish butcher, that offred to haue sold his mutton for fiftéene grots, and yet would not take a crowne. Who so will grate vpon such nice diuersities, in respect that he is asha|med of his countrie; trulie (in mine opinion) his countrie maie be ashamed of him. Ireland is diui|ded into foure regions, Leinster, east: Connaght, 1. Lagenia. 2. Connatia. 3. Hultonia. 4. Momonia. 5. Media. west Méeth & cast Méeth. west: Ulster, north: Mounster, south: and into a fift plot, de falked from euerie fourth part, and yet mea|ring on each part, called thereof Media, Méeth, comprising as well east Méeth, as west Méeth: Lein|ster butteth vpon England, Ulster vpon the Scotish Islands: which face with Hebriades scattered be|tweene both the realms, wherin at this daie the Irish Hebriedes. Scot, successor of the elder Scithian, Pict, or Red|shanke dwelleth. Ech of these fiue, where-they are fra|mable to ciuilitie, & answer the writs of the princes courts, be sundred into shires or counties in this ma|ner. In Leinster lieth the counties of Dublin, Kil|dare, The shires and counties of Ireland. Weiseford or Gueisford, Catherlach, Kilken|nie, the counties of Leise & Ophalie, called the kings and quéenes counties: these two latelie so named by parlement, in the reignes of Philip and Marie, ha|uing shire townes accordant, Philips towne, and Marie bourgh. Connaght hath the countie Clare: Ulster the counties of Louth, Doune, Antrim, one moitie of the towne of Droghedagh (for the rest is in Méeth) and Carregfergus. In Mounster lie the coun|ties of Waterford, Limerike, Corke, the countie palantine of Tipperarie, Kerie, & the crosse of Tippe|rarie. Mounster was of old time diuided into cast Mounster, Ormond, west Mounster, Desmond, south Mounster, Toonmound. The occasion why Ireland was parted into these fiue principall regions grew of this. There arriued in Ireland fiue brethren, that were valiant & martiall gentlemen; to wit, Gandius, An. mun. 2533. Cambrens. lib. 1. dist. 3: [...]ub. 5. & 6. Genandius, Sagandus, otherwise named Gangan|dus, Rutheragus or Rutheranus, & Slanius. These fiue perceiuing that the countrie was not sufficient|lie peopled, were agreed (as it were) to cast lots, and to share the whole realme betwéene themselues. The foure elder brethren seuering the countrie into foure parts, and being loth to vse their yoongest brother like an outcast or stepsonne, condescended that each of them foure should of their owne portion allot to Slanius a paring or parcell of their inheritance. Which being as heartilie receiued of Slanius, as it was bountifullie granted by them, he setled himselfe therein, and of that partition it tooke the appellation of Media, Méeth. The foure parts méet at a certeine Méeth [...] it is named. stone at Méeth, néere the castell of Kilaire, as an in|different meare to seuer the foure regions.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But although Slanius in the beginning had the least parcell, yet in short space he stood so well to his tacklings, and incroched so far vpon his neighbors, that he obteined the whole monarchie of Ireland. At Méeth ap|pointed for the king his ta [...]. which time he did not suppresse in obliuion his inheri|tance of Meeth; but did inlarge it, and decreed it should be a countrie appendant to the monarch his diet or table. And albett the confines thereof were by Slanius stretched, yet it conteineth not so much land as anie of the other foure parts comprehendeth; but rather by indifferent surueie, the halfe deale, where of also it is not vnlikelie named Méeth. For whereas in the time of Slanius, each of the foure parts compriseth two and thirtie cantreds, Meeth conteineth but sixteene cantreds. A cantred is named Cantred. so much land as conteineth an hundred towneships. This Slanius is intoomed at an hill in Méeth, which of him is named Slane. There hath béene in anci|ent Slane. time one Galfride Geneuile, lord of the libertie of Meeth. This noble man became a frier preacher, Galfride Geneui [...]. and decesed in the yeare of our Lord 1314, the twen|tith of October, and was intoomed in the abbeie of the Blacke friers at Trim.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There is also another diuision of Ireland, into the The Eng|lish pale. English pale, and Irishrie. For when Ireland was subdued by the English, diuerse of the conquerors planted themselues néere to Dublin, and the con|fines thereto adioining, and so as it were inclosing and impaling themselues within certeine lists and territories, they feazed awaie the Irish; insomuch as that countrie became méere English, and there|of it was termed the English pale: which in ancient time stretched from Dundalke to Catherlagh or Kilkennie. But now what for the slacknesse of mar|chours, and incroching of the Irish enimie, the scope of the English pale is greatlie impaired, & is cram|perned and coucht into an od corner of the countrie named Fingall, with a parcell of the king his land, Méeth, the countries of Kildare and Louth, which parts are applied chieflie with good husbandrie, and taken for the richest and ciuilest soiles in Ireland. But Fingall especiallie from time to time hath bin Finguls ex|celleth in husbandrie. so addicted to all the points of husbandrie, as that they are nickenamed by their neighbours, for their continuall drudgerie, Collonnes, of the Latine word Collonnes of Fingall. Clowne. Coloni, wherevnto the clipt English word clowne seemeth to be answerable.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The word Fingall counternaileth in English Fingall, why so named. the race or sept of the English or estrangers, for that they were solie seized of that part of the Iland, gri|ping with their talants so firmelie that warme nest, that from the conquest to this daie the Irish ensmie could neuer rouse them from thense. The inhabi|tants of the English pale haue béene in old time so much addicted to their ciuilitie, and so farre seques [...]e|red from barbarous sauagenesse, as their onelie mo|ther toong was English. And trulie, so long as these The ci [...] of Ireland in ancient time. impaled dwellers did sunder themselues as well in land as in language from the Irish: rudenesse was daie by daie in the countrie supplanted, ciuilitie in|graffed, good lawes established, loialtie obserued, re|bellion suppressed, and in fine the coine of a yoong England was like to shoot in Ireland. But when their posteritie became not altogither so warie in kéeping, as their ancestors were valiant in conque|ring, the Irish language was frée dennized in the English pale: this canker tooke such déepe root, as the bodie that before was whole and sound, was by little and little festered, and in maner wholie putri|fied. And not onlie this parcell of Ireland grew to EEBO page image 11 that ciuilitie, but also Ulster and the greater part of Mounster, as by the sequele of the Irish historie shall plainlie appéere. But of all other places, Weis|ford with the territorie baied and perclosed within the riuer called the Pill, was so quite estranged weisford wholie En|glish. The Pill. from Irishrie, as if a traueller of the Irish (which was rare in those daies) had pitcht his foot within the Pill and spoken Irish, the Weisfordians would command him foorthwith to turne the other end of his toong and speake English, or els bring his trouch|man with him. But in our daies they haue so as|quainted themselues with the Irish, as they haue made a mingle mangle or gallimaufreie of both the languages, and haue in such medleie or checkerwise so crabbedlie iumbled them both togither, as com|monlie the inhabitants of the meaner sort speake neither good English nor good Irish.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There was of late daies one of the péeres of En|gland The saieng of a noble man touching the English of weisford. sent to Weisford as commissioner, to decide the controuersies of that countrie; and hearing in affable wise the rude complaints of the countrie clowns, he conceiued here & there some time a word, other whiles a sentence. The noble man being verie glad, that vpon his first comming to Ireland, he vn|derstood so manie words, told one of his familiar friends, that he stood in verie great hope to become shortlie a well spoken man in the Irish, supposing that the blunt people had pratled Irish, all the while they iangled English. Howbeit to this daie, the dregs of the old ancient Chaucer English are kept as well there as in Fingall, as they terme a spider, an attercop, a wisp, a wad, a lumpe of bread, a poc|ket, Old English in weisford and Fingall. or a pucket, a sillibucke, a copprous, a faggot, a blease, or a blaze, for the short burning of it (as I iudge) a physician, a leach, a gap, a shard, a base court or quadrangle, a bawen, or rather (as I doo suppose) a barton, the houshold or folks, meanie, sharpe, kéene, estrange, vncouth, easie, éeth or éefe, a dunghill, a mi|zen. As for the word bater, that in English purpor|teth Bater. a lane, bearing to an high waie, I take it for a méere Irish word that crept vnwares into the En|glish, through the dailie intercourse of the English and Irish inhabitants. And whereas commonlie in all countries the women speake most neatlie and pertlie, which Tullie in his third booke De oratore, spea|king in the person of Crassus séemed to haue obser|ued: yet notwithstanding in Ireland it falleth out contrarie. For the women haue in their English The pronun|tiation of the Irish women. toong an harsh & brode kind of pronuntiation, with vttering their words so péeuishlie and faintlie, as though they were halfe sicke, and readie to call for a posset. And most commonlie in words of two syl|lables they giue the last the accent: as they saie, markeat, baskeat, gossoupe, pussoat, Kobart, Ni|clase, &c: which doubtles dooth disbeautifie their En|glish aboue measure. And if they could be weaned from that corrupt custome, there is none that could dislike of their English.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Here percase some snappish carper will take me at rebound, and snuffinglie snib me for debasing the Irish language: but trulie, whosoeuer shall be found so ouerthwartlie bent, he takes the matter farre a|wrie. For as my skill is verie simple therein, so I would be loth to disueile my rashnes, in giuing light verdict in anie thing to me vnknowen: but onelie my short discourse tendeth to this drift, that it is not expedient that the Irish toong should be so vniuer|sallie gagled in the English pale: because that by proofe and experience we sée, that the pale was neuer in more florishing estate than when it was wholie English, and neuer in woorsse plight than s [...]nce it hath infranchised the Irish. But some will saie, that I shew my selfe herein as friuolous as some loosing The supersti|tion of gam|sters. gamsters séeme superstitious, when they plaie them|selues drie, they gogle wish their eies hither and thi|ther, and if they can prie out anie one that giueth them the gaze, they stand lumping and lowring, fretting and fuming, for that they imagine that all their euill lucke procéeded of him: and yet if the stander by depart, the looser may be found as drie shauen as he was before. And euen so it fareth with you, because you sée all things run to ruine in the English pale, by reason of great enormities in the countrie, either openlie practised, or couertlie win|ked at; you glanse your sie on that which standeth next you, & by beating Iacke for Gill, you impute the fault to that which perhaps would little further the weale publike if it were exiled. Now trulie you shoot verie néere the marke. But if I may craue your patience till time you sée me shoot my bolt, I hope you will not denie, but that as néere the pricke as you are, and as verie an hagler as I am, yet the scantling shall be mine. First therefore take this with you, that a conquest draweth, or at the leastwise ought to draw to it thrée things, to wit, law, apparell, A conquest implieth thrée things. and language. For where the countrie is subdued, there the inhabitants ought to be ruled by the same law that the conqueror is gouerned, to weare the same fashion of attire wherwith the victor is vested, and speake the same language that the vanquisher parleth. And if anie of these thrée lacke, doubtlesse the conquest limpeth. Now whereas Ireland hath bin by lawfull conquest brought vnder the subiection of England, not onelie in king Henrie the second his reigne, but also as well before as after (as by the dis|course of the Irish historie shall euidentlie be deci|phered) and the conquest hath béene so absolute and perfect, that all Leinster, Meth, Ulster, the more part of Connagh and Mounster, all the ciuities and burroughs in Ireland haue béene wholie Englished, and with English conquerors inhabited; is it decent (thinke you) that their owne ancient natiue toong shall be shrowded in obliuion, and suffer the enimies language, as it were a tettar or ringworme, to har|bor it selfe within the iawes of English conquerors? No trulie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 And now that I haue fallen vnwares into this discourse, it will not be farre amisse to stand some|what roundlie vpon this point. It is knowen, and by the historie you may in part perceiue, how braue|lie Ulster whilom florished. The English families were there implanted, the Irish either vtterlie ex|pelled or wholie subdued, the laws dulie executed, the reuenue great, and onelie English spoken. But what brought it to this present ruine and decaie? I doubt not but you gesse before I tell you. They were inuironed and compassed with euill neighbours. Neighbourhood bred acquaintance, acquaintance wasted in the Irish toong, the Irish hooked with it attire, attire haled rudenesse, rudenesse ingendered ignorance, ignorance brought contempt of lawes, the contempt of lawes bred rebellion, rebellion ra|ked thereto warres, and so consequentlie the vtter decaie and desolation of that worthie countrie. If these chinks, when first they began to chap, had beene diligentlie by the dwellers stopped; hir maiestie at this daie, to hir great charges, should not haue béene occasioned to dam vp with manie thousand pounds, yea and with the worthie carcases of valiant soul|diors, the gaps of that rebellious northerne coun|trie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Now put the case that the Irish toong were as sa|cred as the Hebrue, as learned as the Gréeke, as fluent as the Latine, as amarous as the Italian, as courteous as the Spanish, as courtlike as the French; yet trulie (I know not which waie it falleth out) I sée not but it may be verie well spared in the English pale. And if reason will not lead you to EEBO page image 12 thinke it, trulie experience must force you to grant it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In old time, when the Romans were first ac|quainted with the Gréeke toong, as it is commonlie the nature of man to be delighted with newfangle wares: so he was accounted no gallant among the Romans, that could not pratle and that Gréeke. Marcus Cicero father to Tullie, being at that time Cic. lib. [...]. de [...]. stept in yeares, perceiuing his countrimen to be|come changelings, in being bilwise and polmad, and to sucke with the Gréeke the conditions of the Gre|cians, as to be in words talkatine, in behauiour light, in conditions quaint, in manners hautie, in promises vnstedfast, in othsrash, in bargains wa|uering (which were reckoned for Gréekish proper|ties in those daies) the old gentleman not so much respecting the neatnesse of the language, as the naughtie fruit it brought with it; said, that his coun|trimen the Romans resembled the bondslaues of Siria; for the more perfect they were in the Greeke, the worse they were in their manners and life. If this gentleman had béene now liuing, and had séene what alteration hath happened in Ireland, through the intercourse of languages, he would (I dare saie) breake patience, and would demand whie the Eng|lish pale is more giuen to learne the Irish, than the Irishman is willing to learne English: we must Oneile whie he would not learne Eng|lish. imbrace their language, and they detest ours. One demanded merilie whie Oneile that last was would not frame himselfe to speake English? What (quoth the other) in a rage, thinkest thou that it standeth with Oneile his honor to writh his mouth in clatte|ring English? and yet forsooth we must gag our lawes in gibbrishing Irish? But I dwell too long in so apparant a matter. As all the ciuities & towns in Ireland, with Fingall, the king his land, Meth, the countie of Kildare, Louth, Weisford, speake to this daie English (whereby the simplicitie of some is to be derided, that iudge the inhabitants of the Eng|lish pale, vpon their first repaire into England, to learne their English in three or foure daies, as though they had bought at Chester a grotes worth of English, and so packt vp the rest to be carried af|ter them to London) euen so in all other places their natiue language is Irish.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 I find it solemnlie aduouched, aswell in some of the Camb. lib. 1. dist. 3. rub. 8. The founder of the Irish language. Irish pamphlets as in Girald. Camb. that Gathelus or Gaidelus, & after him Simon Brecke, deuised the Irish language out of all other toongs then extant in the world. And thereof (saith Cambrensis) it is called Gaidelach, partlie of Gaidelus the first founder, and partlie for that it is compounded of all languages. But considering the course of interchanging and blending of speeches togither, not by inuention of art, but by vse of talke, I am rather led to beléeue (séeing Ireland was inhabited within one yeare af|ter the diuision of toongs) that Bastolenus a branch of Iaphet, who first seized vpon Ireland, brought Bastolenus. thither the same kind of spéech, some of the 72 that to this familie befell at the desolation of Babell. Un|to whom succeeded the Scithians, Grecians, Egyp|tians, Spaniards, Danes, of all which the toong must Epiphan. cont. har. lib. 1. 1. tom. 1. néeds haue borowed part, but especiallie reteining the steps of Spanish then spoken in Granado, as from their mightiest ancestors. Since then to Hen|rie Fitzempresse the conqueror no such inuasion happened them, as whereby they might be driuen to infect their natiue language, vntouched in manner for the space of seuenteene hundred yeares after the arriuall of Iberius. It séemeth to borrow of the Spanish the common phrase, Commestato, that is, How doo you? or how fareth it with you? It fetcheth sundrie words from the Latine, as arget of Argen|tum, monie; salle of Sal, salt; cappoulle of Caballus, a plough horsse, or (according vnto the old English terme) a caball or caple; birreat of the old mothea|ten Latine word Birretum, a bonnet. The toong is sharpe and sententious, & offereth great occasion to quicke apophthegms and proper allusions. Where|fore their common iesters and rimers, whom they terme Bards, are said to delight passinglie these Bards. that conceiue the grace and propertie of the toong. But the true Irish indéed differeth so much from The obscuri|tie of the true Irish. that they commonlie speake, that scarse one in fiue hundred can either read, write, or vnderstand it. Therefore it is preserued among certeine of their poets and antiquaries. And in verie déed the lan|guage The difficul|tie. carrieth such difficultie with it, what for the strangenesse of the phrase, and the curious featnes of the pronuntiation, that a verie few of the coun|trie can atteine to the perfection thereof, and much lesse a forrener or stranger.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 A gentleman of mine acquaintance reported, that he did see a woman in Rome, which was pos|sessed with a babling spirit, that could haue chatted anie language sauing the Irish; and that it was so difficult, as the verie diuell was grauelled there|with. A gentleman that stood by answered, that he tooke the speech to be so sacred and holie, that no damned féend had the power to speake it; no more than they are able to saie (as the report goeth) the verse of saint Iohn the euangelist, Et verbum care Iohn. 1. verse 14. factum est. Naie by God his mercie man (quoth the other) I stand in doubt (I tell you) whether the a|postles in their copious mart of languages at Ieru|salem could haue spoken Irish, if they were appo|sed: whereat the companie heartilie laughed. As fluent as the Irish toong is, yet it lacketh diuerse words, and borroweth them verbatim of the Eng|lish. As there is no vulgar Irish word (vnlesse there be some od terme that lurketh in anie obscure The [...] the Irish. shrowds or other of their storehouse) for a cote, a gowne, a dublet, an hat, a drinking cup: but one|lie they vse the same words with a little inflexion. They vse also the contracted English phrase, God morrow, that is to saie, God giue you a good mor|ning.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 I haue apposed sundrie times the expertest men that could be had in the countrie, and all they could No Irish word for knaue. neuer find out an equiualent Irish word for knaue. The Grecians (according to Tullie his iudgement) were in the same predicament as touching the terme Ineptus: his words are these. Ego meherculè ex Lib. [...]. de orat. Ineptus. omnibus Latinis verbis, huius verbi vim vel maximam semper putaui. Quem enim nos ineptum vocamus, is mihi videtur ab hoc nomen habere ductum, quòd non sit aptus, idque in sermonis nostri consuetudine perlatè patet. Nam qui aut tempus, quo quid postulet, non videt, aut plura loquitur, aut se ostentat, aut eorum, quibuscum est, vel dignitatis vel commodi rationem non habet, aut denique in aliquo genere aut inconcinnus aut multus est, is ineptus esse dicitur. Hoc vitio cumulata est eruditissima illa Grae|corum natio. Itaque qui vim huius mali Graeci non vide|dent, ne nomen quidem ei vitio imposuerunt. Vt enim quaeras omnia, quomodo Graeci ineptum appellent, non re|peries.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Certes I haue béene of opinion (saith Tullie) that amongest the whole crue of Latine terms the word Ineptus hath béene of greatest importance or weight. For he, whom we name Ineptus, seemeth to me to haue the etymologie or of spring of his name here hense deriued, that he is not apt; which stretch|eth far and wide in the vsuall custome of our dailie spéech or communication. For he that dooth not perceiue what is sitting or decent for euerie sea|son, or gableth more than he hath commission to doo, or that in bragging, bosting, or peacockwise set|teth himselfe foorth to the gaze, by making more of EEBO page image 13 the broth, than the flesh is worth; or he that regar|deth not the vocation and affaires of them, with whome he intermedleth: or in fine, who so is stale without grace, or ouer tedious in anie matter, he is tearmed Ineptus; which is asmuch in English, in my phantasie, as saucie, or malapert. The famous & lear|ned Gréeke nation is generallie dusked with this fault. And for that the Grecians could not spie the Saucines. enormitie thereof, they haue not so much as framed a terme thereto. For if you should ransacke the whole Gréeke language, you shall not find a word to coun|teruaile Ineptus. Thus far Tullie. Yet Budaeus would not séeme to acknowledge this barrennesse, but that the Gréeke word [...] is equipollent to Inep|tus: but that I referre to the iudgement of the lear|ned, being verie willing to find out some other Bu|daeus, that could fashion an Irish word for knaue, Budae. lib. 2. de Asse. & part. ciue. whereof this discourse of Ineptus grew. As the whole realme of Ireland is sundred into foure principall parts, as before is said, so each parcell differeth ve|rie much in the Irish toong, euerie countrie hauing his dialect or peculiar maner in speaking the lan|guage: therefore commonlie in Ireland they as|cribe a propertie to each of the foure countries in this sort. Ulster hath the right Irish phrase, but not the true pronunciation; Munster hath the true pro|nunciation, but not the phrase; Leinster is deuoid of the right phrase, and true pronunciation; Con|naght hath both the right phrase and true pronuncia|tion. There is a cholerike or disdainfull interiection vsed in the Irish language called Boagh, which is as much in English as twish. The Irish both in Irish boagh. ancient time and to this daie commonlie vse it, and therefore the English conquerors called them Irish poghes, or pogh Morrice. Which tawnting terme is at this daie verie wrongfullie ascribed to them of the English pale. The English interiection, Fough, Fough. which is vsed in lothing a ranke or strong sauour, seemeth to be sib to the other.

1.2. Of the nature of the soile, and other incidents. The second chapter.

Of the nature of the soile, and other incidents. The second chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _THe soile is low and wate|rish, including diuerse little Ilands, inuironed with lakes & marrish. Highest hils haue standing pooles in their tops. Inhabitants especialllie new come, are subiect to distilla|tions, rheumes and fluxes. For remedie whereof, they vse an ordinarie drinke of Aqua vitae, being so qualified in the making, that it drieth more, and also inflameth lesse than other Aqua vitae. hot confections doo. One Theoricus wrote a proper treatise of Aqua vitae, wherein he praiseth it vnto the ninth degrée. He distinguisheth thrée sorts there|of, Theoric. Episc. Hermenensis in Romanula iuxta Bononi|am. Simplex, Composita, and Perfectissima. He declareth the simples and ingrediences thereto belonging. He wisheth it to be taken as well before meat as after. It drieth vp the breaking out of hands, and killeth the flesh wormes, if you wash your hands therewith. The commo|dities of A|qua vitae. It scowreth all scurfe & scalds from the head, being therewith dailie washt before meales. Being mo|deratlie taken (saith he) it sloweth age, it strength|neth youth, it helpeth digestion, it cutteth flegme, it abandoneth melancholie, it relisheth the heart, it lighteneth the mind, it quickeneth the spirits, it cureth the hydropsie, it healeth the strangurie, it pounceth the stone, it expelleth grauell, it putteth awaie all ventositie, it kéepeth and preserueth the head from whirling, the eies from dazeling, the toong from lisping, the mouth from ma [...]ling, the teeth from chattering, and the throte from ratling: it kéepeth the weasan from stifling, the stomach from wambling, and the heart from swelling, the bellie from wirtching, the guts from rumbling, the hands from shiuering, & the sinewes from shrinking, the veines from crumpling, the bones from aking, & the marrow from soaking. Vlstadius also ascribeth Vlst. in coelo philos. vel de secret. [...]t. cap. 11. thereto a singular praise, and would haue it to burne being kindled, which he taketh to be a token to know the goodnesse thereof. And trulie it is a souereigne liquor, if it be orderlie taken.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The aire is verie holesome, not generallie so cleare and subtill as that of England. The weather is more temperat, being not so warme in summer, nor cold in winter, as it is in England and Flan|ders. The countrie is stored with bees, contrarie to the opinion of some writers, who both in this and o|ther errors, touching this countrie, may easilie be excused, as those that wrote by hearesaie. No vine|yards, yet grapes grow there as in England. They doo lacke the Robucke, as Polychronicon writeth. Poly. lib. 1. cap. 32. They also lacke the bird called the pie. Howbeit in the English pale to this day, they vse to tearme a flie cousener, a wilie pie. Giraldus Cambrensis in his Wilie pie. Camb. part. 1. dist. 3. time complaineth, that Ireland had excesse of wood, & verie little champaine ground; but now the English pale is too naked: turffe is their most fewell and No vene|mous worme in Ireland. seacole. No venemous creeping beast is brought forth, or nourished, or can liue in Ireland, being brought or sent. And therefore the spider of Ireland is well knowne not to be venemous, onelie because a frog was found lieng in the medowes of Water|ford Camb. part. 1. dist. 1. somewhat before the conquest, they construed it to import their ouerthrow.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Bede writeth, that serpents conuesed into Ire|land Bed. lib. 1. Angl. Hist. cap. 1. did presentlie die, being touched with the smell of the land, that whatsoeuer came from Ireland was then of souereigne vertue against poison. He exem|plifieth in certeine men, stung of adders, who dranke in water the scrapings of bookes that had béene of Ireland, and were cured. Generallie it is obserued, the further west, the lesse annoiance of pestilent cre|tures. The want whereof is to Ireland so peculi|ar, that whereas it laie long in question, to whether realme, Britaine or Ireland, the Ile of Man should The contro|uersie of the Ile of Man decided. apperteine: the said controuersie was decided, that for somuch as venemous beasts were knowen to bréed therein, it could not be a naturall part of Ire|land. And contrariwise, the Orchades are adiudged Orchades opp [...]ant to Irela [...] Hector Boet. in Scot. reg. descrip. pag. 9. Sect. 50. Camb. topo. lib. 1. dist. 1. rub. 29. to be appendant to Ireland, because those Ilands, neither bréed nor foster anie venemous worme, as Hector Boetius auoucheth. Giraldus Cambrensis writeth that he heard certeine merchants affirme, that when they had vnladen their ships in Ireland they found by hap some toads vnder their balast. And they had no sooner cast them on the shore, than they would puffe and swell vnmeasurablie, & shortlie after turning vp their bellies, they would burst in sunder. And not onelie the earth and dust of Ire|land, but also the verie thongs of Irish leather haue the verie same force and vertue. I haue séene it, saith Cambrensis, experimented, that a toad being Cam. ibid. rub. 30. 31. incompassed with a thong of Irish leather, and crée|ping thitherward, indeuering to haue skipt ouer it, Irish leather expelieth ve| [...]mous wormes. suddenlie reculed backe, as though it had béene rapt in the head: wherevpon it began to sprall to the o|ther side. But at length perceiuing that the thong did embaie it of all parts, it began to thirle, and as it were to dig the earth, where finding an hole, it siunke awaie in the presence of sundrie persons.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 It happened also in my time, saith Giraldus Cam|brensis, Cambr. in co. dem loco. that in the north of England a knot of yong|kers tooke a nap in the fields: as one of them laie snorting with his mouth gaping, as though he would EEBO page image 14 haue caught flies, it happèned that a snake or adder slipt into his mouth, and glided downe into his bel|lie, where harboring it selfe, it began to roame vp and downe and to féed on the yoong man his entrals. The patient being sore distracted and aboue mea|sure tormented with the biting pangs of this grée|die ghest, incessantlie praied to God, that if it stood with his gratious will, either wholie to bereaue him of his life, or else of his vnspeakeable mercie to ease him of his paine. The worme would neuer ceasse from gnawing the patient his carcasse, but when he had taken his repast, and his meat was no sooner digested, than it would giue a fresh onset in boring his guts. Diuerse remedies were sought, and medi|cins, pilgrimages to saints, but all could not pre|uaile. Being at length schooled by the graue aduise of some sage and expert father, that willed him to make his spéedie repaire to Ireland, would tract no time, but busked himselfe ouer sea, and arriued in Ireland. He did no sooner drinke of the water of that Iland, and taken of the vittels of Ireland, but forthwith he kild the snake, auoided it downe|ward, and so being lustie and liuelie he returned in|to England. Thus far Giraldus Cambrensis.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There be some that moue question, whether the want of venemous wormes be to be imputed to the whether ve|nemous wormes were expelied Ire|land through the praiers of saint Patrike. propertie of the soile, or to be ascribed to the praiers of saint Patrike, who conuerted that Iland. The greater part father it on saint Patrike, especiallie such as write his life aswell apart, as in the legend of Irish saints. Giraldus Cambrensis disaffirmeth flatlie that opinion, and taketh it to be a secret or hidden propertie naturallie vnited to the soile, from whom Polychronicon dooth not swarue. For my part as I am wedded to neither of both the opinions, so Polychr. lib. 1. cap. 32. I would haue béene easilie persuaded, being neither hot nor cold in the matter, to rest as a lukewarme neuter, in omitting the one and the other vnskand, were it not that one maister Alan Cope, or some o|ther that masketh vnder his visours, more slan|derouslie than pithilie had busied himselfe therein. Wherefore, sith I may with better warrant defend my natiue countrie, than he or his betters may re|prooue it, especiallie where his slanderous reports are vnderpropt with flim flam surmises: I purpose vnder maister Cope his correction to cope and buc|kle with him herein: and before he beare the ball to the goale, to trip him if I may in the way. And be|cause (gentle reader) I mind to make thée an indif|ferent vmpier in this controuersie, for the better vn|derstanding of the matter, I will laie downe mai|ster Cope his words, in such wise as they are im|printed in his booke. First therefore thou must vn|derstand, that his booke is made in dialog wise, a kind of writing as it is vsed, so commended of the learned. In these dialogs Irenaeus an English|man and Critobulus a Germane plaie the parts. Irenaeus entresh into the [...]age, and in this wise be|ginneth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Incipiam à sancto Paulo: nosti in Melita (quam hodie Alan. Copus dialog. 3. acd. 28. Maltam appellant) Paulum viperam à manu pendentem in ignem excussisse. In ea insula scorpiones, qui alibi sunt laetales, Pauli, vt creditur, munere sunt innoxij.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Critobulus. Fortasse hoc habet à natura.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Irenaeus. Falleris: nam insulant, vt Lucas refert, clama|bant, delatum eò parricidam, cui cùm mare pepercisset, trati dij serpentes, qui eum tollerent, immisissent: nec quicquam ma|gis quàm praesentem eius mortem expectabant. A qua cùm ille tantùm abesset, vt nihil omnino damni aut doloris inde sentiret, in admirationem acti, dixerunt, eum longè supra hominem esse, & deum sub humana specie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Critobulus. Sic est, vt dicis.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Irenaeus. Caetera itaque audi. Especu, ad quem diuertis|se dicitur, colliguntur lapides in tota fermè Europa salutares Adhaec, quos nasci octauo calendas Februarij contingit (qui di|es conuersionis eius memoriae dicatus est) quaecunque eos orbis pars in lucem proferat, non horrent nec formidant angues, imò, quod magis est, sola saliua horum morsibus medentur. Id quod homo doctissimus & diligentissimus Thomas Fazellus nuper Thomas Fazellus. prodidit, vsu ipso rerum, & certis, ni fallor, exemplis ab eo obseruatum.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Critobulus. Ista quidem digna sunt obseruatione: & iam recordor, me legisse ac saepiùs audisse, precibus beati Patri|cij Hiberniae apostoli, ei regioni simile beneficium indultum, ne ea insula aliquid laetale pariat. Dicifortassè inde à nonnullis solet, nihil esse in Hibernia venenati praeter ipsos homines, quod propter feros & agrestes eorum mores dictum à plerisque accipitur.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Irenaeus. Eam regionem nihil pestiferum aut venenatum alere, tum ex multorum sermonibus, tum ex Beda intelligo: Bed. lib. 1. Ang. hist. c. 1. adeò vt terra illius regionis exportata, pestifera ac venenata animalia extinguat. Verùm id quicquid est, non Patricio, sed Sententia de|finitiua Solin, cap 35. naturae regionis tribuo, propterea quòd longè antè Patricium natum constet, eam fuisse eius regionis dotem, quam non est difficile alibi reperiri.

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I will begin (saith Irenaeus) with saint Paule. You know that in Melita (which at this daie is called Malta) saint Paule flung into the fire a viper that stucke or did cleaue to his hand. In that Iland scor|pions which are elsewhere deadlie or venemous, are become through the gift of saint Paule (as it is sup|posed) harmelesse.

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Tush (quoth Critobulus) that may be percase incident to the nature of the soile.

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Naie then (replieth Irenaeus) you are in a wrong box. For the Ilanders (as saint Luke mentioneth) showted, that a parentquellor was brought thither, and because he was not swallowed in the gulfes of the sea, the gods being in their fustian fumes, sent serpents to slaie him. And they looked for nothing sooner than to see him euen at a twinkling to perish. But when they perceiued him to be so farre distant from death, as that he susteined no harme, ne felt a|nie paine, the people therewith amazed, said he far surpassed mans estate, & that he was a god inuested in man his shape.

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You haue reason (answereth Critobulus) you haue hit the naile on the head.

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Yea but I praie you clip not my tale (saith Ire|naeus) but take me with you. Stones are culled in the caue or den wherein saint Paule is said to haue bai|ted or soiorned, which stones in maner in all Europe are souereigne medicines to cure the bitings and stinges of scorpions and serpents. Furthermore, they that are borne the fiue and twentith of Ianua|rie (which daie is named the conuersion of S. Paule) in what part soeuer of the world they are borne, they feare not or grudge not at snakes: yea, that which is more to be admired, the stingings of poisoned worms are healed by the verie spittle of this Ianuarie brood. Which thing hath béene of late published by a well lettered man Thomas Fazellus, to haue béene curi|ouslie noted of him, as well by proofe and experience, as by sure and substantiall examples, if I take not the matter amisse.

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Then commeth in Critobulus, whome maister Cope maketh (I will not saie the vice or hicscorner) but the plesant conceipted gentleman of this enter|lude, and fetcheth a long leape (for I am sure he could not iumpe so farre) from Malta to Ireland, and fra|meth his tale in this sort. By the faith of my bodie sir, here is stuffe woorth the noting. And now I call to mind, that I haue read and often heard, that the like benefit hath béene imparted to Ireland, through the praiers of saint Patrike the apostle of the said I|land, that is to saie, that Ireland breedeth no vene|mous worme. And therevpon percase some are ac|customed to saie, that there is no poisoned or vene|mous EEBO page image 15 thing in Ireland, but onelie the people, which is taken to haue beene said of most men for their brutish and sauage maners.

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To this (saith Irenaeus) I am doone to vnderstand by the report of diuerse, and also by Bede, that no poi|soned or venemous thing is bred in that realme: in somuch that the verie earth of that countrie being brought into other realmes, killeth all venemous and poisoned worms.
But let the matter fall out which waie it will; I ascribe that propertie not to Iudgement. saint Patrike, but to the nature of the soile, because it hath béen knowen long before saint Patrike was borne, that Ireland was indued with that propertie, which is elsewhere easie to be found. Hitherto Mai|ster Cope.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In this discourse (gentle reader) thou seest that Maister Cope handleth two principall points, the propertie of Malta, and the nature of Ireland in de|stroieng venemous worms, the one he ascribeth to the blessed apostle saint Paule, the other he will not in anie wise impute to saint Patrike. Touching the first, as I haue no occasion to intermeddle there|in, so I purpose not for the quarell I haue to the person, to disprooue his opinion so farre as it standeth with truth. Wherefore that God that of his bounti|full goodnesse gaue the grace to Moses, to turne Aa|rons rod into a serpent, to turne the riuer into Exod. c 7. verse 10. bloud, and to worke diuerse other effects that are mentioned in the scripture; to Iosu. c. 10 verse 13. Iosue, to staie the sun; to 3 Reg 17 verse 22. and Eccles. 48 verse 50. Elias to raise the dead child; to Act 3 vers. 7. Peter to make the lame go; to heale Act 9. ver. 34. Eneas; to reuiue Act 9 vers 40 Ta|bitha; yea with his verie Act 5 vers. 13. shadow to cure the sicke; and the God that gaue to that Paule, of whome mai|ster Cope speaketh, his gratious gift to make the Act. 14 verse 10. lame go; to Act 20 verse 10 & 11. quicken and raise the deceased, and for his sake to Act. 27 ver [...] 23 Act. 9 vers. 43 Act. 28 verse 9. salue his fellow passengers: it is not to be denied, but that God would impart his goodnes to anie region, euen the sooner that any of his blessed seruants would harborough there. And as I doubt not but Simon the tanners house was nothing the woorse for lodging so happie a ghest as Peter: so I am sure Malta was farre the better for harboring so blessed a traueller or passenger as Paule. Which S. Luke letteth not to tell, declaring that all they which were sicke in the Iland, flocked to Paule, and were cured; and also that the patient that was father to Publius, in whose house they were thrée daies verie courteouslie interteined, was by S. Paule healed. Which cure as well of that patient, as of the residue of the Ilanders, did not onlie extend to their bodies, but chéetlie & especiallie to their soules, according to the opinion of the learned diuines. For as our saui|or Augu. tract. 30 in Iohan. Th. p 3 q. 44. u. 3 ad. 3 m. Iesus Christ was neuer thought to cure anie ones bodie, but he would also heale his soule: so it must be thought of his apostles, in whose steps both in life and miracles they traced. And therfore the learned hold opinion, that S. Paule being in Malta expelled from diuerse of their soules the old serpent that deceiued our progenitors Adam and Eue; for which God is Gen. 3 vers. 13. to be magnified and glorified. Thus much I thought good here to insert, as a clause not wholie swaruing from that we treat of, and also that I would be found prest and readie, as farre as my simple skill stretch|eth, to vnderstand anie opinion that tendeth to the honor and glorie of God.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Howbeit forsomuch as M. Cope hath so strictlie dealt with Ireland, as with a countrie nothing ap|perteining to this matter, I trust he will pardon me, to be somewhat bold with him, touching the hi|storie of Malta, that as his negligence shall be in the one disshrowed, so his slanderous iudgement maie be in the other reuersed. First therfore where he wri|teth, that the inhabitants of Malta Clamabant, that is, tried, or showted, it was not so. The Gréeke text run|neth, [...], Dicebant ad inuicem, that is Act. 28. vers. 4. to saie, They mutte [...]ed one to an other. And saint Luke paraphraseth his meaning after. For when they perceiued that the viper did not annoie Paule, then saith saint Luke, Conuertentes se, dicebant eum esse deum; They turning the one towards the other, whi|spered or muttered that Paule was a god. Now put Saint Paul [...] heard not the inhabitants of Malta. the case they cried, as M. Cope saith, is it like that Paule was so busie in making of a fire, or that his eares did wander so farre off, as that he could not heare them? And if he heard them, thinke you that he would haue béene whist, in hearing God so farre blasphemed, as that he would suffer himselfe to be de|f [...]ed? No trulie. He would haue taken on, as he and Act. 14. vers. [...] 12, 13, 14. Barnabas did at Listris, where the inhabitants named them gods, Barnabas to be Iupiter, and Paule, for that he was well spoken, to be Mercurie. For when the apostles heard of their idolatrie, ren|ting their clothes, they rusht into the throng, crieng and speaking, that they were mortall men, &c. In which place S. Luke putteth an expresse difference as it were of set purpose, betwéene both the words, Clamantes & dicentes. M. Cope addeth further, Dela|tum eò parricidam, and yet the Gréeke hath [...], Omninò interfector, or as the vulgar text is, Vtique homicida est homo hic. So that they tooke him to be but a manquellor, yet M. Cope maketh him a parricide, which is woorse. For although euerie parricide be a manquellor, yet E conuerso, euerie manquellor is not a parricide.

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M. Cope procéedeth further, Irati dij, serpentes, qui cum tollerent, immisissent: The gods being angrie sent serpents to dispatch Paule.
And yet forsooth, all these serpents were but one viper, as is plainelie exprest in the text, vnlesse M. Cope would teach saint Luke to tell his tale after the finest fashion, least the apo|stle should haue béene thought to haue [...]itoned. As A parson his sermon. the parson that preached to his parishoners of the go|spell, wherein mention is made of them that Christ fed in the desert, or wildernesse. O (quoth the parson) what a Christ was that, that with fiue barlie loaues, and fiue fishes fed fiue hundred persons. The clerke hearing his master to grate ouerlong on that point, for he did often iterate that sentence, stole vp to the pulpit, and plucking the parson by his gowne, whi|spered in his eare that Christ fed fiue thousand. Hold thee contented thou foolish fellow (quoth the parson) if I should tell mine hearers of so great a number, I should but discredit the gospeller, and they would not beléeue me. So it fareth with M. Cope. Belike he mistrusted, that if he had said, that one viper could haue slaine Paule, the reader would haue suspected the vntruth of the matter: bicause it carrieth great likelihood with it, that one man could withstand one viper: and therefore to saue saint Luke his credit, he increaseth the number by putting the plurall for the singular. Whereas therefore it standeth with M. M. Cope his rhetorike. Cope his pleasure, to florish in his rhetoricall figure named, Veritatis superlatio; in terming muttering, showting, a manquellor, a parricide, one viper, ser|pents: he must be borne withall, if in the heat of his figure he step a little awrie in the remnant of his dis|course. For thus he saith.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And therevpon it is reported percase by some men, that there is nothing venemous or poisoned in Ireland, but the men and women. Which is taken to haue beene spoken by most men for their brutish and sauage maners. Here (good reader) thou must vnder|stand that M. Cope putteth the text downe and the glose. The tert is, There is nothing in Ireland vene|mous but the inhabitants. The glose is, This is said to haue béen spoken for their brutish and sauage con|ditions. Now well harpt by saint Lankfield. Here is a glose, I vndertake you, sutable to the text. But EEBO page image 16 let vs sée, how cunninglie M. Cope beequiteth him|selfe. First he obserueth not Decorum personae, second|lie he followeth not Decorum dialogi, thirdlie he shew|eth herein little diuinitie. Touching the first point, who knoweth not, that these iapes and gibes are one|lie fit for ruffians, vices, swashbucklers & tospots. And trulie they beeset a diuine as well, as for an asse to twang quipassa on a harpe or gitterne, or for an ape to friske trenchmoore in a paire of buskins and a doublet. The heathen misliked in an orator squiri|litie, what should be thought then of a diuine, whome Cic. lib. 2. de orat. saint Paule would haue to be sober, modest, graue, and wise? Unlesse M. Cope leaning to the letter of saint Paule his words would beare vs in hand, that 1. Tim 3. vers. 2. & 3. saint Paule would haue modestie to rest onelie in bishops. We are commanded in the old and new te|stament, to loue our neighbors as our selues. Which dooth implie, that we ought not to slander our neigh|bours.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And shall a diuine then speake vncharitablie, not onelie of one, but of an whole realme, and not onelie speake but also write, yea and that in the language that is vniuersallie spoken, thoroughout the greater part of the world, vpon no sure ground, but onelie vpon hearesaie, weieng not what the prophet writeth, Perdes omnes qui loquuntur mendaciũ, Thou shalt destroie Psal. 5. ver. 7. Sapient. 1. Vide August in cundem Psal. all them that speake vntruths? And were it that anie such flim flam flirts were soothed by anie person of credit; yet (as me seemeth) it would stand more with the grauitie of a diuine, that such childish quips, and scornefull tawnts should sooner by his meanes chari|tablie be whisted, than thorough his procurement car|pinglie published. I will stand no longer on this point, but onelie craue M. Cope to resort to the fift Matth. 5. vers. 22. of Matthew, and there peruse Christ his verdict tou|ching slanderous toongs. To come to the second part, in which he obserueth not Decorum dialogi, thou shalt vnderstand (good reader) that Critabulus, or Crito|bulus, whome M. Cope maketh his bagpipe to belch out his rancour, is a Germane borne, as M. Cope saith, who séemeth to be Critabulus his godfather. Now let anie one, that is acquainted with the ma|ners of Germans, iudge, if it be decent, that one of them should scoffe and scorne the conditions and fa|shions of other countries. I will not speake by heare saie, as M. Cope dooth, but by eiesight. I could ne|uer espie nor probablie haue I heard it reported, no not of the méere sauage Irish, such quaffing, such swilling, such bolling, such gulling, such brutish drunkennesse, such surfetting, such vomitting, as I haue seene some Germans doo. In good sooth it is knowne, and for my part I haue seene it being be|yond The German his friendship. the seas, that in their carowsing and cup friend|ship, they threaten such kindnesse on their compani|ons, that least their felowes should mistrust them with double dealing, they will not sticke to shew them the bottome of their stomachs; & to the end they should take the better view thereof, they will place it now and then in their neighbors bosome.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus when they haue cast their gorges, they clap on their thrumd hats, and run like bedlem barre|tors into the stréets with their naked flatchets, and there they keepe such a stinking sturre with hacking of stones, with hewing of blocks, with thwitting of stocks, with striking of stalles, with thumping at doores, that it would make a horsse breake his halter, to see so drunken a pageant. In fine, this qualitie is so naturallie ingraffed in the greater part of them, that a famous diuine did not sticke of late to saie o|penlie in his lecture, that drunkennesse in that coun|trie man, was either Peccatum originale or Accidens in|separabile. I write not this (I take God to record) to the reproch or slander of that countrie (being loth to commit the selfe same fault that I reprehend in anie other) but onelie my meaning is to settle before she reader his eies the absurditie of M. Cope, in fra|ming poore Critabolus to flout Ireland, considering that if he cast his eie homeward, he shall find as fil|thie puddle in his owne countrie, as in other realms. And therefore this quip sate as vnseemelie in his mouth, as for an whoore to reprehend bitcherie, or for an vsurer to condemne simonie. For as there is nothing lesse to be tollerated, than for anie one to haue an other to account for his life, that can yeeld no account of his owne: so there is nothing that ought to moozzell vp anie one from rebuking other nations, than to sée the misdemeanor of his owne natiue countrie. I would wish M. Critabolus or M. Cope, if it shall please him to make vp the mu|ster, with indifferencie to weie the estate of Ireland, and so without parcialitie to frame his iudgement.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Ireland, and especiallie the ruder part is not sto|red Ireland hem it maie be re|formed. with such learned men as Germanie is. If they had sound preachers, and sincere liuers, that by the imbalming of their carian soules with the swéet and sacred flowers of holie writ, would instruct them in the feare of God, in obeieng their prince, in obser|uing the lawes, in vnderpropping in ech man his vo|cation the weale publike; I doubt not, but within two or thrée ages M. Critabolus his heires should heare so good a report run of the reformation of Ire|land, as it would be reckoned as ciuill as the best part of Germanie. Let the soile be as fertile and betle as anie would wish, yet if the husbandman will not manure it, sometime plow and eare it, sometime harrow it, sometime till it, sometime marle it, some|time delue it, sometime dig it, and sow it with good and sound corne, it will bring foorth wéeds, bindcorne, cockle, darnell, brambles, briers, and sundrie wild shoots. So it fareth with the rude inhabitants of Ire|land, they lacke vniuersities, they want instructors, they are destitute of teachers, they are without prea|chers, they are deuoid of all such necessaries as ap|perteine to the training vp of youth: and notwith|standing all these wants, if anie would be so fro|wardlie set, as to require them, to vse such ciuilitie, as other regions, that are sufficientlie furnished with the like helps; he might be accounted as vnrea|sonable, as he that would force a créeple that lacketh both his legs to run, or one to pipe or whistle a gali|ard that wanteth his vpper lip.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 But such is the corrupt nature of vs worldings, and me thinketh such vaine humors are not vtterlie dried vp in our sage and mortified diuines. We are most commonlie giuen rather to tawnt that which is amisse, than to praise that which is good; and rather we follow the spider in soking the poison, than in imitating the bee by sucking the honie. Now that it appeareth, that it was not sitting for the author being a diuine, to write so vncharitablie, nor for M. Crita|bolus being a Germane to carpe other countries so snappishlie: let vs see what wholesome diuinitie hath beene here vttered, and how well the sinewes of M. Critabolus his argument shall be found to hang to|gither, when the an atomie therof by peecemeale shall be examined. I call to mind (quoth M. Critabolus) that I haue read and often heard, that the like benefit hath béene granted to Ireland through the praiers of S. Patrike. M. Critabolus read & heard that by the praiers of S. Patrike, Ireland hath no venemous worme: Ergo some hold opinion, that the poison re|steth onlie in the people. Truly this argument hang|eth togither by verie strange gimbols. And I dare say, M. Cope neuer learned this kind of reasoning in the famous college of Magdalene in Oxford, what so|euer M. Critabulus did in Germanie. But let vs put the logike apart, & scan the singular point of diui|nitie. I would gladlie lerne in what part of scripture EEBO page image 17 or in what ancient father M. Critabulus read or heard (for most of his learning hath béene, as it séemeth, purchased by heare-saie) that anie holie pre|lat, that came of meere charitie to conuert a coun|trie from night to light, from rudenesse to know|ledge, from infidelitie to christianitie, from vice to vertue; from the diuell to God (which dooth implie an especiall zeale in saluing their soules) would purge the soile of all venemous wormes, & leaue the soules that haue more néed to be wéeded, wholie infected with the contagion of vice and sinne. Wherby insueth that the place is better than the inhabitants, and so consequentlie the saieng of the Machabées must be falsified: Non propter locum gentem, sed propter gentem lo|cum Deus elegit: God did not choose the people for the 2. Mac. 5. ver. 19. place, but he elected the place in respect of the peo|ple. Our sauiour Iesus Christ dispossessing the pati|ent of the legion of diuels, permitted them to enter Luc. 8. ver. 32. into an heard of hogs. Critabulus would haue Christs saints doo the contrarie, to dispossesse the hogs, and to leaue the men possessed with diuels. For so he reporteth saint Patrike to haue doone, by rid|ding the land of all poisoned wormes, & leauing the rancour to lurke in the people. Trulie if the matter stood so farre out of ioint, I doubt not, but the Ilan|ders might haue come as lawfullie to him, as the Gergesens came ingratefullie to Christ, requiring him to depart their countrie. For such a scoffing pre|lat, Luc. 2. ver. 37. his roome had béene better than his companie, sith his abode would tend rather to the peruerting, than the conuerting of their Iland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Hitherto thou hast heard (gentle reader) how gal|lantlie Critabulus hath plaied his part: now shall I desire thée to view how sagelie Ireneus claspeth vp all the whole controuersie. He saith it is the nature of the soile, not to breed anie venemous worme, and that was incident thereto before saint Patrike was borne. How prooue you that sir? Pleaseth you to skew your ele towards the margent, and there shall you find the fiue and thirtith chapter of Solinus solemn|lie quoted. Touching this matter, there is nothing in Solinus but this: Illic anguis nullus, auis rara, In Ire|land is no snake, and seldome a bird, & yet birds are as commonlie there as in anie other countrie. But I would gladlie vnderstand how this authoritie of Solinus furthereth M. Ireneus his opinion. Ire|land bred no snake before saint Patrike was borne: Ergo it ingendred no toad, no adder, no frog, nor anie other virulent worme. As if a man would reason thus: Before saint Patrike his time there was no horssemill in Ireland: Ergo before his time there was no milhorsse. Certes he that would wind vp his conclusion so fondlie, might be thought to haue as much wit as a rosted horse. This authoritie of So|linus is so far from vpholding Ireneus his asserti|on, as that it plainelie séemeth quite to ouerthrow it, & as it were in his owne turne, it giueth him a fall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For the cause whie saint Patrike was mooued to expell all the venemous wormes out of Ireland, might probablie haue béene coniectured, to haue pro|céeded of this; that he perceiuing the land to bréed no snakes, therof was occasioned, for the furthering of christian faith, to expell other kind of wormes that lucked there before his comming, as toades, adders, blindworms, frogs, &c. Héere perchase M. Cope may blench me, in replieng that Anguis may be [...]ction. construed generallie for all kind of vermine, and so I might be taken tard [...]e in building my discourse vpon a misconstruction.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In good sooth to omit what strange and absurd sig|nification [...]. Anguis should beare, by notifieng a poiso|ned spider and such like, and in mine opinion further from the purpose, than the father that dissuading his sonne from plaieng on sundaie, fortified his reason with the old said saw, Non est bonum ludere cum sanctis, It is not good, quoth he, to plaie on sundaies or holie daies. Is it (thinke you) fellonie or treason, to bring the credit of Solinus in question, for mistaking An|guis aswell as Auis? For as he was grossie deceiued in the one, in writing that birds were rare in Ire|land; so might he haue straied as likelie in the other, by disburdening Ireland of all venemous wormes, bicause the Iland wanted in his time but one or two kinds, as a snake and a toad. Where a man buildeth vpon euerie twatling and pratling rumor, and his Rumor cat|cheth [...]ethers. eie is not his iudge, he may be sure, that such flieng fales will catch manie feathers before they come at him that is as far distant from their nests, as So|linus was from Ireland when he wrote his pamph|let. The proofe whereof as it is dailie tried, so not ma|nie yeares past hath béene verie pretilie verefied. There was a gentleman of mine acquaintance that met his enimie in the fields, where they both vpon a trifling quarell fought so fréendlie, as they had more néed to haue beene grapled togither with cables, than parted by indifferent sticklers. Howbeit, bicause the gentleman was neuer before flesht, and yet no|thing at all that daie, for each of their blowes did commonlie light on the medow where they fought; a friend of his reported well of him to an other, sai|eng, that he was like in time to prooue a proper man of his hands, for the well handling of his weapon in his late combat. Wherevpon soone after, the other doubling the gentleman his praise, gaue notice to an other, that such a gentleman (naming him) fought valiantlie such a daie in such a place. Immediatlie vpon this in a shire or two off, it was noised that the partie praised, fought with two at once in such a place, naming the medow. At length it was bruted, that he fought foure seuerall daies; and I am well as|sured that was the first fraie that euer he made, and I thinke it will be the last, vnlesse he be forced mau|gre his heart to the contrarie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Not long after it happened, that a gentleman and I trauelled abroad the countrie of set purpose to dis|port our selues, and so to returne afresh to our books, where entering in communication with a blunt countrie lob (yet such an one as tooke his halfepenie to be good siluer) that knew the foresaid champion. My companion and I made wise, as though we were not acquainted with him, or euer heard of the combat: Now in good faith gentleman (quoth he) A fréendlie commenda|tion. you would doo verie well to enter in acquaintance with him; for ouer this, that he is a gentleman a|bundantlie endued with singular good qualities, he is become of late so valiant a cutter, as he maketh blading his dailie breakefast. By saint Marie, quoth my companion, that is verie cold rosse, and if his breakefasts be no better than a péece of coldyron, I little weigh how seldome I take a repast in his com|panie at anie such ordinarie. Naie, my meaning is (quoth the other) that he vseth to fight fresh and fast|ing euerie morning, in so much that of late, I dare bide by it, he fought eight daies in one weeke. At which words I for my part could not refraine from laughing, séeing how demurelie the fellow kept his countenance, and how that he spake Bonafide. Where|vpon I shaped him an answer and said, that I neuer heard of anie that fought eight daies in one weeke, but onelie in old time, when fiue quarters made vp the yeare.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The fellow perceiuing that he ouershot himselfe, replied: Sir, you take me verie short, as long and as verie a lowbie as you imagine to make me: my meaning is, that he fought eight seuerall times in one weeke. Eight times (quoth my companion) then belike he fought once aboue commons. For you told vs right now, that he made his fraie his morning EEBO page image 18 breakefast, and whereas there are but seauen daies in the wéeke, & he fought (as you report) eight times, and you know that eight maketh one aboue seauen, and seauen maketh six and one vnder eight; either you must confesse that he fought out his breakfast, dinner, beuer or supper; or else you must grant that there be eight daies in one wéeke, or at the least two breakefasts in one daie: and that I am sure you will confesse to be as great an absurditie as the other. Naie (quoth the clowne) and you intrap me with such sophistrie, you shall dine, sup and breake your fast a|lone for me, and therewithall departed. Wherby may be gathered, that if he had bin soothed vp, & his toong let to run at libertie vncontrold, like a bowle that runneth in a smooth allie without anie rub, he would haue brought himselfe to that baie, as he would not sticke to saie that his fréend had fought eight daies in one houre. Wherefore as this pudding his pricke grew at length by report to an huge post, so the want of one venemous worme in Ireland, being bruted in forten realmes, might haue beene so thwitted and mangled in the cariage before it came to Solinus his eares, as he might haue beene informed, that the countrie was denoid of all venemous woormes, whereas indéed there lacked but one kind.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Like as God of his iustice punisheth a countrie that is hardhearted, with outward wormes: so of his mercie they are remooued from a realme that is pliant to follow his lawes and precepts. As when Pharao would not listen to God his threats denoun|ced him by the preachers of God, Moses and Aaron, E [...]od. [...]. vers. 7, 17, [...] 24. Vide Apoc. 9. verse 3, at 2. Reg. 8. verse. 37. Egypt was punished with frogs and diuerse kind of flies, as is exprest at full in holie writ: and againe vpon Pharao his feined promises (the secrets of whose hollow heart God perfectlie knew) at the in|stance of Moses, these plagues were appeased, and the vermine quite extinguished: so I praie you, is it so absurd a position to hold, that saint Patrike find|ing the Irish priest to embrace the gospell, as he did in verie deed, might stand so highlie in God his fauor, as through his earnest petition made to God, the poisoned woormes should be abandoned? This is not so rare a thing vpon the implanting of christian faith in anie region, but rather a propertie incident there|to, according to Christ his promise: Signa autem eos, qui crediderint, haec sequentur; In nomine meo daemonia eijcient: Gregor. hom. 29. in euang. Mar. 16. v. 17. linguis loquentur nouis: serpentes tollent: & si mortiferum quid biberint, non eis nocebit: super aegros manus imponent, & bene habebunt. And these tokens shall follow them that beléeue; In my name shall they cast out diuels, they shall speake with new toongs, they shall driue awaie serpents, and if they drinke anie deadlie thing it shall not hurt them: they shall laie hands on the sicke, and they shall be cured. Wherefore, sith it is so euidentlie warranted by scripture, that in the name of Iesus, serpents may be driuen awaie, if Ireland be found through anie such means to be deuoid of poisoned wormes, we are to ascribe the glorie hereof to God, according to the saieng of the prophet; A do|mino factum est istud, & est mirabile in oculis nostris, That hath béene doone by God, and it séemeth woonderfull Psalm. 117, verse. 22. in our eies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus farre (gentle reader) incroching vpon thy patience, I haue imploied my trauell in defending my natiue countrie, against such as labour to di|staine it with their slanderous sco [...]es. Touching the principall question, whether S. Patrike did expell poisoned wormes out of Ireland, or whether it be the nature of the soile, as I said in the entrie of this discourse; so I saie againe, that I weigh not two chips which waie the wind bloweth, bicause I sée no inconuenience that may insue either of the affirma|tiue or negatiue opinion. And therefore if M. Cope had dealt as modestlie as Cambrensis, the author of Polychronicon or others, that stood to the deniall, h [...]ue doone; he should haue gone scotfree with his complices, and haue made in mounterbankwise the most he could of his wares. But for that he would needs sée further in a milstone than others, and not onelie slenderlie disprooue the triuiall opini|on, but scornefullie slander an whole realme, wherein he shall find his superiors in honour, his betters in parentage, his peeres in learning, his mates in wis|dome, his equals in courtesie, his matches in hone|stie: I must craue him to beare it patientlie, if by crieng him quittance, I serued him with a dish of his owne cookerie. And if for this my streict dea|ling with him (wherevnto I was the sooner led, for that as it is courtesie to mollifie wild speaches with mild answers, so I reckon it for good policie now and then to cleaue knurd knobs with crabbed wedges) he will séeme to take pepper in the nose, for anie recom|pense he is like to haue at mine hands, he may wipe his nose on his sléeue. And if it shall stand with his pleasure, to replie either in English or in Latine (the occasion of which is rather of him growne than by me giuen) he shall find me willing, if God spare me health, to reioine with him in so good a quarrell, ei|ther in the one language or the other: and when both tales are heard, I beshrow him, for my part, that shall be driuen to the wall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Cambrensis reporteth of his owne knowledge, The bar|nacle. and I heare it auowed by credible persons, that bar|nacles thousands at once are noted along the shores in Ireland to hang by the beakes, about the edges of putrified timber, as ships, oares, masts, anchor holds, and such like, which in processe taking liuelie heat of the sunne, become waterfoules, and at their time of ripenesse either fall into the sea, or flie abroad into the aire. The same doo neuer couple in the act of generation, but are from time to time multiplied, as before is exprest.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Aeneas Syluius writeth himselfe tohaue pursued Sabel. part. [...]. Ene. 10. lib. 5. Cam. lib. to|pog. dist. 1. rub. 15. Thom. p. 3. q. 31. ar. 4. corp. the like experiment in Scotland, where he learned the truth hereof to be found in the Ilands Orchades. Giraldus Cambrensis gathereth hereof a pretie con|clusion against the Iewes in this wise following:

Respice infoelix Iudaee, respice, vel serò, primã hominis generati|onem ex limo sine mare & foemina. Secundámque ex mare sine foemina, ob legis venerationem, diffiteri non audes. Tertiam solam ex mare scilicet & foemina, quia vsualis est, dura cer|uice approbas & affirmas. Quartam verò, in qua sola salus est ex foemina scilicet sine mare obstinata malicia in propriam per|niciem detestaris. Erubesce miser, erubesce, & saltem ad natu|ram recurre, quae ad argumenta fidei, ad instructionem no|stram noua quotidie animalia sine omni mare vel foemina procreat & producit. Prima ergo generatio ex limo, & haec vltima ex ligno. Illae quidem quoniam à Domino naturae tan|tùm semel, ideò semper obstupenda processit. Istam verò non minùs admirabilem, minus tamen admirandam (quia saepè fit) imitatrix natura administrat. Sic enim composita est huma|na natura, vt nihil, praeter inusitatum & rarò contingens vel pretiosum ducat vel admirandum. Solis ortum & occasum, quo nihil in mundo pulchrius, nihil stupore dignius, quia quo|tidie videmus, sine omni admiratione praeterimus. Eclipsin verò solis, quia rariùs accidit, totus orbis obstupescit. A [...] idem etiam facere videtur, flatu solo, & occulta quadam inspira|tione citra omnem mixturam apum ex fauo procreatio.

Compare 1577 edition: 1

Marke thou wretched Iew, saith Cambrensis, marke yet at length the first creation (that is of A|dam) of earth without male or female. As for the se|cond, of a man without a woman (that is to saie Eue) for that thou hast the old law in reuerence, thou darest not denie. As for the third, both of man and woman, bicause it is dailie vsed as stiffeneckt as thou art, thou dooest acknowledge and confesse. But the fourth procreation, in which consisteth our onelie iustification (he meaneth the incarnation of Christ) EEBO page image 19 of a woman without man, with sturdie and obstinat rancor to thine vtter destruction thou doost detest. Blush therefore thou vnhappie Iew, be ashamed of this thy follie, and at the least wise haue recourse to nature, and settle hir works before thine eies, that for the increase of faith, and to the lessoning of vs, dailie bréedeth & ingendreth new liuing creatures, without the coupling of mascle or female. Adam was created of earth, the barnacles are ingendred of wood, bicause Adam was once created by him, who is Lord of nature, therefore it is continuallie admi|red. But for that dame nature the counterfeitresse of the celestiall workeman, est soones bréedeth barna|cles, therefore their brood is accompted more mar|uellous than to be maruelled, more woonderfull than woondered. For such is the framing of man his na|ture, as he deemeth nothing pretious or woonderfull, but such things as seldome happen. What may be thought more beautifull than the course of the sunne? And yet bicause we sée it dailie rise and set, we let it ouerslip vs as an vsuall custome, without anie sta|ring or gazing. Yet we are amazed and astonied at the eclipse, bicause it happeneth verie seldome.
The bées that are ingendred of the honie combe, onlie by a puffe or secret breathing without anie coupling, Bées how they are in|gendered. séeme to vphold this procreation of barnacles. Hi|therto Cambrensis, with whom concerning the in|gendring of bées Iohannes de sancto Geminiano accordeth. Iohan. de S. Gem. in lib. de exempl. & si|mili. rerum li. 4. c. 31, whether the barnacle be fish or flesh. Cambr. lib. 1. topog. dist. 1. [...]ub. 15. Polychr. lib. 1. c. 32.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The inhabitants of Ireland are accustomed to mooue question, whether barnacles be fish or flesh, & as yet they are not fullie resolued; but most vsuallie the religious of streictest abstinence doo eat them on fish daies. Giraldus Cambrensis, and after him Po|lychronicon suppose, that the Irish cleargie in this point straie. For they hold of certeintie that barna|cles are flesh. And if a man saie they had eaten a collop of Adam his leg, he had eaten flesh. And yet Adam was not ingendred of mascle or female, but onelie created of claie, as the barnacles of wood & rotten timber. But the Irish clergie did not so farre straie in their opinion, as Cambrensis & Polychro|nicon, in their disproofe. For the framing of Adam Adam & Eue onelie created by God. August. super Genes. ad lit. lib. 9. c. 18. and Eue was supernaturall onelie doone by God, & not by the helpe of angels or anie other creature. For like as it surpasseth natures course to raise the dead, to lighten or insight the blind, so it stood not with the vsuall & common linage of nature, but onlie with the supereminent power of God, to frame a man of claie, and a woman of a mans rib. But the ingendring of barnacles is naturall, & not so woon|derfull as Cambrensis maketh it. And therefore the examples are not like.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Now it should séeme that in Cambrensis his time, the Irish clergie builded their reason vpon this plot. What soeuer is flesh, is naturallie begotten or in|gendred of flesh; barnacles are not naturallie in|gendred of flesh, but onelie of timber and wood; bar|nacles therfore are not flesh, vnlesse you would haue them to be wooden flesh. And if the reason be so knit it may not be disiointed by Cambrensis his example. As if a man should argue thus. She that is begotten of anie man, must be of force daughter to that man; Melcha was begotten of Aran; Ergo Melcha was A|rans Genes 11. verse 29. daughter. This argument is of all parts so for|tified, as it séemeth of all sides to be impregnable. Yet a busie braine sophister cauilling on the terme (begotten) might saie, that Eue was begotten of A|dam, and yet she is not Adams daughter. True it is Adam & Eua of no kin. Thom. p. 1. q 92. art. 2. ad. 3. [...]. that Adam was not Eues father, no more than Eue was Adams mother, neither by that ingendring was there anie degree of consanguinitie sprong be|twéene them. But bicause the word (begotten) is ta|ken in the argument for the naturall ingendring of man and woman, the instance giuen of Eue dooth not disproue the Maior. And yet for the better vn|derstanding of the question, it is to be noted that the philosophers distinguish Animalia sensitiua, that is, sen|sible Thom. p. 1. q. 91. art. 2. ad 2. m Liuing things are of two sorts. Thom. p. 1. q. 71. 1. 0. 1. m. Auicenna. liuing things, in two sorts, perfect and vnper|fect. The perfect are they that are ingendred of seed, the vnperfect without seed. Those that are naturallie ingendred with séed, can neuer be naturallie ingen|dred without séed: albeit Auicenna verie erronious|lie holdeth the contrarie: as for example.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Bicause man is naturallie ingendred of man and woman, no man may naturallie be ingendred with|out the copulation of man and woman: yet super|naturallie it may be. As Adam was made without Gen. 2. vers. 7. Gen. 2. ver. 21. Mat. 1. ver. 10 Luc. 1. vers. 34 man and woman: Eue framed without woman: our sauiour Christ begotten without man. And ther|fore the diuell could not haue attainted him of origi|nall sinne. Contrariwise, the vnperfect may be in|gendred without séed by mire, mud, doong, carien, rotten timber, or anie other thing; and chieflie by the secret influence and instillation of the celestiall pla|nets, Vide Arist. lib. 1. Meteor. ca. 3. 6. 7. as the sunne and such other. As if you put the haire of an horsse taile in mire, puddle, or in a doong|hill for a certeine space, it will turne to a little thin spralling worme, which I haue often séene & experi|mented. And they are termed vnperfect, not in re|spect of their owne nature, in which they are perfect, but in comparison of other sorts of liuing things. Among this crue must barnacles be setled. But here some will saie; Let them be perfect or vnperfect, what then? I would faine know, whether Cambrensis be in an errour, or the Irish clergie. For hitherto I sée nothing, but Cambrensis his reason disprooued. And it is often séene that a sound opinion may be weake|ned by a féeble reason, as we sée manie faire gar|ments mard in the making. It is true: and if anie be desirous to know my mind herein, I suppose, ac|cording The barnacle neither fish nor flesh. to my simple iudgement, vnder the correc|tion of both parties, that the barnacle is neither fish nor flesh, but rather a meane betwéene both. As put the case it were enacted by parlement, that it were high treason to eat flesh on fridaie, and fish on sun|daie. Trulie I thinke that he that eateth barnacles both these daies, should not be within the compasse of the estatute: yet I would not wish my friend to hazard it, least the barnacle should be found in law fish or flesh, yea and perhaps fish and flesh. As when the lion king of beasts made proclamation, that all horned beasts should auoid his court, one beast ha|uing but a bunch of flesh in his forehead departed with the rest, least it had béene found in law that his bunch were an horne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But some will peraduenture maruell, that there should be anie liuing thing, that were not fish nor flesh. But they haue no such cause at all. Nits, fleshwormes, bees, butterflies, caterpillers, snailes, grassehoppers, beetels, earewikes, reremise, frogs, toads, adders, snakes, & such other, are liuing things, and yet they are neither fish nor flesh, nor yet red her|ring: as they that are trained in scholasticall points may easilie iudge. And so I thinke, that if anie were so sharpe set (the estatute aboue rehearsed, presuppo|sed) as to eat fried flies, butterd bees, stued snailes, either on fridaie or sundaie, he could not be therefore indicted of haulte treason; albeit I would not be his ghest, vnlesse I tooke his table to be furnisht with more wholesome and licorous viands. The like que|stion The sell whe|ther it be fish or flesh. Thom. p. 1. a. 7 [...] a. 1. 0. 3. 0. may be mooued of the sell, and if it were well canuassed, it would be found at the leastwise a moot case. But thus farre of barnacles.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Ireland is stored of cowes, of excellent horsses, of hawkes, of fish and of foule. They are not without woolues & greihounds to hunt them, bigger of bone and lim than a colt. Their cowes as also the rest of EEBO page image 20 their cattell, and commonlie what else soeuer the countrie ingendreth (except man) is much lesse in quantitie than those of England, or of other realms. Shéepe few, and those bearing course fleeses, whereof they spin notable rug. Their shéepe haue short and Shéepe. curt tailes. They shéere their shéepe twise yearelie, and if they be left vnshorne, they are therewith ra|ther pained than otherwise. The countrie is verie fruitfull both of corne and grasse. The grasse (for de|fault of good husbandrie) suffered vncut, groweth so ranke in the north parts, that oftentimes it rotteth their cattell. Egles are well knowen to bréed in I|reland, Egle. but neither so big, nor so manie as bookes tell. The horsses are of pase easie, in running woonder|full The Irish hobbie. swift, in gallop both false and full indifferent. The nag or the hackeneie is verie good for trauel|ling, albeit others report the contrarie. And if he be The nag. broken accordinglie, you shall haue a little tit that will trauell a whole daie without anie bait. Their horsses of seruice are called chiefe horsses, being The chiefe horsse. well broken they are of an excellent courage. They reine passinglie, and champe vpon their bridels brauelie, commonlie they amble not but gallop and run. And these horsses are but for skirmishes, not for trauelling, for their stomachs are such, as they dis|daine to be hacknied. Thereof the report grew, that the Irish hobbie will not hold out in trauelling. You shall haue of the third sort a bastard or mongrell hob|bie, The mongrell hobbie. néere as tall as the horsse of seruice, strong in trauelling, easie in ambling, and verie swift in run|ning. Of the horsse of seruice they make great store, as wherin at times of néed they repose a great péece of safetie. This brood Volaterane writeth to haue Volat. lib. 3. Geog. Asturcones. come from Austurea, the countrie of Hispaine, be|twéene Gallicia and Portugall, whereof they were named Asturcones, a name now properlie applied to the Hispanish genet.