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5.75. Cadwan.


Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 156] AFter that the Britains had continued about the ſpace almoſte of .xxiiij. Cadwan king of Bry|tayne. yeares without any one ſpecial gouernor, being led by ſun|drie rulers, euer ſithence that Ca|reticus was con|ſtrayned to flee ouer Seuerne, and ſought often|tymes not onely agaynſt the Saxons, but alſo one of them agaynſte another, at length in the yeare of our Lorde .613.613 they aſſembled in the Citie of Cheſter, and there elected Cadwan that before was ruler of Northwales, to haue the ſo|ueraine rule and gouernment ouer all theyr Na|tion, and ſo the ſayde Cadwan beganne to raigne as king of Brytaynes in the ſayd yeare .613. But Hariſon ſayeth, this was in the yeare .609. in whiche yeare Careticus the Brytiſh king depar|ted this life. And then after his deceaſſe the Bry|taynes or Welchmen (whether wee ſhall call them) choſe Cadwane to gouerne them in the foreſayde yeare .609. whiche was in the ſeuenth yeare of the Emperour Focas, and the .xxj. of the ſeconde Lotharius King of Fraunce, and in the xiij. yeare of Kilwoolfe King of the Weſt Saxons.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Cadwan being eſtabliſhed King, ſhort|ly after aſſembled a power of Brytaynes, and went agaynſt the foreſayde Ethelfred King of Northumberlande, who beeing thereof aduerti|ſed, did aſſociate to him the moſt part of the Sax|on Princes, and came forth with his armie to meete Cadwane in the fielde. Herevpon as they were readie to haue tryed the matter by battaile, certayne of theyr friendes trauayled ſo betwixte them for a peace, that in the ende they broughte them to agreement,Galf. M [...]. ſo that Ethelferd ſhould kept in quiet poſſeſſion thoſe his Countreys beyonde the Ryuer of Humber, and Cadwan ſhould hold all that which belonged as yet to the Brytaines on the ſouth ſide the ſame ryuer.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thys Couenaunte wyth other touching theyr agreement was confyrmed wyth othes ſolemnlye taken, and pledges therewith dely|uered, ſo that afterwardes they continued in good and quiet peace withoute vexing the one the o|ther.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 What chaunced afterwardes to Edelfred, yee haue before hearde rehearſed, the whiche for that it ſoundeth more lyke to a truth than that whiche followeth in the Brytiſhe Booke, wee omitte to make further rehearſall, paſſing EEBO page image 157 forth to other doings which f [...]ll in the [...] ſon, whileſt [...] Cadwane had gouernment of the Brytayn [...]s, raigning as king once them the tearme of .xxij. (or as other haue but .xiij.) yeares, and finally was ſlaine by the Northũ [...]ers, [...]ohn. Hard. as be|fore hath bene, and alſo after ſhall be ſhewed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the .viij. yeare after that Cadwan began to raigne, Ethelbert king of Kent departed this life, in the .xxj. yeare after the comming of Augu|ſtin with his fellowes to preach the fayth of chriſt here in this Realme: and after that Ethelbert had raigned ouer the Prouince of Kent aboute the tearme of .lvj. yeares (as Bede hath) but there are that haue noted three yeares leſſe: he departed this worlde,VVil. Malm. Beda. li. 2. ca. 5 as aboue is ſignified, in the yeare of oure Lorde .617. on the .xxiiij. daye of Februarie, and was buryed in the Ile of Saint Martine, within the Churche of the Apoſtles Peter and Paule, without the Citie of Canterburie, where his wife Queene Bartha was alſo buryed, and the foreſayde Archebiſhop Auguſtine that firſt conuerted him to the fayth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Amongeſt other things this King Ethelbert with the adulce of his Councell ordeyned diuerſe lawes and ſtatutes, according to the whiche, de|crees of Iudgements ſhoulde paſſe: and thoſe decrees hee cauſed to be written in the Engliſhe tongue, which remayned and were in force vn|to the dayes of Bede) as he declareth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And fyrſt it was expreſſed in thoſe lawes, what amendes hee ſhoulde make that ſtale anye thing that belonged to the Churche, to the By|ſhop, or to any eccleſiaſticall perſon, willing by all meanes to defend them whoſe doctrine he had receyued.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Ead|bald. [figure appears here on page 157] AFter the de+ceaſe of E|thelbert, his ſon Eadbalde ſuc|ceeded in the gouernment of his kingdom of Kent, the which was a greate hinderer of the increaſe of the newe Churche amongeſt the Engliſhe men in thoſe parties: for hee did not onely refuſe to bee baptiſed himſelfe, but alſo vſed ſuche kinde of for|nication,1. Cor. 6. as hath not beene heard (as the Apoſtle ſayth) amongeſt the Gentiles, for he tooke to wife his mother in lawe, that had beene wife to his fa|ther. By which two euill examples, many tooke occaſion to returne to theyr heatheniſh religion, the which whileſt his father raigned,The Princes example occa|ſion of euill. either for the Prince his pleaſure, or for feare to offend him, did profeſſe the Chriſtian fayth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But Eadbalde eſcaped not worthie puniſh|ment them [...] hys euill de [...] with a certaine [...] an vnclean [...].

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The foreſayde ſtorme or diſquiet troubling of the Chriſtian Congregation was afterwards greatly encreaſed alſo by the [...] Sabert, or Sabert King of the Eaſt Saxons, who depar|ting this life to goe to a better, in the bliſ [...]full kingdome of heauen, left behind him three ſonnes as ſucceſſours in the eſtate of his earthly King|dome, whiche ſonnes likewyſe refuſed to bee baptiſed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Sabert, or Sebert, was conuerted to the fayth of Chriſt, and baptiſed by Mellitus Byſhop of London (as before is mentioned) vn|to whome ſome aſcribe the firſt foundation of Weſtminſter Church, but other aſcribe it to Lu|cius the firſt Chriſten king of the Brytaynes (as before ye haue heard) though there bee alſo that write that the Church was firſt buylded there by a Citizen of London (as before is alſo touched.) Ran. Ceſtren. Beda. li. 2. ca. 5. Serrerd, Se|ward, and Si|gebert, the ſonnes of Sa|bert.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 157] SAbert left behind him in the kingdome of the Eaſt Saxons three ſonnes, named Se [...]ed, Seward, and Sige|bert, in whome remay|ned no vertue, no feare of God, nor any reſpect of religion, but eſpecial|ly they hated the pro|feſſors of the Chriſtian fayth. For after theyr father was dead, they be|gan to fall to theyr olde Idolatrie, the whiche in his life time they ſeemed to haue giuen ouer. But now they openly worſhipped Idols, and gaue li|bertie to their ſubiects for to do the like.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And when the Biſhop Mellitus at the ſo|lemniſing of Maſſe in the Churche diſtribu|ted the Euchariſticall breade vnto the people, they aſked him (as it is ſayde) wherefore he did not delyue [...] of that bryght white breade vnto them alſo, as well as hee had beene accuſto|med to doe to theyr father Saba, (for ſo they vſed to call hym) vnto whome the Byſhoppe made thys aunſwere: if you wyll bee waſhed in that wholeſome Fountayne wherein youre father was waſhed, ye maye bee partakers of that holye breade whereof hee was partaker, but if you deſpiſe the waſhpoole of lyfe, ye may by no meanes taſte of the breade of ſal|uation.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But they offended herewith, replyed in this wiſe: we will not enter into that Fountayne, for wee knowe wee haue no neede thereof: but yet neuertheleſſe we will be refreſhed with that breade.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 EEBO page image 216After this when the [...] and many tymes tolde, that without they woulde be baptiſed, they might not be partakers of the ſacred oblation: At length in a great diſpleaſure they told him, that if he would not conſent vnto them in ſo ſmall a matter, there ſhoulde be no place for him within the boundes of their Dominion. And ſo he was conſtrayned to depart. Wherevpon hee being expulſed, reſorted into Kent, there to take aduice with his fellowe Biſhoppes, Laurence & Iuſtus, what was to be done in this ſo weigh|tie a matter.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 They finally reſolued vpon this poynt, that it ſhoulde be better for them to returne into theyr Countrey, where with free myndes they might ſerue Almightie God, rather than to remayne a|mongeſt people that rebelled agaynſt the fayth, without hope to do good amongſt them.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Therefore Mellitus and Iuſtus did firſt de|parte, and went ouer into Fraunce, mynding there to abyde till they might ſee what the ende would be.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But ſhortly after, thoſe brethren the kings of Eſſex, whiche had expulſed their Byſhoppe in maner aboue ſayde, ſuffered worthily for theyr wicked doings: For going forth to battayle a|gaynſt the Weſt Saxons,The ſonnes of king Sebert ſlaine. they were ouerthrown and ſlaine togither with all theyr armie, by the two Kings, Kinigils, and Quichelme. But ne|uertheleſſe, for all that the Authours of the miſ|chiefe were thus taken away, the people of that Countrey woulde not as yet bee reduced againe from theyr diueliſh worſhipping of falſe Goddes, being eftſoones fallen thereto in that ſeaſon by the encouragement and perillous example of theyr Rulers. Wherefore the Archebiſhop Laurence was in minde alſo to haue followed his fellowes Mellitus and Iuſtus: but when he minded to ſet forwarde, he was warned in a dreame, and cru|elly ſcourged (as hath beene reported by the Apo|ſtel ſaint Peter, who reproued him) for that hee would ſo vncharitably forſake his flock, and leaue it in daunger withoute a ſhepherde to keepe the Woolfe from the folde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Archbiſhoppe enboldned by this viſion, and alſo repenting him of his determinatiõ, came to king Eadbald, and ſhewed to him his ſtrypes, and the maner of his dreame.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The king being herewith put in great feare, renounced his heatheniſh worſhipping of Idols, and was baptized, and as muche as in him lay, from thence forth ſuccoured the Congregation of the Chriſtians, and aduaunced the Churche to his power.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 He ſent alſo into Fraunce, and called home the Biſhops Mellitus and Iuſtus, ſo that Iu|ſtus was reſtored again to his Sea of Rocheſter. But the Eaſt Saxons woulde not receyue Mel|litus to his Sea at London, but continued its theyr wicked Mawmetrie in obeying a Biſhop of theyr Pagan lawe, whom they had erected for that purpoſe. Neyther was King Eadbalde of that authoritie and power in thoſe parties, as his father was before, whereby he might conſtrayne them to receyue theyr lawfull Byſhop. But ſurely the ſayde King Eadbalde with his people after hee was once conuerted againe, gaue hym|ſelfe wholye to obey the lawes of God, and a|mongeſt other deedes of godly zeale, Beda li. 2 he buylded a Church of our Ladie at Cantorburie, within the Monaſterie of Saint Peter, afterwardes cal|led Saint Agnes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Churche was conſecrated by Mellitus, who after the death of Laurence ſucceeded in go|uernaunce of the Archebiſhoppes Sea of Can|terburie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After Mellitus whiche departed this lyfe in the yeare of our Lorde .624. Beda. li. 2. [...] Iuſtus that before was biſhop of Rocheſter, was made Archbiſhop of Canterburie, and ordeyned one Romanus to the Sea of Rocheſter.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 About the ſame tyme, the people of the north partes beyond Humber receyued the fayth, by oc|caſion (as after ſhall appeare.)

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Ye haue heard how Edelfred the king of Nor|thumberlande was ſlaine in battaile, neare to the water of Idle, by Redwald king of the Eaſt An|gles, in fauour of Edwin, whom the ſayd Edel|fred had confined oute of hys Dominion .xxiiij. yeares before.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The foreſayde Redwald therefore hauing ob|teyned that victorie, founde meanes to place Ed|wyne in gouernment of that Kingdome of the Northumbers, hauing a tytle thereto as ſonne to Alla, or Elle, ſometyme King of Northumber|lande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 THis Edwyn proued a ryght valiant prince,Edwyn. and grewe to be of more power than any o|ther King in thoſe dayes of the Engliſh Nation: Beda. li. 2. [...] not onely ruling ouer a great parte of the Coun|treys inhabited with Engliſhe menne, but alſo with Brytaynes, which Brytaynes inhabyted not onelye in Wales, but alſo as yet in parte of Cheſſhire, Lancaſhire, Cumberlande, and a|longeſt by the Weſt Sea coaſt in Galloway, and ſo forth euẽ vnto Dunbrytain in Scotland: which I haue thought good to note, that it may appeare in what Countreys Cadwalle bare rule, of whome ſo often mention is made in this part of the Hyſtorie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But as concerning Edwyn: his reputation was ſuch, as not onely the Engliſh men, Bry|taynes and Scottes, but alſo the Iles of Ork|ney, and thoſe of Man,Wil [...] ta|keth [...] to be Angle [...] and other the Weſt Iles of auncient tyme called Meuania, had him in re|uerence, EEBO page image 159 and feared his mightie power, ſo as the [...] durſt not attempt any [...]xp [...]oy [...]e to the [...] of him.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 It chaunced alſo that ſhortly after king Red|walde had aduaunce [...] him to the Kingdome of Northumberlande, v [...] aboute ſixe yeares, the ſame Redwalde deceaſſed, whiche made greatly for the more augmentation of Edwyns power. For the people of the Eaſt Angles, which whileſt Edwyn remayned amongeſt them as a baniſhed man, had conceyued a good opinion of him, for his approued valiancie and noble courage, of|fered themſelues to bee wholy at his commaun|dement.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Carpwaldus.But Edwyn ſuffering Carpwalde or Erp|walde the ſonne of Redwalde to enioy the bare tytle and name of king of that Countrey, ruled al things at his owne will and pleaſure. Neither was there any Prouince within Brytaine that did not obey him, or was not ready to do him ſer|uice (the kingdome of Kent onely excepted) for he ſuffered the Kentiſhmen to here inquie [...], bycauſe he began to haue a lyking vnto the ſiſter of king Eadbald, the Lady Ethelb [...]ga, otherwiſe named Tar [...], or Tace.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Beda lib. 2. cap. 9. He made requeſt therefore by ſending Ambaſ|ſadours to hir brother [...] to haue the ſayde Ladie in mariage: and at length obteyned hir, with con|dition that ſhee being a Chriſtian woman, might not onely vſe the Chriſtian religion, but alſo that all thoſe, whether men or women, prieſtes or mi|niſters, which came with hir, might haue licence to doe the ſame, without trouble or impeachment of any maner of perſon. Herevpon ſhe being ſent vnto him,Mat. VVeſt. Beda lib. 2. cap. 9. there was appoynted to goe with hir, (beſide many other) one Pauline, which was con|ſecrated Biſhop by the Archbiſhop Iuſtus, the xxj. of Iuly, in the yeare of our Lorde .625.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 625At his comming into Northumberlande, thus in companie of Ethelburga, hee trauayled earneſtly in his office, both to preſerue hir and ſuch Chriſtians in the fayth of Chriſt, as were appoynted to giue theyr attendaunce on hir, leaſt they ſhoulde chaunce to fall: and alſo ſought to winne ſome of the Pagans if it were poſſible vn|to the ſame fayth, though at the firſt he little pro|fited in that matter.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the yeare following, there came a mur|therer vnto the Court of King Edwyn, as then ſoiourning in a Palace whiche ſtoode vppon the ſyde of the Ryuer of Dorwent, being ſent from Quichelme King of the Weſt Saxons, to the intent to murther Edwyn, bycauſe hee had of late ſore endomaged the Countreys of the weſt Saxons.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Other ſay an axe, as Math. VVeſt. This murtherer was called Eumerus, and caried vnder his cote a short double edged Woodknife enuenomed of purpose, that if the King beeing but a little hurt therewith, shoulde not die of the wound, yet he should not escape the daunger of the poyson.Eumerus.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 On Easter Monday this Eumerus came to the King, and making foorth to hym as it had beene to haue declared some message from his Maister, when he had espyed his tyme, he drewe hys weapon, and offered to stryke the King. But one of the Kings seruauntes named Lylla, perceyuing thys, stept betwixt the King and the blowe. But yet the murtherer sette the strype forwarde wyth suche force, that the knife running through the bodie of Lylla, wounded also the King a little: and before this murtherer coule bee beaten downe, he slue another of the Kings seruaunts, a knight that attended vpon him called Fordher.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The ſame night Queene Ethelburga was delyuered of a daughter named Ea [...]ed, for the whiche when King Edwyn gaue thankes vnto his Goddes,Eauſ [...]ed borne. in the preſen [...] of Biſhop Paulyne; [figure appears here on page 159] the Biſhop di [...] admoniſh him, rather to giue thankes vnto the true and onely God, by whoſe goodnes it came to paſſe that ye Queene was faſtly and without daun|ger delyuered. The King gi|uing good eare vnto the By|ſhops whole|ſome admonition, promiſed at that preſente to become a Chriſtian, if hee myghte reuenge hys iniuryes receyued at the handes of the Weſt Saxons, and to aſſure Pauline that his pro|miſe ſhoulde take place, hee gaue vnto him hys newe borne daughter to be made holy to the lord, that is to ſay, baptiſed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Biſhoppe receyuing hir, on Whitſun|daye nexte following baptyſed hir, with twelue other of the Kings houſeholde, ſhee beeyng the fyrſte of the Engliſhe Northumbers that was ſo waſhed in the Fountayne of Rege|neration.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the meane tyme King Edwyn being re|couered of his hurt, aſſembled an army, and went agaynſt the Weſt Saxons, with whom recoun|tring in battaile, he eyther f [...]ue or brought [...] ſubiection all them that had conſpyred his death [...] And ſo returned as a conquerour into his cuntry But yet he [...]elayed [...]me for performance of his promiſe to become a chriſtian: howbeit he had left EEBO page image 160 his doing of ſacrifice to Idols, euer ſince he made promiſe to be baptiſed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 He was a ſage Prince, and before he woulde alter his Religion, he politikely thought good to heare matters touching bothe hys olde Reli|gion, and the Chriſtian Religion throughlye examined.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And whileſt he thus hangeth in doubt to whe|ther pa [...] he ſhoulde encline, there came letters to him from Pope Bonifa [...]e the fift of that name,Beda lib. 2. cap. 10. exhorting him by ſundrie kinds of gentle perſwa|dens, to turne to the worſhipping of the true and liuing God, and to renounce the worſhipping of Mawmets and Idols.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Bede. lib. 2. cap. 11. The Pope likewiſe wrote to Queene Ethel|burga, praying hir to cõtinue in hir good purpoſe, and by all meanes poſſible to doe what might bee done for the conuerting of hir huſbande vnto the fayth of Chriſt.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 A viſion.But the thing that moſt moued the king, was a viſion which ſometime he had while hee remai|ned as a baniſhed man in the Court of Redwald king of the Eaſt Angles as thus:

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Bede. cap. 12. After that king Ethelfred was informed howe that the foreſayde Redwalde had receyued Ed|win, he ceaſſed not by his Ambaſſadours to moue Redwalde eyther to deliuer Edwyn into hys handes, or elſe to make him away.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 At length by often ſending, and promiſes made of large ſummes of money, mixed with threat|nings, he obteyned a graunt of his ſuyte, ſo that it was determined that Edwyn ſhoulde eyther bee murthered, or elſe deliuered into his enimyes handes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 One of Edwynes friendes hauing intelli|gence hereof, in the night ſeaſon came to Ed|wyns Chamber, and taking him forth abroade, tolde him the whole practiſe, and what was pur|poſed agaynſt him, offering to helpe him out of the countrey, if he would ſo aduenture to eſcape.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The honora|ble conſidera|tion of Edwin.Edwyne being wonderouſly amazed, than|ked his friend, but refuſed yet to depart the Coun|trey, ſith hee had no iuſt cauſe outwardly giuen to play ſuche a ſlipper parte, chooſing rather to ieoparde his lyfe wyth honour, than to giue men cauſe to thinke that hee had firſt broken promiſe with ſuch a Prince as Redwalde was, to whom he had giuen his fayth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Herevpon his friende departing from him, left him ſitting without the doores: where after hee had reuolued many things in his mind, & thought long vpon this matter, at length he perceyued one to come towards him vnknowne, & in ſtrange ap|parell, ſeeming to him in euery poynt a ſtraun|ger, at which ſight for that he could not imagine who he ſhoulde be, Edwyn was much afrayde: but the man comming to him ſaluted him, and aſked of him what he made there that time of the night when other were at reſt. Edwyn on the other part aſked what hee had to doe therewith and whether he vſed to lie abrode in the night, or within houſe: who aunſwering ſayde: Thinke not Edwyn that I am ignorant of thy heaui|neſſe, of thy watching, and this thy ſolitarie ſit|ting here withoute doores. For I knowe who thou art, wherefore thou art thus penſi [...], and what euilles thou feareſt to be towardes thee at hande. But tell me, what wouldeſt thou giue him, that coulde deliuer thee out of this heaui|neſſe, and perſwade Redwalde that hee ſhoulde neyther do thee hurt nor delyuer thee to thine e|nimyes? Herewith when Edwyn ſayde, that he woulde gladly giue all that in him might lye to ſuche a one in rewarde: the other added: what wouldſt thou thẽ giue, if he ſhould promiſe in good ſooth that (all thy enimies beeing deſtroyed) thou ſhouldeſt be king, and that thou ſhouldeſt paſſe in power all the Kings whiche haue raigned in the Engliſh nation before thy time?

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Edwyn then beyng better come to himſelfe by ſuch demaundes, did not ſticke to promiſe that he would requite his friendſhip with worthy thãks.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Then replyed he to his wordes and ſayde. I [...] he that ſhall prophecie to thee this good h [...]ppe to come ſhall alſo be able to [...]fourme thee ſuch coũ|ſail for thy health & life as neuer any of thy fore|fathers or kinſfolke yet haue heard, wouldeſt thou obey him, and conſent to receiue his wholſom ad|uertiſement? Whervnto without further delibera|tion Edwin promiſed, that he would in all points folow the inſtruction of him that ſhoulde deliuer him out of ſo many and greate calamities, and bring him to the rule of a kingdome. Which an|ſwere being got, this perſon that thus talked with him, layde his hande vppon his heade, ſaying, when thys therefore ſhall chaunce to thee, bee not forgetfull of this tyme, nor of this com|munication, and thoſe things that thou nowe doeſt promiſe, ſee thou perfourme. And there|wyth [...]e vaniſhed away, ſo that Edwin might well preceyue it was no manne but a viſion that thus had appeared vnto him.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And as he ſatte ſtill reioyſing of this com|fortable talke, but yet thoughtfull in his mynde what he ſhoulde be, or from whence he came that had talked in this ſort with him. Beholde hys friende returned that firſt had brought him forth of his Chamber, and declared vnto hym good newes, howe the King by the perſwaſion of the Queene had altered his determination, and min|ded to mainteyne his quarell to the vttermoſt of his power: and ſo hee did in deede: for wyth all diligence hee rayſed an armie, and went agaynſt Edelfride, vanquiſhed him in battaile, and placed Edwyn in the Kingdome (as before yee haue hearde.)

Compare 1587 edition: 1 EEBO page image 161Herevppon whilest King Edwyn (as before is mentioned) deferred tyme ere he would receyue the Christian fayth. Pauline one daye came vnto him as he sat musing what hee were best to do, and layd his hand vpon his head, asking him if he knew that signe: wherevpon when the king would haue fallen downe at his feete, he lift hym vp, and as it were in familiar wise thus sayd vnto him: Behold, by the assystance of Gods fauor thou has ecaped the handes of thyne enimyes, whom thou stoodest in dread of: Behold through hys bounteous liberalitie, thou haſt attempted the Kingdome which thou diddeſt deſire, remember then that thou delay not time to perfourme the thirde thing that thou diddeſt promiſe, in recey|uing his fayth, and keeping his cõmaundements which deliuering thee from worldly aduerſities, hath thus aduaunced thee to the honor of a king and if from henceforth thou wilt obey his with which by my month hee ſetteth forth & preacheth to thee and other, he will deliuer thee from euer|laſting torments, and make thee partaker wyth him in his celeſtiall kingdome.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 It is to be thought that the viſion which the K. had in times paſt receiued, was in ſpirite reuealed vnto Pauline, wherevpon without delay of time he put him in remembrance of it in maner as a|boue is mentioned.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The king hauing heard his words, anſwered that he would & ought to receyue the fayth which he taught, but firſt he woulde conferre with hys nobles and if they would agree to do the like, then would they be baptiſed altogither at one time.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Pauline ſatiſfied herewith Edwin did as hee had promiſed, calling togither the wiſeſt men of his realme,Elwyn con|ſulteth with his nobles. and of them aſked the queſtion what they thought of this diuinitie, which was prea|ched vnto them by Paulyn, vnto whom his chief Biſhop named Coiũ,The anſwere of an heathen Biſhop. incõtinently made this an|ſwere, that ſurely the religion which they had he|therto followed was nothing worth. For ſayth he, there is none of thy people that hath more re|uerently worſhipped our Gods than I haue done, and yet be there many that haue receyued farre greater benefites at thy handes than I haue done: and therefore if our Godd [...]s were of any power, then would they rather helpe me to high honours and dignitie than others.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Therefore if it may be founde that this newe Religion is better and more auaileable than oure olde, let vs wyth all ſpeede embrace the ſame. Finally, when other of the Kings Counſayle and men of high authoritie gaue theyr conſents, that this doctrine which Pauline taught ought to be receyued, if therein appeared more certaintie of ſaluation than could be found in the other:Pauline licen|ced to preach the Goſpell. at length the king gaue l [...]nde to Pauline openly to preach the Goſpell; and [...] his worſhip|ping of falſe god profeſſeth the chriſtian fayth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And when he [...] of his Biſhop [...] who ſhoulde firſt defay [...] the aulters of their Idols and the [...] with the whiche they were compaſſe [...] about he anſwered, that hee himſelfe would do it. For what is more meete (ſayth he [...]) thã that I, which through fooliſhneſſe [...] wor|ſhipped them, ſhould nowe for example ſake de|ſtroy the ſame, through wiſedome giuen [...] from the true & liuing God? And ſtreight ways throw|ing away the ſuperſtition of vanitie, required ar|mo [...] and [...] of the king with a ſtoned horſe, vpon the which he being mounted, rode [...], to deſtroy the Idols.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This was a ſtraunge [...]ight to the people for it was not lawfull to the Biſhop of their lawe to put on armour, or to ride on any beaſt, except it were a Matt. He hauing therefore a [...]ore gyrde to him, tooke a ſpeare in his hande, and aiding on the kings horſe, went to the place where the I|dols ſtoode. The common people that beheld him had thought he had b [...]ene ſtarke mad, and out of his wittes: but hee without longer deliberation, incontinently vpon his comming to the temple, began to deface the ſame, and in contempt threw his [...] againſt it, and reioyſing greatly in the knowledge of the worſhipping of the true God, commaunded his company to deſtroy and burne downe the ſame temple withall the aulters.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This place where ye Idols were ſomtime wor|ſhipped was not farre from Yorke, towardes the Eaſt part of the riuer of De [...]went, and is called Gotm [...]ndin Gaham, where the foreſayd Biſhop by the inſpiration of God defaced and deſtroyed thoſe aulters which he himſelfe had hallowed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 King Edwyn therefore with all the nobilitie,King Edwyn with his peo|ple receyue the chriſtian fayth. Beda. li. 2. cap. 14. and a great nũber of his people, receyued the faith and were baptized, in the yeare of our Lorde .627. in the tenth yeare of his raigne, and about the .178 yeare after the firſt comming of the Engliſh men into this lande.627 Hee was baptiſed at Yorke on Eaſter day (which fel that yere the day before the Ides of Aprill) in the Church of S. Peter the A|poſtle, which hee had cauſed to bee erected vp of timder vpon the ſodaine for that purpoſe, and af|terwards began the foũdation of the ſame church in ſtone worke of a larger compaſſe, comprehen|ding within it that Oratorie which hee had fyrſt cauſed to be built: but before he coulde finiſh the worke, he was ſlaine (as after ſhall bee ſhewed, leauing it to be performed of his ſucceſſor Oſ|walde. Pauline continued from thenceforth du|ring the kings life, which was ſixe yeares after in preaching the goſpel [...] prouince, co [...]e [...]ing an [...] number of people to me fayth of Chryſt, among [...]ſt [...]h [...] whiche were [...], and [...], the [...] of Edwyn [...] begot t [...]a [...] tyme of hys [...] EEBO page image 162 Quinburga, the daughter of Cearlus King of Meccia. Alſo afterwarde [...] [...] children begot on his ſeconde wife Ethelburga, that is to ſay, a ſon called Edelhimus, and a daughter named Edil|trudis:Ediltrudis. and another ſonne called Buſt [...]ra, of the which the two firſt died in theyr Cradels, and were buryed in the Church at Yorke. To bee briefe: by the kings aſſyſtance and fauour ſhewed vnto Pauline in the worke of the Lorde, greate multitudes of people dayly receyued the fayth, and were baptiſed of Pauline in manye places, but ſpecially in the Ryuer of G [...]euy wythin the Prouince of Bernicia, and alſo in Swale in the Prouince of Deira: For as yet in the begynning thus of the Church in thoſe Countreys, no tem|ples or fountes coulde be buylded or erected in ſo ſhort a time.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Of ſuch great zeale was Edwyn (as it is re|ported) towards the ſetting forth of Gods truth,This chaunced in the yeare 632 as hath Math. VVeſt. that hee perſwaded Carpwalde the Sonne of Redwalde King of the Eaſtangles to aban|don the ſuperſtitions worſhypping of Idolles, and to receyue the fayth of Chriſt with all hys whole Prouince.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 His father Redwalde was baptiſed in Kent long before this time, but in vaine: for returning home,Redwald king of Eaſtangles baptiſed. through counſayle of his wife and other wicked perſons, he was ſeduced, and being turned from the ſincere puritie of fayth, his laſt doings were worſſe than his fyrſt, ſo that according to the manner of the olde Samaritanes, he woulde ſeeme both to ſerue the true God,Carpwalde woulde ſerue God and the diuell. and his falſe Goddes (which before time he had ſerued) and in one ſelfe Churche, had at one time both the Sa|craments of Chriſt miniſtred at one aulter, and Sacrifice made vnto Diuels at another.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But Carpwalde within a while after he had receyued the fayth, was ſlaine by one of his owne Countrey men that was an Ethnicke, called Richbert, and then after his death, that Prouince for the terme of three yeares was wrapped eft|ſoones in errour,Sibert or Si|gibert. tyll that Sybert, or Sigibert, the brother of Carpwalde, a moſte Chryſtian Prince, and verie well learned, obteyned the rule of that kingdome, who whileſt hee liued a bani|ſhed man in France during his brothers life time, was baptiſed there, and became a Chriſtian: and when he came to be king, hee cauſed all his Pro|uince to be partaker of the ſame fountaine of life wherein he had beene dipped himſelfe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Vnto his godly purpoſe alſo, a Biſhop of the parties of Burgoigne named Felix was a great furtherer, who comming ouer vnto the Archebi|ſhop of Canterburie Honorius that was ſucceſ|ſour vnto Iuſtus, and declaring vnto him his earneſt deſire, was ſent by the ſame Archbiſhop to preache the worde of life vnto the Eaſtangles, which he did with ſuch good ſucceſſe, that he con|uerted the whole countrey to the fayth of Ieſus Chriſt,A Biſhops [...] Dunwich and places the [...] of his Biſhoprike at Dunwich, [...]ding the courſe of his [...] therein peace, after he had continued in that his Biſhop|lyke office the ſpace of .xvij. yeares.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Moreouer Pauline after that he had conuer|ted the Northumbers,Beda li. 2. cap. [...]. hee preached the worde of [figure appears here on page 162] God vnto them of Lindſey, whiche is a parte of Lincolnſhire:This [...] in the yeare 628. as [...]Mat. VVeſt. and firſt he perſwaded one B [...]ecca the gouernor of the Citie of Lincoln to turne vn|to Chriſt togither with all his familie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In that Citie he alſo buylded a Churche of ſtone worke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus Pauline trauailed in the worke of the lord, the ſame being greatly furthered by the help of Edwin, in whoſe preſence he baptiſed a greate number of people in the riuer of Trent, neare to a towne the which in the olde Engliſh tongue was called T [...]o vuifingaceſter. This Pauline had with him a deacon named Iames, the which ſhewed himſelfe verie diligent in the miniſterie, and pro|fited greatly therein.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But now to returne to king Edwin, who was a prince verily of worthy fame, and for the poly|tike ordering of his Countreys and obſeruing of iuſtice, deſerued highly to be commended:VVil. M [...] for in his time all robbers by the high way were ſo ba|niſhed out of his dominions, that a woman with hir new borne childe alone withoute other com|panie might haue trauayled from ſea to ſea, and not haue encountred with any creature that durſt once haue offered hir iniurie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 He was alſo verie carefull for the aduaunce|ment of the commoditie and common wealth of his people,Mat. VVeſt. Beda. lib. 2. cap. 16. inſomuch that where there were any ſweete and cleare water Springs, hee cauſed poſtes to bee ſet vppe, and Iron diſhes to be faſt|ned thereto wyth Chaynes, that wayfaryng men might haue the ſame readie at hand to drink wyth: and there was none ſo hardye as to EEBO page image 163 touch the ſame but for that vſe: he vſed whereſo|euer he went within the Cities or elſewhere a|brode, to haue a banner borne before him, in token of Iuſtice to be miniſtred by hys royall autho|ritie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the meane ſeaſon, Pope Honorius the fift, hearing that the Northumbers had receyued the fayth (as before is mencioned) at the preaching of Pauline,Beda. li. 2. cap. 17. ſent vnto the ſayde Pauline the Pall, confirming him Archbiſhop in the Sea of Yorke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 He ſent alſo letters of exhortation vnto king Edwin, to kindle him the more with fatherly ad|uice, to continue and proceede in the waye of vnderſtanding, into the which he was entered.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 At the ſame time alſo, bycauſe Iuſtus the Archbiſhop of Canterburie was deade, and one Honorius elected to that Sea, Pope Hono|rius ſente vnto the foreſayde Honorius the elect Archbiſhoppe of Canterburie, his Pall, with letters,A decree con|cerning the Archbiſhops of Canterburie and Yorke. wherein was conteyned a decree by him made, that when eyther the Archbiſhoppe of Canterburie or Yorke chaunced to depart thys life, he that ſuruiued ſhould haue authoritie to or|deyne another in place of him that was deceaſſed, that they ſhoulde not neede to wearie themſel|ues with going to Rome, beeing ſo farre diſtant from them. The copie of whiche letter is regy|ſtred in the Eccleſiaſticall Hyſtorie of Beda, bea|ring date the thirde Ides of Iune in the yeare of our Lorde .633.633

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The ſame Pope [...]ut letters alſo to the Scot|tiſh,The feaſt of Eaſter. people exhorting them to celebrate the feaſt of Eaſter in ſuch due time as other Churches of the Chriſtian world obſerued:The hereſie o [...] the Pelagian [...] and alſo bycauſe the Hereſie of the Pelagians beganne to renue a|gaine amongeſt them, (as he was enformed) hee admoniſhed them to beware thereof, and by all meanes to auoyde it.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But now that the Kingdome of Northum|berland flouriſhed (as before is partly touched) in happie ſtate vnder the proſperous raigne of Ed|wyn, at length after he had gouerned it the ſpace of .xvij. yeares, Cadwalline,Cadwallin, o [...] Cadwallo kin [...] of Brytayne. or Cadwallo King of Brytaynes, who ſucceeded Cadwane, as Gal. Mon. hath, rebelled agaynſt him: for ſo it commeth to paſſe, that nothing can be ſo ſure cõ|fyrmed by mans power, but the ſame by the lyke power may be againe deſtroyed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Penda king of Mercia enuying the proſperous proceedings of king Edwin,Penda king [...] Mercia. procured Cadwallo to moue this rebellion againſt Edwin: & ioyning his power with Cadwallo, they inuaded the coũ|trey of Northũberland ioyntly togither. Edwyn hereof aduertiſed, gathered his people, and came to encounter them, ſo that both the armies met at a place called Hatfield, where was fought a right ſore and bloudie battaile.King Edwin ſlaine. Mat. VVeſt But in the end Edwin was ſlain with one of his ſonnes named Oſfrid, [figure appears here on page 163] and his army beaten downe & diſperſed. Alſo there was ſlain on Edwyns part, Godbald K. of Ork|ney. Moreouer there was another of Edwyns ſonnes named Edfride, conſtrayned of neceſſitie to gyue himſelf into the hands of Penda, and was after by him cruelly put to death (contrarie to his promiſed fayth) in king Oſwaldes dayes, that ſucceeded Edwyn.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus did king Edwin end his life in that bat|taile, fought at Hatfield aforeſayde, on the fourth Ides of October, in the yeare of our Lorde .633.Mat. VVe [...] hee beeing then aboute the age of .xlvij. yeares and vpwardes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Cadwal and Penda hauing obteyned this vic|torie, vſed it moſt cruel [...]y. For one of the Cap|taynes was a Pagan, and the other wanting all ciuilitie, ſhewed hymſelfe more cruell than any Pagan coulde haue done. So that Pen|da beeing a worſhipper of falſe Goddes with all his people of Mercia, and Cadwallo hauing no EEBO page image 164 reſpect to the chriſtian religion which lately was begonne amongſt the Northumbers,The crueltie [...]f Penda and Cadwallo. made ha|uocke in all places where then came, not ſparing man, woman nor childe: and ſo continued in their furious outrage a long time, in paſſing through the countrey, to the great decay and calamitie of the chriſtian congregations in thoſe parties. And ſtill the Chriſtian Brytaines were leſſe mercifull than Penda his heatheniſh ſouldiers. For euẽ vn|to the dayes of Beda (as he affyrmeth) the Bry|tains made no account of the fayth or religion of the Engliſhmen, nor would communicate with them more than with Pagans, bycauſe they dif|fered in rites from their accuſtomed traditions.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 When the countrey of the Northumbers was brought into this miſerable caſe by the enimies inuaſion,The Archbi| [...]op Pauline [...]eeth into [...]ent. the Archbiſhop Pauline taking wyth him the Queen Ethelburga, whõ he had brought thither, returned nowe againe with hir by water into Kent, where he was honourably receyued of the Archbiſhop Honorius, and king Eadbald. He came thither in the conduct of one Baſſus a vali|ant man of warre, hauing with him Eaufred the daughter, & Vulfrea the ſon of Edwyn and alſo Yffi the ſon of Oſfride Edwins ſonne, whõ their mother after for feare of the kings Edbold & Oſ|wald did ſend into France, where they died.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Church of Rocheſter at that time was deſtitute of a Biſhop, by the death of Romanus, who being ſent to Rome vnto Pope Honorius, was drowned by the waye in the Italian Seas. Wherevppon at the requeſt of the Archeby|ſhoppe Honorius, and King Eadbald, Pau|line tooke vpon hym the charge of that Sea, and helde it till he dyed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [...]eda lib. 3. cap. 1. [...]rike king [...] Deira.AFter that Edwyn was ſlaine in battaile (as before yee haue hearde) Oſrike the ſonne of his Vncle Elfricke, tooke vpon hym the rule of the Kingdome of Deira, which had receyued the ſacrament of Baptiſme by the preaching and ver|tuous inſtruction of Pauline.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [...]fred king of [...]rnicia.But the other kingdome of Northumber|lande called Bernicia, Eaufride th [...] ſonne of E|delfred or Edelfride, tooke vpon him to gouerne.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Eaufride during the time of Edwins raigne, had continued in Scotland, and there be|ing conuerted to the Chriſtian fayth was bapti|ſed. But both theſe Princes after they had ob|teyned poſſeſſion of theyr earthly kingdomes, dyd forget the care of the heauenly kingdome, ſo that they returned to their olde kind of Idolatrie. But the almightie God did not long ſuffer this theyr vnthankfulneſſe without iuſt puniſhment: for firſt in the next Sommer, [...]he two kings [...] Northum|berland ſ [...]ain. when Oſrike had raſhlye beſieged Cadwallo King of the Brytaynes, within a certayne Towne, Cadwallo brake forth vpon hym, and fynding him vnprouided to make reſyſtance, ſlue him with all his armie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And after thys, whileſt Cadwallo not like a Conquerour gouerned the Prouynces of the Northumbers, but lyke a Tyran waſted and deſtroyed them, in ſlaying the people in tragi|call manner, hee alſo ſlue Eaufride, the whiche with twelue menne of warre, came vndiſcretely vnto him to ſue for peace, and thus within leſſe than twelue Monethes ſpace both theſe renegate kings were diſpatched.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 164] THen Oſ|walde the ſonne of Edel|fred, Oſwald beganne his raigne in the yeare .635. Beda lib. 3. cap. 3. and bro|ther to the fore|ſayde Eaufride was created K. of the Nor|thumbers, the ſixt in number from Ida.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Oſ|walde after that his father was ſlaine, liued as a baniſhed perſon a long time within Scotlande, where he was baptiſed, and profeſſed the chriſtiã religion, and paſſed the flower of his youth in good exerciſes, both of minde and bodie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Amongſt other things, he practiſed the vnder|ſtanding of warlike knowledge, minding ſo to vſe it, as it might ſtande him in ſteade to defende himſelfe from iniurie of the enimies that ſhoulde prouoke him, and not otherwiſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Hereupon Cadwallo King of the Brytayns made in maner no account of him: for by reaſon that he had atchieued ſuch great victories agaynſt the Engliſhe men, and hauing ſlaine theyr two Kings (as before is expreſſed) he ceaſſed not to proceede in hys tyrannicall doyngs, repu|ting the Engliſhe people for ſlouthfull, and not apt to the warre, boaſting that he was borne to their deſtruction.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And thus being ſet vp in pryde of courage, he feared no perilles, but boldely withoute conſi|dering at al the ſkilful knowledge which Oſwald had ſufficiently learned in feates of warres, tooke vppon hym to aſſayle the foreſayde Oſwalde, that had broughte an armie agaynſt hym, and was encamped in a playne fielde, neare vnto the Wall whiche the Romaines had buylded in tymes paſt agaynſt the inuaſion of Scottes and Pictes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Cadwallo ſtraight prouoked Oſwald to trie the matter by battaile, but Oſwalde forbare the firſt day, and cauſed a Croſſe to bee erected in the ſame place where he was encamped, in full hope that it ſhould be an enſigne or trophy of his victo|rie, cauſing all ſouldiers to make their prayers to God, that in time of ſuch neceſſitie it might pleaſe him to ſuccour them that worſhipped him.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 EEBO page image 165It is ſayde, that the Croſſe being made, and the hole digged wherein it ſhoulde be ſet, he tooke the Croſſe in his owne handes, and putting the foote thereof into that hole, ſo helde it till his ſoul|diers had filled the hole and rammed it vp: And then cauſed al the ſouldiers to kneele downe vpon their knees, and to make interceſſion to the true and liuing God for his aſſiſtãce agaynſt ye proud enimie, with whõ they ſhould [...]ight in a iuſt qua|rel for the preſeruation of their people [...] & countrey.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After this, in the next morning he boldly gi|ueth battaile to his enimies, ſo that a ſore and cruell fight enſued betwixt them. At length Oſwald perceyued that the Brytaynes beganne ſomewhat to faint, and therfore he cauſed his peo|ple to renue their force, and more luſt [...]ly to preaſſe forwarde, ſo that firſt he put that moſt cruell eni|mie to [...]light, and after purſuing the chaſe, ouer|tooke him,Beda. VVil. Malm. and ſlue him with the moſt part of all his huge and mightie armie, at a place called [figure appears here on page 165] Deniſſeborne, but the place where hee cauſed the Croſſe to be erected, height He [...]field.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And thus Cadwallo the moſt cruell enimie of the Engliſh name ended his life: He was terrible both in nature & countenance, for the which cauſe they ſay the Brytaynes did afterwards ſet vp his Image, that the ſame might bee a terrour to the enimies when they ſhoulde beholde it.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But here is to bee remembred by the Bry|tiſh Hiſtorie of Gal. Mon. it ſhoulde appeare that Cadwallo was not ſlaine at all, but raigned victoriouſly for the ſpace of .xlviij. yeares, and then departed this life, as in place afterwards it ſhall appeare. But for that the contrarietie in wryters in ſuch poyntes may ſooner be perceyued than reformed to the ſatiſfying of mennes fan|cies whiche are variable, wee will leaue euery man to his libertie to thinke as ſeemeth him good, noting now and then the diuerſitie of ſuche wry|ters, as occaſion ſerueth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Penda. 636 [figure appears here on page 165] PEnda the ſon of Wil|ba ſucceeded in the gouernmẽt of the kingdom of Mercia, af|ter Ciarlus, & beganne hys raigne in the yeare of oure Lord .636. He was fiftie yeares of age before he came to bee king, and raigned .xxx. yeares, he was a Prince right hardie and aduenterous, not fearing to ieo|pard his perſon in place of danger; aſſured & readie of remembrance in time of greateſt peril. His body could not be ouercome with any trauaile, nor his mind vanquiſhed with greatneſſe of buſineſſe, but theſe his vertues were matched with notable vy|ces, as firſt with ſuch bitterneſſe of maners as had not beene heard of, crueltie of nature, lack of cur|teſie, great vnſtedfaſtneſſe in performing of word and promiſe, and of vnmeaſurable hatred toward the Chriſtian religion.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Vpon confidence put in theſe his great ver|tues and vices from time that he was made king as though the whole Ile had beene due to him, he thought not good to let any occaſion paſſe that was offered to make warre, as well agaynſt his friendes and confederates, as alſo agaynſt hys owne ſworne enimyes. Part of his doings ye haue heard, and more ſhall appeare hereafter.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Of the kings of the Eaſt Saxons and Eaſt Angles, ye haue heard before: of whom in places conuenient yee ſhall finde further mention alſo, and ſo likewiſe of the kings of the South Sax|ons: but bycauſe theyr kingdome continued not paſt fiue ſucceſſions, little remembrance of them is made by wryters.

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5.27. The crueltie of Penda and Cadwallo after their victorie, the Britains make no account of religion, Archbishop Pauline with queen Ethelburga flie out of Northumberland in|to Kent, honorable personages accompanie him thi|ther, Romanus bishop of Rochester drowned, Pauline vnderta|keth the charge of that see; Osrike is king of Deira, and Eau|fride king of Bernicia, both kings become apostatas, and fall frõ christianitie to paganisme, they are both slaine within lesse than a yeeres space; Oswald is created king of Northumber|land, his chiefe practise in feats of armes, Cadwallo king of Britaine hath him in contempt, Oswalds superstitious de|uotion and intercession to God against his enimies; both kings ioine battell; Cadwallo is slaine, Penda king of Mercia his notable vertues linked with foule vices, he maketh warre on whom he will with|out exception. The xxvij. Chapter.

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The crueltie of Penda and Cadwallo after their victorie, the Britains make no account of religion, Archbishop Pauline with queen Ethelburga flie out of Northumberland in|to Kent, honorable personages accompanie him thi|ther, Romanus bishop of Rochester drowned, Pauline vnderta|keth the charge of that see; Osrike is king of Deira, and Eau|fride king of Bernicia, both kings become apostatas, and fall frõ christianitie to paganisme, they are both slaine within lesse than a yeeres space; Oswald is created king of Northumber|land, his chiefe practise in feats of armes, Cadwallo king of Britaine hath him in contempt, Oswalds superstitious de|uotion and intercession to God against his enimies; both kings ioine battell; Cadwallo is slaine, Penda king of Mercia his notable vertues linked with foule vices, he maketh warre on whom he will with|out exception. The xxvij. Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _CAdwallo and Penda ha|uing obteined the victorie a|forsaid, vsed it most cruellie. For one of the capteins was a pagan, and the other wan|ting all ciuilitie, shewed him|selfe more cruell than anie pagan could haue doone. So that Penda being a worshipper of false gods with his people of Mercia,The crueltie of Penda and Cadwallo. and Cadwallo hauing no re|spect to the christian religion which latelie was be|gun amongst the Northumbers, made hauocke in all places where they came, not sparing man, wo|man nor child: and so continued in their furious out|rage a long time in passing through the countrie, to the great decay and calamitie of the christian congre|gations in those parties. And still the christian Bri|tains were lesse mercifull than Penda his heathe|nish souldiers. For euen vnto the daies of Beda (as he affirmeth) the Britains made no account of the faith or religion of the Englishmen, nor would communicate with them more than with the pa|gans, bicause they differed in rites from their accu|stomed traditions.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 When the countrie of the Northumbers was brought into this miserable case by the enimies in|uasion,The archbi|shop Pauline flieth into Kent. the archbishop Pauline taking with him the quéene Ethelburga, whom he had brought thither, returned now againe with hir by water into Kent, where he was honorablie receiued of the archbishop Honorius, and king Eadbald. He came thither in the conduct of one Bassus a valiant man of warre, ha|uing with him Eaufred the daughter, and Uulfrea the sonne of Edwin, & also Iffi the sonne of Osfride Edwins sonne, whom their mother after for feare of the kings Edbold and Oswold did sent into France where they died. The church of Rochester at that time was destitute of a bishop, by the death of Romanus, who being sent to Rome vnto pope Honorius, was drowned by the way in the Italian seas. Wherevpon at the request of archbishop Honorius, and king Eadbald, Pauline tooke vpon him the charge of that sée, and held it till he died.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 AFter it was knowne that Edwin was slaine in battell (as before ye haue heard) Osrike the sonne of his vncle Elfrike tooke vpon him the rule of the kingdome of Deira,Beda lib. 3. ca. 1. which had receiued the sa|crament of baptisme by the preaching and vertuous instruction of Pauline. But the other kingdome of Northumberland called Bernicia,Osrike king of Deira. Eaufride the son of Edelfred or Edelfride,Eaufrid king of Bernicia. tooke vpon him to gouerne. This Eaufride during the time of Edwins reigne, had continued in Scotland, and there being conuer|ted to the christian faith was baptised. But doth these princes, after they had obteined possession of their earthlie kingdoms, did forget the care of the heauen|lie kingdome, so that they returned to their old kind of idolatrie. But almightie God did not long suf|fer this their vnthankefulnesse without iust punish|ment: for first in the next summer,The two kings of Nor|thumberland slaine. when Osrike had rashlie besieged Cadwallo king of the Britains, within a certeine towne, Cadwallo brake foorth vp|on him, and finding him vnprouided to make resi|stance, slue him with all his armie. Now after this, whilest Cadwallo not like a conqueror gouerned the prouinces of the Northumbers, but like a tyrant wa|sted and destroied them, in sleaing the people in tra|gicall maner, he also slue Eaufride, the which with twelue men of warre came vndiscréetlie vnto him to sue for peace: and thus within lesse than twelue moneths space both these runagate kings were dis|patched.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 THen Oswald the sonne of Edelfred, and bro|ther to the foresaid Eaufride was created king of the Northumbers, the sixt in number from Ida. This Oswald after that his father was slaine, Oswald began his reigne in the yeare 635. Beda. lib. 3. cap. 3. liued as a banished person a long time within Scotland, where he was baptised, and professed the christian re|ligion, and passed the flower of his youth in good ex|ercises, both of mind & bodie. Amongst other things he practised the vnderstanding of warlike know|ledge, minding so to vse it as it might stand him in stead to defend himselfe from iniurie of the enimies that should prouoke him, and not otherwise. Here|vpõ Cadwallo king of the Britains made in maner no account of him: for by reason that he had atchi|ued such great victories against the Englishmen, and hauing slaine their two kings (as before is ex|pressed) he ceassed not to proceed in his tyrannicall dooings, reputing the English people for slouthfull, and not apt to the warre, boasting that he was borne to their destruction. Thus being set vp in pride of cou|rage, he feared no perils, but boldlie (without conside|ring at all the skilfull knowledge which Oswald had sufficientlie learned in feates of war) tooke vpon him to assaile the foresaid Oswald, that had brought an armie against him, and was encamped in a plaine field néere vnto the wall which the Romans had buil|ded in times past against the inuasion of Scots and Picts.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Cadwallo streight prouoked Oswald to trie the matter by battell, but Oswald forbare the first day, and caused a crosse to be erected in the same place where he was incamped, in full hope that it should be an ensigne or trophie of his victorie, causing all soul|diers to make their praiers to God, that in time of such necessitie it might please him to succour them that worship him. It is said, that the crosse being made, and the hole digged wherein it should be set, he tooke the crosse in his owne hands, and putting the foot thereof into that hole, so held it till his souldiers had filled the hole, and rammed it vp: and then cau|sed all the souldiers to knéele downe vpon their knées, and to make intercession to the true and li|uing God for his assistance against the proud eni|mie, with whom they should fight in a iust quarell for the preseruation of their people and countrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 After this, on the next morning he boldlie gaue battell to his enimies, so that a sore and cruell fight insued betwixt them. At length Oswald perceiued that the Britains began somwhat to faint, and ther|fore caused his people to renew their force, and more lustilie to preasse forward, so that first [...]e put that most cruell enimie to flight, and after pursuing the chase ouertooke him, and slue him with the most part of all his huge and mightie armie,Beda. Wil. Malm. at a place called Denisborne, but the place where he caused the crosse to be erected he named Heuenfield. Thus Cad|wallo EEBO page image 112 the most cruell enimie of the English name ended his life: he was terrible both in nature and countenance, for the which cause they say the Bri|tains did afterwards set vp his image, that the same might be a terror to the enimies when they should be|hold it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 ¶But here is to be remembred by the British hi|storie of Gal. Mon. it should appeare that Cadwallo was not slaine at all, but reigned victoriouslie for the space of 48 yéeres, and then departed this life, as in place afterwards it shall appéere. But for that the contrarietie in writers in such points may sooner be perceiued than reformed, to the satisfieng of mens fansies which are variable, we will leaue euerie man to his libertie to thinke as séemeth him good, noting now and then the diuersitie of such writers, as occa|sion serueth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 PEnda the sonne of Wilba succéeded in the go|uernement of the kingdome of Mercia after Ci|arlus,Penda. 636 and began his reigne in the yéere of our Lord 636. He was fiftie yéeres of age before he came to be king, and reigned 30 yeres, he was a prince right hardie and aduenturous, not fearing to ieopard his person in place of danger, assured and readie of re|membrance in time of greatest perill. His bodie could not be ouercome with anie trauell, nor his mind vanquished with greatnesse of businesse. But these his vertues were matched with notable vices, as first with such bitternesse of maners as had not béene heard of, crueltie of nature, lacke of courtesie, great vnsted fastnesse in performing of woord and promise, and of vnmeasurable hatred toward the christian religion.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Now vpon confidence in these his great ver|tues and vices from that time he was made king (as though the whole Ile had bene due to him) he thought not good to let anie occasion passe that was offered to make war, as wel against his friends & confederats, as also against his owne sworne enimies. Part of his dooings ye haue heard, and more shall appeare hereafter. ¶Of the kings of the Eastsaxons & East|angles ye haue heard before: of whom in places con|uenient ye shall find further mention also, and so likewise of the kings of the Southsaxons: but bi|cause their kingdom continued not past fiue successi|ons, litle remembrance of them is made by writers.