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5.48. Aruiragus.


Compare 1587 edition: 1 Aruira|gus. [...]ecto. Boetius [figure appears here on page 51] ARuiragus ye yõgeſt ſon of Kimbelyne, & brother to Guinderius, bycauſe the ſame Guin|derius lefte no iſſue to ſucceede him, was ad|mitted Kyng of Bri|tayne in the yere of oure Lord .45. or rathe [...] .46.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Aruiragus, o|therwiſe called by the Britaynes Meuricus or Mavus, of Tari [...]us Praſutagus, is alſo named Armager in ye Eng|liſhe Chronicle, [...]axton. by whiche Chronicle (as it ap|peareth) he bare hymſelfe ryght manfully againſt Claudius and his Romaynes in the warre whyche they made agaynſte hym: in ſo muche, that when Claudius hadde renued his force and wonne Porcheſter, [...]alf. Mo [...]. and after came to beſiege Wincheſter, (in the whiche Aruiragus as then was encloſed,) Aruiragus aſſembling his po|wer, was ready to come foorth and giue Claudi|us battell: wherevppon, Claudius doubting the ſequele of the thing, ſente meſſengers vnto Arui|ragus to treate of concord, and ſo by compoſiti|on, the matter was taken vp, with condition, that Claudius ſhoulde gyue his daughter Geniſſa in marriage vnto Aruiragus, and Aruiragus ſhuld acknowledge to holde hys Kingdome of the Romaynes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [...]anul [...]us Cestrenſis.Some write that Claudius in fauour of the valiant prowes which he ſaw and found in Ar|uiragus, honored not only hym with the marri|age of hys daughter the ſayd Geniſſa, but alſo to the ende to make the Towne more famous where this marriage was ſolemnized, hee there|fore called it Glaudiocestria, after his name, the whiche in the Brittiſhe tong was called before that daye Caerleon, and after Glouernia, of a Duke that ruled in Demetia, that heyght Glu|ny, but now it is called Glowceſter.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Other there be that write, how Claudius be|ing vanquiſhed in battell by Aruiragus, was compelled by the ſayde Aruiragus to giue vnto him his ſayde daughter to wife, with condition as before is mentioned: and that then Aruiragius was crowned King of Britayne.Suetonius. But Su [...]to|nius may ſeme to reprooue this part of the Brit|tiſh hiſtory, the whiche in the life [...] Claudius witneſſeth, that he had by three wiues only for [...]e daughters, that is to ſay, Claudia, Antonia, and Octauia: and further, that reputing Claudia not to be his, cauſed hir to be [...]aſt downe at the dore of his wife Herculan [...]a, whome he had for|ſaken by way of diuorcement. And that hee be|ſtowed his daughter Antonia firſt on Cn. Pom|peius Magnus, and after on Fauſtus Silla, right noble yong men: and Octauia, he matched with Nero his wiues ſonne, whereby it ſhoulde appeare, that this ſuppoſed marriage betwixt [...] Aruiragus and the daughter of Claudius, is but a fayned tale.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And heere to ſpeake my fancy alſo what I thynke of th [...] Aruiragus, and other the Kyngs whome [...] and ſuch as haue followed hym do [...] in order, to ſucceede one after another: I will not denie but ſuche perſons there were, [...] ſame happily bearing very great rule in the [...], but that they reigned as abſolute kings ouer the whole, or that they ſucceeded one after another [...] manner as is auouched by the ſame writers, it ſeemeth moſt vnlyke to bee true: for rather it may bee geſ [...]ed by that whyche as well Gildas as the olde approued Romayne writers haue written, that dyuers of theſe Kyngs lyued about one time, or in tymes greatly dyffering from thoſe tymes, whyche in oure writers wee finde noted: as for enſample, Iuuenall maketh thys Aruiragus of whome we nowe entreate, to raigne about Domitians tyme. For my parte therefore, ſith this order of the Brittiſhe Kingly ſucceſſion in thys place is more eaſie to be ſtatly denyed and vtterly reproued, than eyther wiſely defended, or truly amended. I will referre the re|forming thereof, vnto thoſe that haue perhappes ſeene more than I haue, or more deepely conſi|dered the thyng, to trie out an vndoubted troth: and in the meane tyme, I haue thoughte good, both to ſhewe what I fynde in oure hyſtories, and likewiſe in the forrayne writers, to the which we thynke namely in thys behalfe, whyleſt the Romaynes gouerned there, we may ſafely gyue moſt credite, doe wee otherwiſe neuer ſo muche contente ourſelues with other vayne and fonde conceytes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 To proceede yet with the Hiſtory as wee fynde it by our writers ſet foorth: It is reported, that after the ſolemnization of thys marriage,Legions of Souldiers ſent into Ire|lande. whyche was done with all honor that myghte bee deuiſed, Claudius ſente certayne legi|ons of Souldyers foorth to goe into Irelande to EEBO page image 52 ſubdue that countrey, and returned himſelfe to Rome.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After his departure, Aruiragus rode about to viewe the ſtate of hys Realme, repayring Cities and Townes decayed by the warre of the Ro|maynes, and ſawe hys people gouerned with ſuche iuſtice and good order, that hee was both dradde, and greatly beloued: ſo that in tract of tyme, hee grewe very welthie, and by reaſon thereof, fell into pride, ſo that he denyed his ſub|iection to the Romaynes. Wherevpon Claudi|us appoynted Veſpaſian with an army to goe as Lieutenant into Brytayne, [...] the whiche iour|ney was to him the beginning of his aduance|mente to that honor, whiche after to him moſt luckily ſucceeded. But if wee ſhall credite our Britayne writers, he gayned not muche at Ar|uiragus handes, for where he woulde haue lan|ded at Sandwich or Richbourrow, [...] Aruiragus was ready to reſiſt hym, ſo as he durſt not once enter the hauen: for Aruiragus had there ſuche a puiſſaunte number of armed menne, that [figure appears here on page 52] the Romaynes were afrayde to approche the lande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Veſpatian therefore withdrewe from thence, and coaſting Weſtwarde, landed at Totnes, and comming to Exeter, beſieged that Citie: but about the ſeuenth day after he hadde planted hys ſiege, came Aruiragus, and gaue him ba [...]tell, in the which both the Armies ſuſteyned greate loſſe of men, and neyther parte got any aduantage of the other. On the morrowe after, the Queene Geniſſa made them friendes, and ſo the warres ceaſſed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But ſeeing that (as before I haue ſayde) the troth of this hiſtorie may be greatly miſtru|ſted, yee ſhall heare what the Romayne writers ſay of Veſpaſianus being here in Britayne, be|ſide that whiche wee haue already recited out of Dion in the lyfe of Guiderius.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the dayes of the Emperoure Claudius, through fauour of Narciſſus (one that myghte do all with Claudius) the ſayde Veſpaſian was ſente as Coronell or Lieutenaunt of a legion of Souldiers into Germany,Veſpaſian. and beeyng remoued from thence into B [...]itayne,Suetonius. Sabellic. hee fought thirtie ſe|uerall tymes with the enimies, and brought vn|to the Romayne obeyſance, two moſt mightie nations, and aboue twentie Townes, togither with the Iſle of Wight, and theſe exploytes hee atchieued, partly vnder the conduct of Aulus Plautius that was Ruler of Britayne for the Emperour Claudius, and partl [...] vnder the ſame Emperour himſelfe. For as it is euident by wri|ters of good credite, hee came firſt ouer into Bri|tayne with the ſayd Aulus Plautius, and vnder him ſerued right valiantly, as before in place wee haue partly touched. By Tacitus it appeareth, that he was called to be partener in the gouern|ment of things in Britayne with Claudius, and had ſuch ſucceſſe, as it appeared to what eſtate of honor hee was predeſtinate, hauing conquered nations, and taken Kings priſoners. But nowe to make an ende with Aruiragus: [...]al. Ma. At length whẽ hee perceyued that hys force was too weake to preuayle agaynſte the Romayne Empire, and that hee ſhoulde ſtriue but in vayne to ſhake the yoke of ſubiection from the neckes of the Bri|taynes, hee made a finall peace with them nowe in hys olde age, and ſo continued in qui|ete the reſidue of hys raigne, whyche hee laſt|ly ended by deathe, after hee hadde gouer|ned the lande by the ſpace of thirtie yeeres, or but eyght and twentie, as ſome other doe ima|gine. He dyed in the yeere of grace .73.73 Math. [...] as one Authoure affirmeth, and was buried at Glouceſter.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the dayes of this Aruiragus, about the EEBO page image 53 yeare of Chriſt .53. Ioſeph of Aramathia whych buried the body of our Sauioure, beeing ſente by Philippe the Apoſtle (as Iohn Bale, followyng the authoritie of Gildas and other Britiſhe wri|ters reciteth.) After that the Chriſtians were diſ|perſed out of Gallia, came into Britayne with diuers other godly Chriſtian men, and preaching [figure appears here on page 53] the Goſpell there amongſt the Britaynes, and inſtructing thẽ in the faith and lawes of Chriſt, conuerted many to the true beliefe, and baptiſed them in the wholeſome water of regeneration, [...]idorus. and there continued all the reſidue of his lyfe, obteyning of the King a plotte of grounde where to inhabite, not paſt a foure miles from Welles, and there with his fellowes began to lay the firſt foundation of that true and perfect Religion, in which place (or neere therevnto) was afterward erected the Abbey of Glaſtenbury.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Nicephorus writeth in his ſecond Booke and fourth Chapter, that one Simon Zelotes came likewiſe into Britayne. And Theodoretus in his 9. Booke de Curandis Graecorũ affectibus ſheweth, that Paule being releaſed of his ſecõd impriſon|ment, and ſuffered to departe from Rome, prea|ched the Goſpell to the Britaynes and to other nations in the Weſt.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The ſame thing in manner doth Sophroni|us the Patriarke of Ieruſalem witneſſe. Tertul|lian alſo may bee a witneſſe of the auncientie of the fayth receyued heere in Britayne, where hee writing of theſe times ſayeth: Thoſe places of ye Britaines to the whiche the Romaynes coulde not approche, were ſubiect vnto Chriſt, as were alſo the countreys of Sarmatia, Dacia, Ger|mania, S [...]ithia, and others.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus it may appeare, that ye Chriſtian reli|gion was planted here in this lande ſhortly after Chriſts time, although it certaynely appeare not who were the firſte that preached the Goſpell to the Britaynes, nor whether they were Grekes or Latines.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Cornelius Tacitus writeth, that the Ro|mayne Emperoures in this ſeaſon gouerned this land by Lieutenantes and Threaſorers,Treaſorers or recyuers. the which were called by the name of Legates and Procurators, thereby to keepe the inhabitantes the better in order.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And Aulus Plautius a noble man of Rome of the order of Conſuls,Aulus Plau|tius. was ſente hither as the firſt Legate or Lieutenant (in manner as before ye haue heard) and after him Oſtorius Scapu|la, the whiche Scapula at his comming,Oſtorius Sca|pula. founde the Iſle in trouble,Cor. Tacitus lib. 12. the enimies hauing made in|uaſiõ into the countrey of thoſe that were friẽds to the Romaynes, the more preſumptuouſly, for that they thought, a new Lieutenaunt with an army to him vnaquaynted and commen o|uer nowe in the beginning of Winter, woulde not be haſtie to march foorth againſt them. But Oſtorius vnderſtanding, that by the firſte ſuc|ceſſe and chance of warre, feare or hope is bredde and augmented, haſteth forwarde to encounter with them, and ſuch as he findeth abroade in the countrey he ſleath downe right on euery ſide, and purſueth ſuch as fledde, to the ende they ſhoulde not come togither againe: and for that a diſplea|ſant and a doubtfull peace was not like to bring quietneſſe eyther to him or to his army, hee tooke from ſuch as he ſuſpected, theyr armour. And af|ter this, hee goeth about to defende the ryuers of Auon and Seuerne, with placing his ſouldiers in campes fortifyed neere to the ſame. But the Oxfordſhire menne and other of thoſe parties would not ſuffer hym to accompliſh his purpoſe in any quiet ſort, being a puiſſant kynd of people, & not hitherto weakened by warres: for they wil|lingly at the firſt had ioyned in amitie with the Romaines.Cornelius Ta|cit. lib. 12. The Countreys adioyning alſo be|ing induced by their procuremente, came to thẽ, and ſo they choſe foorth a plotte of grounde, fen|ſed with a mightie ditche, vnto the whiche there was no way to enter but one, and the ſame very narrowe, ſo as the horſemen could not haue any eaſie paſſage to breake in vpon them. Oſtorius, although he hadde no legionarie Souldiers, but certayne bandes of aydes, marcheth foorthe to|wards the place within the which the Britaines were lodged, and aſſaulting them in the ſame, breaketh through into their camp, wher the Bri|taynes being impeached with their owne inclo|ſiers whiche they had reyſed for defenſe of the place, knowing how for their rebellion, they were like to finde ſmal mercy at the Romaynes hãds, when they ſawe now no way to eſcape, layde a|bout them manfully, and ſhewed greate proofe of their valiant ſtomackes.Which was a certayne Crowne, to be ſet on his head called ci|uica corona.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In this battell, the ſonne of the Lieutenante M. Oſtorius deſerued the price and commenda|tion of preſeruing a Citizen out of the enimies hands.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 EEBO page image 54But nowe with this ſlaughter of the Oxe|fordſhire menne, dyuers of the Britaynes that ſtoode doubtfull what way to take, eyther to reſt in quiet, or to moue warres, were conten|ted to bee reformable vnto a reaſonable order of peace, and ſo Oſtorius leadeth hys armye a|gainſte the people called Cangi,Cangi. that inhabited that parte of Wales that nowe is called Den|highſhire, whiche countrey hee ſpoyled on e|uery ſide, no enemie once daring to encounter him: and if any of them aduentured priuily to ſet vpon thoſe whiche they founde behinde, or on the outſides of his army, they were cut ſhortere they could eſcape out of daunger. Wherevpon, hee marched ſtraighte to their campe, and giuing them battell, vanquiſheth them. And vſing the victory as reaſon moued him, he leadeth his army againſte thoſe that inhabited the inner partes of Wales, ſpoyling the countrey on euery ſide.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And thus ſharply purſuing the Rebells, he ap|proched neere to the Sea ſide, whiche lyeth ouer againſt Ireland.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Whileſt this Romane Captayne is thus oc|cupied, hee was called backe by the Rebellion of the Yorkeſhire men, whome forth with vppon his commyng vnto them, he appeaſed, puniſhyng the firſt authors of that tumult with death.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the meane tyme,Cor. [...] lib. 12. the people called Si|lures, beeyng a very fierce kynde of menne, and right valiante, prepare to make warre agaynſte the Romaynes, for they mighte not [...] neyther with roughneſſe, nor yet with any cur|teous handling, ſo that they were to be tamed by an army of legionary ſouldiers to be brought a|mong them.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Therefore to reſtrayne the furious rage of thoſe people and their neighbours, Oſtorius peo|pled a Towne neere to their bordures, called Ca|mulodunũ with certayne bandes of olde Souldi|ers, there to inhabite with theyr Wiues, and children, according to ſuch manner as was vſed in like caſes of placing naturall Romaynes in any Towne or Citie, for the more ſuretie and defence of the ſame.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Here alſo was a temple builded in the honor of Claudius the Emperour, where were two I|mages [figure appears here on page 54] erected, one of the Goddeſſe Victoria, and an other of Claudius himſelfe. But nowe there reſteth a great doubt among writers, where thys Citie or Towne called Camulodunum dyd ſtand, of ſome and not without good grounde of probable coniectures, gathered vpon the aduiſed conſideration of the circumſtances of that whych in olde authors is found written of this place, it is thought to be Colcheſter.Camulodunũ Colcheſter. But verily by thys place of Tacitus it may ſeeme rather to be ſome other towne, ſituate more Weſtward than Col|cheſter, ſith a colonie of Romaine Souldiers were planted there to bee at hande, for the repreſ|ſing of the vnquiet Silures,Silures where they inhabited whiche by conſent of moſt writers inhabited in Southwales, or neere the Welch Marches.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 There was a Caſtell of great fame in tymes paſt that hight Cameletum, or in Brittiſhe Ca|ermalet, whiche ſtoode in the Marches of Som|merſetſhire: but ſith there is none that hathe ſo written before thys tyme, I will not ſaye that happily ſome error hathe growen by miſtakyng the name of Camalodunum, for this Camale|tum by ſuch as haue copyed foorthe the Booke of Cornelius Tacitus, and yet ſo it myght be done by ſuche as found it ſhort, or vnperfectly written, namely, by ſuche ſtraungers or other, to whome onely the name of Camulodunum was onely knowne, and Camaletum peraduenture neuer ſeene nor heard of. As for enſample, an Engliſh|man that hath heard of Waterforde in Ireland, and not of Wexforde, might in taking foorthe a EEBO page image 55 copie of ſome writing eaſily committe a faulte in noting the one for the other.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 We fynde in Ptolomei Camudolon to bee a Citie belonging to the Trinobantes, and he ma|keth mention alſo of Camulodunum, but Hum|frey Llhuyde thinketh that hee meaneth all one Citie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Notwithſtanding, Polidore Vergill is of a contrary opinion, ſuppoſing the one to be Col|cheſter indeede, and the other that is Camelodu|num to be Duncaſter or Pontfret. Leland eſtee|ming it to be certaynely Colcheſter, taketh the I|ceni alſo to be the Northfolke men. But howe ſo euer we ſhall take thys place of Tacitus, it is e|uidente ynough that Camulodunum ſtoode not farre from the Thaymes. And therefore to ſeeke it with Hector Boetius in Scotlande, or with Polidore Vergill ſo farre as Doncaſter or Poutfret, it may bee thought a playne error: but to leaue each man to his owne iudgemente in a matter ſo doubtfull (as to many it ſeemeth to be) we will proceede with the hiſtorie, touching the warres betwixte the Romaynes and the Syla|rians, againſte whome (truſting not only vppon theyr owne manhoode, but alſo vppon the hygh prowes and valiancie of Caractacus) Oſtorius ſet forwarde. [...]ornelius [...]acitus. [...]. Anna. 12. Caractacus excelled in fame aboue all other the Princes of Britaine, aduanced ther|to by many doubtfull aduentures and many pro|ſperous exploytes whiche in his tyme he hadde atchieued: but as hee was in policie and aduaun|tage of place better prouided than the Romaines: ſo in power of Souldiers hee was ouermatched. And therefore he remoued the warre into the partes of that countrey where the Ordouices in|habited, whiche are thoughte to haue dwelled in the bordures of Shropſhire, [...]u. Lloyde. Cheſhire, and Lan|caſhire, the which people togither with other that miſliked of the Romayne gouernemente, he ioy|ned in one, and choſe foorthe a plotte of grounde moſt for his aduantage, determining there to trie the vttermoſt hazarde of Mars his iudge|mente.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The place whyche he thus choſe was ſuch, as the entries, the backwayes, and the whole ſitua|tion thereof made for the Britaynes aduaun|tage, and cleane contrarye to the Romaynes, encloſed amongſt high hilles, and if there were any eaſie paſſage to enter it vppon any ſyde, the ſame was ſhutte vp with mightie huge ſtones in manner of a rampire, and afore it there ranne a riuer without any certayne fourde to paſſe o|uer it.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This place is ſuppoſed of ſome to lye in the confynes of Shropſhire aloft vppon the toppe of an hygh hyll there, enuironed with a triple ram|pire and ditch of great depth, hauing three entries into it, not directly one againſte an other, but a|ſlope.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 It is alſo (ſaye they) compaſſed aboute with two Riuers, to witte, on the lefte hand with the Riuer called Clun, and on the ryght with an o|ther Riuer called Te [...]ide. On three ſydes there of, the clime is very ſteepe and headlong, and no way eaſie to come vnto it, but onely one.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Caratacke hauyng thus fortified hymſelfe within thys place, and broughte his army into it: hee to encourage hys people, exhorted them to ſhewe theyr manhoode, affirmyng that to bee the daye, and that army to bee the ſame where|in ſhoulde appeare the beginnyng eyther of li|bertie, then to bee recouered, or elſe of perpetuall bondage for euer to be ſuſteyned.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 He rehearſed alſo ſpecially by name thoſe their elders, whiche hadde reſiſted Iulius Ceſar, by whoſe high valiancie they lyued free from the bloudy thraldome and tributes of the Romayns, and enioyed theyr Wiues and children ſafe and vndefiled. And thus diſcourſing of many thyngs with them, in ſuch hope of aſſured victory, that they began to reyſe theyr cries, eache one for himſelfe declaring, that he was bound by the du|tie he ought to the Gods of his countrey, not to ſhrinke for feare of any woundes or hurtes that might chaunce vnto them by the enimies wea|pon.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thys cheerefulneſſe of the Britaynes, greatly aſtonied the Romayne Lieutenant. The hideous courſe alſo of the Riuer before his face, the fortificatiõs and craggie height of the hilles, all ſet full of enimies ready to beate him backe, putte him in greate feare: for nothing he ſawe afore him, but that whiche ſeemed dreadfull to thoſe that ſhould aſſayle. But the Souldiers yet ſeemed to be very deſirous of battayle, requeſting him to bring them to it, proteſting that nothyng was able to reſiſt the force of noble prowes. Here|with the Captaynes and Tribunes diſcourſing the like, pricked forwarde the earneſt willes whiche theyr Souldiers had to fighte.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Oſtorius perceyuing ſuche courage and readie willes in the menne of warre, as well Souldiers as Captaynes, hee beganne to be|ſturre himſelfe, and left nothing vndone that myghte ſerue to ſet forwarde theyr earneſt deſire to battell.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And hauing aduiſedly conſidered whiche wayes were harde, and impoſſible to bee entred vpon, and whyche places were moſt eaſie for hys people to finde paſſage by, he leadeth them foorth,Cornelius Tacitus. Annal. lib. 12. beeing moſt earneſtly beaute to cope with theyr enymies.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Hee paſſed the water withoute anye greate difficultie, but commyng to the rampyre, he loſt many of his people, ſo lõg as the fight was cõti|nued EEBO page image 56 with ſhotte and caſting of dartes: but after that the Romaynes couering them ſelues with theyr targets, came once cloſe togither, and ap|proched vnder ye Rampire, they remoued away ye ſtones which ye Britaynes had roughly couched togither, and ſo they came to ioyne with them at handblowes. The Britaynes being vnarmed, and not able to abide the force of the armed men, withdrew to ye top of the hilles, but as well theyr enimies that were light armed as the other with heauie armoure followed and brake in among them, ſo as the Britaynes coulde not turne them any way foorth to eſcape, for the light armed mẽ with ſhot a farre off, and the heauie armed with weapons at hand, ſought to make ſlaughter and wracke of them on eache ſide, ſo that this was a [figure appears here on page 56] right dolefull day vnto the Britaynes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The wife and daughter of Caratake were ta|ken priſoners, and his breethren alſo yeelded thẽ|ſelues. He himſelfe eſcaped, and committing hys perſon vnto the aſſurance and truſt of Cartemã|dua Queene of the Brigantes, was by hir dely|uered into the hands of the Romaynes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This was a nine yeres after ye warres in Bri|tayne firſte began. His name beeing broughte foorth of the Iſles, Cornelius Tac. lib. 12. Caratakes name renow|med. was already ſpredde ouer the prouinces adioyning, and began nowe to growe famous through Italy. Men therefore were deſi|rous to ſee what manner of man he was that had ſo many yeeres ſet at naught the puiſſante force of the Empire. For in Rome the name of Cara|tacus was much ſpoken of. And the Emperoure whileſt hee goeth about to preferre his owne ho|nor, aduanceth the glory of him alſo that was vanquiſhed. For the people were called foorthe as vnto ſome great notable ſight or ſpectable. The Pretorian bandes ſtoode in order of battell armed in the field that lay before their lodgings through which fielde Caratake ſhould come. Then paſſed foorth the trayne of his friends and ſeruantes, and ſuche armour, riches, Iewels, and other thyngs as had bin gote in thoſe warres, were borne for|warde, and openly ſhewed, that all men myghte behold the ſame.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 After theſe followed his breethren, Wife, and daughters: and laſt of all came Caratacus him|ſelfe, whoſe countenaunce was nothing lyke to theirs that went afore him, for whereas they fea|ring puniſhment for their Rebellion with waile|full countenance craued mercy, hee neyther by countenaunce nor wordes ſhewed any token of a diſcouraged minde, but beeyng preſented before the Emperour Claudius ſitting in his Tribu|nall ſeate, he began his tale in this wiſe. If there hadde bin in mee ſo muche moderation in tyme of proſperitie, as there was nobilitie of birth, and puiſſance, I hadde come to this Citie rather as a friende than as a Captayne. Neyther ſhould I haue thought diſdeyne, beeyng borne of moſt noble parentes, and ruling ouer many people, to haue accepted peace by way of ioyning with you in league. My preſente ſtate as it is to mee reprochfull, ſo to you it is honorable. I hadde at commaundemente Horſes, men, armour, and great riches, what maruell is it if I was loth to forgoe the ſame? For if you ſhall looke to gouerne all men, it muſt needes followe that all menne muſt become your ſlaues. If I hadde at the firſte yeelded my ſelfe, neyther my power nor youre glory hadde bin ſet foorth to the world, and vpon myne execution I ſhoulde ſtraight haue bin for|gotten. But if you nowe graunte me life, I ſhall be a witneſſe for euer of youre mercifull clemen|cie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Emperour with theſe words being paci|fied, graunted life both to Caratake and alſo to EEBO page image 57 his wife and brethren, who being lofed from their bandes, went alſo to the place where the Empres Agrippina ſate (not farre of) in a Chayre of e|ſtate, whome they reuerenced with the lyke prayſe and thankes as they had done before to the Emperour.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After this, the Senate was called togither, who diſcourſed of many things touching thys honourable victorie atchieued by the taking of Caratake, [...]ix. [...]aulus. eſteeming the ſame no leſſe glorious, than whẽ P. Scipio ſhewed in triumph Siphax king of the Numidians, or L. Paulus the Mace|donian king Perces, or other Romain captaynes any ſuch king whom they had vanquiſhed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Herevpon it was euen determined, that O|ſtorius ſhoulde enter the Citie of Rome wyth tryumphe lyke a Conquerour, for ſuche proſpe|rous ſucceſſe as hytherto had followed hym: but afterwardes hys proceedings were not ſo luckie, eyther for that after Caratake was remoued out of the way, the Romaines as though the warre had beene finiſhed, looked negligently to them|ſelues, eyther else for that the Brytayns taking compassion of the miserable state of Caratake, being so worthie a Prince, through fortunes froward aspect cast into miserie, were more earnestly set to reuenge hys quarell. And hereupon they co(m)passe about the maister of the campe, and those legionarie bandes of souldiers, which were left amongst the Silures to fortifie there a place for the armie to lodge in: and if succour had not come out of the next townes and castels, the Romains had bene destroyed by siege. The head Captaine yet, and .viij. Centurions, and euery one else of the co(m)panies being most forward, were slaine.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And shortly after, they set vpon the Romaine foragers, and put them to flight, and also suche companies of horsemen as were appoynted to garde them. Hereupon Ostorius setteth foorth certaine bands of light horsmen, but neither could he stay the flight by that meanes, til finally the legions entred the battail, by whose force they were stayd, and at length the Romaines obteyned the better: but the Brytayns escaped by flight without [figure appears here on page 57] great losse, by reason the day was spent.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After this many bickerings chaunced betwixt the Brytains & Romains, and oftentymes they wrought theyr feates more like to the trade of them that vſe to robbe by the high wayes, than of thoſe that make open warre, catching their eni|mies at ſome aduauntage in woods and bogs, as hap or force miniſtred occaſion vpon malice con|ceyued, or in hope of pray, ſomtimes by cõmaun|dement, and ſometimes without eyther cõmaun|dement or knowledge of captain or officer.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 At one time the Brytains ſurpriſed two bands of footmen that were with the Romains in ay [...]e, and ſente forth to forrey abroade vnaduiſedly, through couetouſneſſe of the Captaines. Thys ſeat was atchieued by the Silures alſo, the which in beſtowing priſoners and part of the ſpoyle vn|to other of their neighbours, procured them like|wiſe to rebel againſt the Romains, to take paſt with them. The Silures were the more earneſtly ſet againſt the Romains, by occaſion of wordes which the Emperor Claudius had vttred in their diſfauor, as thus: that euẽ as the Sicambres were deſtroyed and remoued into Gallia, ſo likewiſe muſt the Silures be dealt with, and the who [...]e nation of them extinguiſhed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Theſe wordes being blowne abroade, and knowne ouer all, cauſed the Silures to conceyue a wonderfull hatred agaynſt the Romaynes, ſo that they were fully bent, eyther to retayne theyr libertie, or to die in defence thereof vpon the eni|mies ſwordes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the meane tyme Oſtorius Scapula de|parted this life, a right noble warriour, and one who by little and little enſuing the ſte [...]s of Aulus Plautius his predeceſſor, did what hee coulde to EEBO page image 58 bring the Ile into the forme of a prouince, which in part he accompliſhed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 There be ſome led by coniecture grounded vp|pon good aduiſed conſiderations,W.H. in his Chronolog [...]e. that ſuppoſe this Oſtorius Scapula beganne to build the Citie of Cheſter after the ouerthrow of Caractacus, for in thoſe parties he fortified ſundry holdes, and placed a number of olde ſouldiers either there in that ſelf place, or in ſome other neare therevnto by way of a colonie. And forſomuch (ſay they) as we read of none other of any name thereaboutes, it is to bee thought that he plãted the ſame in Cheſter, where his ſucceſſors did afterwardes vſe to harborrow their legions for the winter ſeaſon, and in time of reſt from iourneyes, which they haue to make a|gaynſt their common enimies. In deede it is a common opinion among the people there vnto this day, that the Romains built thoſe vaultes or tauernes (which in that citie are vnder ye ground) with ſome part of the caſtell. And verily as Ra|nulf Higeden ſayth,Ra. Higeden alias Ceſtrẽſis. a man that ſhall view & well conſider thoſe buildings, he may think the ſame to be the work of Romains rather than of any other people. That the Romain legions did make their abode there, no man ſene in antiquities can doubt thereof, for the auncient name Caer leon ardour deuy, that is, the Citie of Legions vpon the wa|ter of Dee, proueth it ſufficiently ynough.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But now to returne vnto Oſtorius Scapula, we finde in Cornelius Tacitus,Cor. Tacit. that during the time of the ſame Scapula his being lieutenant in this Ile, there were certaine Cities giuen vnto one Cogidune a king of the Brytains,Cogidune a K. in Brytaine. who con|tinued faythfull to the Romaines vnto the dayes of the remembrance of men liuing in the time of the ſayd Cor. Tacit who liued and wrote in the Emperor Domitianus time. And this was done after an olde receyued cuſtome of the people of Rome, to haue both ſubiects & kings vnder their rule and dominion as witneſſeth the ſame Tac.)

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 58] AFter the deceaſſe of Oſtorius Scapula,A. Didius Lieutenant. to ſupplye his rowmeth was ſent one A. Di|dius: but ere hee coulde come thinges were brought oute of order, and the Brytaynes had vanquiſhed the legion of the whiche Manlius Valens had the conduct: and this victorie was ſet forth by the Brytaynes to the vttermoſt, that with the bruite thereof they might ſtrike a feare into the Lieutenants heart, nowe vpon his firſt comming ouer. And he him|ſelfe reported it by letters to the Emperor after ye largeſt maner, to the end that if he appeaſed the matter, he might winne the more prayſe, or if hee were put to the worſt, and ſhoulde not preuaile, that then his excuſe might ſeeme the more reaſo|nable and worthie of pardon. The Silurians were they that had atchieued this victory, and kept a foule ſturre ouer all the countryes aboute them, till by the comming of Didius agaynſte them, they they were dryuen backe and repulſed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 But herewyth beganne trouble to be rayſed in another part: [...] let of the [...]. for after that Caratake was ta|ken, the chiefeſt and moſt ſkilfull Captain which the Brytaynes had, was one Venuſius, a ruler of the people named Iugantes, a man that re|mayned a long tyme faythfull to the Romains, and by theyr power was defended from his eni|mies, who hauing maryed with Cartimanda Queene of the Brygantes or Yorkeſhire men.Car [...] This Cartimãda (as ye haue heard) had deliuered Caratake into the Romains hands, therby mini|ſtring matter for the Emperour Claudius to tri|umph, by whiche pleaſure ſhewed to the Ro|mains, ſhee increaſed through theyr friendſhip in power and wealth, whereof followed riotous luſt to ſatiſfie hir wanton appetite, ſo as ſhe fal|ling at ſquare with hir huſbande,Veloca [...] maryed Vello|catus, one of his Eſquiers, to whom ſhe gaue hir kingdome, and ſo diſhonoured hir ſelfe. Herevpon enſued cruell warre, inſomuche that in the ende Venuſius became enimie alſo to the Romaines. But firſt they tugged togither betwixt themſel|ues, and the Queene by a craftie pollicie founde meanes to catch the brother and couſins of Ve|nutius, but hir enimies nothing therwith diſcou|raged, but kindled the more in wrath agaynſt hir, ceaſſed not to goe forwarde with theyr purpoſe. Many of the Brigantes diſdeyning to be ſubiect vnto a womans rule yt had ſo reiected hir huſbãd, reuolted vnto Venutius: but yet ye Queenes ſen|ſual luſt mixed with crueltie, mainteyned the ad|ulterer. Venutius therfore calling to him ſuch aid as he could get, & ſtrẽgthned now by the reuolting of the Brigantes, brought Cartimanda to ſuch a narrow point, yt ſhe was in great danger to fal in|to the hands of hir enimies: which the Romaines foreſeeing, vpon ſute made, ſent certaine bands of horſmen & footmen to help hir. They had diuerſe encoũters with the enimies at the firſt, [...] keepeth the kingdome [...] diſpite of [...] Romain. with dout|full ſucceſſe: but at length they preuayled, & ſo de|liuered the Queene out of peril, but the kingdome remained to Venutius: againſt whõ ye Romains were conſtrayned ſtill to mainteyne the warre.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 About the ſame time the legion alſo which Ce|ſius Naſcica led, got the vpper hand of thoſe Bri|tains againſt whom he was ſent. For Did. be|ing aged, & by victories paſt ynough renowmed, thought it ſufficient for him to make war by his captains, ſo to ſtay and keepe off the enimie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Certain caſtels and holdes in deed he cauſed to be built & fortified further within ye cũtry thã had EEBO page image 59 bene afore attempted by any of his predeceſſors, and ſo thereby were the confines of the Romains in this Ile ſomwhat inlarged.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus haue ye heard with what ſucceſſe the Brytaynes maintayned warre in defence of their libertie agaynſt the Romaines, whyleſt Clau|dius ruled the Empire (according to the report of the Romain wryters.)

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [...]he error of Hector [...]etius.But here muſt you note, that Hector Boetius folowing the authoritie of one Veremond a Spa|niard, alſo of Cornelius Hibernicus, and Camp|bell remoueth the Silures, Brygantes, and No|uantes, ſo farre northward that he maketh thẽ in|habitants of thoſe Countreys which the Scottes haue now in poſſeſſion, and were euen then inha|bited (as he affyrmeth) partly by the Scottes, and partly by the Pictes (as in the Scottiſh Hyſtorie ye may ſee more at large,) ſo yt what notable feate ſoeuer was atchiued by the olde Britains againſt the Romains, the ſame by him is aſcribed vnto Scottes and Pictes, throughout his whole Hy|ſtorie, whereas (in verie truth) for ſomuch as may bee gathered by coniecture and preſumption of that whiche is left in wryting by auncient Au|thours, the Brygantes inhabited Yorkſhyre, the Silures Wales & the Marches, and the Nouãtes in the countrey of Cumberland.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But forſomuch as he hath diligently gathe|red in what maner the warres were mainteyned by thoſe people agaynſt the Romains, and what valiant exploytes were taken in hande, and fur|niſhed through their ſtoutneſſe and valiancie, ye may there reade the ſame,A note to be conſidered in the reading of Hect. Boetius and iudge at your plea|ſure what people they were whome hee ſo muche prayſeth, aduertiſing you hereof by the way, that as we haue before expreſſed, none of the Romain wryters mencioneth anye thing of the Scottes, nor once nameth them, tyll the Romaine Em|pyre beganne to decaye aboute the tyme of the Emperour Conſtantius, the father of Conſtan|tine the great, ſo that if they had beene in thys Ile then ſo famous both in peace and warre, as they are reported by the ſame Boetius, mar|uayle might it ſeeme, that the Romaine wry|ters woulde ſo paſſe them ouer with ſilence.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Cor. Tac. li. Annal. 15. After the death of Claudius the Emperour of Rome, Claudius Domitianus Nero ſucceeded him in gouernment of the Empyre. In the .vij. yeare of whoſe raigne, which was after the in|carnation .53. the Romaines receyued a great o|uerthrow in Brytain, where neither the lieutenãt A. Didius Gallus (whõ in this place Cornelius Tacitus calleth Auitus) coulde during the tyme of his rule do no more but holde that which was alreadie gotten beſide the building of certain Ca|ſtelles (as before yee haue heard:) neyther hys ſucceſſor Verannius, beating and forreying the Woods, could atchieue any further enterprice, for he was by death preuẽted, ſo as he could not pro|ceed forward with his purpoſe touching ye warres which hee had ment to haue followed, whoſe laſt wordes (in his teſtament expreſſed) detected him of manifeſt ambition: for adding many things by way of flatterie to content Nerues minde, he wi|ſhed to haue liued but two yeres longer, in which ſpare he might haue ſubdued prouinces vnto hys dominion, meaning thereby the whole Ile of Brytaine.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 59] BVT nowe when thys great loſſe chã|ced to the Ro|mains,Paulus Sueto|nius lieutenãt. Pauli|nus Suetoni|us did gouerne here as lieute|nãt, a mã moſt plentifully fur|niſhed with all guts of fortune and vertue, and therewith a right ſkilfull warriour.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Suetonius therefore wiſhing to tame ſuch of the Brytains as kept out,Angleſey in|uaded. prepareth to aſ|ſaile the Ile of Angleſey, a country full of Inha|bitants, and a place of refuge for al outlawes and rebels. He builded certaine Brigantines with flat kiles to ſerue for the ebbes & ſhallowe ſhelues here & there, lying vncertainly in the ſtraits which he had to paſſe. The footmen feried ouer in thoſe veſ|ſels, the horſmen folowing by the fourds & ſwim|ming when they came into the deepe, got likewiſe to the ſhore, where ſtood in order of battel an huge number of armed men cloſe togither, redy to beate back the Romains, & to ſtay thẽ frõ comming to land. Amongſt the men,A ſtrange ma|ner of women. a nũber of women were alſo running vp and down as they had bin out of their wits in garments like to wild rogues, with their beare hanging downe about their ſhoulders, and bearing firebrands in their handes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 There was alſo a company of their prieſts or philoſophers called Druides,The Druides. who with ſtretched forth handes towards heauen, thundred out cur|ſings againſt the Romains in moſt bitter wiſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The ſoldiers were ſo amaſed with the ſtrãge|neſſe of this ſight, that (as men benummed of their limmes and ſenſes) they ſuffred themſelues to be wounded and ſlain like ſenſeleſſe creatures, til by the calling vpon of their general, & ech one encou|raging other in no wiſe to feare a ſort of mad di|ſtract women, they preaſſed forward vnder theyr enſignes, bearing downe ſuche as ſtoode in theyr way, & with their owne fire ſmouldred and burnt them to aſhes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 To conclude,Angleſey won by the Ro|mains. the Romain lieutenãt got poſ|ſeſſiõ of the whole Ile, wherin he placed gariſons of mẽ of war to kepe the people there in ſubiectiõ.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 EEBO page image 60He alſo cauſed their woods to be cut downe, that were conſecrated to theyr Goddes,Woods cut downe. within the which they were accuſtomed to ſacrifice ſuche as they tooke priſoners, and by the view of theyr in|trayles, in diſmembring them, to learne of theyr Goddes ſome Oracles and ſuch other things as ſhould come to paſſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 But now in the meane tyme, whileſt Pau|linus was abrode about this enterpriſe, the Bry|tains began to conferre togither of their great and importable miſeries, of their grieuous ſtate of ſer|uitude, of their iniuries and wrongs, whiche they dayly ſuſteyned: how that by ſuffrance they profi|ted nothing, but ſtill were oppreſſed with more heauy burdens: eche cuntrie in times paſt had on|ly one king to rule them: now had they two, the lieutenant by his captains and ſouldiers,Lieutenant & Procurator. ſpilling their blouds, and the Procurator or receyuer (as we may call him) bereauing them of their goods and ſubſtance. The concord or diſcord betwixt thoſe that were appoynted to rule ouer them, was all alike hurtful vnto the ſubiects, the lieutenaunt oppreſſing them by his captains & men of warre, and the procurator or receyuer by force & reproch|full demeanor, polling them by inſupportable ex|actions. There was nothing free from the coue|tous extortion & filthie concupiſcence of thoſe vn|faciable perſons, for in theſe dayes (ſay they) the greateſt ſpoiler is the valianteſt man, & moſt cõ|monly our houſes are robbed & rãſacked by a ſort of cowardly raſkals that haue no knowledge of any warlike feates at all. Our children are taken from vs, we are forced to go to the muſters & are ſet forth to ſerue in forraine parties, as thoſe that are ignorant which way to ſpend our liues in the quarell of our owne countrey. What a number of ſoldiers haue bene tranſported ouer from hence to ſerue in other landes, if a iuſt account were taken therof? The Germaines by manhood haue caſt (ſayd they) from their ſhoulders the heauy yoke of bondage, and are not defended as we are with the main Ocean ſea, but onely with a riuer. Where the Brytaines haue their countrey, their wiues & parents, as iuſt cauſes of warre to fight for: the Romains haue none at all, but a couetous deſire to gayne by rapine, and to ſatiſfie their exceſſiue luſtes. They might eaſily be compelled to depart the cuntry, as Iulius Ceſar was, if the Brytains would ſhew ſome proofe of the noble prowes that was euidently found in their worthie aunceſters, and not to ſhrinke or quaile in courage for the miſaduenture that ſhould happily chance by figh|ting one battaile or two. Greateſt force and con|ſtancie alwayes remayneth with thoſe that ſeeke to deliuer themſelues from miſerie. Now appea|red it that the Goddes had taken ſome pitie of the poore Brytayns, who by their diuine power did withhold the chief captain of the Romaines with his army, as it were baniſhed in an other Ilande. Let vs thẽ ſayd they) take the oportunitie of time and good occaſion offred, and forthwith proceede in our buſineſſe: [...] to be neg|lected. for leſſe daunger it is manfully to aduenture, and to goe forwarde with our pur|poſe, than to be bewrayed and taken in theſe oure conſultations.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus hauing taken aduice togither, and who|ly miſlyking their preſent ſtate, they determined to take weapon in hande and ſo by force, to ſeeke for reformation.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 They were verily occaſioned thereto through many euil partes practiſed by ye Romains great|ly to their griefes and diſpleaſures.Cor. [...] For whereas Praſutagus [...] (ſuppoſed by Hector Boetius to bee Aruiragus K. of the people called Iceni)The [...] and [...]|ceſter [...]i [...] men. had made the Emperor and two of his owne daughters his heyres, ſuppoſing by that mean to haue his king|dome & family preſerued frõ al iniury: it happened quite contrarie to that his expectation. For his kingdom was ſpoyled by the Romain captaines,Voadicia, [...]. his wife named Voadicia beaten by the ſouldiers, his daughters rauiſhed, the Peeres of the realme bereft of their goods, and the kings friends made and reputed as bond ſlaues.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 There was alſo an other great cauſe that ſtyr|red the Brytains to this rebellion,Dion Caſ [...] which was the cõfiſcating of their goods: for where as Claudius himſelfe had pardoned the chiefeſt perſons of the forfeytures, Decianus Catus the Procurator of that Ile, mainteyned that the ſame ought to be renued againe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 To this an other griefe was added, [...]. that where Seneca had lent to the nobilitie of ye Ile foure .C. Seſtertium, ech hũdred being .500000. lb ſterling, or there about, vpon great intereſt, he required the whole ſumme togither by great rigor & violence, although he forced them at the firſt to take thys money to vſurie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Alſo ſuch old ſouldiers as were placed by way of a colonie, to inhabite the towne of Camulodu|num, expelled many of the Brytains out of their houſes, droue them out of theyr poſſeſſions and landes, and accounted the Brytaynes as ſlaues and as though they had beene their captiue priſo|ners or bondmen. Beſide this, the temple there which was built in honor of Claudius as an aul|ter of eternal rule & gouernment, was ſerued with prieſts, the which vnder color of religiõ did ſpoile, conſume and deuour the goods of all men.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Moreouer ſuch ſtrange ſightes and wonders as chanced about the ſame time, pricked the Bri|tains the rather forwarde. For the Image of the Goddeſſe Victoria in the temple at Camulodunũ, ſlipping downe, turned hir backe (as who ſhoulde ſay) ſhee gaue place (as vanquiſhed) to the eni|myes.Dion Caſ [...]

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Alſo in the Hall where the Courtes of Iu|ſtice EEBO page image 61 were kept, there was a marueylous greate noyſe hearde, [...]e wo [...]| [...] with muche laughing and a ſturre in the Theatre, with great weeping and lamen|table howling, at ſuche tyme as it was certenly knowne that there was no creature there to make any ſuch noyſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [...] Caſsius.The Sea at a Spring Tyde appeared of a bloudie colour, and when the Tyde was gone backe, there were ſeene on the Sandes the ſhapes and figures of mens bodies.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Women alſo, as rauiſhed of theyr wittes, and beeing as it were in a furye, prophecied that de|ſtruction was at hande, ſo that the Brytaynes were put greatly in hope, and the Romaines in feare.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [...].But thoſe things, whether they chaunced by the crafte of man, or illuſion of the Diuell, or whether they proceeded of ſome naturall cauſe, the which the common ſort of people oftentymes ta|keth ſuperſtitiouſly, in place of vnkouth maruails ſignifying things to followe, we woulde let paſſe leaſt wee might bee thought to offende religion, (the which teaching all things to bee done by the prouidence of God, deſpiſeth the vaine foreſhew|ings of happes to come) if the order of an hyſtory (ſayth Polidore Vergill) woulde ſo permit, the whiche requyreth all things to bee wrytten in maner as they fall foorth and come to paſſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [...] Tac. li. 15. [...]dicia by [...] Caſsius [...]lled Bun| [...].But the Brytaynes were chiefely mooued to Rebellion by the iuſte complaynte of Voa|dicia, declaryng howe vnſeemely ſhee had beene vſed and intreated at the handes of the Romains: and bycauſe that ſhee was moſte earneſtlye bent to ſeeke reuenge of theyr iniuryes,The auncient Brytaines ad|mitted as well women as mẽ in publike gouernment. and hated the Romaine name moſte of all other, they choſe hir to bee Captayne (for they in rule and gouernment made no difference then of ſexe, whe|ther they committed the ſaiue to man or wo|man) and ſo by a generall conſpiracie, the more parte of the people hauing alſo allured the Eſſex men vnto Rebellion, roſe and aſſembled them|ſelues togyther to make warres agaynſt the Ro|maines.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 There were of them a hundred and [...] thouſande gotte togither in one armie vnder the leading of the ſayde Voadicia, or B [...]adu [...]a (as ſome name hir.)

Compare 1587 edition: 1 She therefore to encourage hir people agaynſt the enimyes, mounted vp into an high place ray|ſed vp of turfe and ſoddes made for the no [...]s, out of the which ſhe made a long and verie pithie O|ration.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Hir mightie tall perſonage, comely ſhape, ſe|uere countenance, and ſharpe voyce, with hir long and yealow treſſes of heare reaching downe to hir thighes, hir braue and gorgeous apparell alſo cauſed the people to haue hir i [...] greate renounce. She ware a Chaine of golde, greate, and verye maſſie, and was clad in a loſe kyrtle of ſundrie colours, and aloft therevppon ſhee had a thicke Iriſh mantell: hereto in his hand (as hir cuſtome was) ſhe bare a ſpeare, to ſhew hirſelfe the more [figure appears here on page 61] dreadfull. Hir wordes therefore ſet forth with ſuch a Maieſtie of preſence, greatly encouraged the Brytaynes, ſhe vttering the ſame in maner as followeth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The Oration [...] Voaditia.

I Doe ſuppoſe (my louers and friendes) that there is no man here but doth well vnder|ſtande howe much libertie and freedome is to bee preferred before thraldome and bondage. But if there haue bene any of you ſo deceyued with the Romaine perſwaſions, that that ye did not for a time ſee a difference betweene them, and iudge whether of both is moſt to be deſired. Nowe I hope that hauing tried what it is to be vnder both, ye wil with me reforme your iudgement, and by the harmes alreadie taken, acknowledge your ouerſight, & forſake your former error. Againe in EEBO page image 62 that a number of you haue raſhly preferred an ex|ternal ſoueraintie before the cuſtomes and lawes of your own coũtry, you do at this time (I doubt not) perfitly vnde [...]eſtande how much free pouertie is to be preferred before great riches, wherevnto ſeruitude is annexed, & much wealth in reſpect of captiuitie vnder forraine magiſtrates wherevpon ſlauerie attendeth. For what thing (I beſech you) can there be ſo vile & grieuous vnto the nature of man, that hath not happened vnto vs, ſithence the time that the Romains haue bin acquainted with this Iland? are we not all in maner bereued of our riches and poſſeſſions? Doe not we (beſide other things that we giue, and the land that we till for their onely profite) pay them all kindes of tribute, yea for our owne carkaſſes? how much better is it to be once aloft and fortunate in deed, than vnder the forged and falſe title of libertie, continually [...] to pay for our redemption & freedome? how much is it more cõmẽdable to loſe our liues in defence of our coũtry, than to cary about not ſomuch as our heads toll free, but dayly oppreſſed & laden with inmumerable exactions? But to what ende do I remẽber & ſpeake of theſe things, ſince they wil not ſuffer by death to become free? For what and how much we pay for thẽ that are dead, ther is not one here but he doth well vnderſtande. Among other nations, ſuch as are brought into ſeruitude, are al|wayes by death diſcharged of their bondage: onely to the Romains, the dead doe ſtill liue, & all to en|creaſe their commoditie and gain. If any of vs be without mony (as I know not wel how & which way we ſhould come by any) then are we left na|ked, and ſpoyled of that which remayneth in our houſes, & we our ſelues left as mẽ deſolate & dead. How ſhal we looke for better dealing at their hãds hereafter, that in the beginning deale ſo vncurte|ouſly with vs: ſince there is no man that taketh ſo much as a wilde beaſt, but at the firſt hee will cheriſh it, and with ſome gentleneſſe win it to fa|miliaritie. But we our ſelues (to ſay the truth) are authors of our own miſchief, which ſuffred thẽ at the firſt to ſet foot within our Ilande, and did not by & by driue them backe as we did Ceſar, or ſlue them with our ſwordes when they were yet farre of, & that the aduenturing hither was dangerous, as we did ſomtime to Auguſtus & Caligula. We therefore that inhabite the Ilande, which for the quantitie thereof may w [...]ll be called a maine, al|though it be enuironed about with the Oceã ſea, deuiding vs from other nations, ſo that we ſeeme to liue vpon an other earth, and vnder a ſeuerall heauen. We, euen we (I ſay) whoſe name hath bene long kept hid from the wiſeſt of them, all are nowe contemned and trode vnder foote, of them who ſtudie nothing elſe but how to become lords, and haue the rule of other men. Wherefore (my welbeloued Citizens, friendes, and kinſfolke) for I thinke we are all of kinne, ſince we were [...] and dwell in this Ile, and haue one name com|mon to vs all: let vs now, euen now (I ſay) by|cauſe we haue not done it heretofore, and while [...] the remembrance of our auncient libertie remay|neth, ſticke togither, & performe that thing which doth apertaine to valiant and hardie courages, to the ende we may enioy, not onely the name of li|bertie, but alſo freedome it ſelfe, and thereby leaue our force and puiſſant actes for an example to our poſteritie: for if we which haue bin liberally and in honeſt maner brought vp, ſhould vtterly forget our priſtinate felicitie: what may we hope for [...] thoſe that ſhall ſucceed vs, & are like to be brought vp in miſerie and thraldome. Neither do I make rehearſall of theſe things vnto you, to the ende I woulde prouoke you to miſlike of this preſent e|ſtate of things (for well I knowe you abhorre it ſufficiently alreadie) neither to put you in feare of thoſe things that are likely to fall hereafter (by|cauſe you feare and foreſee them very well before hande) but to the ende I maye giue you heartie thankes and worthie commendations, for that of your owne accord and meanes, you determine ſo well to prouide for things neceſſarie (thereby to help both me & your ſelues with willing mindes) as men that are nothing in doubt of all the Ro|maine puiſſaunce. If you conſider the number of your enimies, it is not greater than yours: if you regarde their ſtrength, they are no ſtronger than you: and all this doth eaſily appeare by the Baſ|ſinets, Habergeans, and Greaues that you bee ar|med withall, and alſo by the walles, ditches, and trenches that you haue made for your owne de|fence, to keepe off their excurſions, who rather and for verie feare to fight farre off them, to cope with vs at hande ſtrokes, as our cuſtome of the warres and Martiall diſcipline doeth require. Wherefore we do ſo far exceed them in force, that in mine opinion, our armie is more ſtrong than ſtone walles, and one of our tergats worth al the armor that they do beare vpon them: by meanes whereof, if the victorie be ours, we ſhal ſoone make them captiues: or if we loſe the field, we ſhall ea|ſily eſcape the daunger. Furthermore, if after the flight we ſhall indeuour to meete any where, we haue the mariſhes here beneath to hide vs in, and the hylles rounde aboute to keepe them off, ſo that by no meanes they ſhall haue theyr purpoſe of vs, whereas they beeing ouercharged with hea|uie armour, ſhall neither be able to follow, if wee flee, nor eſcape oute of our daunger if they bee put to flight: if they happen to breake out at anye tyme as deſirous to make a rode, they returne by and by to theyr appoynted places, where we may take them as byrdes alreadie in Cage. In all whiche things, as they are farre inferiour to vs, ſo moſte of all in this, that they can not EEBO page image 63 endure hunger, thyrſt, colde, heate, and Sun|ſhine, as we can doe. In their houſes alſo and tentes, they make much accounte of theyr baked meates, wine, Oyle, and abrode of the ſhadowe, that if any of theſe do fayle them, they eyther die forthwith, or elſe in time they languiſh and con|ſume: Whereas to vs euery hearbe and roote is meate, euery iuyce an Oyle, all water pleaſant wine, and euery tree an houſe. Beſide this, there is no place of the lande vnknowne to vs, neither yet vnfriendly to ſuccour vs at neede, whereas to the Romaines they are for the moſte part vn|knowne and altogither daungerous, if they ſhoulde ſtande in neede: we can with eaſe ſwim ouer euery Riuer both naked and clad, whiche they with their great ſhips are ſcarce able to per|forme. Wherefore with hope and good lucke, let vs ſet vpon them couragiouſly, and teach them to vnderſtande, that ſince they are no better than Hares and Foxes, they attempt a wrong match, when they endeuour to ſubdue the Greyhoundes and the Woolfes. With whiche wordes the Queene letteth an Hare go out of hir lappe, as it were thereby to giue Prognoſtication of hir ſuc|ceſſe, which comming well to paſſe, all the com|panie ſhowted and cryed out vpon ſuche as not long before had done ſuche violence to ſo noble a perſonage.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Then Bunduica calling them togither a|gaine, proceeded forwarde with hir prayer, which ſhe made before them al, holding vp hir hands af|ter this maner:

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 I giue thee thankes Adraſte, and call vpon thee thou woman of women, which raigneſt not ouer the burthen bearing Egiptians, as Nitocris, neither ouer theyr Marchauntes, as doth Semi|ramis, for theſe trifles we haue lerned lately of the Romaines: neyther ouer the people of Rome, as a little heretofore Meſſalina then Agrippina, and now Nero, who is called by the name of a man, but is in deede a very woman, as doth appeare by his voyce, his harp, and his womans attire: but I call vpon thee as a Eoddeſſe which gouerneſt the Brytains, that haue learned not to till the fielde, nor to be handicraftes men, but to lead their liues in the warres after the beſt maner: who alſo as they haue all other things, ſo haue they likewiſe their wiues and children common, whereby the women haue the like audacitie with the men, and no leſſe boldneſſe in the warres than they. There|fore ſithence I haue obteyned a kingdom among ſuch a mightie people, I beſeeche thee to graunt them victorie, [...], and libertie, agaynſt theſe contentious, wicked, and vnſatiable men (if they may be called men, which vſe warme bathings, delicate fare, hote Wines, ſweete oyles, ſoft beds, fine Muſicke, and ſo vnkindely [...] are altogither giuen to courtouſneſſe, and crueltie, as theyr doings doe declare. Let not I beſeeche thee, the Neronian or Domitian tyrannie anye more preuaile vpon me, or (to ſay truth) vppon thee, but let them rather ſerue thee,This oration I haue borowed of W. Hariſõ. whoſe heauie oppreſſion thou haſt borne withall a long ſeaſon, and that thou wylte ſtyll be our helper onely, O noble Ladie, I heartily beſeech thee.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Finally, when ſhe had made an ende, forward ſhe ſetteth againſt hir enimies, which at that time were deſtitute in deede of theyr Lieutenaunt Paulinus Suetonius, beeing as then in Angle|ſey (as before ye haue heard.)

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Romaines that were in Camalodu|num ſente for ayde vnto Catus Decianus the Procurator, that is the Emperours agene, Cor. Tacit. Catus Decia|nus Procu|rator. trea|ſurer, or receyuer, for in that Citie, although it were inhabited by Romaines, there was no great gariſon of able men.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Procurator therefore ſent to them ſuch ayd as he thought he might wel ſpare, which was not paſt two hundred men, and thoſe not ſuffi|cientlye furniſhed eyther wyth weapon or ar|mour.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Citie was not compaſſed with any ram|pire or ditch for defence, ſuch as happely were priuie to the cõſpiracie, hauing put into the heads of the Romains, that no fortification needed: nei|ther were the aged men nor women ſent away, whereby the yong able perſonages might with|out trouble of them the better attende to the de|fence of the Citie: but euen as they had beene in all ſuretie of peace, and free from ſuſpition of any warre, they were ſodainly beſet with the huge ar|mie of the Brytaynes, and ſo all went to ſpoyle and fyre that could be foũd without the encloſure of the temple, into the which the Romaine ſoul|diers (ſtriken with ſoden feare by this ſoden com|ming of the enimies) had thronged themſelues. Where being aſſieged by the Brytaynes within the ſpace of two dayes the place was wonne, and they that were founde within it, ſlaine euery mo|thers ſonne.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After this, the Brytaynes encouraged with this victorie, went to meete with Petus Ceria|lis Lieutenant of the legion, ſurnamed the ninth, and boldly encountering with the ſame Legion, gaue the Romains the ouerthrow, and ſlue all the footemen, ſo that Cerialis wyth muche adoe eſcaped with his Horſemen, and got him backe to the Campe, and ſaued himſelfe within the Trenches. Catus the Procurator being put in feare with this ouerthrow, and perceyuing what hatred the Brytains bare towardes him, ha|uing with hys couetouſneſſe thus brought the warre vpon the heade of the Romaines, got him ouer into Gallia.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But Suetonius aduertiſed of theſe doings, came back out of Angleſey, & with a m [...]rueylous EEBO page image 64 conſtancie marched through the middeſt of hys enimyes vnto London, beeing as then not great|ly peopled with Romaines, though there was a Colonie of them, but full of Merchauntes, and well prouided of vytayles: hee was in great doubt at his comming thyther, whether hee myght beſt ſtaye there as in a place moſte con|uenient, or rather ſeeke ſome other more eaſie to be defended.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 At length conſidering the ſmall number of hys men of warre, and remembring howe Ci|rialis had ſpedde by hys too much raſhneſſe, hee thought better wyth the loſing of one Towne to ſaue the whole, than to put all in daunger of irrecouerable loſſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And therewith nothing moued at the prayer and teares of them whiche beſought him of ayde and ſuccour, hee departed, and thoſe that woulde goe with him he receyued into his armie, thoſe that taryed behinde were oppreſſed by the enimyes: and the lyke deſtruction happened to them of Verolanium, a Towne in thoſe dayes of great fame, ſituate neare to the place where the towne of Saint Albons now ſtandeth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Brytanes leauing the Caſtels and for|treſſes vnaſſaulted, followe theyr gaine in ſpoy|ling of thoſe places which were eaſie to get, and where greate plentie of ryches was to be founde, vſing their victorie with ſuche crueltie, that they ſlue (as the report went) to the number of .lxx. thouſande Romaines,10000 ſayth Dion. and ſuche as tooke theyr parte in the ſayde places by the Brytaynes thus wonne and conquered. For there was nothing wyth the Brytaynes, but ſlaughter, fire, gal|lowes and ſuch like, ſo earneſtly were they ſet on reuenge.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 They ſpared neyther age nor ſexe: women of great nobilitie and worthie fame, they tooke and hanged vp naked, and cutting off theyr Pappes, ſowed them to theyr mouthes, that they might ſeeme as if they ſucked and fedde on them, and ſome of theyr bodies they ſtretched oute in length, and thruſt them on ſharpe ſtakes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Al thoſe things they did in great deſpite whi|leſt they ſacrifyced in theyr Temples, and made feaſtes, namely in the Woodde conſecrated to the honour of Andates, for ſo they called the Goddeſſe of victorie whom they worſhipped moſt reuerently.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 In the meane time there came ouer to the ayde of Suetonius, the legion ſurnamed the .xiiij. and other bandes of Souldiers and men of warre to the number of ten thouſand in the whole, where|vpon chiefely (bycauſe vytayles began to fayle him) he prepareth to giue battaile to his enimies, and chooſeth forth a plotte of ground very ſtrong wythin ſtraytes, and backed with a Woodde, ſo that the enimies coulde not aſſault his campe but on the front:The Bry [...] were at [...] time, [...] me [...] (as [...] wryteth) yet by reaſon of their great multitude and hope of victorie conceyued by their late proſ|perous ſucceſſe, the Brytaines vnder the con|duct of Queene Voadicia aduenture to giue bat|taile, hauing theyr women there to be witneſſes of the victorie, whom they placed in charets at the vttermoſt ſide of theyr fielde. Voadicia, or Bon|dicia (for ſo we finde hir written by ſome copies,Cor. Ta [...] [...] Dion Caſ [...] and Bonduica alſo by Dion) hauing hir daugh|ters afore hir, beeing mounted into a Charet, as ſhe paſſed by the ſouldiers of eche ſundrie country, told them that it was a thing accuſtomed among the Brytaynes to goe to the warres vnder the leading of women, but ſhee was not nowe come forth as one borne of ſuche noble aunce|ſters as ſhee was diſcended from, to fight for h [...]r kingdome & riches, but as one of the meaner ſort, rather to defend hir loſt libertie, and to reuenge hir ſelfe of the enimies, for their crueltie ſhewed in ſcourging hir like a vagabond, & ſhameful deflou|ring of hir daughters: for the licencious luſt of the Romans was ſo farre ſpred & increaſed, that they ſpared neither the bodies of old nor yõg, but were redy moſt ſhamefully to abuſe thẽ, hauing whip|ped hir naked being an aged woman, & forced hir daughters to ſatiſfie their filthie cõcupiſcence: but (ſaith ſhe) the Gods are at hand ready to take iuſt reuenge. The legion that preſumed to encounter with vs is ſlaine & beaten down. The reſidue kepe them cloſe within their holds, or elſe ſeeke wayes how to [...]lie out of the countrey: they ſhall not bee once able ſo much as to abide the noiſe & clamor of ſo many thouſands as we are here aſſembled, much leſſe the force of our great puiſſãce & dread|full hands. If ye therefore (ſayd ſhe) would w [...]gh and conſider with your ſelues your huge nũbers of men of warre, & the cauſes why ye haue moued this warre, ye woulde ſurely determine either in this battel to die with honor, or elſe to vãquiſh the enimie by plaine force, for ſo (quoth ſhe) I being a woman am fully reſolued, as for you men ye may (if ye liſt) liue and be brought into bondage.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Neither did Suetonius ceaſe to exhort his peo|ple: for although he truſted in their manhood, yet as he had deuided his army into three battails, ſo did he make vnto ech of thẽ a ſeueral oration, wil|ling thẽ not to feare the ſhrill & vaine menating threats of the Britains, that ther was among thẽ more womẽ thã mẽ, they hauing no ſkill in war|like diſcipline, & hereto being naked withoute fur|niture of armor, would forthwith giue place whẽ they ſhould feele the ſharp points of the Romains weapõs, & the force of thẽ by whõ they had ſo oftẽ bin put to flight. In many legions (ſayth he) the nũber is ſmall of thẽ that win the battell. Theyr glorie therfore ſhuld be the more, for that they be|ing a ſmall nũber ſhould win the fame due to the whole army, if they wold (thronging togither) be|ſtow EEBO page image 65 their weapons freely, and with their ſworde and targets preaſſe forwarde vpon their enimies, continuing the ſlaughter without regarde to the ſpoyle, they might aſſure themſelues when the victorie was once atchieued to haue all at theyr pleaſures. Such forwardneſſe in the ſouldiers fol|lowed vpon this exhortation of the Generall, that euery one prepared himſelfe ſo redily to do his du|tie, and that with ſuch a ſhew of ſkill and experi|ence, that Suetonius hauing conceyued an aſſu|red hope of good lucke to follow, cauſed the trum|pets to ſounde to the battaile.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The onſet was giuen in the ſtraytes, greatly to the aduantage of the Romaines, being but an handfull in compariſon to their enimies.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The fight in the beginning was verie ſharpe and cruell but in the ende the Brytaynes being a let one to another (by reaſon of the narrowneſſe of the place) were not able to ſuſtain the violẽt force of the Romaines theyr enimies, ſo that they were conſtrayned to giue backe, and ſo being diſor|dred, were put to flight, and vtterly diſcomfited.

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Compare 1587 edition: 1 There were ſlaine of the Brytaynes that day fewe leſſe than .lxxx. thouſande, [...]0000. Bry| [...]ains ſlaine. as Tacitus wri|teth: For the ſtraytes beeing ſtopped with the Charets, ſtayed the flight of the Brytaynes, ſo as they could not eaſily eſcape: and the Romains were ſo ſet on reuenge, that they ſpared neyther man nor woman, ſo that many were ſlain in the battaile, many amongeſt the Charettes, and a great number at the woodde ſide, which way they made theyr flight, and many were taken pry|ſoners.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thoſe that eſcaped, would haue foughten a newe battail, but in the meane time Voadicia, or Bonuica deceaſſed of a natural infirmitie, as Di|on Caſſius wryteth, but other ſay, that ſhee poy|ſoned hirſelfe, and ſo dyed, bycauſe ſhe would not come into the handes of hir enimies.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 There dyed of the Romaines part in this moſt notable battaile foure. E. and about the like num|ber were hurt and wounded.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Penius Poſthumus maiſter of the campe of the ſeconde legion, vnderſtanding the proſperous ſucceſſe of the other Romaine Captains, bycauſe he had defrauded his legion of the like glorie, and had refuſed to obey the commaundements of the Generall,Penius Poſt|humus ſleaeth himſelfe. cõtrarie to the vſe of warre, ſlue himſelf.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After this, all the Romain armie was brought into the field to make an ende of the reſidue of the warre. And the Emperor cauſed a ſupplie to be ſent out of Germanie of two. M. of legionarie ſouldiers, and .viij. bands of aydes, with. M. horſ|men, by whoſe comming the bandes of the ninth legion were ſupplied with legionarie ſoldiers, and thoſe bands and wings of horſemen were appoin|ted to places where they might winter, and ſuche people of the Brytaynes as were either enimies, or elſe ſtoode in doubt whether to bee friendes or enimies in deede, were perſecuted with fire and ſworde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But nothing more afflicted them than fa [...], for whileſt euerie man gaue himſelf to the warre, and purpoſed to haue liued vpon the prouiſion of the Romains and other their enimies, they appli|ed not themſelues to tyllage, nor to any huſban|ding of the groũd, and long it was ere they (being a fierce kinde of people) fell to embrace pea [...],Iulius Claſsi|cianus Pro|curator. by reaſon that Iulius Claſſicianus, who was ſent into Britain as ſucceſſor to Caius, [...]elt [...] at ſquare with Suetonius, and by his priuate grudge hyn|dred the proſperous ſucceſſe of publike affayres, he ſticked not to write vnto Rome, that except an other were ſent to ſucceede in the rowmeth that Suetonius bare, there woulde be no ende of the warres. Herevpõ one p [...]licletus, which ſomtime had bene a bond man, was ſent into Britain, as a commiſſioner, to ſuruey the ſtate of the countrey, and to make the legate and procurator friends, & alſo to pacifie all troubles within the Ile.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 EEBO page image 66The port which Policletus bare was great, he was furniſhed with no ſmall trayne that at|tented vpon him, ſo that his preſence ſeemed very dreadful to the Romains. But the Britains that were not yet pacified, thought great ſcorne, to ſee ſuche honourable captaines and men of warre as the Romaines were, to ſubmit themſelues to the order of ſuch a one as had beene a bone ſlaue. In the end in place of Suetonius,Petronius Turpilianus lieutenant. was Petroni|us Turpilianus (which had lately bene Conſull) appoynted to haue the gouernance of the army in Brytain, the which neither troubling the enimie, nor beeing of the enimie in any wiſe troubled or prouoked, did color ſlouthfull reſt with the honeſt name of peace and quietneſſe, & ſo ſate ſtill with|out exployting any notable enterpriſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 66] Trebellius Maximus lieutenant.AFter Turpilianus, Trebellius Max|imus was made Lieu|tenaunt of Brytayne, who likewyſe wyth courteous demeanour, ſoughte to keepe the Brytaynes in reſt, ra|ther than by force to compell thẽ. And nowe beganne the people of the Ile to beare with pleaſaunt faultes and flat|tering vices, ſo that the ciuill warres that chaun|ced in thoſe dayes after the death of the Emperor Nero at home, might eaſily excuſe the ſlouthful|neſſe of the Romaine Lieutenants.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Moreuer there roſe diſſention amongeſt theyr men of warre, which being vſed to lye abroade in the fielde, coulde not agree with the ydle lyfe, ſo that Trebellius Maximus was glad to hide him ſelfe from the ſight of the Souldiers being in an vprore agaynſte him, tyll at length humbling himſelf vnto them further than became his eſtate, he gouerned by way of intreatie, or rather at their courteſie. And ſo was the cõmotion ſtayed with|out bloudſhed, ye armie as it were, hauing by co|uenant obteyned to liue licenciouſly, and the cap|tayne ſuretie to liue without daunger to be mur|thered.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 66] Vectius Vola|nus lieutenãt.NEither Vectius Volanus that ſucceded Maximus whyleſt the time of the ciuill warres as yet endured, dyd trouble the Bry|taynes, vſing the ſame ſlackneſſe and ſlouth that the o|ther Lieutenants had vſed before him, and permytted the like licence to the preſumptuous Souldiers: but yet was Volanus innocent as touching himſelfe, and not hated for any notable cryme or vice: ſo that hee purchaſed fauoure, althoughe aucthoritie wanted.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But after that the Emperour Veſpaſianus had ſubdued his aduerſaries, and atteyned the Imperiall gouernment, as well ouer Brytaine as ouer other partes of the worlde,Cor. [...] there were ſent hither right noble Captaynes, with diuerſe notable bandes of Souldiers, and Petilius Ce|rialis being appoynted Lieutenant, put the Bri|taynes in greate feare by inuading the Bry|gantes the mightyeſt Nation of all the whoſe Ilande: and fighting many battayles, and ſome right bloudy with thoſe people, he ſubdued a great part of the countrey at the laſt.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 66] AFter hym ſucceded as Lieutenant of Brytaine,Iulius Fr [...]+nus li [...] one Iulius Fron|tinus, who vã|quyſhed and brought to the Romaine ſub|iection by force of armes the people called Silures, ſtryuing not onely agaynſt the valiant reſiſtaunce of the men, but alſo wyth the hardneſſe and comberſome troubles of the places.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus may you perceyue in what ſtate this Ile ſtoode in the time that Aruiragus raigned in the ſame, as is ſuppoſed by the Hyſtoryes of the olde Brytaynes, ſo that it may be thought that he gouerned rather a part of this lande, than the whole, and bare the name of a king, the Romains not hauing ſo reduced the country into the forme of a prouince, but that the Brytaynes bare rule in dyuerſe partes thereof, and that by the per|miſſion of the Romaines, whiche neuerthe|leſſe had theyr Lieutenauntes and Procura|tours here, that bare the greateſt rule vnder the aforeſayde Emperours.

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