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1.11. Of the nature of the Claike geeſe, and ſundry maners of their procreation, and of the Ile of Thule. Chap. 11.

Of the nature of the Claike geeſe, and ſundry maners of their procreation, and of the Ile of Thule. Chap. 11.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 NOw it is come to hande that I entreate of thoſe Geeſe, which are ingendred by the ſea, whoſe procreatiõ hath hitherto bene thought to haue bene made vpon trees. But the opinion is falſe, and yet ſith theyr generation is ſtrange in deede, I haue not a litle trauayled, and with no ſmall diligence indeuoured to ſearch out the truth hereof, wherby I learne that their ingen|drure is rather to be referred to the ſea, than any+thing els, if my coniecture be oughtes: for al|though that they are in ſundry wiſe producted, yet I finde the ſame to be performed continu|ally in the ſea, and not elſwhere, as ſhal appeare hereafter. All trees caſt into the Element in proceſſe of tyme become worme eaten, & in the holes thereof are the ſayde wormes to be founde though very little and ſmall (in compariſon to that they be afterwarde) to be perceyued at the firſt. In the beginnyng, theſe wormes do ſhew their heades and feete, & laſt of all their plumes and winges. Finally when they are come to the iuſt meaſure and quantitie of Geeſe, they flye in the ayre as other foules do. This was notably proued in the yeare of grace 1490. in ſight of many people, beſide the Caſtell of Petſleg [...], whether the body of a greate tree was brought by working of the ſea. This tree beyng taken, it was caried to the Lord of the ſoyle, who ſone after cauſed it to be flitte in ſunder with a ſawe which being done, it is incredible to ſee, what a multitude of wormes came out of theſe holes. Of theſe alſo ſome appeared as if they had bene but newe ſhapen, diuerſe had head, foote and winges, but no fethers, the reſt were formed in|to perfite foules. At the laſt when the people had gazed thereon by the ſpace of an whole day, they caried it to S. Andrewes Churche beſide [...]ire, where the ſaide blocke remayneth ſtill to be ſeene. Within two yeares after there hapned ſuch another tree to come into the fyrth of Tay beſide Dundee, worme eaten and full of young ge [...]ſe after the ſame maner: the thirde was ſeene in the [...]auen of Leith beſide Edenborow: alſo within a fewe yeares, in like ſorte a ſhip named the Criſtopher, after ſhe had lien three yeares at [...] in one of theſe yles was brought to Leith where bycauſe hir timber was found to be rot|ten ſhee was taken in ſunder, and in hir keel [...] were found infinite holes as if they had bene ea|ten with wormes or bored with a wimble, and eche one of them filled with ſuch creatures as I haue ſayde before. Here if any man will al|ledge that the Chriſtopher was buylded of ſuch timber onely as grew in theſe Iles, and that all rootes & trees there growing, are of ſuch nature as in their corruptiõ do turne into theſe foules, I will diſproue his aſſertion by one notable ex|ample ſhewed before mine eyes. Maſter Alex|ander Galloway parſon of Kinkell, was with vs in theſe Iles, and giuing his minde with at|tentiue diligence to ſearche out a full reſolution with vs of theſe obſcure and hidden matters, it hapned on a tyme that he tooke vp a braunche of Alga, called in Scottiſhe, Seatangle, whiche hanged ful of muſkle ſhelles from the roote euen to the very to [...]. Being alſo deſirous to ſee what was in them, he grewe to be more aſtoniſhed EEBO page image 14 than before: for when he had opened one or two of them, he ſaw no fiſh but a foule perfitely ſha|ped, fully anſwering to the capacitie of the ſhell.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Finally, knowing that I was very inquiſi|tiue of theſe and the like rare nouelties, he came haſtily with the ſayde hearbe and ſhewed it vn|to me, who founde no leſſe by experience [...]an I before reported. By theſe and many other rea|ſons and examples I cannot beleeue that theſe Claikes or Barnacles as I call them) are pro|ducted eyther by the qualities of the trees or the rootes thereof, but only by the nature of the ſea, whiche is the cauſe and product [...] of ſo many wonderfull creatures. Furthermore, bycauſe the rude and ignoraunt people ſaw oftentimes the fruytes that fell from trees (which ſtoode ne|uer in the ſea, conuerted within ſhorte time into geeſe, they beleeued that theſe geeſe grewe vpon trees, hangyng by their nebbes as apples and other fruyte do by their ſtalkes, but their opi|nion is vtterly to be reiected. For ſo ſoone as theſe apples or fruyte fall from the tree into the Sea, they grow firſt to be worme eaten, and in proceſſe of time to be conuerted into geeſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus haue I ſpoken ſufficiently of the Iles of the Hebrides adiacent vnto the realme of Scotland, and therewith all would ſhut vp my diſcourſe of the ſame, were it not that I haue ſomwhat to ſay alſo of Thule, not vnknowen vnto the Romaynes, as may appeare by Taci|tus, who telleth how the Romaine nauy by the cõmaundement of Agricola, was ſent to dewe the coaſtes of the whole Iland of Brytaine, and in their returne reported how they had ſeene the Thule, with other Ilandes lying aboute the ſame. Ptholomy writeth that the Ile of Thule is one of the Shetland Iles, whiche lie neare vnto Norway, and beyond the Orchades, but this cannot be proued ſo by late experience: for Thule is many miles diſtant from Shetland. Some ſay that Thule is the ſame whiche wee call Iſland: other write that it is the laſt Ile of the Ocean ſea, and ſo is Iſland, which lieth in the colde froſty ſea, beyond the Artike circle to|ward the North pole. The people of Iſlande bycauſe no corne groweth among them, lyue onely by fiſhe, whiche they drie and powder ſo ſmall as meale doth come backe from the mill, afterward they mixe it with water, and worke it vp for bread.

1.12. Of the deſcription of Orkenay, and Shetland with ſundry other ſmal Iles, and of the maners and conditions of the people dwelling in the ſame. Chap. 12.

Of the deſcription of Orkenay, and Shetland with ſundry other ſmal Iles, and of the maners and conditions of the people dwelling in the ſame. Chap. 12.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 BEyond the Iles of Scotlond lie thoſe of Orkenay partly toward the Northweſt, and partly toward the A [...]anc [...] ſeas. The prin|cipall Ile of theſe is called Pomb [...], wherein is a Biſhops ſe [...], and two ſtrong caſtels. In their groweth no wheate, they are in like ſorte voyde of wood, howbeit al other graine groweth there very plentifully, they be without all vene [...]ous beaſts: alſo neither can ſuch as are brought thi|ther liue any while, more than in Irelãd, which ſuſteyneth no creature that is aduẽrſarie to miſ|kinde, ouer and beſide this, there are no frogg [...] as for Erls they are ſeldome found & to be ſeene in the Orchades. Hauing thus fallen into the mentiõ of Ireland, I thinke it good among [...]|uers other rare gifts of nature to remember one thing that I haue proued by experience to be done there (although the tractation of Ireland & hir commodities appertaine not to this place whiche farre paſſeth all that euer I haue [...] in bookes. Certes there is a Loch, linne, or [...] there, neare vnto the whiche by many miles, there groweth neyther hearbe nor tree, howbeith ſuch is the qualitie of this water, that if a [...] be pitched in the ſame, the nature thereof [...] within one yeeres ſpace, alter and change accor|dingly, for that parte thereof which [...] the grounde is conuerted into harde [...], the ſame that is enuironed with water turneth [...] tough yron, onely that portion whiche is [...] the ſayd Element retaining hir formes woddy ſubſtaunce, whereby it is often ſeene [...] in out and the ſame body, three diſtinct ſubſtance [...] found, that is to ſay, ſtone, yron, & wood, which farre exceedeth all credite. But to returne a|gaine to our Orchades, whereof things of [...] or no leſſe importaunce are to be rehearſe [...], [...] ſith there is great abundance of Barley wherof they make the ſtrongeſt Ale that is to be founde in Albion, and thereto knowen, that they are the greateſt drynkers of any men in the worlde, yet was there neuer dronken or man diſguiſed with drinke ſeene there, neyther any foole, [...] perſon otherwiſe berefte of his wittes thorow phreneſie or madneſſe. There is herevnto ſmall vſe of Phiſick [...]e: for mankinde liueth there moſt commonly vnto extreme age in found & perfite health, whoſe bodies alſo are of ſtrong conſti|tution & very white of colour. The Ewes that are to be found in theſe Ilandes haue for ye moſt part two or three Lãs a peece, at euery [...]e [...]ing, and therewithall they haue in this countrey ſuche plenty of foules bothe wilde and tame, as the lyke number agayne is not to be founde in Brytaine. Theyr horſes are litle greater than the French Aſſes, but in their labour they ex|ceede all other, what ſhoulde I ſpeake of the plenty of fiſhe there to be had, which paſſeth al credite: among whiche there is one ſorte greater than any horſe, of marueylous and incredible EEBO page image 15 ſluggye deſire to ſleepe. This fi [...] when the pro|uideth to ſleepe, faſtneth hyr huge teeth vpon ſome cragge that lieth aboue the water; & then ſlumbreth or falleth into a moſte [...]ounde reſte, whiche the ſeafaring men eſpyi [...]g, they foorth|with caſt ancre, and then letting downe theyr ſhippe boates, they conueigh themſelues to the fiſhe, and bore a greate hole thorow hir tayle, whereinto they put one ende of a cable, and ſo make it ſure, the other ende is faſtned to a great ancre, whiche is let fall of purpoſe into the ſea, and thus is their enterpriſe attempted ere long to be atchieued. For after this wounde, it is not long ere the fiſhe awaketh, who feeling hir ſelfe to be hurt, leapeth at once into the ſea, thinking to hide and ſhrowde hir in the deepes: but being ſtayed by the weight of the ancre, and indeuou|ring in vayne to breake the cable, ſhe laboureth ſo vehemently, that at the laſt ſhe windeth hir|ſelfe out of hir ſkinne (for the which ſhe is com|monly taken) and ſoone after alſo turneth vp hir belly, yeelding hir life vnto the waues, and hyr body to the Mariners, who make an excellent oyle of hir greace, and paſſing ſtrõg cables of hir hide or ſkinne. Certes ſuch is the force of Rope made of the ſkinne of this fiſhe, that they will holde at a plunge no leſſe than the Spaniſhe Sparto. Herein alſo they exceede ye ſame in that they will continue very long without fretting aſunder.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 An hundred miles beyond the Orchades are the Schetland Iles, whoſe chiefe commodities ſtande onely by fiſh which is dried in the ſunne. There are brought alſo into Scotland out of theſe Ilandes great ſtore of Sheepes felles, oxe hides, Goate ſkins, & caſes of Martirnes dryed in the ſunne. And in the ſame maner the Mar|chaunts of Hollande, Zeelande and Germany, fetch them yearely by barter and exchaunge for other common and neceſſary wares, with the people of that nation, who for maners and con|ditions reſemble much the Orchanois. The ſame in like ſorte that is ſayde of the Orcha|noys, concerning drunkenneſſe and freneſy, is verified on them, as is alſo their length of lyfe, although not in ſo rare maner: Sith theſe in ſteede of ſtrong Ale, content themſelues with water, and very ſlender diet. Beyõd the Sche [...]|landes there are diuers other Ilandes, of lyke condition, but without corne and all maner of fleſhe to feede vpon. Theſe dry their fiſhe at the Sunne, and when they are thorowe ſtiffe, they grinde them to ſmal powder, which they worke vp with water into loaues, and ſo vſe the ſame in lieu of other bread. Theyr firing conſiſteth of the boanes of ſuche fiſhes as they take, and yet they content themſelues in ſuche maner with this their poore kinde of lyueloode, that they ſhinke their eſtate moſt happy in reſpect of ſuch as inhabite in the Maine. Certes there is no quareelling amongſt theſe for wealth or gaine, but eche one prouideth ſuche ſtore of fiſhe in Somer whiche he taketh himſelfe, as ſhall finde his family, or keepe his houſe in winter. They are voyde of all ambitious m [...]de, & neuer trou|bled with ciuile or forren wardes, as men that deeme firme peace and quiteneſſe, with mutuall loue and amity, to be the chiefe felicity to be ſought for in this life, and to remaine herein, ech one to his power dothe ſhewe his whole inde|uour. This finally is to be added vnto their cõ|mendation, that they are ſimple, playne, voyde of crafte, and all maner of Serpentine ſuttlety, whiche endeth commonly with miſchiefe, and reigneth in the Maine. Once in the yeare there commeth a Prieſt vnto them from Orkenay (of whiche Dioceſſe they are) who miniſtreth vnto them the Sacrament of Baptiſme, and after a certayne tyme (hauing taken vp in the meane time his Tithes in fiſhe, whiche is their ſole increaſe, and very truly payde) he returneth home againe the ſame way that he came. If any giftes of nature are to be numbred as par|celles of worldly riches and renowne, they are not without theſe alſo: for the people of theſe Iles are luſty, fayre, ſtrong of body, and highe of ſtature, ſo ye nature hath not fayled to indue them with theſe things, and that in moſt excel|lent maner. What ſhould I ſay of their helth, whiche is and may be preferred aboue all trea|ſure, as they well know that are oppreſſed with long and grieuous infirmities: for here among theſe men, you ſhall very ſeldome heare of ſick|neſſe to attache any, vntill extreame age come that killeth them altogither, and this is that ex|ceeding benefit naturally appropried vnto their rareaſes. As for their quietneſſe of minde, it is alwayes ſuche as is conſtant, vnchaungeable, and therefore incomparable vnto any riches or huge maſſe of worldly treaſure.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Herevnto furthermore, if it be true riches (as it is in deede for ech one not to couet other mẽs gooddes, but to content himſelf with that which is his owne, and not to ſtande in neede of any thing, can any men be founde in any other re|gion more riche and fortunate than the Shet|land men and theſe Ilanders? Finally, if thoſe be the true honors, and reuerent dueties whiche the obedient ſonne with greate ſincerity and voyde of all flattery, doth ſhewe vnto his good parents, and wherewithall the beſt ſort do mer|uaylouſly reioyce and delite themſelues, & that theſe are alſo not wanting in theſe regions, can we iuſtly ſay that theſe mẽ do lacke any thing, or ſhall we not rather affirme with great aſſu|rance that they rather ſtand in neede of nothing EEBO page image 16 that any mortal man can iuſtly wiſh or deſire [...] But if there be any man that will accuſe me of vntruth in the recitall of theſe things, as one that lieth lowde and by authoritie of a people dwelling far off, for ſo much as I my ſelfe was neuer in thoſe Ilandes, he ſhal vnderſtand that I learned all theſe things of the reuerent father Edward Biſhop of the Orchades, with whom one of theſe Ilanders dwelled, who not onely made a like rehearſall of theſe things with his owne mouth, but alſo verified the ſame in his owne perſon, for his height farre paſſed the cõ|mon ſtature of men, thereto he was excellently well featured in his limmes, ſo white of ſkinne ouer all, that he might contend in beauty with any lady of the lande, & finally ſo wight & ſtrõg of body, that no man in all thoſe quarters durſt rũne or wreſtle with him. Hereby alſo we may ſee, how far they are deceyued whiche iudge thẽ to be barbarous, & miſerable creatures that in|habite far from the Tropike lines, for there are no people more happy than thoſe that dwell in theſe quarters, as I haue proued already.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 See Matthio|lus vpon the firſt booke of Dioſcorides, capite de po|pulo alba & nigra.Furthermore, among the rockes & cragges of theſe Iles groweth the delectable Amber, called. Electrum, Chryſolectrũ, or as Dioſcorides hath Pterygophoron, indued with ſo vehemẽt an at|tractiue force, yt being chafed it draweth ſtraw, floxe, and other like light matter vnto it. This gumme is ingendred of the ſea froth whiche is throwen vp by continuall repercuſſion of crags & rockes againſt the ſea walles, & through per|petual working of ye waues groweth in time to become tough as glew, til it fall at ye laſt from ye rocke againe into the ſea. Suche as haue often viewed & marked the generation of this gũme, whileſt it hãgeth on ye rocke, affirme it to be like a froth & bubble of water without al maſſy ſad|neſſe, bycauſe that as yet it is not ſufficiently hardned by the working of the Element. Som|times ye Seatangle is found enuironed alſo wt|al,Alga. bicauſe it is driuẽ hither & thither by the wor|king of ye waues, & ſo lõg as it fleetes to & fro in this maner, ſo long is it apte to cleaue to any thing that it toucheth. Twoo yeeres before I wrote this booke, there came a great lompe of Amber into Buchquhane, in quantity ſo bigge as any horſe, which the heardmẽ that kept their cattell neare hand caught vp, & not knowing in deede what it was, they caried it home, & threw a portion thereof into the fire: finally perceiuing a ſweete & delectable ſauour to proceede frõ the ſame, they ran by & by to the Prieſt of ye towne where they dwelled, telling him how they had found a peece of ſtuffe whiche would ſerue very well in ſteede of Frãkenſence, wherwith to per|fume his ſainctes or rather Idols in the church. Theſe mẽ ſuppoſed that ſir Iohn had ben more cunning than themſelues, but contrary to that expectation, it fell out that he was no leſſe vn|ſkilful & voyde of knowledge than they, & there|fore refuſing the whole lumpe, he tooke but [...] ſmall portion therof, and returned the reſt vnto thẽ, whereby it came to litle proofe & leſſe ga [...] among the common ſorte, who ſuffred it to pe|riſh by reaſon of theyr vnſkilfulneſſe. [...] when they brake it in peeces, it reſembled in co|lour vnto the pureſt golde, & ſhined as if it had bene the laie or flame of a cãdle. Herein alſo the Prouerb was proued true, that the Sow reck [...] not of Balme. But ſo ſone as I vnderſtoode of the matter, I vſed ſuch diligence, that one po [...]|tiõ therof was brought to me at Aberden. And thus much of the Hebrides, Orchades & Schet|land Iles ſubiect vnto the Scottiſh regiment. I might no doubt haue made reherſall of diuers other things worthy the noting in this behalfe. But I haue made choiſe onely of the moſt rare & excellent, and ſo would finiſh this deſcriptiõ, were it not that one thing hath ſtayed me right pleaſant to be remembred, as an vncouth and ſtrange incident, whereof maſter Iames O|gilby Ambaſſadour from Iames our King, (among other) vnto the King of Fraunce, hath certified me, & whereof he had experience of l [...]e at ſuch time as he was conſtrayned by tempeſt of weather to get to land in Norway. Th [...] ſtandeth the caſe, being driuen, as I ſayde, vpon the ſhore of Norway, he and his company ſaw a kinde of people raungyng vp & downe in the mountaynes there, much like vnto thoſe which diuers pictures giue forth for wilde men, [...]e [...]ry and vgly to behold. In the end being aduertized that they were ſauage & wilde beaſtes, yet ne|uertheleſſe deadly enimies to mãkind, they vn|derſtood thervnto that although in the day time they abhorred & feared the ſight of man, yet in the night they would by great companies in|uade the ſmall villages & countrey townes, kil|ling & ſleying ſo many as they found, or where no dogges were kept to put by their rage & fury. Certes ſuch is their nature, that they ſtande in great feare of dogges, at whoſe barking & ſight they flie and runne away with no ſmall ha [...]e & terrour, wherefore the inhabitants are inforced to cheriſh great numbers of the ſaid beaſts, ther|by to keepe off thoſe wilde men that otherwiſe would annoy them: they are moreouer of ſuche ſtrength, that ſomtimes they pull vp yong t [...]ees by the rootes to fight withall amõg themſelues. The Ambaſſadors [...]eyng theſe vncouth crea|tures, were not a litle aſtonnied, & therfore to be ſure frõ all inuaſion, they procured a ſtrõg gard, to watch al night about thẽ, with great f [...]res to giue light ouer all that quarter, till on the mor|row that they tooke the ſea & ſo departed thence. EEBO page image 17 Finally the Norwegiãs ſhewed thẽ, that there was another people not far of, whiche liued all the Sõmer time in the ſea like fiſh, & fed of ſuch as they did catch, but in ye Winter half (bicauſe the water is cold) they prayed vpon ſuch wilde beaſts as fedde on the mountaynes, whiche cõ|ming downe from the ſnowy hilles to graſe in the valeys, they killed with dartes & weapons, & carried vnto their caues. In this exerciſe alſo they tie certaine litle boordes to their feete, which beare them vp from ſinking into the ſnow, & ſo with a ſtaffe in their handes, they make the bet|ter ſhifte to clime vp and come downe from the cragges and mountaines, wherof in that region there is very great plenty and aboundance.

1.13. Of the maners of the Scottes in theſe dayes, and their compariſon with the behauiour of the old, and ſuch as liued long ſince with|in this Iland. Chap. 13.

Of the maners of the Scottes in theſe dayes, and their compariſon with the behauiour of the old, and ſuch as liued long ſince with|in this Iland. Chap. 13.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 FOraſmuch as diuers noble men haue deſi|red me to ſhew apart the old maners of the Scots touched in my hiſtory, to the end it may be knowen how far our nation in theſe preſent dayes are different in their maners & behauiour frõ thoſe of our forefathers, & herevnto although I aſſure my ſelf already yt the reuealing of theſe things will procure vnto me the hatred of ſun|dry worthy or renowmed perſonages (of which few wil yeelde to heare their doings touched, or their errours reproued) yet bicauſe I ow [...] ſuch duetie & ſeruice vnto thoſe that haue made this requeſt vnto me, & leaſt I ſhould ſeeme ingrate not to herken vnto thẽ in this behalf I haue cõ|deſcended to the performaunce of their deſires, & ſomuch the rather, for yt they alledge how it wil be very profitable vnto al readers, but eſpecially ſuch as are not immoderately giuen ouer into their owne affections, nor ſo wholly drowned in their owne ſenſuality & pleaſures, but vpon conſideration of wholſome admonition will be very willing to leaue what ſoeuer offendeth in them. Firſt of al therfore, I will declare what vſages haue ben among our elders both in [...]me of warre & peace, and by what wiſedome & in|duſtrie they haue preuailed ſo long time againſt ſuch & ſo many mighty aduerſaries, as firſt the Brytons, then ye Saxons, next of al the Danes whiche haue entred into this Iland with huge armies, to ſpoyle and ſu [...]due the ſame. Further|more, I wil ſet downe with ſomuch breuily as I can, how the falling by litle & litle frõ the fru|galitie and cuſtomes of their Forefathers, their vertue & force alſo began in like order to decay. And finally how in theſe daies either by the cle|mẽcy of our neighbours, or by their delicate ne|gligence rather than by our owne prowes, wee liue in ſecurity, & thereby as it were ouerwhel|med & wrapped vp in al [...], & exceſſe, wher|into our want of exerciſe and martiall proweſſe doth marueylouſly impeſt vs. Certes I beleue that by this meanes ſuch [...] are of ye more cou|ragious ſort (& yet reteyning a ſauour of the tẽ|perantie of theyr elders) will e [...]ioyce to hea [...]e their manhoode and great prowes cõmended in this wiſe, as others of the cõ [...]ny ſect (in ſeruiſe maner addicted to gather good, and ſpende their times in role exceſſe & riot) ſe [...]ing their errours iuſtly reprehended, & the diſhonor gotten thereby openly reuealed, will the rather addreſſe them|ſelues to reformation of their eſtate, thereby to recouer the auncient renowme of their Forefa|thers, in anſwering to their prowes, than pro [...]e a reproche vnto their ſucceſſours, thorow their lewde behauiours neuer to be forgotten. This alſo I proteſt before al men, that what ſoeuer I ſhall ſpeake of the euill maners of our times, I do not meane it vnto all, but [...]hoſe only whome blind [...] loue, couetouſneſſe intemperancy, ex|ceſſe and abuſe of al Goddes good giftes haue ſo touched, that they deſ [...]rue much more to be re|prehended then I will vouchſafe to attempt in this my [...] treatize, therefore if any man ſhall [...] him ſelfe to be rubbed on the gall [...]y me. I counſell him that he conceale not his in|firmity, by [...] reuenge on othermẽ, but e [...]|the [...] [...] to procure the remedy in firſt ac|knowledging his miſdemeanors, whiche is the one and better halfe of his cure.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Our elders although they were right vertu|ous both i [...] warre abrode, and at home in peace, were yet neuertheleſſe in conuerſation & beha|uiour very temperate, whiche is the fountaine & originall of al vertues. In ſleepe they were cõ|petent, in meate & drinke ſober, & contẽted with ſuch foode as was ready a [...] hande and prepared with litle coſt. Their bread conſiſted of ſuche ſtuffe as grew moſt readily on ye ground, with|out al maner of ſifting and bouſting, wherby to pleaſe the palate, but baked vp as it came frõ the mill without any ſuche curioſity, whiche is a great abaſing of the force therof vnto our day|ly nouriſhment. The fleſh whereon they chief|ly fed, was either ſuch as they gate by hunting, wherin they tooke great de [...]e & which increaſed not a litle their ſtrength and nimbleneſſe, or els ſuche tame ca [...]tell as they bredde vp at home, wherof [...]eefe was accompted the principall, as it is yet in our dayes, though after another ma|ner & fa [...] diſcrepant from the vſe and cuſtome of other countries. The ſtickes or young befettes vngelded, we either kill yoũg for veale, or geld, to the end that they may [...] afterwarde for tillage [...]n ea [...]ng vp of the ground, but the [...]ow|calfes and heigh [...]ers, are neuer killed till they be with Calf, for then are they fatteſt & moſt deli|cious EEBO page image 18 to the mouth. The common meate of our elders was fiſh, howbeit not only or ſomuch for the plenty therof, as for that one landes lay oftẽ waſt and vntilled, bicauſe of the great warres which they cõmonly had in hand. They breake alſo their faſt early in the morning wt ſome ſlẽ|der repaſt, & ſo cõtinued without any other diet vntill ſupper time, in whiche they had but one diſh, whereby it came to paſſe, yt their ſtomackes were neuer ouercharged, nor their bones deſi|rous of reſt thorow the fulneſſe of their bellies. At ſuche time as they determined of ſet purpoſe to be mery, they vſed a kinde of Aquavite voyde of al ſpice, & only conſiſting of ſuch hearbes and rootes as grew in their owne gardens, otherwiſe their common drinke was Ale: but in tyme of warre when they were inforced to lie in campe, they contented thẽſelues with water as redieſt for their turnes. Eche ſouldier alſo had ſo much meale as might ſerue him for a day, whiche he made vp in cakes, and baked on the coles, as the Romaines ſometimes vſed to do, and the Em|perour Caracalla himſelfe as Herodian hath re|mẽbred. Seldome did they eat any fleſh in their tentes, except they gate it frõ their aduerſaries, ſuch as they had likewiſe was eaten half rawe, bycauſe they ſuppoſed the iuyce therof ſo vſed to nouriſh very abundantly. But fiſhe was much more plentifull amongſt them, eſpecially when they wãted their vſuall prayes, or could not at|tayne vnto them. They brought furthermore from their houſes to the field with them, a veſſel of butter, cheeſe, meale, milke, & vineger tempred togither as a ſhoote ancre againſt extreme hun|ger, on whiche they would feede & ſucke out the moyſture, when other prouiſion coulde not be gotten. In like maner whenſoeuer they had en|tred into league and amity with their enimies, they would not liue in ſuch ſecurity, that therby they would ſuffer their bodies and forces to de|generate, but they did keepe themſelues in their former actiuity and nimbleneſſe of limmes, ey|ther with continuall hunting (a game greatly eſteemed among our aunceſtors) or with run|ning from the hilles to the valeys, or from the valeys to the hilles, or with wreſtling, and ſuch kindes of paſtime wherby they were neuer idle. Their heads were alwayes ſhauẽ, after the ma|ner of ye aũcient Spaniardes, with a litle tuft of heare only left on their forepartes, & neuer coue|red, except whẽ they were troubled wt ſickeneſſe, by whiche meanes it came to paſſe that fewe of our nation in olde time was ſeene to be balde & heareleſſe. They went alſo bare footed, or if they had any ſhone, they dipped them firſt in ye wa|ter ere they did put thẽ on, eſpecially in Winter when ſharpeſt weather ſhewed it ſelf, to the end that ye ſoles of their feete (which were wel hard|ned in Sommer with heate and in winter with cold, might be more ſtrong and able to ſuſteyne great labour and dayly trauaile. Their apparell was not made for brauery & põpe, but as ſhould ſeeme beſt to couer their bodies & ſerue their ap|pointed vſes, their hoſen were ſhaped alſo of lin|nen or wollen, whiche neuer came higher than their knees, their breches were for the moſt part of hẽpe, clokes alſo they had for winter made of courſe wooll, but in the ſommer time they ware of the fineſt that coulde be gotten. They ſlept moreouer eyther vpon the bare floore or pallets of ſtraw, teaching their childrẽ euen from theyr infancy to eſchew eaſe, & practiſe the like hard|neſſe: & ſith it was a cauſe of ſuſpitiõ of the mo|thers fidelity towarde hir huſbande, to ſeeke a ſtrange nurſe for hir childrẽ (although hire milke fayled) ech womã wold take intollerable paines to bring vp & nouriſh hir owne children. They thought them furthermore not to be kindly fo|ſtered, except they were ſo well nouriſhed after their birthes with the milke of theyr breſtes, as they were before they were borne with ye bloud of their owne bellies, nay they feared leaſt they ſhould degenerate & grow out of kinde, except they gaue them ſucke themſelues, and eſchewed ſtrange milke, therfore in labour & painefulneſſe they were equall, and neither ſexe regarded the heate in ſommer or cold in winter, but trauailed barefooted, & in time of warres the mẽ had their cariages & victuals truſſed behinde thẽ on their horſes, or els vpon their owne ſhulders without refuſall of any labour, enioyned vnto them by their Captaines, If it hapned them at any time to be vanquiſhed, they fled with ſuch ſpeede to ye mountaines, that no horſe might ouertake thẽ & very oft eſcaped. The violence that was done to any one of them, was reputed cõmon to al & ſuch was their deadly fude conceyued in theſe caſes, that vntil they had requited the like with more extremity, they would neuer be quiet nor let go their diſpleaſure. The nobleſt & moſt cou|ragious Gentleman would ſooneſt deſire to be placed in the forewarde, where his vaſſalage or ſeruice & manhood ſhould readilieſt be ſeene and ſuch was the friendſhip of the nobility amongſt thẽſelues, that whyleſt they contended which of them ſhould be moſt faithful & frendly to other, they would oft fal out, & quarel one wt another. Somtimes it hapned yt their Captaine was be|ſet wt extreme peril, or peraduenture ſome other of the nobility, in which caſes they yt were of his [...]ãd wold ſuddenly ruſh in thorow ye thickeſt of their enimies vnto him, & deliuer him, or els [...] they could not ſo do, they would altogither loſe their liues with him, thinking it a perpetuall note of reproche to ouerliue their leader. The graues & ſepulchres of our noblemen had com|mõly EEBO page image 19 ſo many Obeliſkes & ſpires pitched about them, as the deceaſed had killed enimies before time in ye fielde: if any ſouldier had ben found in the fielde without his flint & tinder boxe, or had walked or gone vp & downe with his ſworde at his ſide, and not naked in his hãd, for then vſed they light armor for ye moſt part, he was terri|bly ſcourged: but he that ſolde or morgaged his weapon, was forthwith cut frõ his company & baniſhed as an exile: he that fled or went frõ the battayle without leaue of his Capitayne, was ſlayne whereſoeuer he was mette afterward, without any iudgement or ſentence, and all his goodes cõfiſcated to the Prince: Their light ar|mour in thoſe dayes conſiſted of the launce, the bow, the long ſword which hanged at the ſide of ye owner, & therto a buckler, but afterward hea|uier armour came into generall vſage. In theſe dayes alſo the womẽ of our country were of no leſſe courage than the men, for al ſtout maydẽs & wiues (if they were not with childe) marched ſo wel into the field as did the men, & ſo ſoone as the army did ſet forward, they ſlew the firſt li|uing creature yt they foũd, in whoſe bloud they not onely bathed their ſwordes, but alſo taſted thereof with their mo [...]thes, with no leſſe religiõ & aſſurance conceyued, than if they had already bene ſure of ſome notable & fortunate victory: when they ſaw their owne bloud run frõ them in the fight, they wexed neuer a whit aſtonnied with the matter, but rather doubling their cou|rages, with more egerneſſe they aſſailed their e|nimies. This alſo is to be noted of thẽ, that they neuer ſought any victory by treaſon, falſhed or ſleight, as thinking it a great reproch to winne the fielde any otherwiſe than by mere manhood, proweſſe, & playne dealing. When they went foorth vnto the warres, eche one went with the King of his owne coſt (except the hyred ſoldier) which cuſtome is yet in vſe. If any were trou|bled with the falling Euyll, or Lepre, or fallen frantike, or otherwiſe out of his wits, they were diligẽtly ſought out: & leaſt thoſe diſeaſes ſhould paſſe further by infectuous generatiõ vnto their iſſue & poſterity, they gelded the mẽ. But ye wo|mẽ were ſecluded into ſome odde place farre off from the cõpany of men, where if ſhe afterward hapned to be gotten with childe, both ſhe & the infant were runne thorow with a launce: glut|tons & raueners, drõkardes, & egregious deuou|ters of victualles, were puniſhed alſo by death, firſt being permitted to deuour ſo much as they liſted, & thẽ drowned in one freſh riuer or other.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 Furthermore, as iuſtice in time of warre was cõmonly driuẽ to perke, ſo in daies of peace our countreymen that offended, were oft ſeuerely puniſhed & with inconuenient rigor. For they wel conſidered that after their people ſhould re|turne and come home againe from the warres, they would be giuẽ to ſo many enormities, that the ſame theyr exceſſe ſhould hardly be reſt lay|ned but by extreeme ſeuerity: ſuche alſo was theyr nature, that ſo ſoone as they knew them|ſelues guilty of any offence committed agaynſt the eſtate or cõmon wealth, that firſt attempt was to ſet diſcord amongſt the Pictes & Prin|ces of the realme, neuertheleſſe when they are gently intreated, & with commons moderation, they are found to be very t [...]actable, & pliant vn|to reaſon: in priuate bargaines & contractes they are ſo willing to giue euery man his owne, that they will yeelde the more. And ſo farre is it growne into a ſome euẽ in theſe our dayes, that except there be ſome ſ [...]pluſage aboue the bare couenaunt, they will breake of and not go forwarde with the bargayne. They vſed at the firſt the rites and maners of the Egyptians frõ whence they came, & in al their priuate affayres they vſed not to write with common letters as other nations did, but rather with Cyphers and figures of creatures made in maner of letters as their Epitaphes vpon their tombes & ſepultures remayning amõgſt vs do hitherto declare. Ne|uertheleſſe in our times this Hietoglyphical ma|ner of writing (I wote not by what meanes) is periſhed & loſt, and yet they haue certaine letters propre vnto thẽſelues, which were ſometime in cõmon vſe: but among ſuch as retaine the aun|cient ſpech, they haue their aſpiratiõs, dipthõgs, & pronunciation better than any other. The cõ|mon ſorte are not in vre withall, but onely they which inhabite in the higher part of the coũtry, & ſith they haue their language, more eloquent and apt than others, they are called Poetes, they make alſo Poetes wt great ſolemnity & honour, being borne out therein by the authority of the Prince. Beſide ye ſkil alſo of many other artes & ſciences, whoſe rules & Methodes are turned into ye ſayd language, are giuẽ by tradition frõ theyr elders, they chiefly excel in Phiſick, wherin they go far beyond many other, who learning of thẽ ye natures & qualitie of ſuch hearbes as grow in thoſe quarters, do heale al maner of diſeaſes euẽ by their only applicatiõ. Certes there is no regiõ in ye whole world ſo barrẽ & vnfruteful, through diſtaũce frõ the Sunne, but by ye prouidence of God all maner of neceſſaries for the ſuſtentatiõ of mankind dwelling there, are to be had therin, if ye inhabitants were ſuch as had any ſkil how to vſe ye ſame in order. Neuertheleſſe our elders which dwelled continually vpõ the Marches of England, learned ye Saxon toung through cõ|tinuall trade of marchandize and hazard of the warres, long ſince, whereby it came to paſſe that we neglected our owne language, and our owne maners, and thereto bothe our auncient EEBO page image 20 order in writing and ſpeakyng is vtterly left among vs, that inhabite neare vnto thẽ, wheras contrary wiſe thoſe that dwell in the moũtaines reteyne ſtill their auncient ſpeach & letters, & al|moſt all their olde rites, wherevnto in time paſt their Forefathers haue bene accuſtomed. One thing hereof alſo may euidently be ſeene (for an example) in their boates whiche they call Car|rockes, for being made of Oſiers & couered with Bull hides, they vſe to paſſe & repaſſe with them ouer their riuers & waters in catching of Sal|mons, & when they haue done, they beare them on their backes vnto what place ſoeuer it plea|ſeth them. But we will now leaue the maners of our auncient friendes, & intreate of our later countreymen. In proceſſe of time therfore, and chiefly aboute the dayes of Malcolme Cammor, our maners began greatly to chaunge & alter. For when our neighbours the Brytons began, after they were ſubdued by the Romaynes, to waxe idle & ſlouthful, and there vpon driuen out of their countrey into Wales by their enimies the Saxõs, we began to haue alliãce (by proxi|mity of the Romaines) with Engliſhmẽ, eſpe|cially after the ſubuerſion of the Pictes, & tho|row our dayly trades & cõuerſation with them, to learne alſo their maners, & therewithall their lãguage as I haue ſayd alredy. Hereby ſhortly after it came alſo to paſſe, that the temperaunce and vertue of our aunceſtors grew to be iudged worthy of ſmall eſtimation amongſt vs, not|withſtanding that a certayne idle deſire of our former renowne did ſtill remayne within vs.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 Furthermore as men not walking in ye right pathe, we begã to follow alſo the vaine ſhadow of the Germaine honor & titles of nobility, and boaſting of the ſame after the Engliſh maner, it fell out ere long, that where as he in times paſt was accompted only honorable, which excelled othermen not in ritches and poſſeſſions, but in proweſſe and manhoode, now he would be takẽ moſt glorious that wẽt loden with moſt titles, whereof it came to paſſe, that ſome were named Dukes, ſome Erles, ſome Lords, ſome Barõs, in which vain puffes they fixed al their felicity. Before time the noble men of Scotlãd were of one condition, and called by the name Thanes, ſo much in Latine as Queſtores regij, gatherers of ye kings duties, in Engliſh: and this denomi|nation was giuen vnto them after their deſert & merite. But how far we in theſe preſent dayes are ſwarued from the vertues and temperaunce of our elders, I beleeue there is no man ſo elo|quent, nor indued with ſuch vtterance, as that he is able ſufficiently to expreſſe. For whereas they gaue their mindes to doughtineſſe, we ap|ply our ſelues to dronkenneſſe: they had plenty with ſufficiency, we haue inordinate exceſſe wt ſuperfluity: they were temperate [...] and ſo is the caſe [...]ow altered with [...] which can deuoure & drinke moſt, [...] m [...]n and moſt honeſt companion, and therein hath no peere if he can once find ye vaine, though with his great trauaile to pu [...]ury himſelf of the plentifulleſt number of newe fine and delicate diſhes, and beſt prouoke his ſtomacke to [...] the greateſt quantitie of them, though he [...] make due digeſtiõ of it. B [...]ing thus drow [...] in our delicate gluttony, it is a world to ſée, ho [...] we ſtuffe our ſelues both day and night, neuer ceaſing to ingorge and poure in, till our bellies [...]e ſo full that we muſt needes depart. Certes it is not ſuppoſed me [...]te that we ſhould now con|tent our ſelues with breakefaſt and ſupper only as our elders haue done before vs, nor inough that we haue added our dinners vnto their a|foreſayd meales, but we muſt haue thereto our beuerages and [...], ſuppers, ſo that ſmall [...] is ſpaced wherein to occupy one ſelues vnto a|ny godly excerciſe, ſith almoſt the whole day & night do fearcely ſuffice for the f [...]lling of our paunches. We haue alſo our m [...]rcha [...], whoſe charge is not to looke out, and bring [...] ſuche things as neceſſarily appertaine to the [...]nte|nance of our liues, but vnto the furniture [...] kitchen, and theſe ſearch al the ſecrete [...] of our forreſtes for [...]eniſon, of the ayre for ſoules, & of the ſea for fiſhe, for wine alſo they trauayle not onely into Fraunce, whoſe wi [...]es do [...] grow into cõtempt, but alſo into Spaine, Ita|ly and Greece: nay Afrike is not boyde of our factours, no nor Aſia, and only for fine and deli|cate wines if they may be had for money. In like ſorte they gad ouer all the world for ſweete and pleaſant ſpices, & drugges (prouoke is vnto all luſt and licentiouſneſſe of behauiour) as men that aduenture their owne liues to bring home poyſon and deſtruction vnto their countreymẽ, as if the minde were not already ſufficiently he|reft of hir im [...]ge of the Diuinity, but muſt yet more be clogged & ouerladen with ſuch a [...]an|ked caſe, therwithall to be extinguiſhed [...] whiche already dwelleth or is buried rather [...] ſuch an vgly ſepulchre. The body likewyſe be|ing oppreſſed with ſuch an heape of ſuperfluous foode, although otherwiſe it be indued with a [...] excellent nature, cannot be able to execute his office, nor keepe it ſelfe vpright, but muſt needes yeelde as ouercome, & to be torne in peeces and rent with ſundry maladies.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 Hereof alſo it commeth to paſſe that our coũtreymen trauayling into the colder regions are now a dayes cõtrary to their former vſage taken ſometime with feuers, whereby their in|wards partes do burne & parch as it were with continuall fire, the onely cauſe whereof we may EEBO page image 21 aſcribe vnto thoſe hoate ſpices and drugges which are brought vnto vs from the hoate coũ|treys. Others of them are ſo ſwollen & growen full of humors, that they are often taken ſoden|ly and die of vehemẽt apoplexies, and although here & there one or two recouer for a litle while, yet are they but dead people reuiuing agayne, leading the reſt of their liues like ſhadowes, and walking aboute as if they were buried already. Our youth alſo following theſe vnhappy ſteps of theyr parentes, giue themſelues wholy to iuſt & licentiouſneſſe, hauing all vertue and know|ledge in contempt, and eſchewing the ſame as a Peſtilence and ſubuerſion of their pleaſures, wherevnto they apply themſelues as vnto the moſt excellent trade. But ſithence they are now inured and as it were haunted with theſe vices, when tyme doth come of ſeruice and that our countrey ſhall ſtand in neede of manhood, theſe will be becomen ſo eſſeminate, that they muſte now ride on horſebacke as cladde in heauy ar|mour, for on foote they cannot go by reaſon of their fatneſſe whiche choketh vp their vitall for|ces, neyther be able to performe any thing at all in compariſon of the ſoueraigne manhoode and proweſſe of theyr elders. So ſoone alſo as they returne home, bicauſe their poſſeſſions are not otherwiſe able to nouriſhe them vp in pleaſure and pampering of their m [...]wes, they muſt fall to couetous and greedy practizes, thereby to en|riche themſelues, or els proue ſtrong theeues, or finally ſowers of diſſention and diſcord among the Noble men, thereby to pray ſome commo|ditie. Certes theſe and other vices followyng them neceſſarily, proceede generally from none other fountayne than voluptuous life & intem|perancy, the whiche if we would refrayne, there is no regiõ vnder the Sunne that would proue more wholeſome, leſſe ſubiect to Peſtilence, nor more commodious and profitable for the ſuſtẽ|tation of hir people. Certes I diſpayre not of the redreſſe of theſe things, but ſtill hope that in ſhorte tyme theſe corrupted maners of my coũ|treymen will be turned into a better frame, wee are not yet become impudent, neyther altogi|ther haue caſt of vnſhamefaſtneſſe, ſithe that in a great many ſome remaynder of our auncient ſoberneſſe and manhoode doth yet appeare, and thereto newneſſe of lyfe with feruent deuotion increaſe euery day, through the working of the zeale of our Chriſtian religion in vs. This al|ſo will I adde, without offence I truſt vnto o|ther nations, that there was neuer people more ſtedfaſt to my knowlege in the Chriſtian faith, nor more conſtant in theyr faithfull promiſes,When they do make any. than the Scots haue bene ſithence their firſt be|ginning: and for a concluſion I will ſay more, not onely for their prayſe, but alſo in exhorting them vnto perſeuerance, that as our people now liuing do paſſe their aunceſtors in ſumptuous & curious attyre, ſo they are more nette and fine in their houſes, better giuen to learning, & m [...]ch more magnificent in buylding and decking of theyr Churches. God graunt them alſo to re|turne to their former frugality, and that with ſpeede. Amen.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Hethirto haue I tranſlated Hectors deſcri|ption of Scotland out of the Scottiſh into the Engliſh toung, being not a litle ayded therein by the Latine, frõ whence ſomtime the tranſla|tor ſwarueth not a litle, as I haue done alſo frõ him, now and then following the Latine, and now and then gathering ſuch ſence out of both as moſt did ſtande with my purpoſed breuity. Now will I ſet downe the deſcription of an Auncient Pict, as I haue gathered it out of He|rodian & other, and then I will giue ouer not only to wryte more at this preſent, but for euer hereafter of any Hiſtoricall matters, ſith I ſee that this honeſt kind of recreation is denied me, and all time ſpent about the ſame in theſe dayes vtterly condemned, as vayne and ſauouring of negligence, and Heatheniſh impiety.

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