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5.44. Caſsibellane.


Compare 1587 edition: 1 Caſsi|bellaen. [figure appears here on page 34] CAſſibellane the brother of Lud was admitted king of Brytaine, in the yeare of the worlde .3908.3908 after the buyl|ding of Rome, 692. & before the comming of Chriſt .58. complete.Gal. Mon. Mat. VVeſt. Fabian. For ſith the two ſonnes of Lud were not of age able to gouerne, the rule of the land was comitted to Caſſibellane: but yet (as ſome haue written) he was not created king, but rather appoynted ruler and protector of the land, during the nonage of his nephewes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Now after he was admitted (by whatſoeuer or|der) to the adminiſtration of the cõmon welth,Gal. Mon. he became ſo noble a prince and ſo bounteous, that his name ſpred far & nere, and by his vpright dea|ling in ſeeing iuſtice executed he grew in ſuch eſti|mation, that the Brytayns made ſmall accoũt of his nephews, in compariſon of the fauour whiche they bare towards him. But Caſſibellane hauing reſpect to his honor, leaſt it might be thought that his nephewes were expulſed by him out of theyr rightful poſſeſſions, brought them vp very hono|rably, aſſigning to Androgeus, London & Kent, and to Theomantius the country of Cornewale.Mat. VVeſt.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 And thus farre out of the Brytiſh hyſtories, by the which it may be gathered, that the yeares aſ|ſigned to theſe kings that raigned before Caſſibe|lane,Polidor. amount to the ſumme of .1058. But whether theſe gouernors (whoſe names we haue recited) were kings, or rather rulers of the cõmon wealth, either elſe tyrants & vſurpers of the gouernment by force, it is vncertain: for not one ancient wry|ter of any approued authoritie maketh any remẽ|brance of thẽ, & by that which Iulius Ceſar wry|teth, it may & doth appere, that diuerſe cities in his dayes were gouerned of thẽſelues, as hereafter it ſhall more plainly appeare. Neither doth he make mẽtion of thoſe townes which the Britiſh hyſto|rie affyrmeth to be built by the ſame kings.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In deede both hee and other latine wryters ſpeake of diuerſe people that inhabited diuers por|tions of this land, as of the Brigantes, Trino|bantes, Iceni, Silures, and ſuch other like, but in what ſelfe partes moſt of the ſayde people did cer|tenly inhabit, it is hard to auouch a certain truth.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 But what Iohn Leyland thinketh hereof, being one in our time that curiouſly ſerched out old an|tiquities, you ſhall after heare as occaſion ſerueth:Hector [...] his fault. and likewiſe the opinions of other, as of Hector Boetius, who coueting to haue all ſuch valiaunt actes as were atchieued by the Brytains to be aſ|ſcribed to his countrymẽ the Scots, draweth both the Silures, & Brigantes with other of the Bri|tains ſo farre northward, that he maketh them in|habitãts of the Scottiſh countries. And what per|ticular names ſoeuer they had, yet were they all Scots with him, & knowne by that general name (as he would perſwade vs to beleue, ſaying that they entred into Britain out of Ireland .30. y [...]r [...]s before the incarnation of our ſauiour. But how generall ſoeuer the name of Scots then was, ſure it is, that no ſpeciall mention of thẽ is made by a|ny writer, till about .300. yeares after the birth of our ſauiour. And yet the Romains which ru [...]es this land, & had ſo much ado with the people the [...]|of, make mention of diuers other people, nothing ſo famous as Boetius would make his Scottiſh men euẽ then to be. But to leaue to the Scots the antiquitie of their original beginning, as they and other muſt doe vnto vs our diſcent from Brute & the other Troians, ſith ye contrary doth not plain|ly appeare, vnleſſe we ſhal lean vnto preſũptions: now are we come to the time in the which what actes were atchieued,More [...] from be [...] forth appe|reth in the hyſtorie. there remayneth more cer|taine record, and therefore may we the more bow|ly proceeds in this our hyſtorie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 In this ſeaſon ye Caſſibellane had the ſupreme gouernmẽt here in Britain.Iulius Caeſ [...] Caius Iulius Ceſar being appointed by the Senate of Rome to con|quer Gallia, was for ye purpoſe created Conſull; & ſent with a mightie army into ye cuntry, Caeſar de [...] Io Gal. Brytaynes [...] knowne to [...] Romains Caeſar de [...] Gal. lib 4. Cauſes of [...] wa [...]re. where after he had brought the Galles vnto ſome frame, he determined to aſſay ye winning of Britain, the which as yet the Romains knew not otherwyſe thã by report. The chiefeſt cauſe that moued him to take in hand that enterpriſe, was for that he did vnderſtande, that there dayly came great ſuccors out of that Ile to thoſe Gauls that were enimies vnto the Romains. And although the ſeaſon of ye yere to make war was far ſpent (for ſommer was almoſt at an end) yet he thought it wold be to good purpoſe, if he might but paſſe ouer thither,Caeſars pur|poſe. & learne what maner of people did inhabite there, and diſ|couer the places, hauens, & entries apperteyning to that Ile. Herevpon calling togither ſuch Mar|chauntes as he knewe to haue had traffique thy|ther wyth ſome trade of Wares, hee diligent|lye enquyred of them the ſtate of the Iſle: EEBO page image 35 but he could not be throughly ſatiſfied in anye of thoſe things that he coueted to know. Therefore thinking it good to vnderſtand all things by view that might appertaine to the vſe of that warre which he purpoſed to follow: before he attempted the ſame, he ſent one Caius Voluſenus wyth a galley or light Pineſſe to ſuruey the coaſtes of the Ile, [...]us Voluſe| [...] ſent ouer [...] Brytaine. commaũding him after diligent ſearch made to returne with ſpeede to him againe. He himſelf alſo draweth downwardes towards Bullenoys, from whẽce the ſhorteſt cut lieth to paſſe ouer in|to Brytaine,

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [...]n Leyland [...]lidor.In which part of Gallia there was in thoſe days an hauen called Itius Portus, (which ſome take to be Calice) & ſo the word importeth, an harbourgh as then able to receiue a great nũber of ſhips. Vn|to this hauen therefore Ceſar cauſed all the ſhips he coulde get out of the next borders and parties, and thoſe ſpecially whiche hee had prouided and put in a readineſſe the laſt yeare, for the warres (a|gaynſt them of Vannes in Armorica, [...]nnes in [...]ytayne. now called Brytayne in Fraunce) to be brought thither, there to lie till they ſhould heare further.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 In the meane time (his indeuor being knowne, and by Merchants reported in Brytain) all thoſe that were able to beare armor were commaun|ded and appoynted to repayre to the ſea ſide, that they might be readie to defend their countrey in time of ſo great daunger of inuaſion. Ceſar in his Commentaries agreeth not with our hyſtorio|graphers: for he writeth that immediatly vpon knowledge had that he woulde inuade Brytaine, there came to him Ambaſſadors frõ diuerſe cities of the Ile to offer themſelues to be ſubiects to the Romains, and to deliuer hoſtages. Whõ after he had exhorted to continue in their good minde, he ſent thẽ home again,Comius. & with thẽ one Comius, go|uernor of Artois, cõmaunding him to repair vnto as many cities in Brytayn as he might, & to ex|hort thẽ to ſubmit thẽſelues to the Romains. He maketh no mention of Caſſibellane till the ſecond iourney yt he made into the Ile, at what time the ſaid Caſſibelan was choſen (as ye ſhal heare) to be the general captain of the Britayns, & to haue the whole adminiſtratiõ of the war for defence of the coũtry. But he nameth him not to be a king, how be it in the Brytiſh hyſtorie it is conteyned,Whiche is [...]ore likely in his behalfe, as [...]ppereth by [...]he ſequele. that Ceſar required tribute of Caſſibelan, & that he an|ſwered howe he had not learned as yet to liue in ſeruage, but to defend the libertie of his country, & that with weapõ in hand (if need were) as he ſhuld wel perceiue, if (blinded through couetouſneſſe) he ſhould aduenture to ſeke to diſquiet the Britains.

Thus here aſwel as in other places, there is di|uerſitie in authors: & to the end you ſhould not be ignorant therof, we haue thought good now and then to touch the ſame, that you may in reading take the more pleaſure, when ye ſhal marke ſome things worthie of credite, and ſomethings again ſo vnlikely as may rather ſeme to moue laughter, than to paſſe for matter worthie of credite.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But to the purpoſe.Voluſenus returneth. Caius Voluſenus within fiue days after his departure from Ceſar, returned again vnto him with his galley, & declared what he had ſeene touching the view which he had ta|ken of the coaſtes of Brytaine.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Ceſar then hauing got togither ſo many ſayle as hee thought ſufficient for the tranſporting of two legions of ſouldiers,Caeſar with two legions of ſouldiers paſſeth ouer into Brytayne. after he had ordred his buſineſſe as he thought expedient, and gotten a conuenient winde for his purpoſe, he embarqued himſelfe and his people, and departed from Calice in the night about the thirde watch (which is a|bout three or foure of the clocke after midnight) giuing order that the horſemen ſhould take ſhip at an other place .viij. myles aboue Calis, and fol|low him.The Brytaines ready to de|fend their countrey. But when they ſomewhat ſlacked the time, about tenne of the clocke the next day, ha|uing the winde at will, he touched on the coaſt of Brytayne, where he might beholde all the ſhore ſet and couered with men of warre. For the Bry|taynes hearing that Ceſar ment verye ſhortly to come agaynſt them, were aſſembled in armour to reſiſt him: and now being aduertiſed of his ap|proche to the lande, they prepared themſelues to withſtande him. Ceſar perceyuing this, deter|mined to ſtay till the other ſhips were come, and ſo he lay at ancre till about .xj. of the clocke, and then calleth a counſell of the Marſhals and chiefe captaines,Caeſar calleth a counſell. vnto whome he declared both what he had learned of Voluſenus, and alſo further what he would haue done, willing them that all things might be ordred as the reaſon of warre requyred. And bycauſe he perceyued that this place where he firſt caſt ancre, was not meete for the landing of his people, ſith (from the height of the cliffes that cloſed on ech ſide the narrow creek into the which he had thruſt) the Brytaynes might annoy hys people with their bowes and dartes, before they could ſet foote on land, hauing now the wind and tyde with him, he diſankred from thence, & drewe alongeſt the coaſt vnder the downes,This was a|bout Dale. the ſpace of vij. or .viij. myles: and there finding the ſhore more flat and plaine, he approched neare to the land, determining to come to the ſhore.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Brytaynes perceyuing Ceſars intent, with all ſpeede cauſed their horſmen and charets or wagons which Ceſar calleth Eſſede, (out of the which in thoſe dayes they vſed to fight to marche foorth toward the place whither they ſaw ye Ceſar drew, and after followed with their maine army. Wherefore Ceſar being thus preuented, enfor|ced yet to lande wyth hys people, although hee ſawe that hee ſhoulde haue muche a doe: for as the Brytaynes were in readyneſſe to reſyſte hym: ſo hys greate and huge Shyppes coulde EEBO page image 36 not come neare the ſhore, but were forced to keepe the deepe, ſo that the Romaine Souldiers were put to a verie hard ſhift,The Romains put to their ſhiftes. for they muſt both leape forth of their ſhippes, and peſtred with their heauy armour and weapons fight in the water wyth their enimies, who knowing the flats and ſhelues ſtood either vpõ the drie ground, or elſe but a little way in the ſhallow places of the water, and being not otherwiſe encombred either with armour or weapon, but ſo as they might beſtir thẽſelues at wil, they layd load vpon the Romains with their arrowes and dartes, and forced their horſes (be|ing [figure appears here on page 36] thereto envred) to enter the water the more eaſily, ſo to annoy and diſtreſſe the Romaines, who wanting experience in ſuche kinde of fight, were not wel able to helpe themſelues, nor to kepe order as they vſed to doe on lande: wherefore they fought nothing ſo luſtily as they were wont to doe, which Ceaſar perceyuing, commaunded the Gallyes to depart from the great ſhippes, and to rowe harde to the ſhore, that being placed ouer agaynſt the open ſydes of the Brytaynes, they might with theyr ſhotte of Arrowes, Darts, and Slings, remoue the Brytaynes, and cauſe them to withdraw further of from the water ſide.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Brytaynes aſtonied.This thing being put in execution (according to his commaundement, the Brytaynes were not a little aſtonyed at the ſtraunge ſight of thoſe Gallies, for that they were dryuen with Oares, which earſt they had not ſeene, and ſhrewdly were they galled alſo with the artillerie which the Ro|maines diſcharged vpon them, ſo that they began to ſhrinke and retyre ſomewhat backe.The valiant courage of an enſigne bearer Here|with one that bare the enſigne of the legion ſur|named Decima, wherin the Eagle was figured, as in that which was the chiefe enſigne of the le|gion, when he ſawe his fellowes nothing eagre to make forward, firſt beſieching the goddes that his enterpriſe might turne to the weale, profite, and honour of the legion, he ſpake with a lowd voyce theſe wordes to his felowes that were about him: Leape forth now you worthie ſouldiers (ſayth he) if you wil not betray your enſigne to the enimies. For ſurely I will acquite my ſelfe according to my dutie both towardes the common welth, and my generall: and therewith leaping forth into the water, he marched with his enſigne ſtreight vpon the enimies.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Romaines doubting to loſe their enſigne, which ſhould haue turned them to high reproche, leapt out of their ſhips ſo faſt as they might, and followed their ſtandard, ſo that there enſued a ſore reencounter: and that thing that troubled moſte the Romaines, was bycauſe they could not keepe their order, neyther finde any ſure footing, nor yet follow euery man his owne Enſigne, but to put themſelues vnder that enſigne whiche hee fyrſt met with after their firſt comming forth of the Shippe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 The Brytaynes that were acquainted with the ſhelfes and ſhallow places of the water, when they ſaw the Romaines thus diſorderly to come forth of their ſhips, they ranne vpon them with their horſes and fiercely aſſayled them,The [...] of the Bry|taynes. and nowe and then a greate multitude of the Brytaynes woulde compaſſe in, and encloſe ſome one com|pany of them: and other alſo from the moſt open places of the ſhore beſtowed great plentie of darts vpon the whole number of the Romaines, and ſo troubled them paſſing ſore: wherevpon Ceſar perceyuing the maner of this fight, cauſed his mẽ of warre to enter into Boates and other ſmall veſſels, which he commaunded to go to ſuch pla|ces where moſt need appeared. And thus relieuing them that fought, with new ſuccours, at length the Romaines got to lande, and then aſſembling togither, they aſſayled the Brytaynes of new,The Rom [...] get to lande. and ſo at length did put them all to flight. But the Romaines could not folow the Brytaynes farre, bycauſe they wanted their horſmen,The want of horſemen. which were yet behind, and through ſlacking time coulde not come to lande. And this one thing ſeemed onely to diſappoint the luckie fortune yt was accuſto|med to followe Ceſar in all his other enterpriſes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Brytains after this flight were no ſooner got togither,The Brytayne ſend vnto Caeſar. but that with all ſpeed they ſent Am|baſſadors vnto Ceſar to treat with him of peace, offring to deliuer hoſtages, and further to ſtande vnto that order that Ceſar ſhould take with them in any reaſonable ſort. With theſe Ambaſſadors came alſo Comius, whõ Ceſar (as ye haue heard) had ſent before into Brytaine,Comius [...] Ar [...]a [...]. whom notwith|ſtanding that he was an Ambaſſador, and ſent from Ceſar with commiſſion and inſtructions EEBO page image 37 ſufficiently furniſhed, yet had they ſtayd him as a priſoner. But now after the battaile was ended they ſet him at libertie, & ſent him back with their Ambaſſadors, who excuſed the matter, laying the blame on the people of the Countrey, which had impriſoned him through lacke of vnderſtanding what apperteyned to the law of armes, and na|tions in that behalfe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Ceſar found great fault with their miſdemea|nor, not onely for impriſoning his Ambaſſador, but alſo for that contrary to they'r promiſes made by ſuch as they had ſent to him into Gallia to de|liuer hoſtages, in lieu thereof, they had [...]ceyued him with warre: yet in the ende he ſayd he would pardon them, and not ſeeke any further reuenge of theyr follies. [...]eſar demaſi| [...]th hoſtages. And herewith required of them ho|ſtages, of which, part were deliuered out of hand, and promiſe made that the reſidue ſhould likewiſe be ſent after, crauing ſome reſpite for performance of the ſame, bycauſe they were to be fetched farte off within the Countrey.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Peace being thus eſtabliſhed after the .iiij. day of the Romaines arriuall in Brytaine, the .xviij. ſhippes which (as ye haue heard) were appoynted to conuey the horſmen ouer, looſed from the fur|ther hauen with a ſoft winde. The whiche when they approched ſo neare the ſhore of Brytain, that the Romains which were in Ceſars camp might ſee them, ſodainly there aroſe ſo great a tempeſt, that none of them was able to keepe his courſe, ſo that they were not onely driuen in ſunder (ſome being caried againe into Gallia, and ſome weſt|ward but alſo the other ſhippes that lay at ancre, and had brought ouer the armie, were ſo pitifully beaten, toſſed and ſhaken, that a great number of them did not onely loſe their tackle, but alſo were caried by force of winde into the high ſea, the reſt being likewiſe ſo filled with water, yt they were in danger by ſinking to periſh & to be quite loſt. For the Moone in the ſame night was at the full, and therefore cauſed a ſpring tide, which furthered the force of the tempeſt, to the greater perill of thoſe ſhips and gallies that lay at an ancre. There was no way for the Romains to help ye matter: wher|fore a great number of thoſe ſhips were ſo bruiſed, rent, and watherbeaten, that without new repa|ration they would ſerue to no vſe of ſailing. This was a great diſcõfort to the Romaines that had brought ouer no prouiſion to liue by in ye winter ſeaſon, nor ſaw any hope how they ſhould repaſſe againe into Gallia. In the meane time the Bry|tiſh princes that were in the Romaine army, per|ceyuing how greatly this miſhap had diſcouraged the Romains, & againe by the ſmal circuit of their campe, geſſed that they coulde be no great num|ber, and that lacke of vitayles ſore oppreſſed them, they priuily ſtale away one after another out of the campe, purpoſing to aſſemble their powers a|gaine & to foreſtall the Romains from vitayle [...], and ſo to driue the [...]tter off till winter which if they might do (vanquiſhing theſe or cloſing them from returning, they truſted that none of the Ro|mains from then thenceforth would attempt eftſoones to come come into Baytain. Ceſar miſtruſting their dealings, bicauſe they ſtayd to deliuer the re|ſidue of their hoſtages, commaunded vitails to be brought out of ye parties adioyning, & not hauing other [...] to rep [...]i [...] his ſhips, becauſed .xij. of thoſe that were vtterly paſt recouerie by the hurts receyued through violence of the tẽ [...]ſt, [...]o be bro|ken; wherwith the other (in which ſome recouerie was perceyued) might be repayred.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 In the meane time whileſt theſe things were a doing, it chaunced that as one of the Romaine legions named the .vij. was ſent forth to ſuche in corne out of the countrey adioyning (as theyr cuſtome was) no warre at that time being ſuſpec|ted; or once looked for, when part of the people re|mayned abrode in the field, and part repayred to the camp: thoſe that warded before the campe ad|uertiſed Cesar, that three appeared [...] duſt gr [...]er than was acenſt o [...]ed from that quarter, into the which the legion was gone to fetch in c [...]r [...]e. Ce|ſar iudging therof what the matter might meane, commaunded thoſe handes that wa [...]ded, to goe with him that way forth, and appoynted other two bands to come into their rowmthes, and the reſ [...]one of his people to get them to armor, and to follow quickly after him. He was not gone any great way from the campe, when hee might ſee where his people were one matched by [...] enimies, and had much [...] do to heare out the brunt: for the legion bring thronged togither, the Brytaynes pe [...]ted them ſore with arrows & darts on ech ſide, for ſithence there was no fortage left in any part of the country about, but only in this [...], ye Bry|tains indged that the Romains would come thi|ther for it: therfore ( [...] lodged thẽſelues wtin the woods in amb [...]s the night [...] on ye [...]o|row after when they ſaw the Romains diſperſed here & there, and buſie to cut downe the [...]) they ſet vpon them on the ſoden, & ſ [...]ing ſome few of them, brought the reſidue out of order, cõpaſſing thẽ about with their horſmen and charets, ſo that they were in greate diſtreſſe. The maner of fight with theſe charets was ſuch, that in ye beginning of a battaile they would ride aboute the ſides and ſkirts of the enimies hoſt, & beſtow their dartes as they ſat in thoſe charets, ſo that oftentimes wyth the braying of the horſes, & craking noiſe of ye cha|ret whre [...]s they diſordred their enimies, and [...] that they had wound themſelues in amongſt the troupes of horſinẽ, they would leap out of the cha|rets, & fight a foot, & in the mean time thoſe yt gui|ded the charets would withdraw thẽſelues out of the battail, placing thẽſelues ſo, that if their people EEBO page image 38 were ouermatched with the multitude of enimies they might eaſily withdraw to their charets, and mount vpon the ſame againe, by meanes where|of they are as readie to remoue as the horſemen, & as ſtedfaſt to ſtand in the battaile as the footmen, and ſo to ſupplie both dueties in one. And thoſe Charetmen by exerciſe and cuſtome were ſo can|ning in their feat, that although their horſes were put to run and gallop, yet could they ſtay them & hold them backe at their pleaſures, and turne and wind them to and fro in a moment, notwithſtan|ding that the place were very ſteepe and daunge|rous: and againe they would run vp and downe very nimbly vpon the coppes, & ſtand vpõ ye beam and conuey thẽſelues quickly again into ye charet.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Ceſar thus finding his people in great diſtreſſe and readie to be deſtroyed, came in good time, and deliuered thẽ out of that daunger: for ye Brytains vpon his approch with new ſuccors, gaue ouer to aſſaile their enimies any further, & the Romaines were deliuered out of the feare wherein they ſtoode before his comming.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 Furthermore, Ceſar cõſidering the time ſerued not to aſſaile his enimies, kept his ground, & ſhort|ly after brought backe his legions into the camp. Whileſt theſe things were thus a doing, & all the Romains being occupied, ye reſt that were abrode in the fields got them away. After this there fol|lowed a fore ſeaſon of raine and foule weather, which kept the Romains within their campe, and ſtayed the Brytains frõ offring battel. But in the meane time they ſent into all parts of the coũtrey meſſengers abrode to giue knowledge of the ſmal number of the Romaines, & what hope there was both of great ſpoyle to be gotten, and occaſion to deliuer thẽſelues from further daunger for euer, if they might once expell the Romaines out of their campe. Herevpon a great multitude both of horſ|men and footemen of the Britains were ſpeedily got togither, & approched the Romain camp. Ce|ſar although he ſaw that the ſame would come to paſſe which had chanced before, that if the enimies were put to the repulſe, they would eaſly eſcape ye danger with ſwiftneſſe of foot, yet hauing now wt him .xxx. horſemen (which Comius of Arras had brought ouer with him, whẽ he was ſent frõ Ce|ſar as an Ambaſſador vnto the Brytains) he pla|ced his legions in order of battail before his camp, and ſo cõming to ioyne with the Brytains, they were not able to ſuſteyn the violent impreſſion of [figure appears here on page 38] the armed men, and ſo fled. The Romains pur|ſued them ſo farre as they were able to ouertake any of them, and ſo ſleaing many of them, & bur|ning vp their houſes all about, came backe againe to their campe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Immediately wherevpon, euen the ſame day they ſent Ambaſſadors to Ceſar, to ſue for peace, who gladly accepting their offer, commaunded them to ſend ouer into Gallia, after he ſhoulde be returned thither, hoſtages in nũbre double to thoſe that were agreed vpon at the firſt.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After that theſe things were thus ordred, Ceſar bycauſe that the Moneth of September was wel neare halfe ſpent, and that Winter haſted on (a ſeaſon not meete for his weake bruyſed ſhippes to brooke the Seas in) determined not to ſtay anye longer, but hauing winde and weather for his purpoſe, got himſelfe a boorde with his people, and returned into Gallia.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus wryteth Ceſar touching his firſt iour|ney made into Brytaine.Caeſar de [...] Gallia [...] But the Brytiſh Hy|ſtorie (which Polidore calleth the new Hyſtorie) declareth, that Ceſar in a pight field was vanqui|ſhed at the firſt encounter, and ſo withdrew backe into Fraunee.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Beda alſo wryteth thus: that Ceſar cõming into the countrey of Gallia, where the people then called Mo [...]ini inhabited (whiche are at this day the ſame that inhabite the Dioces of Terwine) from whence lyeth the ſhorteſt paſſage ouer into Brytain, now called England, got togither .lxxx ſayle of great ſhippes and row Gallies, with the which he paſſed ouer into Brytayne, and there at the firſt being wearied with ſharpe and ſore fight, EEBO page image 39 and after taken with a grieuous tempeſt, loſt the more part of his nauie, with no ſmall number of his ſouldiers, and almoſt all his horſemen. And therewith being returned into Gallia, placed his ſouldiers in ſteeds to ſoiourne there for the winter ſeaſon. Thus hath Bede.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Britiſh hyſtorie moreouer maketh men|tion of three vnder kings that ayded Caſſibellane in this firſt battail fought wt Ceſar, as Cridior [...]s, alias, Ederus, K. of Albania, nowe called Scot|land: Guitethus king of Venedocia, that is north Wales: & Britael king of Demetia, at this day called ſouth Wales.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 The ſame hyſtorie maketh alſo mention of one Belinus that was general of Caſſibelanes army, and likewiſe of Nenius brother to Caſſibelane, which in the fight happened to get Ceſars ſword faſtned in his ſhield by a blow which Ceſar ſtroke at him. Androgeus alſo, and Tenancius, were at the battail in ayde of Caſſibelane. But Nennius died within .xv. dayes after the battail of the hurt. receiued at Ceſars hand, although after he was ſo hurt, he ſlue Labienus one of ye Rom. Tribunes: all which may well be true, ſith Ceſar either ma|keth the beſt of things for his owne honor, or elſe coueting to write but Commentaries, maketh no accoũt to declare the needles circũſtances, or any more of the matter, than ye chief points of his dea|ling. [...]ector. Bo. Again the Scottiſh hyſtoriographers write, that when it was firſt known to the Brytaynes, that Ceſar would inuade them, there came from Caſſibelane king of Brytaynes an Ambaſſade vnto Ederus king of Scottes, the which in the name of king Caſſibelane, requyred ayde agaynſt the common enimies the Romaines, which re|queſt was g [...]aunted, and ten. M. Scots ſent to the ayde of Caſſibellane.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 At their comming to London, they were [...] ioyfully receiued of Caſſibellane, who at the [...] tyme had knowledge that the Romaines were come a land, and had beatẽ ſuch Brytaynes backe as were appoynted to reſiſt their landing. Wher|vpon Caſſibellane with all his whole puiſſaunce mightily augmented, not onely with the ſuccors of the Scottes, but alſo of the Pi [...]s (which in that common cauſe had ſent alſo of their people to ayd the Brytaynes) ſet forwarde towardes the place where he vnderſtoode the enimies to be.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 At their firſt approch togither, Caſſibellane ſent forth his horſmen and charets called Eſſed [...] by the which he thought to diſorder the array of the enimies. Twice they encountered togither with doubtfull victorie. At l [...]ngth they ioyned puiſſance agaynſt puiſſance, and fought a right ſore and cruell battayle, till finally at the ſodaine comming of the Welchmen, and Corniſhmen, ſo huge noyſe was rayſed by the ſounde of Belles hanging at their trappers and Charets, that the Romaynes aſtonyed therewith, were more eaſily put to flight.

[figure appears here on page 39]

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 The Brytaynes, Scots, and Picts following in the chaſe without order or aray, ſo that by rea|ſon the Romains kept themſelues cloſe togither, the Brytayns, Scots, & Picts did vneth ſo much harm to the enimies as they themſelues receyued. But yet they followed on ſtil vpon the Romains till it was darke night. Ceſar after he had per|ceyued them once withdrawne, did what he could to aſſemble his companies togither, minding the next morning to ſeeke his reuenge of the former days diſaduãtage. But forſomuch as knowledge was giuẽ him yt his ſhips by reaſon of a foret [...]peſt were beatẽ & rent, yt many of thẽ wer paſt ſeruice, he doubte [...] leaſt ſuch newes would encourage his enimies, & bring his people into diſpair. Wherfore he determined not to fight til time more cõueniẽt, ſending all his wounded folks vnto ye ſhips, which he cõmaunded to be newly [...]ged and trimmed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 EEBO page image 40After this, keeping his army for a time with|in the place where he was encamped without iſ|ſuing forth, he ſhortly drew to the ſea ſide, where his ſhippes lay at ankre, and there within a ſtrong place fortified for the purpoſe he lodged his hoſt, & finally without hope to atchieue any other exploit auaileable for that time, he tooke the ſea with ſuch ſhippes as were apt for ſailing, and ſo repaſſed in|to Gallia, leauing behind him all the ſpoyle and baggage, for want of veſſelles, and leyſure to con|uey it ouer.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus haue the Scottes in their Chronicles framed the matter, more to the conformitie of the Romaine hyſtories, than according to the report of our Brytiſh and Engliſh writers: and therfore we haue thought good to ſhew it here, that the di|uerſitie of writers and their affections maye the better appeare.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Of this ſoden departing alſo, or rather flying of Iulius Ceſar out of Brytain, Lucanus ye poet maketh mẽtion: reciting the ſaying of Pompeius in an oratiõ made by him vnto his ſoldiers, wher|in he reprochfully and diſdainfully reproued the doings of Ceſar in Brytaine, ſaying:

Territa quaeſitis oſtendit terga Britannis.
That is in Engliſh.
He turnde his backe and fled away,
from the Brytaynes whom he ſought.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But now to turne to the ſequele of the matter, as Ceſar himſelfe reporteth. After his comming into Gallia, there were but two Cities of al Bri|taine that ſent ouer their hoſtages according to their couenant,Dien Caſsius. which gaue occaſion to Ceſar to pike a new quarell againſt them, which if it had wanted, he would yet (I doubt not) haue founde ſome other: for his full meaning was to make a more full conqueſt of that Ile. Therfore purpo|ſing to paſſe againe thither, as he that had a great deſire to bring the Brytaynes vnder the obedience of the Romain eſtate, he cauſed a great number of ſhippes to be prouided in the winter ſeaſon & put in a redineſſe, ſo that againſt the next ſpring, there were found to be readie rigged ſix hundred ſhips, beſide .xxviij. Gallies.Caeſar de bel| [...]o Gal. li. 5. Herevpon hauing taken order for the gouernance of Gallia in his abſence, about the beginning of the Spring he came to the hauen of Calice, whither (according to order by him preſcribed) all his ſhips were come, except .xl. which by tempeſt were driuen backe, and coulde not as yet come to him.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After he had ſtayed at Calice (as wel for a con|uenient winde, as for other incidentes) certaine dayes, at length when the weather ſo chaunged that it ſerued his purpoſe, he tooke the ſea, hauing with him fiue legions of ſouldiers, and about two thouſand horſmen, departed out of Calice hauen about the ſun ſetting with a ſoft ſouthweſt wind, directing his courſe forward: about midnight the wind fell, and ſo by a calme, he was caried alõgſt with the tide, ſo that in the morning whẽ the day appeared, he might beholde Brytaine vpon hys left hand. Thẽ folowing the ſtreame as the courſe of the tide changed, he forced with Oa [...]es to fetch the ſhore vpon that part of the coaſt, which he had diſcouered and tried the laſt yeare to bee the beſt landing place for the armie. The diligence of the ſouldiers was ſhewed here to be great, who with cõtinual toile droue forth the heauy ſhips, to keepe courſe with the gallies, and ſo at length they lan|ded in Brytayn about noone on the next day, fin|ding not one to reſiſt his comming a ſhor [...]: for as he learned by certain priſoners which were taken after his comming to lande, the Brytaines being aſſembled in purpoſe to haue reſiſted him, through feare ſtriken into their heartes, at the diſcouering of ſuch an huge number of ſhips, they forſooke the ſhore, and got them vnto the Mountaines.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 There were in deed of veſſels one & other, what with vitailers, and thoſe which priuate men had prouided and furniſhed forth for their owne vſe, being ioyned to the ordinarie number, at the leaſt viij. C. ſayle, which appearing in ſight all at one time, made a wonderfull muſter, & right terrible in the eyes of the Brytaynes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But to proceed: Ceſar being got to land, en|camped his army in a place conuenient: and af|ter learning by the priſoners, into what parte the enimies were withdrawne, hee appoynted one Quintus Atrius to remaine vpon the ſafegard of the nauie, with ten companies or cohorts of foot|men, and three hundred horſmen: and anon after midnight marched forth himſelfe with the reſidue of his people towards the Brytaynes, and hauing made .xij. miles of way, hee got ſight of his eni|mies hoſt, the which ſending downe their horſmẽ and charets vnto the riuer ſide, ſkirmiſhed with the Romaines, meaning to beat them backe from the higher ground: but being aſſayled of the Ro|maine horſemen, they were repulſed, and tooke the wooddes for their refuge, wherein they had got a place very ſtrong, both by nature & helpe of hand, which (as was to be thought) had beene fortified before, in time of ſome ciuill warre amongſt thẽ: for all the entries were cloſed with trees whiche had bene cut down for that purpoſe. Howbeit the ſouldiers of the .vij. legion caſting a trench before them, found meanes to put backe the Brytaynes from their defences, and ſo entring vppon them, droue them out of the woods.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But Ceſar would not ſuffer the Romanes to follow the Brytaynes, bycauſe that the nature of the countrey was not knowne vnto them: and a|gaine the day was farre ſpent, ſo that hee woulde haue the reſidue thereof beſtowed in fortefying his campe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 The next day, as he had ſent forth ſuch as EEBO page image 41 ſhould haue purſued the Britans, word came to him from Quintus Atrius, that his nauie by ri|gour of a ſore and hideous tempeſt, was grée|uouſly moleſted, and throwen vpon the ſhore, ſo that the cabels and tagle beeing broken and de|ſtroyed with force of the vnmercifull rage of wind, the maſters and Mariners were not able to help the matter. Ceſar calling backe thoſe whiche he had ſent foorth, returneth to his Shippes, and finding them in ſuche ſtate as he had heard, tooke order for the repairing of thoſe that were not vt|terly deſtroyed, and cauſed them ſo to be drawen vp to the land, that with a trench he might ſo cõ|paſſe in a plot of ground, that mighte ſerue both for defence of his Shippes, and alſo for the incã|ping of thoſe men of warre, which he ſhuld leaue to attend vpon the ſauegard of the ſame. And by|cauſe there were at the leaſt a fortie Ships loſt by violence of this tẽpeſt, ſo as there was no hope of recouerie in them, he ſawe yet howe the reſt with great labour and coſt might bee repaired: where|fore he choſe forth wrightes among the Legions, ſent for other into Gallia, and wrote ouer to ſuch as he had left there in charge with the gouernãce of the country, to prouide ſo many Ships as they could, and to ſend them ouer vnto him. He ſpente a tenne dayes about the repairing thus of his na|uy, and in fortifying of ye camp for defence there|of, which done, he left thoſe within it which were appoynted there before, and then returneth to|wards his enimies. At his comming backe to the place where hee had before encamped, hee founde them there ready to reſiſt him, hauing their num|bers hugely encreaſed: for the Britaynes hearing that he was returned with ſuch a mightie num|ber of Shippes, aſſembled out of all partes of the land, and had by generall conſent appoynted the whole rule and order of all things touching the warre, vnto Caſſiuellaune, or Caſſibelane, whoſe dominion was deuided from the Cities ſytuate neere to the Sea coaſt, [...]sibel [...]ane [...]hould ſem [...] [...]ed in the [...]ties of Or| [...]lſhire, Berk [...], Buc| [...]ghamſhire, [...] Bedford| [...]re. by the riuer of Thames, 80. miles diſtant from the ſea coaſt. This Caſ|ſibeliaune before time had bin at continual warre with other rulers, and Cities of the land: but now the Britons moued with the comming of ye Ro|maynes, choſe hym to be chiefe gouernor of all their army, permitting the order and rule of all things touching the defence of their countrey a|gainſt the Romanes, only to him. Their horſe|men and Charrets ſkirmiſhed by the way with the Romaynes, but ſo as they were put backe of|tentimes into the wooddes and hilles adioining: yet the Britaynes ſlewe diuers of the Romaines as they followed any thing egrely in the purſute.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Alſo within a while after, as the Romaynes were buſie in fortifying their camp, ye Britaynes ſodaynely iſſued out of the wooddes, and fiercely aſſayled thoſe that warded before the camp, vnto whoſe ayde, Ceſar ſent two of the ch [...]efeſt cohor|tes of two legions, the whiche being placed but a little diſtance one from another, when the Ro|manes began to be diſcouraged with this kynd of fight, the Brytayns therwith burſt through their enimies, and came backe from thence in ſafetie. That daye Quintus Laberius Durus a Tri|bune was [...]ayne. At length, Ceſar ſendyng ſun|dry other cohortes to the ſuccoute of his people that were in fighte, and ſhrewdly handled as it appeared, the Britaynes in the ende were put backe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 In all this manner of ſkirmiſhing and fyghte which chanced before the camp, euen in the fighte and viewe of all men, it was per [...]yued that the Romaynes,The Romain [...] heauie armor. by reaſon of the [...] heauie armour (be|ing not able eyther to followe the Britaynes as they retired, or ſo bold, as to depart from their en|ſignes, except they woulde runne into daunger of caſting themſelues away were nothing meete to match with ſuch kind of enimies: and as for their horſemen, they [...]ought likewiſe in great hazarde, bycauſe the Britaynes would oftentimes of pur|poſe retire, & when they had trained the Romane horſemen a little from their legions of footemen, they would leape out of their charrets and encofi|ter with them a foote. And ſo the battell of horſe|men was daungerous, and like in all poynte [...] whether they purſued or retired. This alſo was the manner of the Britaynes:The manner of the Briton [...] in the warres. they foughte not cloſe togither, but in ſunder, and deuided into cõ|panies one ſeparated from another by a good diſ|tance, & had their troupes ſtanding in places con|uenient, to yt which they might retire, & ſo rele [...]ue one another with ſending newe freſh men to ſup|ply the roomthes of them that were hurt or wea|ry. The next day after they had thus foughte be|fore ye camp of the Romanes, they ſhewed them|ſelues aloft on ye hilles, & began to ſkirmiſhe with the Romane horſemen, but not ſo hotely as they had done the day before. But about noone, when Ceſar had ſent forth three legions of footemẽ and all his horſemen vnder the leading of his Lieute|nant Caius Trebonius to fetch in fourrage,Caius Trebo|nius. they ſodainely brake out on euery ſide, & ſet vpon the fourragers. The Romanes ſo farre foorth as they might not breaking their array, nor going from their enſignes or guides, gaue ye charge on them, & fiercely repulſed them, ſo yt the horſemen hauing [...] legions of footemen at their backes,Dion Caſsius ſai [...]h, that the Britaynes van|quiſhed the Romayne footemen at this time, but were put to the worſt by the horſemen. followed the Britons ſo long as they might haue the ſaid Le|gions in ſight ready to ſuccour thẽ if neede were: by reaſon whereof, they ſlew a great number of ye Britons, not giuing them leaſure to recouer thẽ|ſelues, nor to ſtay, that they might haue tyme to get out of their charrets. After this chaſe and diſ|comfiture, all ſuch as were come from other par|ties to the ayde of their fellowes departed home, EEBO page image 42 and after ye day the Britons aduentured to fight againſt Ceſar with their maine power,Which is to [...]e ſuppoſed [...]as at King| [...]on) or not [...]rre from [...]ence. but with|drawing beyond the riuer of Thames, determi|ned to ſtop the enimies from paſſing the ſame, if by any meanes they mighte: and where as there was but one fourde by ye which they might come ouer, Caſſiuellane cauſed the ſame to be ſet ful of ſharp ſtakes, not onely in the middeſt of the wa|ter, but alſo at the comming foorthe on that ſyde where he was lodged with his army in good or|der, ready to defende the paſſage. Ceſar learning by relation of priſoners which he tooke, what the Britaynes intended to do, marched forth to ye ri|uer ſide, where the fourde was, by the whiche hys army mighte paſſe the ſame afoote though very hardly. At his cõming thither, hee might perceiue howe the Britaynes were ready on ye further ſide to impeach his paſſage, & how that the banke at ye comming forthe of the water was pighte full of ſharp ſtakes, and ſo likewiſe was the chanell of ye Riuer ſet with ſtakes which were couered with ye water. Theſe things yet ſtayed not Ceſar, who appoynting his horſemen to paſſe on before, cõ|manded the footemen to follow. The ſouldiers entring ye water, waded through with ſuch ſpede & violence, (nothing appearing of thẽ aboue wa|ter but their heads) that ye Britaynes were con|ſtreyned to giue place, being not able to ſuſteyne ye brunt of ye Romane Horſemen & the legions of their footemen, & ſo abandoning ye place tooke thẽ to flight. Caſſiuelane not minding to trie ye mat|ter any more by battell, ſente away ye moſt parte of his people, but yet kept with him about a foure thouſand charretmen or wagoners, and ſtil wat|ched what way ye Romanes toke, coaſting them euer as they marched, and kepte ſomewhat aſide within ye couert of woods, and other comberſome places. And out of thoſe quarters through ye whi|che he vnderſtood ye Romanes would paſſe, he ga|thered both mẽ & cattel into ye woods & thicke for|reſts, leauing nothing of valew abrode in ye chã|payne countrey. And whẽ ye Romane horſemen did come abrode into ye countrey to ſeeke booties, he ſent out his charrets vnto the knowen ways & paſſages to ſkirmiſh with the ſame horſemen, ſo much to the diſaduãtage of the Romanes, yt they durſt not ſtraye far frõ their maine army. Neither wold Ceſar permit thẽ leaſt they might haue bin vtterly diſtreſſed by ye Britaynes) to depart fur|ther thã ye maine battels of ye fotemẽ kept pace wt thẽ, by reaſon whereof ye countrey was not endo|maged by fire & ſpoyle, but onely where the army marched.Trinouantes where they inhabited. In ye mean time, the Trinouantes which ſome take to be the middleſex & Eſſex mẽ, whoſe Citie was ye beſt fẽced of al other in thoſe parties, & thought to be the ſame yt now is called Londõ, ſent Ambaſſadors vnto Ceſar, offering to ſubmit thẽſelues vnto him,Mandubra|tius. & to obey his ordinances, and further beſought him to defend Mãdubratius frõ ye iniurie of Caſſiuellaune, which Mandubratius had fled vnto Ceſar into France, after ye Caſſibe|lane had ſlain his father named Imanuentius, yt was chiefe Lord & K. of the Trinobantes, [...] & ſo now by their Ambaſſadors, ye ſame Trinobantes reque|ſted Ceſar, not only to receiue Mandubratius in|to his protection, but alſo to ſend him vnto them, that he might take the gouernemẽt & rule of their Citie into his hands. Ceſar cõmanded thẽ to de|liuer vnto him .40. hoſtages, & grayne for his ar|my, & therewith ſent Mandubratius vnto them.Some [...] Trino [...] be [...] The Triuonantes accõpliſhed his commaunde|ments wt al ſpeede, ſending both ye appoynted nũ|ber of hoſtages, and alſo graine for the army. And being thus defended & preſerued from iniurie of ye ſouldiers, ye people called Cenimagni, Segontia|ci, Aucalites, Bibroci, and Caſſi, ſubmitted thẽ|ſelues vnto Ceſar, by whom he vnderſtode that ye towne of Caſſibellane was not far from ye place wher he was then encamped fenſed with wooddes & mariſhes, into ye whiche a great number of peo|ple wt their Cattell and other ſubſtãce was with|drawen. The Britaines in thoſe dayes (as Ceſar writeth) called yt a towne or hold which they had fortified wt any thick cõberſome wood, with trẽch & rampire, into ye which they vſed to get thẽſelues for ye auoyding of inuaſion. Ceſar with his legi|ons of ſouldiers therefore marcheth thither, & fin|ding the place very ſtrong both by nature & helpe of hand, aſſaulteth it on two parts. The Britains defending their ſtrength a while, at lẽgth not able longer to endure the impreſſion of ye Romaynes, fled out on ye contrary ſide of ye towne wher the e|nimies were not. Within this place a great nũ|ber of Cattel was found, & many of ye Britaynes takẽ by ye Romanes yt followed them in chaſe, & many alſo ſlaine. Whileſt theſe things paſſed on this ſort in thoſe parties, Caſſibellaune ſent meſ|ſengers into Kent vnto four kings (whiche ruled ye ſide of the lãd in thoſe dayes) Cingetorix,Foure [...] in Kent. Car|uilius, Taximagulus, & Segonax, cõmaunding thẽ, that aſſembling togither their whole puiſſãce, they ſhould aſſaile ye camp of ye Romaines by the Sea ſide wher certain bãds lay (as ye haue heard) for ſafegard of ye nauie. They according to his a|pointmẽt came ſodainly thither, & by ye Romains that ſailed forth vpon them were ſharply foughte with, & loſt diuers of their men yt were ſlaine, and taken, and amõgſt the priſoners that ye Romains toke, Cingetorix was one.Cingetori [...] When Caſſibellaune heard theſe news, being ſore troubled for theſe loſ|ſes thus chancing one in the neck of an other, but namely moſt diſcouraged, for that diuers Cities had yelded vnto the Romanes: hee ſendeth Am|baſſadors by meane of Comius of Irras vnto Ceſar, offering to ſubmit himſelfe. Ceſar mea|ning to winter in Gallia, and therefore bycauſe ſommer drewe towardes an ende, willyng to diſpatch in Britayne, commanded that hoſtages EEBO page image 43 ſhould be deliuered, and appoynted what tribute the Britaynes ſhould yeerely ſend vnto the Ro|maynes. He alſo forbade and commaunded Caſ|ſibellaune that he ſhould not in any wiſe trouble or endomage Mandubratius or the Londoners. After this, when he had receyued the hoſtages, he bringeth his army to the Sea, and there findeth his Shippes well repayred, decked, and in good point: therefore he commandeth that they ſhould be had downe to the ſea. And bycauſe hee hadde a great number of priſoners, and diuers of his ſhips were loſt by the tempeſt, he appoynted to tranſ|port his army ouer into Gallia at two conuoyes, whiche was done with good ſucceſſe about the middeſt of September, though the Shippes re|turning for the reſidue of the army, after the firſte conuoy, were driuẽ ſo with force of weather, that a great number of them could not come to lande at the place appoynted: ſo that Ceſar was con|ſtreyned to fraught thoſe that he could get, with a greater burden, and ſo departed from the coaſt of Britayne, and ſafely landed with the remnaunte of his people in Gallia with as good ſpeede as he cold haue deſired. He thought not good to leaue any of his people behinde him, knowing that if he ſhould ſo doe, [...] Caſsius. they were in daunger to be caſt a|way. And ſo bycauſe he could not well remayne there all the winter ſeaſon for doubt of Rebellion in Gallia, he was contented to take vp, and re|turne thither, ſith he had done ſufficiently for the time, leaſt in coueting the more, hee mighte haue come in perill to loſe that whiche hee had already obteyned.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 Thus according to that which Ceſar himſelfe and other autentike authors haue written, was Britayne made tributorie to the Romaynes by the Conduit of the ſame Ceſar. But our hiſtories farre differ from this, affirming, [...]. M [...]n. [...]. VVeſt. that Ceſar com|ming the ſecõd time, was by the Britaynes with valiancie, and martial prowes beaten, & repulſed, as he was at the firſt, and ſpecially by meanes ye Caſſiuelaune had pight in the Thames greate pyles of trees pyked with yron, through whych, his ſhippes being entred the riuer, were periſhed & loſt. And after his comming a land, he was van|quiſhed in battell, & conſtreyned to [...] into Gal|lia with thoſe ſhippes that remayned. For ioy of this ſeconde victory (ſaith Galfrid) Caſſibellane made a great feaſt at London, & th [...] did ſacrifice to the Gods. At which feaſt there fel variance be|twixt two yong Gentlemen, the one named Hi| [...]ilda, nephew to Caſſibellan, & the other Euelye, or Eweline, being of aliance to Androgeus Erle of Londõ. They f [...]ll at diſcord about vnaſtling, & after multiplying of words, they came to dea|ling of blowes, by meane whereof partes wer ta|ken, ſo that there enſewed a ſore fray, in the whi|che, diuers were wounded and hurt, and amõgſt other Herild [...] the kings. Nephew was ſlayne by ye hands of Eweline. The K. ſore diſpleaſed her|with, meant to puniſh Eweline according to the order of his lawes, ſo that he was ſummoned to appeare in due forme to make anſwere to ye mur|der: but Eweline by the comforte of Androgeus diſobeyed the ſommonãte, and departed ye Court with Androgeus, in contempt of the king and his lawes. The K. to be reuenged vpon Androgeus, gathered a power, & began to make war on him. Androgeus perceiuing himſelfe not able to with|ſtand the Kings puiſſance, ſente letters to Iulius Ceſar, exhorting him to returne into Britayne, & declaring the whole matter concerning ye vari|ance betwixt him and the king, promiſing to ayd the Romaynes in all that he might. Iulius Ce|ſar ioyfull of this meſſage, prepareth his nauie, & with all ſpeede with a mightie hoſt embarqued in the ſame, commeth toward Britayne: but ere he would land, doubting ſome treaſon in Andro|geus, he receyueth from him in hoſtage his ſonne named Scena, and thirty other of the beſt & moſt noble perſonages of all his dominion. After thys he landed, & ioyning with Androgeus, came into a valley neere to Canterbury, & there encamped. Shortly after commeth Caſſibellane with al his power of Britaynes, and giueth battell to ye Ro|manes. But after that the Britaynes had long [figure appears here on page 43] EEBO page image 44 fought and knightly borne thẽſelues in that bat|rell, Androgius came with his people on a wing, and ſo ſharply aſſayled them, that the Britaynes were conſtreyned to forſake the field, & tooke thẽ|ſelues to flight. The which flight ſo diſcomforted them, that finally they all fled, & gaue place to the Romanes, the which purſued and ſlew thẽ with|out mercy, ſo that Caſſibellane with the reſidue of his people withdrewe to a place of ſuretie, but beeing enuironed about with the puiſſance of the Romaynes,So hath Cam|pion, but Gal|frid. Mo [...]u. hath fiue thouſande. & of Androgeus, who had with him ſeuen thouſande men there in the ayd of the Ro|mans, Caſſibellanin the end was enforced to fal to a cõpoſition, in couenaunting to pay an yerely tribute of three thouſand . [...]. Then when Ceſar had ordred his buſineſſe as he thought conueniẽt, he returned, & with him went Androgeus, fearing ye diſpleaſure of Caſſibellane. The reuerend father Bede writing of this mater, hath thus: After that Ceſar being returned into Gallia, had placed his ſouldiers abroade in the countrey to ſoiorne for ye winter ſeaſon, he cauſed Ships to be made ready, to the number of ſixe C. with the which repaſſing again into Britaine, whileſt he marcheth foorthe with a mighty army againſt ye enimies, his ſhips that lay at ancre being takẽ with a ſore tempeſt, were either beaten one againſt another, or els caſt vpon the flats & ſands, and ſo broken, ſo that for|tie of them were vtterly periſhed, and the reſidue with great difficultie were repaired. The horſe|men of the Romaines at the firſt encounter were put to the woorſe, & Labienus the Tribune ſlain. In the ſeconde conflict hee vanquiſhed the Bri|taines not without greate daunger of his people. After this, hee marcheth to the riuer of Thames which as thẽ was paſſable by fourde, only in one place and not elſe, as the reporte goeth. On the further banke of that riuer, Caſſibellane was en|camped with an huge multitude of enimies, and had pight & ſet the banke, & almoſt all the fourde vnder the water, ful of ſharp ſtakes, the tokens of which vnto this day are to be ſeene,The ſtakes re|mayning to be ſeene in Bedes dayes. and it ſemeth to the beholders that euery of theſe ſtakes are as bigge as a mãs thigh, ſticking faſt in ye bottome of the riuer cloſed with leade. The whiche beeing perceyued of the Romaines, & auoyded, the Bri|taynes not able to ſuſteyne the violent impreſſion of the Romain legions, hid thẽſelues in ye woods, out of the which, by often iſſues, they greeuouſly & many times aſſailed the Romanes, & did them great domage. In the mean time, the ſtrong Ci|tie of Trinouant with hir Duke Androgius de|liuering fortie hoſtages yelded vnto Ceſar, whoſe exãple many other Cities following, allyed thẽ|ſelues with the Romains, by whoſe information Ceſar with ſore fight tooke at length the towne of Caſſibelan, ſituate betwixt two mariſhes, fenſed alſo with the couerte of woods, & hauing within it great plentie of all things. After this Ceſar re|turned into Fraunce, and beſtowed his armie in places to ſoiorne there for the winter ſeaſon.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Thus muche hath Bede. The Scottiſh wri|ters reporte, that the Britons after the Ro|maines were the firſte time repulſed (as before yee haue hearde, refuſed to receyue the ayde of the Scottiſhmen the ſecond time, & ſo were van|quiſhed, as in the Scottiſh hiſtories ye maye ſee more at length expreſſed. Thus much touching the warre which Iulius Ceſar made againſt the Britons, in bringing them vnder tribute to the Romains. But heere is to be noted, that Ceſar did not vanquiſh al the Britons: for he came not amongſt the Northren men, only diſcouering & ſubduing ye part which lyeth towards the French ſeas, ſo that ſith other of the Romain Emperors did moſt earneſtly trauaile to bring the Britons vnder their ſubiection (whiche were euer redy to rebell ſo many ſundry tymes (Ceſar might ſeme rather to haue ſhewed Britain to the Romãs,Cornelius [...]. th [...]n to haue deliuered vnto them the poſſeſſion of the ſame. [...] This ſubiection to the whiche he broughte this Ile (what maner of one ſo [...]uer it was) chan|ced about ye yere of the world .3913. [...] After ye buyl|ding of Rome .698. before the birth of our ſauior 53. the .1. and ſecond yere of the .181. Olympiade, after the cõming of Brute .1060. before the con|queſt made by Williã duke of Normandie .1 [...]0. and .1629. yeres before this preſentyere of our lord 1576. as Hariſon hath ſet downe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 After that Iulius Ceſar had thus made the Britayns tributaries to ye Romaines, [...]. & was re|turned into Gallia, Caſſibelan reigned .7. yeres, & was vanquiſhed in the ninth or tenth yere after he begã firſt to raigne, ſo yt he raigned in ye whole about .15. or as ſome haue .17. yeres, & then dyed, leauing no iſſue behinde him. There hath bin are old Chronicle (as Fabiã recordeth) which he [...] & followeth much in his booke, wherein it is con|teyned, that this Caſſibellane was not brother to Lud, but eldeſt ſon to him: for otherwiſe as maye be thought (ſaith he) Ceſar hauing the vpper hand would haue diſplaced him from the gouernemẽt, & ſet vp Androgeus the right heire to the crowne, as ſonne to the ſayd Lud. But what ſoeuer oure Chronicles or the Brittiſh hiſtories report of this matter,Caeſar. it ſhoulde appeare by that whiche Ceſar writeth, as partly ye haue heard that Britaine in thoſe days was not gouerned by one ſole prince, but by diuers, and that diuers cities were aſtates of themſelues, ſo that the lande was deuided into ſundry gouernments, muche after the forme and manner as Germany and Italy are in our time, where ſome Cities are gouerned by one onely Prince, ſome by the nobilitie, and ſome by the people. And whereas diuers of the rulers in thoſe dayes heere in thys lande were called Kings, EEBO page image 45 thoſe had more large ſeigniouries than the other, as Caſſibellane, [...]ſsibellane a [...]. who was therfore called a king. And though we do admit this to be true, yet may it bee that in the beginning after that Brute en|tred the land, there was ordeyned by him a Mo|narchie, as before is mentioned, which might cõ|tinue in his poſteritie many yeeres after, and yet at length before the comming of Ceſar, through ciuill diſſention, might happily be broken, and de|uided into partes, and ſo remayned not only in ye time of this Caſſibellane, but alſo lõg after, whi|leſt they liued as tributaries to the Romanes, till finally they were ſubdued by the Saxons. In whiche meane time, through the diſcorde, negli|gence, or rather vnaduiſed raſhneſſe of writers, hard it is to iudge what may be affirmed and re|ceyued in their writings for a troth, namely con|cerning the ſucceſſion of the Kings that are ſayd to haue raigned betwixte the dayes of Caſſibel|lane, [...]or. Tacit in [...]. lu. Agr. and the comming of the Saxons. The Ro|mayne writers, (& namely Tacitus) report, that the Britaynes in tinies paſt were vnder the rule of Kings, and after being made tributaries, were drawen ſo by Princes into ſundry factions, that to defend and keepe off a cõmon ieoperdy, ſcarce|ly would two or three Cities agree togither, and take weapon in hande with one accorde, ſo that whileſt they fought by partes, the whole was o|uercome.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 And after this ſorte they ſaye that Brytayne was brought into the forme of a prouince by the Romanes, from whome gouernours vnder the name of Legates and procurates were ſente that had the rule of it. But yet the ſame authors make mention of certayne kings (as hereafter ſhall ap|peare) the whiche, whileſt the Romaine Empe|rours had the moſt part of the earth in ſubiection, raigned in Britayne. The ſame witneſſeth Gil|das, [...]ildas in e| [...]st. ſaying: Britayne hathe Kings, but they are Tyrants: Iudges it hathe, but the ſame are wic|ked, oftentimes ſpoyling and tormenting the in|nocent people. And Ceſar (as ye haue heard) ſpea|keth of foure Kings that ruled in Kent, and ther|aboutes. [...]me take [...]a [...]utagus [...]d Aruiragus [...] be one mã. Cornelius Tacitus maketh mention of Praſutagus, and Cogidunus, that were Kyngs in Britayne: and Iuuenall ſpeaketh of Aruira|gus: and all the late writers of Lucius. Hereby it appeareth, that whether one or moe, yet Kings there were in Britayne, bearing rule vnder ye Ro|mayne Emperours. [...]. Mon. On the other parte, the com|mon opinion of our Chronicle writers is, that ye chiefe gouernement remained euer with the Bri|taynes, and that the Romayne Senate recey|uing an yeerely tribute, ſent certayne times (ex officio) their Emperours and Lieutenants into this Iſle, to repreſſe the rebellious tumultes ther|in begonne, or to beate backe the inuaſion of the enimies that went about to inuade it. And thus woulde th [...]ſe writers inferre, that the Britaynes euer obeyed their King, till at length they were put beſide the gouernement by the Saxons. But where as in the common hiſtorie of Englande, the ſucceſſion of Kings ought to be kepte, ſo ofte as it chanceth in the ſame, that there is not anye founde to fyll the place, then one while the Ro|mane Emperours are placed in their ſtrades, and another while their lieutenants, and are ſayde to be created Kings of the Britaines, as though the Emperours were inferiours vnto the Kings of Britaine, and that the Romane Lieutenants at their appoyntments, and not by preſcripte of the Senate or Emperours adminiſtred ye Prouince. But this may ſuffice here to aduertiſe you of the contrarietie in writers, & now we will goe forth in following our hiſtories, as we haue done here|tofore, ſauing that where the Romaine hiſtories write of things done here by Emperours or their Lieutenants, it ſhall be ſhewed as reaſon requi|reth, ſith there is a great appearance of troth oftẽ|times in the ſame, as thoſe that be authoriſed and allowed in the opinion of the learned.

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3.13. The maner of the Britains fighting in charets, the Romans giue a fresh sallie to the Britains and put them to flight, they sue to Caesar for peace; what kings and their powers were assistants to Cassibellane in the battell against Caesar, and the maner of both peoples encounters by the report of diuers Chronologers. The xiij. Chapter.

The maner of the Britains fighting in charets, the Romans giue a fresh sallie to the Britains and put them to flight, they sue to Caesar for peace; what kings and their powers were assistants to Cassibellane in the battell against Caesar, and the maner of both peoples encounters by the report of diuers Chronologers. The xiij. Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _WHilest these things were a dooing, it chanced that as one of the Romane legions na|med the seuenth, was sent to fetch in corne out of the coun|trie adioining (as their cu|stome was) no warre at that time being suspected, or once looked for, when part of the people remained abroad in the field, and part repaired to the campe: those that warded before the campe, informed Cesar, that there appeared a dust greater than was accustomed from that quarter, into the which the legion was gone to fetch in corne. Cesar iudging therof what the matter might meane, commanded those bands that warded to go with him that way foorth, and appointed other two bands to come into their roomes, and the residue of his people to get them to armor, and to follow quicklie after him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He was not gone anie great way from the campe, when he might sée where his people were ouermat|ched by the enimies, and had much a doo to beare out the brunt: for the legion being thronged together, the Britains pelted them fore with arrowes and darts on ech side: for sithens there was no forrage left in anie part of the countrie about, but onelie in this place, the Britains iudged that the Romans would come thither for it: therefore hauing lodged them|selues within the woods in ambushes the night be|fore; on the morrowe after when they saw the Ro|mans dispersed here & there, and busie to cut downe the corne, they set vpon them on a sudden, and slea|ing some few of them, brought the residue out of or|der, compassing them about with their horssemen and charets, so that they were in great distresse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The maner of fight with these charets was such, that in the beginning of a battell they would ride a|bout the sides and skirts of the enimies host, and be|stow their darts as they sate in those charets, so that oftentimes with the braieng of the horsses, and cra|king noise of the charet whéeles they disordered their enimies, and after that they had woond themselues in amongst the troops of horssemen, they would leape out of the charets and fight on foot. In the meane time those that guided the charets would withdraw them selues out of the battell, placing themselues so, that if their people were ouermatched with the multitude of enimies, they might easilie withdraw to their cha|rets, and mount vpon the same againe, by meanes wherof they were as readie to remooue as the horsse|men, and as stedfast to stand in the battell as the foot|men, and so to supplie both duties in one. And those charetmen by exercise and custome were so cunning in their feat, that although their horsses were put to run and gallop, yet could they stay them and hold them backe at their pleasures, and turne and wind them to and fro in a moment, notwithstanding that the place were verie stéepe and dangerous: and a|gaine they would run vp and downe verie nimblie vpon the cops, and stand vpon the beame, and conuey themselues quicklie againe into the charet.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Cesar thus finding his people in great distresse and readie to be destroied, came in good time, and de|liuered them out of that danger: for the Britains vpon his approch with new succors, gaue ouer to as|saile their enimies any further, & the Romans were deliuered out of the feare wherein they stood before his comming. Furthermore, Cesar considering the time serued not to assaile his enimies, kept his ground, and shortlie after brought backe his legi|ons into the campe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 While these things were thus a dooing, & all the Ro|mans occupied, the rest that were abroad in the fields got them away. After this there followed a sore sea|son of raine and fowle weather, which kept the Ro|mans with in their campe, and staid the Britains from offering battell. But in the meane time they sent messengers abroad into all parts of the coun|trie, to giue knowledge of the small number of the Romans, and what hope there was both of great spoile to be gotten, and occasion to deliuer them|selues from further danger for euer, if they might once expell the Romans out of their campe. Here|vpon a great multitude both of horssemen and foot|men of the Britains were spéedilie got togither, and approched the Romane campe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Cesar although he saw that the same would come to passe which had chanced before, that if the enimies were put to the repulse, they would easilie escape the danger with swiftnesse of foot; yet hauing now with him thirtie horssemen (which Comius of Arras had brought ouer with him, when he was sent from Ce|sar as an ambassador vnto the Britains) he placed his legions in order of battell before his campe, and so comming to ioine with the Britains, they were not able to susteine the violent impression of the ar|med men, and so fled. The Romans pursued them so farre as they were able to ouertake anie of them, and so slaieng manie of them, & burning vp all their EEBO page image 27 houses all about, came backe againe to their campe. Immediatlie wherevpon, euen the same day, they sent ambassadors to Cesar to sue for peace, who glad|lie accepting their offer, commanded them to send ouer into Gallia, after he should be returned thither, hostages in number duble to those that were agréed vpon at the first. After that these things were thus ordered, Cesar because the moneth of September was well-neare halfe spent, and that winter hasted on (as season not méet for his weake and bruised ships to brooke the seas) determined not to staie anie lon|ger, but hauing wind and weather for his purpose, got himselfe aboord with his people, and returned in|to Gallia.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 ¶Thus writeth Cesar touching his first iournie made into Britaine.Caesar de bello Gallieo lib. 4. But the British historie (which Polydor calleth the new historie) declareth that Ce|sar in a pitcht field was vanquished at the firt en|counter, and so withdrew backe into France. Beda also writeth, that Cesar comming into the countrie of Gallia, where the people then called Morini inha|bited (which are at this day the same that inhabit the diocesse of Terwine) from whence lieth the shortest passage ouer into Britaine, now called England, got togither 80 saile of great ships and row gal|lies, wherewith he passed ouer into Britaine, & there at the first being wearied with sharpe and sore fight, and after taken with a grieuous tempest, he lost the greater part of his nauie, with no small number of his souldiers, and almost all his horssemen: and ther|with being returned into Gallia, placed his souldi|ors in stéeds to soiourne there for the winter season. Thus saith Bede. The British historie moreouer ma|keth mention of thrée vnder-kings that aided Cassi|bellane in this first battell fought with Cesar, as Cridiorus alias Ederus, king of Albania, now cal|led Scotland: Guitethus king of Uenedocia, that is Northwales: and Britaell king of Demetia, at this day called Southwales.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The same historie also maketh mention of one Be|linus that was generall of Cassibellanes armie, and likewise of Nenius brother to Cassibellane, who in fight happened to get Cesars swoord fastened in his shield by a blow which Cesar stroke at him. Andro|geus also and Tenancius were at the battell in aid iof Cassibellane. But Nenius died within 15 daies after the battell of the hurt receiued at Cesars hand, although after he was so hurt, he slue Labienus one of the Romane tribunes: all which may well be true, sith Cesar either maketh the best of things for his owne honour, or else coueting to write but com|mentaries, maketh no account to declare the néede|les circumstances, or anie more of the matter, than the chiefe points of his dealing.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Againe,Hector Boet. the Scotish historiographers write, that when it was first knowne to the Britains, that Ce|sar would inuade them, there came from Cassibel|lane king of Britaine an ambassador vnto Ederus king of Scots, who in the name of king Cassibellane required aid against the common enimies the Ro|mains, which request was granted, and 10 thousand Scots sent to the aid of Cassibellane. At their com|ming to London, they were most ioifullie receiued of Cassibellane, who at the same time had know|ledge that the Romans were come on land, and had beaten such Britains backe as were appointed to re|sist their landing. Wherevpon Cassibellane with all his whole puissance mightilie augmented, not onlie with the succours of the Scots, but also of the Picts (which in that common cause had sent also of their people to aid the Britains) set forward towards the place where he vnderstood the enimies to be.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 At their first approch togither, Cassibellane sent foorth his horssemen and charets called Esseda, by the which he thought to disorder the araie of the enimies. Twice they incountred togither with doubtfull vic|torie. At length they ioined puissance against puis|sance, and fought a verie sore and cruell battell, till fi|nally at the sudden comming of the Welshmen and Cornishmen, so huge a noise was raised by the sound of bels hanging at their trappers and charets, that the Romans astonied therewith, were more easilie put to flight. The Britains, Scots, and Picts fol|lowing the chase without order or araie, so that by reason the Romans kept themselues close togi|ther, the Britains, Scots, & Picts did scarse so much harme to the enimies as they themselues receiued. But yet they followed on still vpon the Romans till it was darke night.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Cesar after he had perceiued them once with|drawne, did what he could to assemble his compa|nies togither, minding the next morning to séeke his reuenge of the former daies disaduantage. But for|somuch as knowledge was giuen him that his ships (by reason of a sore tempest) were so beaten and rent, that manie of them were past seruice, he doubted least such newes would incourage his enimies, and bring his people into despaire. Wherfore he determi|ned not to fight till time more conuenient, sending all his wounded folks vnto the ships, which he com|manded to be newlie rigged and trimmed. After this, kéeping his armie for a time within the place where he was incamped without issuing foorth, he shortlie drew to the sea side, where his ships laie at anchor, and there within a strong place fortified for the purpose he lodged his host, and finallie without hope to atchieue anie other exploit auaileable for that time, he tooke the sea with such ships as were apt for sailing, and so repassed into Gallia, leauing be|hind him all the spoile and baggage for want of ves|sels and leisure to conueie it ouer. ¶Thus haue the Scots in their chronicles framed the matter, more to the conformitie of the Romane histories, than ac|cording to the report of our British and English writers: and therefore we haue thought good to shew it héere, that the diuersitie of writers and their affec|tions may the better appéere.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Of this sudden departing also, or rather fléeing of Iulius Cesar out of Britaine, Lucanus the poet maketh mention, reciting the saieng of Pompeius in an oration made by him vnto this souldiers, wher|in he reprochfullie and disdainfullie reprooued the doo|ings of Cesar in Britaine, saieng:

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Territa quaesitis ostendit terga Britannis.