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24.2. THE CONTINVATI|on of the chronicles of England from the yeare of our Lord 1576, to this present yeare 1586, &c.

EEBO page image 1270

THE CONTINVATI|on of the chronicles of England from the yeare of our Lord 1576, to this present yeare 1586, &c.

_THe tenth day of No|uember, [...] Stow. An vnnatu|rall brother murthereth his naturall brother, but the vnnatu|rall brother was hanged as he well d [...]serued. in the citie of worcester, a cruell & vnnatural brother (as an other Cain) mur+dered his owne na|turall & lo|uing bro|ther, first smiting his braines out of his head with an ax, and after cutting his throte to make him sure, and then buried him vnder the hearth of a chimneie, thinking thereby (though wrongfullie) quietlie to haue inioied his brothers goods long before in his possession: Anno Reg. 19. but not long after this secret murder comming to light, the murderer was rewarded according to his de|serts, and to the terror of such vnnaturall murde|ring brethren.A tempest in Richmond|shire. The seuententh of March, through a strange tempest which hapned in the North, neere to a towne called Richmond, not onelie cotages, trées, barnes and haiestakes, but also the most part of the church called Patrike Brumton was ouerthrowen, with most strange sights in the aire, both fearefull and terrible.

In the moneth of Aprill, the decaied stone house called the tower vpon London bridge was begun to be taken downe,Tower on Londõ bridge [...]ken downe. and the heads of traitors that were woont there on poles to be fixed, were remoued thense, and set on the gate at the bridge foot toward Southworke. The seuentéenth daie of Maie, Ri|chard Robinson goldsmith was drawne from the tower of London to Tiburne,Robinson hanged for clipping of gold. and there hanged for clipping of gold. The one and thirtith daie of Maie, Martin Frobisher with one ship and two barks fur|nished for that purpose,Second voi|age to Cataia. sailed from Harwich in Es|sex towards Cataia by the northwest seas, and ente|red the streicts beyond quéene Elizabeths foreland, about thirtie leagues, where he went on shore, and finding store of the blacke stone, which the goldfiners had said to hold gold, and therefore called the same gold o [...]e, he fraught his ship & barke, caught a man, a woman, and a child of that countrie, and then on the foure and twentith of August returning from thense, arriued at Milford hauen in Wales on the twentith of September next following.

Strãge sicke|nesse at Oxford.The fourth, fift, and sixt daie of Iulie, the assises being holden at Oxford, there was arreigned and condemned one Rowland Ienkes, for his seditious toong, at which time there arose amidst the people such a dampe that almost all were smouldered, verie few escaping that were not taken at that instant: the iu|rors died presentlie, shortlie after died sir Robert Bell lord chiefe baron, sir Robert de Olie, sir Willi|am Babington, master Wineman, master de O|lie high shiriffe, master Dauers, master Hare|combe, master Kirle, master Phetipace, master Gréenewood, master Foster, master Nash, sergeant Baram, master Stephans, &c. There died in the towne of Oxford three hundred persons, and sickened there, but died in other places two hundred and od, from the sixt of Iulie to the twelfe of August, after which daie died not one of that sickenesse, for one of them infected not an other, nor anie one woman or child died thereof.

¶ Of this sickenesse there passed a report in print, Ab. Fl. ex re|latu W. B. im|press. 1577. published vnder the name of W. B. who (as he saith himselfe) was present with sir William Babington, and therefore was able, and did (as he thought good) set downe the certeintie of that heauie accident, for the satisfaction of such friends of his as desired to know the vndoubted truth. And the same W. B. set|ting downe the opinion, that diuerse conceiued of this venemous maladie, saith that some supposed it to be of two sorts; howbeit (saith he) it is not so. For those that bled till they died, stroue so much with their sickenesse, that the bloud issued out at their vents: but yet had perfect memorie, euen to the yéelding of their breath, as was verie well perceiued by sir William Babington, who neuer ceased to call vpon God in his great agonie, &c. This reported W. B. as a certeine truth, to stop the flieng rumors of those that (as he saith) haue spoken vntrulie in this be|halfe, and published their owne fantasies.]

On sundaie the fourth of August,Tempest in Suffolke. betwéene the houres of nine and ten of the clocke in the forenone, whilest the minister was reading of the second lesson in the parish church of Bliborough a towne in Suf|folke, a strange and terrible tempest of lightening and thunder strake thorough the wall of the same church into the ground almost a yard déepe, draue downe all the people on that side aboue twentie per|sons, then renting the wall vp to the reuestre, clef [...] the doore, and returning to the steeple, rent the tim|ber, brake the chimes, & fled toward Bongie a towne six miles off. The people that were striken downe were found groueling more than halfe an houre af|ter, whereof one man more than fortie yeares and a boie of fiftéene yeares old were found starke dead: EEBO page image 1271 the other were scorched. The same or the like flash of lightening and cracks of thunder rent the parish church of Bongie, nine miles from Norwich, wroong in sunder the wiers and whéeles of the clocks, slue two men which sat in the belfreie, when the other were at the procession or suffrages, and scorched an other which hardlie escaped. The tower on London bridge being taken downe,The tower on London bridge new builded. and a new foundation drawne, sir Iohn Langleie lord maior of the citie of London laid the first stone on the eight and twen|tith daie of August, in the presence of the shiriffes of London & the two bridgemasters, which new tower was finished in the moneth of September, Anno 1579.

The thirtith daie of Nouember, Cutbert Maine was drawne,

Anno Reg. 20. Cutbert Maine exe|cuted.

An example of sorcerers, and such as seeme to worke wõ|ders to deceiue men of their monie.

hanged, and quartered at Lanceston in Cornewall for preferring Romane power. The seuentéenth of Ianuarie, one Simon Penbrooke dwelling in saint Georges parish in Southworke, being a figureflinger, and vehementlie suspected to be a coniurer, by commandement of the ordinarie iudge for those parties, appeared in the parish church of saint Sauiors in Southworke, at a court holden there. Which Simon being busied in interteining a proctor, and hauing monie in his hand, leaned his head vpon a pew wherein the proctor stood: which af|ter he had doone a certeine space, the proctor began to lift vp his head to sée what he ailed, and found him de|parting out of life, and streightwaie the said Simon fell downe, ratling a little in the throte, and neuer spake word after. This was doone euen as the iudge came into the church, who said it was the iust iudge|ment of God towards those that vsed sorcerie, and a great example to admonish other to feare the iustice of God. After, his clothes being opened, there were found about him fiue diuelish bookes of coniuration, and most abhominable practises, with a picture of tin of a man, hauing thrée dice in his hand with this poesie: Chance dice fortunatlie; & diuerse papers of such like matters, as he had dealt in for men, such men I meane as are mentioned in Leuiticus the twentith chapter and sixt verse: If anie soule turne himselfe after such as woorke with spirits, and after soothsaiers, to go a whooring after them (saith the Lord) I will put my face against that soule, and will cut him off from among my people.

Nelson and Sherewood executed.The third daie of Februarie, Iohn Nelson for denieng the quéenes supremasie, and such other trai|torous words against hir maiestie, was drawne from Newgate to Tiburne, and there hanged, bowelled, and quartered. And on the seuenth of the same moneth of Februarie, Thomas Sherewin was likewise drawne from the tower of London to Ti|burne, and there hanged, bowelled, and quartered for the like offense. The fiue and twentith of Februarie, Iohn de Loy a Frenchman,Counterfet|ters of coine executed. and fiue English gen|tlemen, was conueied from the tower of London towards Norwich, there to be arreigned and execu|ted for coining of monie counterfeit. And on the ninth of March,Pirats hanged. seuen pirats were hanged at Wap|ping in the ouze beside London.

The ladie Margaret countesse of Lennox decea|sed on the tenth of March, at hir house in the parish of Hackneie besides London, and was buried at Westminster on the third of Aprill. The one and thir|tith and last of Maie,Frobishers third voiage. Martine Frobisher with fif|teene saile of good ships, manned, vittelled, and other|wise well appointed, departed from Harwich in Es|sex on his third voiage towards Cataia. And on the one and thirtith and last daie of Iulie, after manie attempts, and sundrie times being put backe by I|lands of ice in the streicts, he recouered his long wished port, and came to anchor in the Ilands, new|lie by hir maiestie named Meta incognita, where (as in the yeare before) they fraught their ships with the like stone or gold ore out of the mines; and then on the last of August returning thense, arriued safelie in England about the first of October.

The two and twentith of Ianuarie being thursdaie, Anno Reg. 21. The recei|uing of Cas|simere. about seuen of the clocke at night, Iohn Cassimere countie palatine of Rhene, duke of Bauare, landing at the tower of London, was there by diuerse noble men and others honourablie receiued, and conueied by cresset light and torch light to sir Thomas Gres|hams house in Bishops gate street, where he was receiued with sounding of trumpets, drums, fiefs, and other instruments of musicke, and there both lodged and feasted till sundaie next, that he was by the nobilitie fetched and conueied to the court at Westminster, where after he had talked with hir ma|iestie, he returned vnto Summersets house at the strand, and was there lodged. In the wéeke follo|wing he hunted at Hampton court. On sundaie the first of Februarie he beheld a valiant iusting and running at the tilt at Westminster. On the next morrow in the same place he saw them fight at bar|riers with swords on horsse backe. On tuesdaie he dined with the lord maior of London; on wednes|daie with the dutchesse of Suffolke, at hir house cal|led the Barbican in Red crosse stréet; on thursdaie at the Stilliard, &c. On sundaie the eight of Februa|rie, the quéene made him knight of the garter, by de|liuering to him the collar, & putting the garter on his leg at White hall. And on the fourteenth of Februa|rie, he departed from London to Rochester home|wards, with great rewards giuen to him by the quéenes maiestie, the nobilitie, men of honour, the lord maior of London, and other citizens of that citie.

The same moneth of Februarie; to wit, on the fourth daie, and in the night next following, fell such abundance of snow,Déep [...] snow. that on the fift daie in the mor|ning, the same snow was found in London to lie two foot déepe in the shallowest, and otherwise being driuen by the wind, verie boisterous in the northeast on banks one ell or a yard & a half déepe. In the which drifts of snow, farre deeper in the countrie, manie cattell, and some men and women were ouerwhel|med and lost. It snowed till the eight daie of that moneth, and frised till the tenth, and then followed a [...]haw with continuall raine a long time after, which caused such high waters, and great flouds, that the marishes and low grounds being drowned for the time,Great land waters. and the water of the Thames rose so high into Westminster hall, that after the fall there|of, some fishes were found to remaine in the said hall.

The seuentéenth of Februarie, an Irishman for murdering of a man in a garden of Stepenheth pa|rish,A murtherer hanged on Mile end gréene. was hanged in chaines on the common called Mile end gréene. This common was sometimes, yea in the memorie of men yet liuing, a large mile long (from White chappell to Stepenheth church) and therefore called Mile end greene, but now at this pre|sent, by gréedie (and as séemeth to me vnlawfull) in|closures, and building of houses, notwithst [...]nding hir maiesties proclamation to the contrarie, it re|maineth scarse halfe a mile in length.Lord kéeper deceased. The twentith daie of Februarie deceased sir Nicholas Bacon, lord kéeper of the great seale of England, who was honourablie buried vnder a sumptuous monument or toome (by him in his life time erected) in S. Pauls church of London, on the ninth daie of March. This sir Nicholas Bacon in his life time gaue for six scho|lers, to be found in Bennets college in Cambridge, to each of them three pounds six shillings and eight pence the yeare for euer.

¶The said sir Nicholas Bacons toome aforesaid, bea|ring EEBO page image 1272 certeine representations of his wiues and chil|dren in imagerie worke, Ab. Fl. collect ex epitaph [...] praenobilis. is adorned with a notable epitaph, wherein is pithilie described the meanes whereby he grew to be noble, as also immortall. The same being conteined in these verses following, and iustifiable by the verie epitaph, whereof this is a true transcription, & great pitie but it shuld be perpetuall.

Hic Nicolaum ne Baconum conditum
On the south side these verses. Existima illum, tam diu Britannici
Regni secundum columen; exitium malis,
Bonis asylum; caeca quem non extulit
Ad hunc honorem sors; sed aequitas fides,
Doctrina, pietas, vnica & prudentia.
Non morte raptum crede, qui vnica
On the north side these. Vita perennes emerit duas: agit
Vitam secundam coelites inter animus,
Fama implet orbem, vita quae illi tertia est:
Hac positum in ara est corpus olim animi domus,
Ara dicata sempiternae memoriae.]

Great snow in the moneth of Aprill.This yeare in the moneth of Aprill, to wit on the foure and twentith daie, fell such a snow betwéene the hours of foure of the clocke in the morning, & nine of the clocke before noone of the same daie, that in Lon|don the same snow was found to lie one foot déepe. The 25 daie of Aprill, sir Thomas Bromleie knight was made lord chancellor of England.Sir Thomas Bromleie lord chancellor.

24.2.1. The chancellors of England, col|lected out of sundrie ancient histories.

The chancellors of England, col|lected out of sundrie ancient histories.

The collec|tion of Fran|cis Thin._THe creation of this sir Thomas Bromleie lord chancellor, hath occasio|ned me to treate of the chancellors of England, a matter which I haue béene the willinger to set downe, because I would mini|ster cause to others (who haue long wanted of their cunning in this matter) to impart to the world some of their great knowledge herein, to the benefit of their countrie. But since I doubt that they will not: accept this in good part till that come. And as I may, & perhaps doo (in this) somewhat more largelie (than in the iudgement of others shall seeme answe|rable to the most receiued opinion, touching the chancellors) treat of the antiquitie of them; so yet I haue no mind to erre, or to leade anie other into error. Wherefore, if things be not in perfection vp|on this first rough hewing (as nothing is at the first so exquisit, as time dooth not after amend it) yet disdaine it not, sith this may giue more light than before was knowen. And I determine God wil|ling, either to amend, or to confesse and auoid in the large description of their liues, whatsoeuer imper|fections haue now distilled out of my pen, either for mistaking or misplacing of name, person, or time; and so to the matter.

It hath beene some question amongst the best an|tiquaries of our age, that there were neuer anie chancellors in England, before the comming of Ed|ward the confessor out of Normandie, whome they suppose to haue brought the same officer with him from thense into this realme. But sith I am with manie reasons and ancient authorities led to beleue the contrarie; I will imbrace the contrarie opinion therevnto, and hold in this discourse (as the order thereof shall prooue) that there were chancellors be|fore saint Edwards time; for the confirmation whereof and for the authoritie of them; for the ety|mologie and originall of the name, and for the conti|nuance of their office, thou shalt find an ample dis|course in my booke purposelie written of the liues of the chancellors, whervnto I wholie refer thée: who I hope shall within these few yeares be partaker thereof, and in the meane time giue thee this tast of the age and names of the chancellors, and vicechan|cellors, and such keepers of the great seale, as ser|ued in place of chancellors. For euerie one that was kéeper of the great seale, was not intituled chan|cellor, no more than euerie chancellor was intitu|led the keeper of the greatseale. But because the one did serue in the vacancie of the other (so that after a certeine sort, the kéeper of the great seale was vicechancellor, and possessed the place, though not the name of a chancellor; as in our age, sir Ni|cholas Bacon did: we therefore haue set downe the names of the one and the other, as they followed in succession of time, after this manner.

Turketill chancellor to Ethelbald,Turketill. who began his reigne about the yeare of Christ 718, which Tur|ketill gaue six manours to the abbeie of Cro [...]land, as I haue séene noted.

Saint Swithin bishop of Winchester was chan|cellor,Saint Swi|thin. and chiefe of councell to the great monarch king Egbert, though some attribute him to Ed|gar, which Egbert began his reigne about the yeare of Christ 802.

Wlfinus, chancellor to king Athelstan,Wlfinus. who began his reigne in the yeare of our redemption nine hun|dred and foure and twentie.

Adulphus, chancellor to king Edgar,Adulphus. who began his reigne in the yeare that the world became flesh, nine hundred fiftie and nine: of this man speaketh Hugo Petro Burgensis; and Leland calleth this A|dulph Cancellarium & archigrammatum: chancellor or chiefe secretarie.

Alsius or Aelsius the second abbat of Elie, Hist. Eliens. lib. 2. written in the time of K. Stephan. chan|cellor to king Etheldred, who began his reigne in the yeare of Christ nine hundred seuentie and eight, this man, being by Ethelwold bishop of Winchester, consecrated abbat at the appointment of the said king Ethelred or Egelred, and being then abbat of Elie, when Ethelred gaue foorth his commande|ment that the abbat of Elie should then, and for e|uer, be chancellor; I doubt not to place him here a|mongst the chancellors: the proofe of which matter I haue here Verbatim set downe, out of the second booke of the historie of Elie. Statuit (which was Ethelred) atque concessit quatenus ecclesiam de Eli, ex tunc & semper in regis curia cancellarij ageret dignitatem, quod etiam alijs sancti videlicet Augustini & Glesconiae eccle|sijs constituit, vt abbates istorum coenobiorum vicissim adsig|natis succedendo temporibus annum trifariè diuiderent, cum sanctuarijs & caeteris ornamentis ministrando: &c.

Leofricus Bathonicus chancellor to Edward the confessor,Leofricus. in the yeare of Christ one thousand fortie and fiue, and some yeares before: this man was bi|shop of Cridington in Cornewall, which sée was af|ter translated to Excester.

Wlfinus,Wlfinus. or Wul [...]inus chancellor to Edward the confessor, in the latter end of the said yeare of Christ one thousand fortie and fiue, being the third yeare of his reigne; this man cannot be he which some would haue to be Wlfinus the abbat of Westminster. For that Wulfinus died one and fortie yeares before this Wulfinus the chancellor; sith that Wulfinus was made abbat of Westminster, about the yeare nine hundred fiftie and eight, and died in the yeare one thousand and foure; being bishop of Shireburne. Yet I will not at this time iudiciallie resolue, al|though I suppose it true, whether this Wlfinus the chancellor, and Wulfinus the bishop of Lichfield, witnesse to a déed, wherein Edward the confessor granted certeine liberties to Leofwine, abbat of the abbeie of Couentrie, built by Leofrike erle of Mer|cia, be all one man or no. Againe, there is an other man which was abbat of saint Albons called Wul|finus, which for affinitie to the name of this man I thought onelie to touch in this place.

EEBO page image 1273 Resenbaldus.Resenbaldus, or Rembaldus, for I take them both by manie and ancient authorities to be all one man, was chancellor to Edward the confessor, and seale bearer, witnesse amongest others, to manie déeds which I haue séene of the confessors; some da|ted in the yeare one thousand thrée score and six, and some otherwise. He was buried at Cirencester, or Cicester.

Mauricius chancellor to William the Conque|ror in the yeare of our Lord one thousand thrée score and seuen,Mauricius. being the first and part of the second yere of William the Conqueror.

Osmundus.Osmundus, after bishop of Sarum, chancellor to William the Conqueror, in the yere one thousand three score and seauen, and after in the yere one thou|sand thrée score and fiftéene, about the ninth yeare of the kings reigne.

Arfastus.Arfastus bishop of Helmane, who translated his sée from Helmane to Tetford, was chancellor to William the Conqueror, in the yéere of Christ one thousand thrée score and eight, being in the second and third yere of the Conqueror, and also in the yere one thousand seuentie and seuen, being about the tenth yeare of William Conqueror.

Hirmanus that was first made bishop of Su|ring or Wilton,Hirmanus. and translated his sée from Wil|ton to Shirburne, & from thense to Sarum; he is that Hirmanus which I suppose was chancellor to Willi|am the Conqueror, and called Hirmannus, and that wrote the life and miracles of saint Edmund king of the Eastangles.

William Uelson borne of a noble house, chap|leine and chancellor to William the Conqueror (as hath Robertus Montensis) succéeded Arfastus in the bishoprike of Tetford,William Uelson. to whom by the gift of Willi|am Rufus succeeded in that sée Herbertus Losinga abbat of Ramseie, which translated the bishops see to Norwich; of which Losinga were (as hath Matthew Westminster) these verses here set downe compiled:

Surgit in ecclesia monstrum genitore Losinga,
Simonidum secta, canonum virtute resecta,
Petre nimis tardas, nam Simon ad ardua tentat,
Sipraesens esses, non Simon ad alta volaret,
Proh dolor! ecclesiae nummis venduntur & aere,
Filius est praesul, pater abbas, Simon vterque.
Quid non speremus, sinummos possideamus?
Omnia nummus habet, quid vult facit, addit & aufert,
Res nimis iniusta, nummus sit praesul & abbas.

William Gif|ford.William Gifford bishop of Winchester was chan|cellor in the time of the Conqueror, and of William Rufus, & of Henrie, who made him bishop of Win|chester in the yeare one thousand and one hundred, and was consecrated in the yéere of Christ one thou|sand one hundred and seuen: though it seemeth that Robert Bluet came in place of this William Gif|ford, remooued about the fourth of the same Rufus from his office of chancellorship, as I suppose will be well proued, but after placed againe in that office. Of the death of this William is much contrarietie, for Matthew Westminster placed it thrée seuerall yéeres, the eight and twentith and nine and twentith yeare of Henrie the first, and againe in the yeare of Christ one thousand one hundred fortie and two, being the seuenth yeare of king Stephan.

Robert Bluet.Robert Bluet, Bloet, or Bloscit made chancellor in the yéere of Christ one thousand and ninetie, being the fourth yeare of William Rufus, he was made bishop of Lincolne in the yeare of our redemption one thousand ninetie and two: but as it appeereth to me by some authoritie that I haue seene, he did exe|cute that office being bishop of Lincolne: he died at Woodstocke in the yeare of Christ one thousand one hundred twentie and thrée, being about the thrée and twentith yere of the reigne of Henrie the first, whose epitaph Henrie Huntington reciteth in this manner:

Pontificûm Robertus honor, quem fama superite [...]
Perpetuare dabit, nec obiturus obit:
Hic humilis, diues (res mira) potens, pius vlt [...]r,
Compatiens, mitis, quùm pateretur erat,
Noluit esse suis dominus, studuit pater esse,
Semper in aduersis murus & arma suis:
In decima Iani mendacis somnia mundi
Liquit, & euigilans vera per hennè vidit.

Ranulphus in the time of William Rufus, which might be that man which was after chancellor in the time of Henrie the first.Ranulphus

Waldricus chancellor to Henrie the first,Waldricus. about the yeare of our Lord one thousand one hundred and thrée, being the third yeare of his reigne.

Herbertus chancellor in the fourth yeare of Hen|rie the first,Herbertus. in the yeare of our saluation one thou|sand one hundred and foure (as appeareth by an ano|nymall pamphlet in written hand) of whome I am not yet resolued whether this were Herbertus Lo|singa bishop of Norwich or no.

Roger bishop of Salisburie,Roger. whome Henrie the first called a méet chapleine to serue souldiors, was chancellor to king Henrie the first, in the yeare of our redemption one thousand one hundred and one, being the first yéere of king Henrie the first, and in the yéere one thousand one hundred and seuen, about the seuenth yeare of the said Henrie the first, being chosen bishop in the yere of Christ one thousand one hundred and two, and consecrated in the yeare one thousand one hundred and seuen.

Galfridus Rufus bishop of Durham,Galfridus. witnesse to a déed wherein Henrie the first confirmed to the pri|orie of Christs church a peece of ground without Ald|gate called Knighton guild, in the presence of Gef|frie chancellor, Geffrie Clinton, and William Clin|ton: he was also chancellor in the two and twentith yéere of Henrie the first, and so vntill the thrée and thirtith yeare of the reigne of Henrie the first, and then was made bishop of Durham, which Geffrie died about the yere of our redemption one thousand one hundred fortie and one.

Ranulphus,Ranulphus. called by Matthew Westminster Ar|nulphus, chancellor to Henrie the first, and Richard the chapleine, kéeper of the great seale, being at one time. This Ranulph was chancellor in the yeare of Christ one thousand one hundred and sixtéene, being the sixtéenth of king Henrie the first, in which office I suppose that he continued, vntill the yeare of Christ one thousand one hundred twentie and thrée, being the thrée and twentith of the said Henrie, in which yeare this chancellor (for so is he then called) fell from his horsse and brake his necke on a hill not far from Dunstable, where the king kept his Christmasse.

Reginald chancellor to king Henrie the first,Reginald. as Leland hath set him downe, writing in this sort in his notes of Montacute abbeie: Reginaldus cancellarius, so named (béelike) of his office, he was a man of gret fame about king Henrie the first: he fell to religion, and was prior of Montacute, and inlarged it with great buildings and possessions, &c.

Roger bishop of Salisburie againe chancellor in the latter end of the reigne of king Henrie the first,Roger. and in the beginning of king Stephan, in the yere of Christ one thousand one hundred thirtie and six, which Henrie the first died in the yeare of our redemption one thousand one hundred thirtie and fiue, being the fiue and thirtith yeare of the reigne of the said Hen|rie. This Roger died in the yeare of Christ one thou|sand one hundred thirtie and nine, being about the fourth yeare of king Stephan.

Godfreie chancellor to Henrie the first (as I ga|therGodfreie. out of Matthew Parker in the life of William Corbell or Corbris) the six and thirtith archbishop of EEBO page image 1274 [...]rburie, to which dignitie this William was [...] in the three and twentith yeare of Henrie [...], being the yeare of Christ 1123, of which God| [...]e the said Matthew further writeth in this sort, speaking of the said William the archbishop retur|ned from Rome with the pall: Deinde Alexandrum Lincolniensem episcopum Cantuariae, Godefredum regni can|cellarium Bathoniensem episcopum Londini conse [...]rauit. Con|cerning which Godfreie we will speake more here|after in the liues of the chancellors, onelie at this time setting downe that this Godefredus was the quéenes chapleine, and could not be that Galfridus before named, which was bishop of Durham; for this Godefredus died six yeares before that Galfridus, for this bishop of Bath died in the yeare of our Lord 1135, being the last of king Henrie Beauclerke, and the first of king Stephan; & that bishop of Dur|ham died in the yeare of our Lord 1141, being a|bout the sixt yeare of the said king Stephan; and this Godfreie was the second bishop of Bath and Wels after the vniting of those two cities to one bishop|rike by Iohn de Towres, the first bishop of those two places in the yeare of our Lord 1092, being about the fift yeare of William Rufus.

Alexander bishop of Lincolne.Alexander bishop of Lincolne (as may be after a sort gathered out of Wilhelmus Paruus lib. 1. cap. 6.) being cousine or nephue to Roger bishop of Salis|burie was chancellor: the words of which W. Paruus be these: Eidem (that was to king Stephan) quoque sublimato in regem, This was a|bout the be|ginning of the fourth yeere of K. Stephan, being An. Do. 1138, but Mat. [...] giueth it to An. Dom. 1139: who saith, Collo [...] qui [...] fuit [...] anne. [...] &c. And Henrie Hun|tington agre|eth wholie with W. Par| [...]s. se (that was Roger bishop of Sa|lisburie) talem exhibuit, vt obsequiorum gratia praeclaram apud illum habere fiduciam videretur. Tantis ille beneficijs in|gratus, & in ipsum episcopum (cuius opera nunquam episco|palia fuere) vltor diuinitus ordinatus, eundem tanquam ex|igui hominem momenti primo carcerati custodia, postmodum etiam cibi inopia, & nepoti eius (qui cancellarius fuerat regis) intentato supplicio ita coarctauit, vt duo illa praeclara castella (which were the castels of Uise otherwise called de Deuises, and the castell of Shirburne) in quibus thesauri eius erant repositi resignaret. Thus much Wilhelmus Newburgensis, the truth whereof I leaue to other to consider, sith the words of those authors may be di|uerslie expounded, either that this Alexander was chancellor, or his sonne, or else the sonne of Roger bi|shop of Salisburie. But be it any or none of them, as the truth shall hereafter be made plaine, yet bicause I haue mentioned Alexander in this place, I thinke it not amisse to set downe such verses as Henrie Huntington hath recited of this Alexander, which are:

Splendor Alexandri, non tam renitescit honore,
Quàm per eum renitescit honor, flos námque virorum,
Dando tenere putans thesauros cogit honoris,
Et gratis dare festinans ne danda rogentur,
Quod non dum dederit non dum se credit habere
Oh decus! oh morum directio! quo veniente,
Certa fides, hilaris clementia, cauta potestas,
Lene iugum, doctrina placens, correctio dulcis,
Libertásque decens, venere pudórque facetus.
Lincoliae gens magna prius, nec maxima semper,
Talis & iste diu sit nobis tutor honoris.

Robert.Robert chancellor of England in the time of king Stephan, but I find not in what yeare, bicause the charter is without date, neither can I learne what he was, bicause I know not his surname.

Philip.Philip chancellor to king Stephan, about the fourth yeare of his reigne, being about the yeare of our Lord 1139, witnesse to manie déedes which king Stephan made to the moonks of Elie, and to Nigellus the bishop of that sée.

Reinold.Reinold abbat of Walden, whome I haue séene in one anonymall briefe written chronicle to be ter|med chancellor: but in what time he liued, or what o|ther name he had I doo not yet know, but by the course of the historie much about this time.

Iohn chancellor of England in the time of king Henrie the second,Iohn. but what he was or in what yeare of king Henrie he liued I doo not know, and there|fore leaue it to him that both can and ought to giue life to these persons whom he imprisoneth in the east castell of London; not doubting but in time he will doo his countrie good, and correct other men; though now he be so streict laced, as that he will not procure anie furtherance of other mens trauels.

Thomas Becket made chancellor (as some write) in the first yeere of the reigne of king Henrie the se|cond, others saie in the fourth yeare:Thomas Becket. but the best au|thors agrée that he gaue ouer the seale in the yeare of Christ 1162, being the eight yeare of the victorious prince the said Henrie the second against the will of the prince, he died in the yeare of our redemption 1170, as these verses doo prooue, being such as the curiositie of that superstitious age would permit:

Pro Christo, sponsa Christi, sub tempore Christi,
Christes church in Canturburie. In templo Christi, verus amator obit,
Anno mileno, centeno, septuageno,
Anglorum primas corruit ense Thomas.
Quis moritur? praesul: cur? pro grege: qualiter? ense:
Quando? natali: quis locus? ara Dei.

Rafe Warneuile archdeacon of Rone and trea|suror of the church of Yorke,Rafe Warne|uile. was made chancellor a|bout the yeare that the word became flesh 1173, be|ing about the eightéenth yeare of king Henrie the second: of this man speaketh Matthew Paris and Matthew Westminster.

Walterus de Constantijs archdeacon of Oxford after bishop of Lincolne,Walterus de Constantijs. in the yeere of our redemp|tion 1182, from whense he was aduanced in the yeare 1184, being the one and thirtith yéere of king Henrie the second vnto the archbishoprike of Rone, of this man is more spoken in my discourse of the protectors of England pag. 1069.

Geffreie the bastard sonne to king Henrie the se|cond,Geffreie. after that he had surrendered the bishoprike of Lincolne, whereof he was neuer consecrat bishop, but kept the place and receiued the reuenues, was made chancellor much about the six and twentith yeare of king Henrie the second, being the yeare of Christ 1180: yet be there some that saie he resig|ned the bishoprike in the seuen and twentith yeare of king Henrie the second, in the yeare of Christ 1181. The difference whereof groweth (as I suppose) for that some accompt the beginning of the yeare of our Lord from the first of Ianuarie, as all other na|tions of Europe doo; some from the birth of Christ, as we in England did long time since the conquest; and some from the fiue and twentith of March, on which it is supposed that the world began first to be created: which last accompt we in England (and the Scots as hath Lesleus) doo kéepe, togither with them of Genoa or Gene in Italie, contrarie to the order of all other nations. The begining of which maner of accompt amongst vs I cannot as yet certeinlie learne: but I suppose it began much about the time of king Edward the third, for all the former historio|graphers begin the yeare from the birth of Christ.

William Longchampe the proud bishop of Elie,William Longchamp. legat of England for the bishop of Rome, chiefe iu|stice of the south and west parts of England, and de|putie of that part of the realme, when Richard the first went to the warres of the holie land, was made chancellor in the said first of king Richard, being the yeare of our redemption 1189: of the sumptuous feast of whose inthronization thus writeth Ferthul|phus (or Ferculphus) by the waie of comparison:

Praeuisis alijs, Eliensia festa videre,
Est quasi praeuisa nocte videre diem.
He died in the yéere of Christ 1197, going to Rome, in the abbeie of Pimie, being of the charterhouse or|der. EEBO page image 1275 About which time in the sixt yeare of Richard the first, there was a vicechancellor called Malus Catulus.

Eustachius.Eustachius deane of Salisburie, was chancellor of England, being elected bishop of Elie the third [...]des of August, in the yeare that the word became flesh 1196, being the ninth yeare of king Richard the first, of whome thus writeth Matthew Parker, in the life of Hubert archbishop of Canturburie, con|trarie to that which others affirme, writing that Eu|s [...]achius succeeded William Lonchampe in the of|fice of chancellor, and in the bishoprike of Elie. The words of Matthew Parker in the life of Hubert be these: Hubertus deposito magistratu ciuili, ecclesiae curae totus vacabat, consecrauítque postea Robertum de Salopesbi episco|pum Banchorensem, & Eustachium qui in cancellarij munere ei successit Eliensem episcopum, Westmonasterij debita accepta ab vtróque subiectionis professione.

Hubert Wal|ter or Walter Hubert.Hubert Walter or Walter Hubert, for such a transmutation of the name is vsed by authors, be|ing first bishop of Salisburie and then archbishop of Canturburie, was made chancellor shortlie after the coronation of king Iohn, which was in the yeare that the virgine brought foorth Christ 1199, at what time a certeine noble man said vnto him in scorne, I haue often seene of a chancellor made a bishop, but I neuer before saw an archbishop made a chan|cellor.

Simon.Simon or rather Hugh, of which is more herafter, archdeacon of Welles in the first yeare of king Iohn (after as I suppose that Hubert had left the of|fice being so disgraced & abased as he thought) was witnesse to a déed, in which king Iohn granted to the citizens of Yorke a guildhall, hanse, and other li|berties, as I haue seene noted in the copie of the same charter, for which cause I haue heere set it downe as an other man, although in truth I am ful|lie resolued that this Simon and the Hugh follow|ing were all one person, leauing it yet for euerie mans iudgement.

Hugh de Welles.Hugh de Welles archdeacon of Welles, wit|nesse to the déed in which king Iohn, in the sixt yeare of his reigne, confirmed to the monasterie of West|minster, Gistslep or Islep in Oxfordshire, in which house Edward the confessor was borne, he was made bishop of Lincolne about the tenth yeare of king Iohns reigne, in the yeare of our Lord 1209, and died in the yeare of our Lord 1235.

Walter Braie chosen bishop of Chester, in the yeare of our Lord 1210,Walter Braie. was bishop of Worcester and after bishop of Yorke, a man of extreame age, was made chancellor in the seuenth yeare of king Iohn as one anonymall chronicle saith, to hold that office during his life. Others saie that he was made chancellor in the yeare of Christ 1209, being the tenth yeare of king Iohn after Hugh de Welles. But I suppose he surrendred that patent to hold it during his life, when he came to be bishop of Yorke. Of this man is more spoken in my treatise of the protectors of England, pag. 1069.

Richard de Marischo.Richard de Marischo, whom Matthew Paris term|eth Tholenarius, as it were tolegatherer or treasuror if you list, being archdeacon of Northumberland, was chancellor in the fourth yeare of king Iohn, as ap|peareth by a déed that I haue séene: and further he was made chancellor in the 15 yeare of king Iohn, in which office he cõtinued to the 17 yeare of the said king, and as some doo write during king Iohns life, and died about the calends of Maie in the yeare of our redemption 1226, in the tenth yeare of the long reigne of king Henrie the third, as some haue. But the booke of Durham saith, that he was made bishop of that sée by Gwado the legat, and consecra|ted by Walter Braie bishop of Yorke, in the yeare of our redemption 1214, being about the sixtéenth yeare of king Iohn, and died suddenlie at Peter|borrow the first daie of Maie, in the yeare of Christ 1226, being the tenth yeare of king Henrie the third, after that he had béene bishop of Durham nine yeares, of whom a moonke of Durham made this epitaph in formall deuise as you see following:

Culmina qui cupi tis laudes pompásque siti tis
Est sedata si tis sime pensare veli tis
Qui populos regi tis memores super omnia si tis
Quòd mors immi tis non parcit bonore poti tis
Vobis praeposi tis similis fueram bene sci tis
Quod sum vos e [...]i tis ad me currendo veni tis
And here sith I am entered into the surname of Marischus, I will set downe what I found ingra|uen on the wall of the doore of the chapter house of the monasterie of Bath (almost defaced with the wether) written in Gréeke Saxon characters.  Hic iacet Alexander de Alueto, & Ernbuerga vxor eius, & Fulco de Alueto filius eorum: & Lucia de Mariscis silia eo [...]ũ, & Iordanus de Mariscis filius eiusdem Luciae, & Wilhelmus de Mariscis filius eiusdem Iordani. Which name of the Marishes, Marshes, or Moores, if it like them to ex|pound it, as I doubt not but manie will quiddle therevpon, was as great a name in Ireland as it was in England.

Rafe Neuill was confirmed (as it séemeth) chan|cellor by the whole consent of the nobilitie,Rafe Neuill bishop of Chi|chester. in the yeare that the word became flesh 1226, being about the tenth yeare of king Henrie the third, after which he was made bishop of Chichester in the eleuenth yeare of king Henrie the third, being the yeare of our redemption 1227, or as hath Matthew Westm. he was made bishop of Chichester in the yeare of Christ 1223, being before chancellor. After which the king in the two and twentith yeare of his reigne, of|fended with Neuill, tooke from him the great seale, & deliuered it to Gefreie of the temple, as hath Mat|thew Paris, and to Iohn de Lexinton: although that the said Neuill remained still chancellor, and recei|ued the profits thereof, to whom the king would after haue regiuen the seale in the yeare of Christ 1239, being the thrée and twentith yeare of the said king Henrie, but Neuill would not receiue it. This man died in the yeare of Christ 1243, being the seuen and twentith yeare of king Henrie the third, at his palace at London not far from the new temple.

Geffreie the Templer & Iohn de Lexinton were made keepers of the great seale.Geffreie the Templer. But shortlie after this Geffreie had the seale taken from him, bicause he grew in mislike of the nobilitie in continuall pro|uoking them to anger.

Hugh Pateshall chanon of Paules is by Mat|thew Paris fol. 656,Hugh Pate|shall chanon of Paules. called chancellor in the thrée and twentith yeare of king Henrie the third, which I much doubt to be true. Of this man shall be more said in the treasurors of England.

Simon the Norman kéeper of the great seale in the three & twentith yeare of king Henrie the third,Simon the Norman. being the yeare of our Lord 1229: he had the seale shortlie after taken from him, and was banished the court, bicause he would not seale the patent, wherby Thomas earle of Flanders might take foure pence for custome of euerie sacke of wooll that came out of England into Flanders. This Simon died in the yeare of Christ 1249, being the thrée and thirtith of king Henrie the third.

Richard Grasse or Grossus abbat of Euesham (the said Simon expelled) had the keeping of the great seale in the thrée and twentith yeare of king Henrie the third, he kept the seale thrée yeares,Richard Grasse abbat of Euesham. and being chosen bishop of Chester, he resigned the same in the yeare of Christ 1242, being the six & twentith yeare of king Henrie the third: he died (being wise & learned in the canon and ciuill law) in the same EEBO page image 1276 yeare in Gascoine, in a citie called in Latine Riola or Regula, where he was buried.

Iohn de Lexinton.Iohn de Lexinton was againe made keeper of the seale in the six and twentith yéere of king Henrie the third, being the yeare of our redemption 1242, to execute that office, Rafe Neuill being in life and still chancellor, but in the kings disgrace, shortlie af|ter which this Neuill died. This Iohn Lexinton died 1257, being the 41 yeare of Henrie the third.

Ranulfe Briton.Ranulfe Briton (as I read) is said to be chancellor and treasuror of the chamber, about the seuen and twentith yeare of Henrie the third, being the yeare of our Lord 1242. I suppose that he onelie had the keeping of the great seale as the rest had before him, during the life of Rafe Neuill, and so I leaue him to the iudgement of others, sith Matthew Paris conti|nuallie nameth him treasuror and once chancellor, who suddenlie died after dinner beholding plaiers at dise, in the yeare of Christ 1246, being the thirtith yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the third: of whom thus writeth the said Matthew Paris in his greater historie fol. 954. Ranulphus Brito quondam do|mino familiarissimus regi & reginae (multis posthabitis nobi|libus) & eiusdem cancellarius specialis, quum post mensalem refectionem aleatores certatim inspexisset colludentes, laetalis apoplexiae inexpectato vulnere corruit sugillatus.

Syluester de Euersden receiued the great seale the nine and twentith yeare of Henrie the third,Syluester de Euersden. be|ing the yeare that the son of God became flesh one thousand two hundred fortie and six: he was vice|chancellor & consecrated bishop of Carleill (being a man most cunning in the custome of the chancerie) in the yeare of Christ 1247, being the one and thir|tith yeare of Henrie the third.

Iohn Man|sell.Iohn Mansell treasuror of Yorke, parson of Maid|stone in Kent, and parson of Wigan, chancellor of Paules, master or ruler of Beuerleie, chiefe iustice of England, one of the priuie councell to Henrie the third, his chapleine, ambassador into Spaine, and a worthie souldier, crossed to go to Ierusalem, who at one feast had two kings, two quéenes, and I know not how manie noble men, and whose spiritu|all liuings were about foure thousand marks of yerelie reuenues (as I haue gathered) he was at the will and instance of the king made kéeper of the great seale as vicechancellor (for Matthew Paris saith, Custodiam sigilli regij accepit cancellarij vices acturus & officium) about the one & thirtith of king Henrie the third, in the yeare that God tooke on him the forme of a seruant 1247, he built a house of regular ca|nons at Romneie two miles from the sea. To this man king Henrie the third, in the thirtith yeare of his reigne, did grant that his towne of Wigan should be a burrow.

Iohn de Lexinton.Iohn de Lexinton, being after chiefe iustice of the forest from the riuer of Trent southward, was againe kéeper of the great seale, vntill some part of the two and thirtith yeare of Henrie the third, in the yeare of Christ 1248.

Iohn Man|sell.Iohn Mansell againe kéeper of the great seale, who at Woodstocke in the two and thirtith yeare of king Henrie the third, did receiue the great seale of the said Iohn Lexinton, which he kept (as I suppose and that with some good proofe) vntill the thrée & thir|tith yeare of the said king, being the yeare of our re|demption 1248. Of which Iohn Mansell thus wri|teth an old anonymall chronicle concerning the ba|rons warres: Sed & Iohannes Mansell multarum in An|glia ecclesiarum rector seu potiùs incubator, reddituum quoque quorum non erat numerus possessor magnificus, ita quòd ditior eo clericus non videbatur in orbe episcopali, puta dignitate mi|nimè insignitus, metu baronum aufugit & latenter vltra mari de turri London, in qua rex Angliae & regina sua tunc temporis tenuerunt se. Quem quum Henricus filius regis Ale|maniae fugientem insequeretur, & ipse capitur quum applicu|isset Bononiae à magistro Gerando de Fenes procuratore vt putabatur reginae, &c.

Radulphus de Diceto was chancellor (as I read & suppose) much about this time:Radulphus de Diceto. but for certeintie I refer the same to the large booke of their liues, where he shall not faile to haue his right time and place.

William of Kilkennie, being a modest, wise,William of Kilkennie. and faithfull man, learned in the canon and ciuill lawes, was made kéeper of the great seale, in the yeare of Christ one thousand two hundred and fiftie, being the foure & thirtith yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the third. He was elected to the bishoprike of Elie, as saith the historie of Elie, the eighteenth ka|lends of September, in the yeare of Christ one thou|sand two hundred fiftie & fiue, being about the nine and thirtith yere of Henrie the third. But others saie that he being then vicechancellor, was elected bishop of Elie in the yeare of our Lord one thousand two hundred fiftie and foure, being the eight and thirtith yeare of Henrie the third, after that he had faithful|lie and to his great commendation vsed and borne the great seale, he was cõsecrated to that bishoprike in the yere of Christ 1255, and died in the yere 1256 being about the one and fortith yeare of king Henrie the third, whose heart was buried at Elie.

Henrie de Wingham was made chancellor in the nine and thirtith yeare of Henrie the third,Henrie de Wingham. and continued in the one and fortith and two and fortith yeare of Henrie the third, in which yeare (as some haue) and in the 43 of Henrie the third (as others haue.) He was chosen bishop of Winchester, vpon condition that he should giue place to Athelmer halfe brother to king Henrie the third, & son to Hugh Brune earle of March, and of Eleanor king Henrie the thirds mother, being banished by the barons, if that he should againe returne into England, and then leaue the bishoprike of Winchester vnto him, which he did vpon the comming againe of the said Athelmer into England, and for that cause was af|ter chosen bishop of London, being chosen thereto in the yeare of Christ one thousand two hundred fiftie and nine, being the thrée and thirtith yeare of king Henrie the third, and still chancellor, and is buried in Paules on the south side of the quier (next to Eusta|chius bishop of London) in a monument of marble, with this inscription on the wall to tell who it was: Hîc iacet Henricus de Wingham quondam epicscopus huius ecclesiae, qui multa bona contulit ministris ecclesiae sancti Pauli.

Walter Merton chancellor in the foure and fortith yere of king Henrie the third, being the yeare 1260.Walter Merton.

Nicholas of Elie made chancellor by the barons, in the said yeare of our redemption one thousand two hundred and sixtie,Nicholas of Elie. and Walter Merton displa|ced. But king Henrie the third, disdaining to haue officers appointed him by his subiects, did in the mo|neth of October following, in the yeare of Christ one thousand two hundred and sixtie, or rather one thou|sand two hundred sixtie and one, depriue the said Ni|cholas, and replaced the said Walter Merton.

Walter Merton bishop of Rochester the second time made chancellor as before appeareth.Walter Mer|ton the se|cond time.

Iohn de Chesill archdeacon of London and treasu|ror of England, was made keeper of the great seale,Iohn de Chesill. in the yeare of our redemption one thousand two hundred sixtie and foure, being the eight and fortith yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the third. This man was consecrated bishop of London in the yeare of Christ one thousand two hundred seuentie & foure, the third kalends of Maie, as hath Matthew West|minster: he died in the yeare that the word of the fa|ther became flesh one thousand two hundred seuentie and nine, the fourth ides of Februarie, in the seuenth yeare of the scourge of the Scots and Welshmen.

EEBO page image 1277 Vi [...]a Thomae Cantelupi. Thomas de Cantelupe, borne of the noble house of the lords Cantelupes (the son of William Cante|lupe and Millesent, [...] as saith Leland drew hir originall from the counte [...]ses of Yorke) being arch|deacon of Stafford, was doctor and after bishop of Hereford in the yeare one thousand two hundred se|uentie and six, and before that made chancellor, after the feast of saint Peters chaire, in the yeare of our redemption one thousand two hundred sixtie & fiue, being the nine and fortith yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the third. He died beyond the seas comming from the court of Rome, in the yeare of Christ one thousand two hundred seuentie and eight, being the sixt yeare of the reigne of king Edward the first, or more trulie (as others haue) in the yeare one thou|sand two hundred eightie & thrée, being the eleuenth yeare of king Edward the first, whose b [...]nes were brought to Hereford.

Walter Gifford bishop of Bath and Welles, whome manie doo call William,Walter Gif|ford bishop of Bath. did inioy the state of the chancellor, in the yeare of our Lord one thou|sand two hundred sixtie & six, being the fiftith yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the third: he was trans|lated from Bath to Yorke, in the yeare of Christ one thousand two hundred fiftie and nine, being the nine and fortith yeare of the same Henrie the third, and died the seuenth kalends of Maie in the twelfe yeare of his bishoprike, in the yeare of Christ one thousand two hundred seuentie & seuen, being the sixt yeare of king Edward the first, or (as hath Nicholas Triuet) in the yeare of Christ one thousand two hundred se|uentie and nine, being the seuenth yeare of king Ed|ward the first.

Geffreie Gifford was chancellor also in the one and fiftith yeare of king Henrie the third,Geffreie Gifford. being the yeare of our redemption one thousand two hundred sixtie and seuen. This man was bishop of Worcester about the yeare of Christ one thousand two hundred ninetie and nine, where he sat foure and thirtie yeares, foure moneths, and foure daies, and died in the yeare one thousand thrée hundred and foure, being about the two and thirtith yeare of king Ed|ward the first.

Iohn de Chesill was the second time honoured with the place of the chancellor,Iohn de Chesill. in the yeare that the word became flesh one thousand two hundred sixtie and eight, being the thrée and fiftith yeare in which king Henrie the third of that name did hold the scep|ter of England.

Richard de Middleton.Richard de Middleton, so surnamed of the place where he was borne, was aduanced to the office of the chancellorship, in the said three and fiftith yeare of king Henrie the third, in the moneth of Iulie, in the yeare of our redemption one thousand two hundred sixtie and eight, and was also (as appeareth by a char|ter which I haue séene) witnesse to the same déed, in the foure and fiftith yeare of the said king Henrie, who (as farre as I can gather) died in August, in the yeare of Christ one thousand two hundred seuentie and one, being the six and fiftith yeare of the long go|uernment of king Henrie the third. There was a writer of England that wrote many volums of this name liuing at this time, whom I doubt not (for anie thing that I can yet learne) to be the same man which was chancellor.

Iohn de Kirbie, after the death of Richard Middle|ton,Iohn de Kirbie. was made kéeper of the great seale in the said six and fiftith yere of king Henrie the third. Whether this were the same Iohn Kirkbie, which after was bi|shop of Elie, and treasuror of England, I haue not as yet to determine, although I rather hold the af|firmatiue than the contrarie.

Walter Mer|ton.Walter Merton the third time made chancellor of England, in the yeere of our Lord one thousand two hundred seuentie and thrée, being the first yeare of the reigne of that famous prince king Edward the first of that name: he was bishop of Rochester, and built Merton college in Oxford, and died in the yeare of Christ one thousand two hundred seauentie and eight, being the sixt yeare of the reigne of king Edward the first.

Robert Burnell the eleuenth bishop of Bath andRobert Bur|nell. Wels (after the vniting of those two sées in one by Iohn de Toures in the yeare of Christ one thousand ninetie and two) was made bishop of Bath in the yeare of our Lord (as saith Euersden) one thousand two hundred seuentie & foure, and chosen archbishop of Canturburie in the yeare one thousand two hun|dred seuentie and eight, but reiected by the pope: he was chancellor in the second yeare of the said Ed|ward the first, in which place it séemeth that he long continued: of whom thus writeth an anonymall chro|nicle; Dominus Edmundus comes Cornubiae fundauit no|uum studium ordinis Cisterciensis apud Oxonias, & monachos de Thame primò ibidem introduxit, & dedit eis prima dona|tione manerium de Erdington, & fecit dedicare locum abba|tiae tertij idus Decembris: per dominum Robertum Burnelle|piscopum Bathon & Welles, cancellarium regis, & posuit fun|damentum nouae ecclesiae eodem die Northosneiae. This bi|shop was required with the son of Edward the first, and Gilbert de Clare earle of Glocester, in the time of Edward the first, to be deliuered for pledges for Lheweline prince of Wales for his safe returne, if he came to the parlement, wherevnto he was sum|moned by the said king Edward. In the time of this chancellor the court of chancerie was kept at Bris|tow. This man died in the yéere of Christ one thou|sand two hundred ninetie and thrée, being the one and twentith yere of the reigne of king Edward the third.

Iohn de Langhton made chancellor of England in the yéere of our Lord one thousand two hun|dred ninetie and thrée,Iohn de Langhton. being the one and twentith yeare of the scourger of the Scots, king Edward the first, in which office he remained vntill the thirtith of the said king, Matthew Pa [...]ker. being the yeare of our redemption one thousand thrée hundred and two. He was made bishop of Chichester about the six and twentith or ra|ther the seauen and twentith yeare of king Edward the first, being the yeare of our Lord one thousand two hundred ninetie and eight, or rather one thou|sand two hundred ninetie and nine: and in the said yeare one thousand two hundred ninetie and nine he was before chosen bishop of Elie, but reiected by the pope, who made him archdeacon of Canturburie: from which Langhton this Edward did take the great seale in the thirtith yeare before said, and deli|uered it to Iohn Drokensford.

Iohn Drokensford kéeper of the wardrobe was made keeper of the great seale in the thirtith yere,Iohn Dro|kensford. as before, in which office he continued from about the fiftéenth daie of August vntill Michaelmas.

William de Greinfield, deane of Chichester,William de Greinfield. and canon of Yorke, was aduanced to the place of the chancellor, in the yeare that God became man one thousand three hundred and two, being about the thir|tith yeare of the said king Edward the first, which of|fice was giuen vnto him at saint Radigunds (as saith Anonymus M.S. He was after chosen bishop of Yorke, in the yeare of our redemption one thousand thrée hundred and thrée: who in the yeare of our Lord one thousand three hundred and eight buried the bo|die of the said king Edward the first at Westmin|ster, though that king died in the yeare of our Lord God one thousand thrée hundred and seauen. This bishop died about the yere of our saluation one thou|sand thrée hundred and fifteene (being about the sixt yeare of king Edward the second) at Cawood, after EEBO page image 1278 that he had béene bishop nine yeares, eleuen mo|neths, and two daies, and was buried in saint Nicho|las porch of Yorke, receiuing his consecration at Rome in the yeare of Christ one thousand thrée hun|dred and fiue (after that he had béene there two yéeres) of pope Clement. This Greinfield was a man verie eloquent and pithie in counsell.

William de Hamelton, deane of Yorke, was created chancellor of England,William de Hamelton. in the yeare that the virgine brought foorth the sonne of God one thousand thrée hundred and fiue, being the thrée and thirtith yeare of that noble prince king Edward the first. This William surrendred his borrowed life in the yeare of our Lord one thousand thrée hundred and seuen, being about the fiue and thirtith yeare of the said king, at the abbeie of Fontnesse in Yorkshire, being a man that well deserued of the common-wealth.

Ralfe de Baldocke chosen bishop of London, in the yeare of Christ one thousand thrée hundred and thrée,Ralfe Bal|docke. was confirmed at Titneshall by Robert of Winchelseie bishop of Canturburie, and consecra|ted at Lions by Peter of Spaine bishop of Alba, the third calends of Februarie, in the yere of our re|demption one thousand thrée hundred and fiue. He was made lord chancellor of England, after the death of the said William Hamelton in the said fiue & thirtith yere of king Edward the first, and receiued the great seale in the Rogation wéeke following, be|ing some foure or fiue wéekes after that he was ad|uanced to that office at the excheker. Shortlie after which died king Edward the first; for which cause the said Baldocke sent the great seale to king Edward the second then at Carleill, by reason of his fathers death. This Ralfe Baldocke died on saint Iames éeuen in the yeare of our redemption one thousand thrée hundred and thirtéene, being the seuenth yeare of the reigne of king Edward the second.

Iohn Langhton bishop of Chichester againe made lord chancellor of England,Iohn Langhton. in the yeare that the word of the father tooke on him the forme of a ser|uant one thousand thrée hundred and seauen, being the first yeare of king Edward of Carnaruan, in which office it séemeth that he continued, vntill the yeare of our Lord one thousand three hundred and ten, being the third yeare of the reigne of the after deposed king Edward the second.

William Melton, hauing two others ioined with him,William Melton. had the great seale deliuered vnto them for a certeine time, to execute all such things as were to be doone therewith during the kings pleasure. This man was a canon of Yorke, prouest of Beuerleie, treasuror of England, and archbishop of Yorke, as saith Anonymus M. S. He was consecrated bishop of Yorke at Rome, where he tarried two yeares for the same: he was a man neuer wearied with tra|uell. He first of all the bishops of Yorke (after a long controuersie betweene the deane and canons of Yorke) visited the chapter by due order: he was wise, rich, seuere in correction, gentle, familiar, and hum|ble: he finished the west part of the church of saint Peters in Yorke with thrée hundred pounds, he was archbishop of Yorke two and twentie yeares, fiue or six moneths, and two daies: he died at Cawood on saint Georges éeuen, in the yeare of Christ one thou|sand three hundred and thirtie, and was buried in the minster of Yorke néere to the font.

Walter Reinolds bishop of Worcester, treasu|ror of England and archbishop of Canturburie,Walter Rei|nolds. was made kéeper of the great seale, and chancellor of England on the sixt of Iulie one thousand thrée hun|dred and ten, in the said yeare of our Lord God one thousand thrée hundred and ten, being the said third yeare of that king Edward, whome his sonne Ed|ward the third deposed from his kingdome. Of this man & all other chancellors, which were archbishops of Canturburie, shall be somewhat more said at ano|ther time, in the order and placing of the bishops of that sée; which caution I haue here set downe, bicause I would once for all make repetition thereof in one place, and not seuerallie in manie places, vnder the seuerall names of euerie chancellor that was inues|ted with that metropolitan honor of Canturburie.

Iohn de Sandall clerke, bishop of Winchester,Iohn de Sandall. & treasuror, was at Yorke made chancellor of Eng|land, in the yeare that the virgin Marie was deliue|red of the first begotten son one thousand thrée hun|dred and foureteene, being the eight yeare of king Edward the second, in which place he continued two yeares and more; some part thereof being after that he was bishop of Winchester (as I gather) and then deliuered backe the seale at Westminster, in the yeare of our redemption one thousand thrée hundred and seuentéene, being the eleauenth yeare of the said king Edward the second. Of this man is more spo|ken in the treasurors of England.

Iohn Hotham bishop of Elie was created lord chancellor of England in the yere of Christ one thou|sand thrée hundred and seauentéene,Iohn Ho|tham. being the elea|uenth yeare of king Edward the second, in which of|fice he continued vntill the yeare of our Lord God 1319, being the thirteenth yeare of the last before named king Edward. During whose gouernment of the sée of Elie, in the yeare one thousand three hundred fortie and one, the stéeple of the chaire fell downe, which made such terrible noise and shaking of the ground that it was supposed to haue béene an earthquake. He died of the palseie in the yere of our redemption one thousand three hundred thirtie and six, being the tenth yeare of that king Edward the third that first wrote himselfe king of both realmes, England and France.

Iohn Salmon bishop of Norwich was aduan|ced to be chancellor,Iohn Sal|mon bishop of Norwich. in the yeare that God tooke on him the forme of a seruant, one thousand three hun|dred and nineteene, being the thirtéenth yeare of that king Edward the second, against whome the nobles rebelled for the misdemeanor of Piers de Gauestone (the Gascoine) earle of Cornewall. In this yeare one thousand three hundred and nineteene (as saith one anonymall chronicler M.S.) was Wil|liam Airemine kéeper of the seale vicechancellor ta|ken prisoner by the Scots. The words of the which author for the more certeintie thereof we haue here set downe, in the yeare of Lord one thousand thrée hundred and nineteene. Episcopus Eborum, episcopus Eliae thesaurarius, abbas beatae Mariae Eborum, abbas de Selbie, de|canus Eborum dominus Willielmus Arymence vicecancella|rius Angliae, ac dominus Iohannes Or Pabeham. Dabeham cum 8000 fermè hominum, tam equitum quàm peditum & ciuibus pro|peranter Yorke. ciuitatem egredientes, quoddam flumen Twelue miles from Yorke. Swale nuncupatum sparsis cuneis transeuntes, & indispositis seu po|tuis confusis ordinibus cum aduersarijs congressisunt. Scoti si|quidem in martegnari amplitudinem eorum exercitus cautè regentes, in nostros agminibus strictis audacter irruerunt, no|strorum denique in breui laceratis cuneis atque dissipatis. Cor|ruerunt ex nostris tam in ore gladij quàm aquarum scopulis suffocati, plusquam 4000, & capti sunt domini Iohannes de Pabeham miles & dominus Willielmus de Arymenee vt praefertur de cancellaria, &c. Which William Aire|menée was also in the fiftéenth of the said king Ed|ward the second, one of the kéepers of the great seale, as I haue séene registred.

Robert Baldocke archdeacon of Middlesex,Robert Bal|docke. a man euillie beloued, and whom the old English chronicle calleth a false péeld priest, was made chancellor of England in the seauentéenth yeare of the reigne of king Edward the second, at the castell of Pike|ring EEBO page image 1279 in Yorkeshire, he was after made bishop of Norwich, Histor. episc. Norwich. and did his fealtie for restitution of his temporalties in the nineteenth yeare of the said king Edward the second at Woodstocke in Oxfordshire, he was apprehended in the 20 yeare of Edward the second, being the yéere of our Lord 1326, or (as others haue) one thousand thrée hundred & fiue and twentie, & first committed to the custodie of Adam Tarleton or de Orleton bishop of Hereford, & after was put in the prison of the Newgate in London, in which twentith yeare of the said Edward the second the great seale was againe deliuered to William Aire|mée,William Ai|remee kéeper of the seale. who I suppose was then also made bishop of Norwich, and this Baldocke deposed from that see, of which Baldocke thus writeth a Polychronicon of Durham: Robertus de Baldocke cancellarius An. 1325 captus cum Hugonibus de despensers, quia clericus fuit & sa|cerdos in noua porta Londiniarum, poni fecit Edwardus prin|ceps & Isabella mater eius, vbi pro nimia miseria mortuus fu|it infra breue.

Iohn Hotham bishop of Elie the second time was at Westminster made chancellor of Eng|land,Iohn Hot|ham bishop of Elie. in the yeare that the word became flesh 1326, being the first yeare of the reigne of that king which first intituled himselfe king of England and France: but he continued not long in the same office, for he was remooued in the second yeare of the said king, being the yeare of our redempti|on, one thousand thrée hundred twentie and eight. He was elected bishop in the yéere of Christ one thou|sand thrée hundred and sixtéene, in which place he ru|led twentie yeares, and died in the yeare of our re|demption one thousand thrée hundred and six and thirtie of the palseie at Summersham, being buried in the church of Elie vnder a goodlie monument of stone, with the image of a bishop carued out of ala|baster vpon his toome.

Henrie Cliffe master of the rolles had the charge and kéeping of the great seale of England,Henrie Cliffe master of the rolles. in the said yeare of Christ 1328, being the second yeare of king Edward the third, and was the kings chan|cellor also.

Henrie de Burgh, Burghwash, or Burgesse, ne|phue vnto sir Bartholomew Bladismere baron of Léeds in Kent,Henrie Burghwash bishop of Lincolne. hauing béene treasuror of England, inioied the honor of the chancellor in the second yéere of king Edward the third, being the yeare that the sonne of God tooke on him the forme of a seruant 1328, and was made chancellor at Northampton, which office he did not long inioie. Here bicause I haue a little mentioned sir Bartholomew Blades|mere, I will saie somwhat more of him, which is, that being orator for the king in diuers weightie affairs, he spent in those businesses, 15000 pounds of the kings monie, and yet produced little or nothing to effect in the kings causes, except the procuring of this Henrie Burghwash to the bishoprike of Lin|colne, who was buried in the east end towards the north of the church of Lincolne, at whose féet was also buried Robert his brother a knight of great fame in the warres, in which church is also buried Bartholomew sonne to the said Robert. They foun|ded a grammar schoole, and fiue priests, & fiue poore scholars in Lincolne.

Iohn Strat|ford.Iohn Stratford bishop of Winchester, and after of Canturburie, and sometime treasuror of Eng|land, was made chancellor of the realme, in the yéere of our redemption one thousand thrée hundred and thirtie, being the fourth yeare of the said king Ed|ward the third, who being sent in the sixt yeare of Ed|ward the third, in the yeare of our Lord one thou|sand three hundred two and thirtie, ambassador be|yond the seas about the affaires of the king & king|dome, did not (like cardinall Woolseie the chancellor in the daies of K. Henrie the eight) presumptuous|lie carrie the great seale with him beyond the seas, but left the same in his absence with others, who both could and would answer the well or euill vsing there|of whilest he was in France. This man continued in the office vntill the eight yeare of Edward the third.

Richard de Burie,Richard de Burie or Ri|chard de An|geruile. otherwise called Richard de Angeruile (being borne in a little village b [...]side saint Edmundsburie, commonlie called the Berrie ab|beie, was so surnamed Burie of that place) had to his father sir Richard Angeruile knight. This man being first kept at schoole by his vncle sir Iohn Wil|obie priest, was afterward treasuror of England, chancellor and bishop of Durham: to which place of chancellorship he was aduanced in the yeare that the second person in trinitie was brought into the world 1334, being the eight yeare of that king of England which first quartered the armes of England and France. Which office he receiued by the kings gift at Westminster, in which yeare he was inthronized (be|ing first consecrated bishop in the yere of Christ 1333) in the bishoprike of Durham by William Cowton prior of Durham: he kept the see 11 years two mo|neths and 12 daies, & died in the yeare 1345, & was buried in the south angle of the church of Durham.

Iohn Stratford the second time lord chancellor,Iohn Strat|ford archbi|shop of Can|turburie. being now archbishop of Canturburie, was instal|led therein at Yorke in the yeare of Christ 1335, be|ing the ninth yeare of the reigne of king Edward the third.

Robert de Stratford or Strafford (as some haue written,Robert de Stratford. but as I thinke corruptlie) being archdea|con of Canturburie (which office was first ordeined by Anselme archbishop of the said citie of Cantur|burie) was made chancellor of England on the foure and twentith daie of March (being the éeue of the an|nuntiation of the virgin Marie) at Westminster, in the yeare that the word of the father tooke on him the forme of a seruant 1336, being the eleuenth yeare of the gouernement of king Edward the third. He was after made bishop of Chichester, desiring to be re|mooued from that office of chancellorship, which was granted vnto him: whervpon he surrendered vp the seale to the said king Edward the third in the twelfe yeare of his reigne, being the yeare of our redemp|tion 1338.

Richard de Bintwoorth chosen bishop of London,Richard de Bintwoorth bishop of London. and confirmed by Iohn Stratford archbishop of Canturburie at Oteford in the tenth kalends of Iune 1338, was at Waltham aduanced to the ho|nour of lord chancellor in the moneth of Iulie, in the said yeare of Christ 1338, being the twelfe yeare of that king which first ordeined the knights of the order of the garter.

Iohn Stratford the third time lord chancellor of England,Iohn Strat|ford archbi|shop of Can|turburie. in which office he did not now long conti|nue.

Robert bishop of Chichester, being the foresaid Robert Stratford,Robert bishop of Chichester. was againe made lord chancel|lor of England, in the yere of our redemption 1340, being the fourtéenth yeare of the reigne of king Ed|ward the third, who was put out of that office, and should with the treasuror of England haue bene sent into France for a pledge for the paiment of certeine summes of monie.

Robert de Bourchier,Robert de Bourchier. borne of the honourable house of the lord Bourchiers, was in the towre of London made lord chancellor of England in De|cember, in the said fouretéenth yeare of king Ed|ward the third, being the yeare of our Lord 1340, though some saie he was made chancellor in the fif|téenth yeare of the said king.

Robert Perning, Pernicke, or Pernwicke,Robert Per|ning iustice at the law. also treasuror of England, was made chancellor of Eng|land EEBO page image 1280 in the yeare that the virgine brought foorth the the Messiah 1341, being the fiftéenth yeare of king Edward the third. He died in the yeare 1343, being the seuentéenth yeare of the foresaid king Edward the third. This man was a sergeant in the third yeare of Edward the third, when he began to plead as a sergeant, in which he continued vntill about the ele|uenth yeare of Edward the third, and was after that iustice, treasuror, and chancellor, and did in the com|mon place, being chancellor, sit and argue amongst the iustices, as appeareth in the law bookes of those yeares of Edward the third, of whom is last mention made in the seuentéenth yeare of Edward the third, where he is named chancellor.

Robert de Saddington.Robert de Saddington knight, was inuested with the dignitie of lord chancellor after the death of Perning in the yeare of Christ 1343, and the seuen|teenth yeare of the often mentioned king Edward the third. There was also one sir Richard Sadding|ton knight treasuror of England, of whome I haue spoken in my discourse of the lord treasurors.

Iohn Offord or Ufford.Iohn Offord or Ufford, deane of Lincolne, was made chancellor of England, in the yeare of our re|demption 1345, being the nineteenth yeare of king Edward the third. He was elected to be bishop of Canturburie, and so was installed, but neuer recei|ued the pall. He died in the moneth of Maie, in the yeare of Christ 1349, being the three and twentith yeare of the reigne of that victorious king Ed|ward, which neuer receiued greater honour than that he was father vnto Edward surnamed the Blacke prince the flower of chiualrie, and woorthie conque|rour of the French dominions.

Iohn Thors|bie.Iohn Thorsbie bishop of Worcester, archbishop of Yorke and cardinall, was installed in the seat of the lord chancellor, in the yeare that God became man, one thousand thrée hundred fortie and nine, be|ing the thrée and twentith yeare of that king Ed|ward the third, so often before recited, who at his great sute was discharged of the office of chancellor, by deliuerie of the great seale in Nouember, in the thirtith yeare of the said king, being the yeare of Christ one thousand thrée hundred fiftie and six, after that he had kept that place by the space almost of sea|uen yeres. He in the tenth yeare of his bishoprike in the third calends of August, began the frame of the quée [...]e of S. Peters church in Yorke, & laid the first stone therof, to which he gaue a hundred pounds. He died at Thorpe, and was buried at Yorke in the yere of Christ 1363, or as other haue 1373, after that he had béene archbishop one and twentie yeares, and one and twentie daies.

William de Edington.William de Edington, bishop of Winchester, lord treasuror of England, was made chancellor of this realme in Nouember in the said yeare of Christ 1356, and the thirtith yeare of the reigne of that king Edward, which at Sauoie in England kept king Iohn of France his prisoner. Sée more of him in the treasurors of England.

Simon Langham.Simon Langham, abbat of Westminster, bi|shop of Elie, archbishop of Canturburie, and lord treasuror of England, was made lord chancellor in Februarie, in the yeare of our redemption one thou|sand thrée hundred sixtie and three, being the seauen and thirtith yeare of the gouernment of king Ed|ward the third, and was chancellor in the fortith yere of the reigne of that king: being the yeare of Christ one thousand thrée hundred sixtie and thrée. Of this Simon were these verses made, when he was re|moued from Elie to the bishoprike of Canturburie:

Exultent coeli quia Simon transit ab Eli,
Cuius in aduentum flent in Kent millia centum.
Of whome also, bicause he richlie indowed the abbeie of Westminster with great gifts, of singular cost & value, a certeine moonke compiled these verses:
Res es de Langham tua Simon sunt data quondam,
Octingentena librarum millia dena.
Of this man is more spoken in the former discourse or treatise of the lord treasurors of England.

William de Wikeham,William de Wikeham. so called of the place of his birth, was by surname from his parents called Perot, and Long, whome Lel [...]nd maketh treasu|ror of England, which by anie possible meanes can|not be so for anie thing that I can yet learne. This man being bishop of Winchester, and aduanced to that place in the yeare of Christ one thous [...]nd thrée hundred sixtie and seuen, in the one and fortith yeare of the reigne of Edward the third, in which place he sat seauen and thirtie yeares, was sometime kéeper of the priuie seale, and made also chancellor of Eng|land, in the yeare that the virgine brought foorth the first begotten sonne one thousand three hundred sixtie and seauen, being the one and fortith yeare of the gouernement of the foresaid Edward the third, in which office he remained about foure yeares; and (in March in the yeare of Christ one thousand thrée hun|dred seauentie and one, being the fiue and fortith of king Edward the third) did deliuer vp the great seale to the king at Westminster. He was buried in the bodie of Winchester church, which he new built with the other places about it: of whome were these verses composed for the building of his colleges, the one at Oxenford and the other at Winchester:

Hunc docet esse pium fundatio collegiorum
Oxoniae primum stat Wintoniaeque secundum.

Robert Thorpe knight,Robert Thorpe. being before iustice of the law in the yeare of our Lord one thousand three hundred and seauentie, was after at Westminster aduanced to the chancellorship, in March, the fiue & fortith yeare of king Edward the third, being the yeare of our redemption (as is before said) one thou|sand thrée hundred seauentie and one, who going home to his owne house, left the great seale with foure of the gardians or maisters of the chancerie, wherof the one was called Walter Powre, to kéepe and vse as néed required.

Sir Iohn Kniuet or Kniuell (as some books haue by the transcriber corrupted) was made chancellor of England in Iulie,Sir Iohn Kniuet. in the yeare of Christ one thou|sand thrée hundred seauentie and two, being the six and fortith yeare of king Edward the third, in which office he continued (as I for this time doo ga|ther) vntill the fiftith yeare of the said king Edward, in which yeare (as heere at hand appeareth) came in place of the bishop of S. Dauids.

Adam de Houghton,Adam de Houghton. bishop of Meneuia or of Saint Dauids in Wales, was aduanced to the of|fice of lord chancellor in the yeare of our redempti|on 1376, being the fiftith yeare of king Edward the third, who in the one and fiftith yeare of the said king, was with the earle of Salisburie, and the bishop of Hereford, sent ambassador beyond the seas. ¶And here I thinke it not amisse to set downe the originall of the rolles in chancerie lane in this sort.

Henrie the third did build a house for the Iewes conuerted to the faith of Christ, which house is at this daie (& hath béene long before this time) appoin|ted for the kéeping of the kings rolles and records, being now called and knowne by the name of the rolles in chancerie lane besides Lincolns inne. In which house the maister of the rolles (for the time be|ing) hath a goodlie and statelie lodging. In which also there is a faire chappell, called the chappell of the rolles, being a place commonlie appointed wherein men accustom to paie monie vpon contracts. Wher|in also is buried Iohn Yoong, sometime maister of the rols and doctor of both laws, on the left side in his doctors wéed: and maister Allington vnder a state|lie EEBO page image 1281 toome of white marble, iet, and other rich stone, on the right side of the said chappell, the epitaphs of both which persons are heereafter recited: besides which in this chappell are the ancient records of all inrol|ments, confirmations of the prince, & of other sutes in the chancerie kept in chests and presses, built on each side about the middle part of the chappell, be|neath the chaire or place of seruice. At the west end whereof (on certeine appointed daies therefore) the maister of the rols dooth in the afternoones sit in a place formed and railed in, after the manner of the courts of Westminster, to heare and determine matters depending in the chancerie: which maister of the rolles now liuing is sir Gilbert Gerrard knight, sometime generall atturneie to the noble princesse quéene Elisabeth. And here before I leaue this chappell, I thinke it not amisse to set downe the epitaphs of the two persons before named there bu|ried, with these words.

24.2.1.1. The epitaph of maister doctor Yong maister of the rols.

The epitaph of maister doctor Yong maister of the rols.

Io. Yong LL. doctoris sacror. scrinior. ac huius domus custodi decano olim EBOR. vita defun|cto xxv Aprilis sui fideles executores hoc posue|runt M.D.XVI.

Dominus firmamentum meum.

Beside which in an old table hanging by are writ|ten in text hand these verses héereafter following:

Hîc iacet ille Iohannes Yong cog nomine dignus,
Tali quod nunquam marcesceret vtpote charus:
Omnibus apprimè summo testante dolore,
Quem neque celabant neque dissimulare valebant,
Dum sternit iuuenem mors immatura labentem,
Quis non defleret iuuenis miserabile fatum,
Ex quo multorum pendebat vita salúsque:
Horum inquam inprimis, quos ille benignus alebat
Impensis donec vitales carperet auras.
Nec satu illi erat hoc priuatis consuluisse
Rebus, quinetiam prudenter publica gessit
Munia siue forensia siue etiam extera summa
Cum laude, illa quidem dum sacris praefuit olim
Scrinijs, haec verò legati functus honore.

24.2.1.2. The epitaph of maister Alington is in this sort.

The epitaph of maister Alington is in this sort.
Hospes qui fueram quondam si quaeris amice,
Nomen Alingtonus stirps generosa fuit:
Haec monumenta mihi coniuxfidissima struxit,
Quaeque mihi struxit destinat illa sibi.
Charáque coniugij tres natae pignora nostri,
Sunt, vultus quarum marmora sculpta tenent,
Cum matre has omnes precor vt post funera summe
Coelica perducas in tua regna Deus.

Richardus Alington armiger qui hîc sepultus est obijt 23 die Nouembris 1561.

Now (as you haue heard before that this house of the rols was first a house of conuerts) it shall not be amisse also for the more proofe thereof, to set downe the grants of the princes and kings which conuerted the same to those vses.

24.2.1.3. The grant of Henrie the third, for erecting of the house of conuerts.

The grant of Henrie the third, for erecting of the house of conuerts.

_REx archiepiscopis, &c. Sciatis nos intui|tu Dei, & pro salute animae nostrae, & animarum antecessorum & haeredum meorum concessisse, & hac charta nostra confirmasse pro nobis & haeredibus nostris, domum quam fundari fecimus in vico, qui vocatur New|street, inter vetus templum & nouum London, ad sustentationem fratrum conuersorum & conuer|tendorum de Iudaismo ad fidem catholicam, in au|xilium sustentationis eorundem fratrum in eadem domo conuersantium, domos & terras quae fuêre Iohannis Herbeton in London, & sunt in manu nostra tanquam eschaeta nostra, excepto gardino, quod fuit eiusdem Iohannis in vico praedicto de Newstreet, & quod priùs per chartam nostram concessimus venerabili patri Ralfe Ne|uill Radulpho Cicestren|si episcopo cancellario nostro, & omnes alias eschae|tas, quae tempore nostro per feloniam, vel quacun|que ex causa nobis accident in ciuitate nostra, vel in suburbio infra libertatem ciuitatis nostrae Lon|don. Quare volumus, & firmiter praecipimus pro nobis & haeredibus nostris, quòd praedicta domus habeat & teneat liberè & quietè, bene & in pace, ad sustentationem fratrum conuersorum & con|uertendorum de Iudaismo ad fidem catholicam, in auxilium sustentationis eorundem fratrum in ea|dem domo conuersantium, domos & terras quae fu|erunt Iohannis Herbeton in London, & sunt in manu nostra tanquam eschaeta nostra excepto gardino quod fuit eiusdem Iohannis in vico prae|dicto de Newstreet, & quod priùs per chartam nostram concessimus venerabili patri R. Cice|strensi episcopo cancellario nostro, & omnes alias eschaetas, quae tempore nostro per feloniam vel quacunque ex causa nobis accident in ciuitate no|stra, velin suburbio infrà libertatem ciuitatis no|strae London, sicut praedictum est. Hijs testibus venerabilibus patribus, W. Kaerl. & W. Exon. episcopis, H. de Burgo comite Kantiae Radulpho fi|lio Nicholai, Godfrido de Crancumbe, Iohanne fi|lio Philip. Amaurico de sancto Aumundo, Will. de Picheford, Galfrido de Cauz, & alijs. Dat. per manum Ve. P. R. Cicestren. episcop. cancellar. no|stri apud Westmin. 19. die Aprilis.

24.2.1.4. The grant of Edward the third, where|by the said house was in the one and fiftith and last yeare of the said Edward con|uerted to the custodie of the rolles and records of the chancerie.

The grant of Edward the third, where|by the said house was in the one and fiftith and last yeare of the said Edward con|uerted to the custodie of the rolles and records of the chancerie.

_REx omnib. ad quos, &c: salutem. Sciatis quòd nos, considerantes qualiter domus conuersorum in suburbio ciuitatis no|strae London, de patronatu nostro exi|stens, & capella, edificia, & clausur. eiusdem, tem|pore quo dilectus noster Will. Burstall custodiam eiusdem domus ex collatione nostra primò habuit, per negligentiam & incuriã aliorum qui ante di|ctum Will. custodiam domus illius habuerunt & ibidem, morari seu inhabitari non curauerunt, multipliciter & quasi totaliter in ruina extite|runt, & quòd praedictus Will. tempore suo de bonis suis proprijs grãdes costas & expensas super recu|peratione & emendatione domus, capellae, edificio|rũ & clausur. praedict. ac etiam super factur. nouar. domorum ibidem. Nos vt domos conuersorum ca|pella, edificia, clausur. & nouae domus supradict. cõpetenter sustententur, & custodientur in futu|rum, ad supplicationem praedicti Willielmi qui cu|stos rotulorum cancellariae nostrae existit, in prae|senti concessimus de gratia nostra speciali pro no|bis & haeredibus nostris, quòd post mortem eius|dem EEBO page image 1282 Will. dicta domus conuersorum cum suis iu|ribus & pertinent. quibuscunque remaneat & moretur in perpetuum clerico custod. rotulorum cancellar. nostrae & haeredũ nostrorũ pro tempore existent. & similiter annex. eidẽ officio in perpe|tuum: & quòd cancellarius Angliae vel custos siue custodes magni sigilli nostri & haeredum nostro|rum Angliae pro tempore existentium, post mor|tem ipsius Willielmi habeat & habeant potesta|tem ad quamlibet vacationem dicti officij custodis rotulorum per mortem, cessionẽ, vel mutationem, personae quocunque tempore futur. [...]. institutum successiuè custodes rotulorum praedictorum in di|cta domo conuersorum, & custodes illos ponend. in possessionem eiusdem cum suis iuribus & per|tin. quibuscunque, in cuius, &c. T. R. apud Shene 11 Aprilis An. 51 Edw. 3.

But after the death of this king Edward, the said William Burstall maister of the rolles (belike not supposing this to be a sufficient grant) procured this house by act of parlement, in the first yeare of king Richard the second, to be more stronglie established, to the vse of the master of the rolles for the time. Af|ter which Iohn de Waltham, master of the rolles, af|ter bishop of Salisburie and treasuror of England, procured K. Richard the second in the 6 yeare of his reigne, by his letters patents to confirme the said house to the said Waltham and his successors ma|sters of the rolles. And whereas by the patent of Ed|ward the third, the master of the rolles was appoin|ted and installed in that house by the chancellor, it is to be noted, that the same manner of induction and instalment continued as long as the master of the rolles were of the clergie, as I haue séene set downe by others, and as the presidents of those instal|ments and the writs themselues extant of record doo well prooue.

Sir Richard Scroope knight lord of Bolton, hauing béene lord treasuror in the time of the decea|sed king Edward the third,Sir Richard Scroope. was now in October a|bout the latter end of the yeare 1378, or the begin|ning of the yeare 1379, being the second yeare of the after deposed king Richard the second, made lord chancellor, and had the great seale deliuered vnto him, who in the third yeare of the said king at a par|lement did surrender vp his office. Of this man is more set downe in the discourse of the treasurors.

Simon Sudburie, so surnamed of the place of his birth,Simon Sudburie. but by descent called Tibold the sonne of Ni|cholas Tibold, descended of a gentlemanlie race dwelling at Sudburie in Suffolke. This Simon was archbishop of Canturburie, and made chancel|lor about the yeare of Christ 1380, in the third yeare of Richard the second, and was by the rebels behea|ded at the towre of London, in the fourth yeare of the disquieted gouernment of that vnfortunat, but valiant king Richard the second; after whom in the fift yeare of the said king Richard, was R. B. of London, wherof I haue seene and taken a note: which bishop was (as I coniecture & haue some authoritie to prooue) Robert Braibroke which followeth, & was made chancellor againe after sir Richard Scroope.

Sir Richard Scroope knight lord of Bolton, made chancellor againe about the latter end of Nouem|ber,Sir Richard Scroope lord Scroope of Bolton. by the lords of the parlement (as I take it) in the fift yeare of the reigne of king Richard last mentio|ned, and was the yeare following, being about the yeare of our Lord 1383 againe deposed from his of|fice, and the king receiuing the great seale, kept it a certeine time, and therewith sealed such grants and writings as it pleased him, and in the end deliuered the same to Robert Braibrooke. Of this man see more in the treasurors before.

Robert Braibrooke bishop of London made lord chancellor in September following the moneth of Iulie, when sir Richard Scroope was deposed,Robert Brai|brooke bishop of London. was aduanced to that dignitie on saint Matthews éeue, in the sixt yeare of the reigne of the said king Ri|chard the second, in which he continued not longer than the March following, as hath Anonymus M. S. he was consecrated bishop of London the fift of Ia|nuarie 1381, he died the seuenteenth of August in the yeare 1404, being the fift yeare of king Henrie the fourth.

Michaell de la Poole,Michaell de la Poole earle of Suffolke. or at Poole (as hath Thomas Walsingham) was made chancellor in the moneth of March, in the sixt yeare of the said king Richard the second, and was made earle of Suffolke in the ninth yeare of the said king, being after deposed from his office of chancellorship at his owne and earnest request in the tenth yeare of the said king. This man hauing fled the realme, for that he was pursued by the nobilitie, died at Paris in the thir|téenth yeare of the said Richard the second, being the yeare of our redemption 1389, of whom that wor|thie poet sir Iohn Gower, liuing at that time, in his booke intituled Vox clamantis, composed these verses:

Est comes elatus, fallax, cupidus, sceleratus,
Fraudes per mille stat cancellarius ille,
Hic proceres odit, & eorum nomina rodit
Morsibus à tergo, fit tandem profugus ergo:
Sic Deus in coelis mala

Michael de puteaco, or of the Poole.

Thomas A|rundell bishop of Elie.

de puteo Michaelis
Acriter expurgat ne plùs comes ille resurgat.

Thomas Arundell, of the noble house of the earles of Arundell, was first bishop of Elie, and then of Yorke, and lastlie of Canturburie, he was made lord chancellor of England in the tenth yeare of the reigne of the vnfortunat king Richard the second, being about the yeare of our redemption 1386, in which office he remained about two yeares, as farre as my search will giue leaue to vnderstand.

William Wickham was againe made lord chancellor of England,William Wickham. in the twelfe yeare of the said king Richard the second, but was in the end re|moued from thense in September, in the fifteenth yeare of the troublesome gouernement of the said king Richard.

Thomas Arundell aforesaid was the second timeThomas Arundell. created lord chancellor of England (in the said fif|téenth yeare of king Richard the second) in place of William Wickham, in which office he remained a|bout fiue yeares, and was deposed and banished the realme in the twentith yeare of the said king Ri|chard.

Iohn Scarle, Scirlée, or Serle,Iohn Serle master of the rols. maister of the rolles, of the chancerie, and kéeper of the great seale: he was chancellor, or in place of the chancellor, in the first yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the fourth, being the yeare in which the sonne of God descen|ding from the bosome of his father, tooke flesh in the wombe of his mother, one thousand thrée hundred ninetie and nine.

Edmund Stafford kéeper of the priuie seale,Edmund Stafford. bi|shop of Excester, and sometime bishop of Rochester, and lastlie bishop of Yorke, kéeper of the priuie seale, and borne of the noble house of the Staffords, was made lord chancellor of England about the moneth of March, in the yeare of our redemption one thou|sand and foure hundred, being about the second yere of the vsurping king Henrie the fourth, in which of|fice he continued vntill the yeare of our Lord one thousand foure hundred and thrée, being the fourth yeare of the said king Henrie the fourth. He being kéeper of the priuie seale was made bishop of Exce|ster the twentith of Iune, in the yeare of our re|demption one thousand thrée hundred ninetie & fiue, being the daie before king Richard the second began EEBO page image 1283 the one and twentith yeare of his reigne. He was consecrated at Lambeth, and kept the see of Excester three and twentie yeares. He increased two fellow|ships in Stapletons inne in Oxford, reformed the statutes of the house, and called it Excester college: he died the fourth of September, in the seuenth yeare of king Henrie the fift, being the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred and ninetéene. About the making of this Stafford chancellor (as farre as my memorie serueth) Ypodigma is much deceiued, if I haue not for want of the booke mistaken his iudge|ment.

Henrie Beauford, the sonne of Iohn of Gaunt by Katharine Swineford,Henrie Beauford. made bishop of Lincolne in the yeare of our Lord one thousand three hundred ninetie and eight (as hath Ypodigma) was aduanced to the dignitie of chancellor in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred & thrée, being the fourth yeare of king Henrie the fourth his elder brother, by the daughter of the earle of Hereford, in which office he was in the fift yeare of king Henrie the fourth, and sixt of the same king (as our chronicles doo re|member.) He was made bishop of Winchester in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred and foure, being the fift yeare of Henrie the fourth.

Thomas Langleie priest, and bishop of Dur|ham,Thomas Langleie bi|shop of Dur|ham. was at Westminster made chancellor, in the yeare of our saluation one thousand foure hun|dred and fiue, being the sixt yeare of the reigne of the said king Henrie the fourth, in which office he conti|nued (as farre as I know) vntill he was made bi|shop of Durham, which was on the seuenth of Maie, being the seuenth yeare of the reigne of king Hen|rie last before named, being the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred and six. He was bishop one and thirtie yeares, and died in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred thirtie and seuen, being the sixtéenth yeare of king Henrie the sixt. Sée more fol|lowing.

Thomas Fitzalen.Thomas Fitzalen, brother to Richard earle of Arundell, being returned out of exile with Henrie of Bollingbroke duke of Hereford and Lancaster, and after king of England by the name of Henrie the fourth, was the third time being bishop of Can|turburie, made lord chancellor of England, the ninth yeare of the said king Henrie the fourth, and conti|nued therein about two years, being remooued from that place about September, in the eleuenth yeare of the reigne of the said king, being the yeare of our re|demption one thousand foure hundred and ten.

Thomas Beauford knight, the sonne of Iohn of Gaunt son to king Edward the third,Thomas Beauford. & brother to king Henrie the fourth, was made lord chancellor in the eleuenth yere of the said king Henrie the fourth, being the yeare that the sonne of God tooke on him the forme of a seruant one thousand foure hundred and ten, in which office he remained not full thrée yeares, but left the same office togither with his life, as I suppose, in the thirtéenth yeare of the same king, being the yeare of our redemption one thousand foure hundred and twelue.

Iohn Wakering clearke, maister of the rolles, was made kéeper of the great seale,Iohn Wake|ring clearke. when Thomas Beauford left the office of chancellor, which seale hée kept about the space of a moneth. For in Ianuarie after that he receiued the seale, there was a chancel|lor created.

Thomas Fitzalen or Arundell, archbishop of Canturburie,Thomas A|rundell arch|bishop of Can|turburie. was the fourth time inuested with the chancellorship, in the yeare of our saluation one thou|sand foure hundred and twelue, being the thirtéenth yeare of king Henrie the fourth, in which office hée continued during the life of the said king Henrie the fourth, who died in the fourtéenth yeare of his kingdome, and in the yere of our Lord one thousand foure hundred and thirtéene.

Henrie Beauford bishop of Winchester,Henrie Beau+ford bishop at Winchester. and af|ter cardinall in the time of Henrie the sixt, being vncle to king Henrie the fift then reigning, was the second time made chancellor, in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred and thirteene, be|ing the first yeare of the fift king Henrie, in which place he remained vntill the fift yeare of the said king Henrie, being the yeare of our Lord one thou|sand foure hundred and seuentéene.

Thomas Langleie bishop of Durham was the second time made lord chancellor of England,Thomas Langleie bi|shop of Dur|ham. in the said yere of our redemption one thousand foure hun|dred and seuentéene, being the fift yeare of that woor|thie conqueror king Henrie the fift, which office he receiued at Southwicke, and continued in that ho|nour (as farre as I can learne) by the space of six yeares or more, whereof fiue yeares were fullie en|ded in the life and death of the said Henrie the fift, and the sixt yeare ended in the last of the first or begin|ning of the second yeare of king Henrie the sixt.

Henrie Beauford bishop of Winchester before named,Henrie Beau+ford bishop of Winchester. was the third time made lord chancellor of England, in the second yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the sixt, being about the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred twentie and thrée, or one thousand foure hundred twentie and foure. For the second yeare of that king fell part in the one and part in the other of the said yeares of our Lord, in which office he continued about foure yeares, vntill he was made cardinall, in the yeare of our Lord one thou|sand foure hundred twentie and six.

Iohn Kempe, bishop of London, was made lord chancellor of England in the fourth yere of that king Henrie,Iohn Kempe bishop of London. who in his yoongest yeares was crowned first king of England, and then king of France in Paris; in which office he remained (as I suppose) a|bout six yeares.

Iohn Stafford deane of S. Martine & of Welles, prebend of Milton in Lincolne church,Iohn Staf|ford bishop of Bath. bishop of Bath and Welles, lord chancellor and treasuror of Eng|land, and bishop of Canturburie, was made lord chancellor of England in the moneth of Februarie, in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred thirtie & one, falling in the tenth yeare of king Hen|rie the sixt: he remained in that office vntill Iohn Kempe was againe made lord chancellor, which was about the eight and twentith yeare of king Henrie the sixt. And here I think it not vnméet to remember that some haue noted William Wanfleet that was bishop of Winchester, and chancellor of Oxford, to be chancellor of England, when he built Magdalen college in Oxford, in the fiue and twentith yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the sixt: which possiblie can not be, sith this Iohn Stafford held that office from the tenth of Henrie the sixt, vntill the eight & twen|tith of the same king, which was eightéene yeares: during which time they place this Wanfléet to bee chancellor of England. Which error (I suppose) they haue commited, in that they finding him chancellor at the time of the building of his college, in the said fiue and twentith yeare of king Henrie the sixt, haue taken him to be chancellor of England, when he was then but chancellor of Oxford: although in deed afterward he was chancellor of England, in the fiue and thirtith yeare of the said king, as after shall appeare.

Iohn Kempe bishop of Yorke and cardinall, was the second time made lord chancellor in the eight and twentith of king Henrie the sixt,Iohn Kempe bishop of Yorke. being about the yeare of our redemption one thousand foure hun|dred and fiftie, in which o [...]ce he died, being bishop of Canturburie, in the yeare of our redemption (as EEBO page image 1284 saith Matthew Parker, one thousand foure hundred fiftie and thrée, being the two & thirtith yeare of the reigne of the simple king Henrie the sixt. This man was first bishop of Rochester, next of Chicester, thirdlie of London, then of Yorke, where he sat eight and twentie yeares, and lastlie he was archbishop of Canturburie.

Richard Neuill earle of Salisburie, the sonne of Rafe Neuill earle of Westmerland,Richard Ne|uill earle of Salisburie. and father to the valiant Richard Neuill earle of Warwike, was after the death of Iohn Kempe by parlement made lord chancellor in the two & thirtith yeare of K. Hen|rie the sixt: though others make it to be in the three & thirtith yeare of the same king, in which place he continued not long. For in the yeare following an o|ther was substituted, and he remoued.

Thomas Bourchier (brother to Henrie Bourchier earle of Essex) bishop of Elie,Thomas Bourchier bi|shop of Elie. and bishop of Can|turburie, was made chancellor in the three & thirtith yeare of the gouernement of king Henrie the sixt, in which he remained much about two yeares. In whose time, as saith Matthew Parker, about the yeare of our redemption one thousand foure hundred thrée|score and one, In vita Thomae Bo [...]cheri [...]pisco. [...]. was the art of printing inuented at the citie of Argentorat in Germanie. About the which matter, and especiallie for the exact & certeine time thereof, manie writers although their count about one time doo disagree: yet at the inuention of that woorthie thing were these verses composed in the commendation of the same most excellent art.

O foelix nostris memoranda impressio tectis,
Inuentore nitet vtraque lingua tuo
Desierat quasi totum quod fundis in orbe,
Nunc paruo doctus quilibet esse potest.
Omnes te homines igitur nunc laudibus ornent,
Te duce quando ars haec mira reperta fuit.

William Pa|tan, or Paten [...] William Wanfled.William Patan or Paten, borne of gentle|manlie familie, being commonlie called William Wanfled of the place of his birth, and being prouost of Eaton, and bishop of Winchester, was lord chan|cellor in the fiue and thirtith, six and thirtith, and the seuen and thirtith yeare of the vnfortunat king Hen|rie the sixt, as haue the records of the excheker. By which appeareth the error of those, as I haue before noted, that mistaking the fiue and twentith of king Henrie the six, in which time he was but chancellor of Oxford; for the fiue and thirtith of the said king, in which he was chancellor of England.

George Neuill (the sonne of Richard Neuill earle of Salisburie,George Ne|uill archbi|shop of Yorke. and brother to Richard Neuill earle of Warwike) being made bishop of Excester, came to that sée in the yeare of our redemption one thousand foure hundred fiftie and fiue; in which sée he continued ten yeares, and was remoued to Yorke in the yeare that God became man one thousand foure hundred three score and fiue, he was made lord chancellor in the eight & thirtith yeare of the reigne of the after deposed K. Henrie the sixt, in which office he remained about eight yeares, & then was remo|ued in the seuenth yeare of the woorthie K. Edward the fourth, being the yeare that the word became flesh one thousand foure hundred thréescore & seuen. He was a great friend to saint Albons, & procured Edward the fourth in the fourth yeare of his reigne to giue & confirme to Iohn Whethamsted, abbat of saint Albons, the priorie of Penbroke. This bishop Neuill did after in the thirtéenth yeare of king Ed|ward the fourth grow in such disgrace with the king, that he was spoiled at one time of twentie thousand pounds, as in his life shall be more at large declared. To this man did Hugh Ueine giue the manour of Hener Cobham, and Hener Brokas in Kent, in the fourth yeare of king Edward the fourth. He died at Blithlaw comming from Yorke, being almost fortie yeares old, and was buried at Yorke. And heere I thinke it not amisse, to note the mistaking of time of such historiographers as haue set downe, that Ed|ward the fourth did, in the fourth yeare of his reigne, take the chancellorship from the bishop of Excester (brother to the earle of Warwike, which must néeds be this George Neuill) & gaue the same to the bishop of Bath. For by that which I haue seene, this Neuill liued vntill the seuenth yeare of Ed|ward the fourth, and that for this time I suppose to be the truest.

Robert Kirkeham maister of the rolles wasRobert Kirk|ham maister of the rolles. made lord kéeper of the great seale (vppon the remo|uing of George Neuill) in the moneth of Iulie in the said yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred threescore and seuen, being the seuenth yeare of king Edward the fourth.

Robert Stillington doctor of the lawes,Robert Stil|lington doctor of the lawes. kéeper of the priuie seale in the third yeare of Edward the fourth, bishop of Bath & Wels, being made chancel|lor in the seuenth yeare of king Edward the fourth, did still so continue (as I gather) vntill the thirtéenth yeare of the said king.

Henrie Bourchier earle of Essex,Henrie Bour|chier earle of Essex. and first ad|uanced to that title of honor by Edward the fourth, came in place of the last chancellor, about the four|téenth yeare (as some vntrulie haue noted) of Ed|ward the fourth. But in my poore opinion, the same was in the thirtéenth yeare of the said Edward the fouth: in which place he remained not much more than one Trinitie terme. For in the said thirtéenth yeare, about the moneth of August, was Booth lord chancellor of England.

Laurence Booth sometime maister of Penbroke hall bishop of Durham, and after of Yorke,Laurence Booth bishop of Durham. was made lord chancellor about August or rather before, betwéene that and Trinitie terme (after Henrie Bourchier) in the said thirteenth yeare of the valiant king Edward the fourth, after his redemption of the kingdome of England. This bishop (being brother to William Booth sometime bishop of Yorke) did build the bishop of Yorks house at Baterseie, which manour he before bought of Nicholas Stanleie, whome Leland the minser and refiner of all Eng|lish names dooth most curiouslie in Latine call Ni|cholaum Stenelegium. He continued in the sée of York [...] thrée yeares & nine moneths, and died at Southwell in the yeare of our redemption one thousand foure hundred and foure score, being the twentith yeare of king Edward the fourth.

Thomas Scot surnamed Rotheram,Thomas Scot aliâs Rotheram. because of the towne of Rotheram in Yorkeshire where he was borne and bred vp, was bishop of Rochester, and then of Linclolne, where he sat nine yeares, and after that was bishop of Yorke: whereinto he installed first at Yorke, and then at Ripon, being prouost of Be|uerleie, he was made chancellor of England in the yeare of our redemption one thousand foure hundred seuentie and foure, being the fourtéenth yeare of the reigne of king Edward the fourth. This bishop, in the fifteenth yeare of the said king, went ouer the sea (as I haue séene noted) with the said Edward the fourth, when he went to haue an interuiew with the French king: of which meeting monsieur de Ar|gentine by name Philip Comineus (besides our English chronicles) dooth make mention, as a person that bare a part in that pageant.

Iohn Alcot bishop of Rochester was made chan|cellor, during the absence of king Edward,Iohn Alcot bishop of Ro|chester. as I haue found recorded.

Thomas Rotheram,Thomas Ro|theram. being before lord keeper of the priuie seale, was after his returne out of France the second time made lord chancellor, about the time EEBO page image 1285 in which the said king had gotten Berwike from the Scots, being about the twentith yeare of the said Edward the fourth. For the frée gaining of the towne was not much before his death; in which of|fice this Rotheram continued all the life of king Edward the fourth, & in the time of the little or no reigne at all of the guiltlesse murthered yoong prince king Edward the fift; vntill it was ascribed to him for ouermuch lightnesse, that he had deliue|red in the beginning of the rebellious gouernement of the protectorship of the bloudie and vnnaturall Richard duke of Glocester the seale to the quéene, to whome it did not apperteine, and from whome he receiued it not. He founded a college at Rotheram, dedicated, it to the name of Iesus, & indowed it with great possessions & ornaments, and annexed therto the churches of Langthton, and Almanburie.

Iohn Russell bishop of Lincolne, a graue and learned man,Iohn Russell bishop of Lin|colne. had the seale deliuered to him by the said protector of England, during the time of the short reigne of the yoong king Edward, when the same seale was taken from Rotheram: and so this Russell was made chancellor in the moneth of Iune, in the yeare of our saluation one thousand foure hundred foure score and thrée, being the first yeare of the vsurped gouernement of the bloudie tyrant the mishapen king Richard the third. This Russell is buried in the church of Lincolne, in a chappell cast out of the vpper wall of the south part of the church.

Thomas Barow maister of the rolles was made keeper of the great seale (as I haue seene recorded) which I suppose,Thomas Barow mai|ster of the rolles. was in the third and last yeare of the said king Richard the third: for in that yeare he was maister of the rolles.

Thomas Rotheram made againe lord chancellor, in the first entrance of king Henrie the seuenth into the gouernement:Thomas Ro|theram. but verie shortlie after he was displaced, and the bishop of Worcester placed in that roome; he was archbishop of Yorke nintéene yeares & ten moneths; he was verie beneficiall to all his kinred, and aduanced some with mariages, some with possessions, and some with spirituall liuings. He died the nine and twentith daie of December, in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred, being the sixtéenth yeare of king Henrie the eight, at Ca|wood in Yorkeshire the morrow after the Ascension, being of the age of three score and sixtéene yeares or more: he was buried in Yorke minster on the north|side in our ladie chappell, in a toome of marble which he caused to be made whilest he was liuing.

Iohn Alcot bishop of Worcester, made in the yeare one thousand foure hundred three score and six|teene,Iohn Alcot bishop of Wor|cester. was lord chancellor of England in the first yeare of the said K. Henrie the seuenth, the Salo|mon of England, being the yeare of our redemption one thousand foure hundred foure score & fiue: short|lie after the entrance of the said Henrie into the go|uernement of England. For though Rotheram were chancellor when he got the victorie, for that he had béene so before, & for that the king was neither prouided nor minded suddenlie to haue a man not méete for that place to execute the same: yet this Rotheram kept not that roome manie moneths, but that Alcot came in place because the king found Alcot a méeter person to execute the same office, answerable to the disposition of the kings humor. All which notwithstanding, whether for malice of o|thers, or for his owne deserts, or both, or for more especiall trust that king Henrie put in Moorton bi|shop of Elie, who had beene the meanes to bring him to the crowne, this Alcot fell shortlie in the kings disgrace, was displaced of his office, and Moor|ton came in his roome. So that in this first yeare of the said king Henrie the seuenth, there seemed to be thrée chancellors in succession one after another, if I haue not misconceiued the matter: all which be|fore Moorton in this first yeare of king Henrie the seuenth, may perhaps more properlie be termed kée|pers of the great seale, than chancellors.

Iohn Moorton doctor of the ciuill law,Iohn Moor|ton bishop of Elie. an aduo|cat in the ciuill of the councell to Henrie the sixt, and to Edward the fourth, to whome also he was maister of the rolles, was made bishop of Elie in the yeare of our redemption one thousand foure hundred thrée score and eightéene, and lord chancellor of England, (vpon his returne from beyond the seas) in the first yeare of the woorthie prince K. Henrie the seuenth, being the yeare that the word became flesh, one thousand foure hundred foure score and fiue: after which he was aduanced to the bishoprike of Can|turburie; he died in the yeare of our redemption one thousand foure hundred foure score and nintéene, in the fifteenth yere of the reigne of king Henrie the seuenth, as hath Matthew Parker.

William Warham aduocat in the arches,William War|ham archbi|shop of Can|turburie. mai|ster of the rolles, bishop of London, and then bi|shop of Canturburie; was (before his aduance|ment to the see of Canturburie) made chancellor of England in the time of Henrie the seuenth, in which office he continued vntill about the latter end of the seuenth yeare of king Henrie the eight. At what time surrendring the seale by reason of his age and weakenesse, the same great seale was deliuered to Thomas Woolseie.

Thomas Woolseie somtime chapleine to Henrie Deane archbishop of Canturburie,Thomas Woolseie. after the kings almoner and abbat of saint Austins, who possessing manie other abbeies and bishopriks, as in other pla|ces shall more largelie appeare, was aduanced to the gouernment of the great seale, about the beginning of the eight yeare of the triumphant reigne of king Henrie the eight, being the yeare of our Lord and Sauior Iesus Christ one thousand fiue hundred six|téene, to hold the same during his life (as I gather) in which office yet he continued not aboue thirtéene yeares, vntill the one and twentith of the said king Henrie the eight, being the yeare of our redemption one thousand fiue hundred twentie and nine. Du|ring which time of his chancellorship, in the nine|téenth yere of king Henrie the eight, being the yere of Christ one thousand fiue hundred twentie and sea|uen, he went into France, representing the king of Englands person, to set order for the deliuerie of pope Clement the seuenth and Francis the French king, at what time he carried the great seale ouer the seas to Calis, which seale he left with doctor Tailor maister of the rolles, to kéepe the same at Calis vn|till the cardinals returne out of the French domini|ons. He died in Leicester abbeie (not without sus|picion of poison as was thought, which he had prepa|red for himselfe, and giuen to his apothecarie to de|liuer when he called for it) the two and twentith of king Henrie the eight, in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred and thirtie.

Thomas Moore knight,Thomas Moore. sometime vndershiriffe of London, and chancellor of the dutchie of Lancas|ter, was aduanced to the honor of chancellorship of England, in the yere that the word became flesh one thousand fiue hundred twentie and nine, being the one and twentith yéere of that king Henrie which ex|pelled pope Clement the seauenth his authoritie out of his dominions, in which office this rare witted knight (to vse Erasmus his epitheton) and learned chancellor continued not full thrée yeares; but in the foure and twentith yeare of the reigne of the said king Henrie the eight, with much labor and earnest sute he left his office. Touching which it shall not gréeue me to set downe the words of Matthew Par|ker EEBO page image 1286 of the liues of the bishops of Canturburie in the life of Thomas Cranmer writing after this maner: Intereà rex dum papae meditabatur excidium, singulorum de papali auctoritate sensus iudicijs haud obscuris collegit. Inter quos Thomas Morus, quia regis conatus pontificijs valdè sus|pectus fuit, cancellarij munere, venia regis aegrè impetrata, sese abdicauit.

Thomas Audleie attornie of the dutchie of Lan|caster,Thomas Audleie. sergeant at the law (as most affirme) and spea|ker of the parlement, was made knight and lord kée|per of the great seale the fourth of Iune, in the foure and twentith yere of the reigne of the famous prince king Henrie the eight, being the yeare of our Lord God one thousand fiue hundred thirtie and two, not long after which he was indued with the title and ho|nor of lord chancellor of England. This man in the tenth yere of his chancellorship, H [...]sto C [...]ntab. per Caium. 78. being the yere of our redemption one thousand fiue hundred fortie and two, and the fiue and thirtith yeare of king Henrie the eight, changing the name of Buckingham col|lege in Cambridge, did name it the college of saint Marie Magdalen, and indued it with some posses|sions. He died on Maie éeuen in the yeare of our saluation one thousand fiue hundred fortie and foure, being the fiue and thirtith yeare of Henrie the eight.

Thomas Wriotheslie knight of the garter, being created baron at Hampton court on the first of Ia|nuarie,Thomas Wriotheslie. in the fiue and thirtith yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the eight, in the yere of Christ one thou|sand fiue hundred fortie and three, was after aduan|ced to the honor of the great seale and chancellorship of England, about the beginning of Maie, in the six and thirtith yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the eight, being the yere of grace one thousand fiue hun|dred fortie and foure, in which office he continued vn|till the death of the said king Henrie the eight, and in the beginning of the reigne of king Edward the sixt, vntill for his obstinacie in the Romane religion he was the sixt of March remooued, and the seale was deliuered to William Paulet lord Sent-Iohn of Basing. This Wriotheslie (being created earle of Southampton by king Edward the sixt) died at his house of Lincolne place in Holborne the 30 of Iulie, in the fourth yeare of the said king Edward, in the yéere 1550, & was buried at saint Andrews in Old|borne commonlie called Holborne.

William Paulet.William Paulet knight being first steward of the lands of the bishoprike of Winchester, then treasu|ror of the houshold, lord Sent-Iohn of Basing, lord great maister of the kings house, afterwards earle of Wiltshire, marquesse of Winchester, and trea|suror of England, being of the priuie councell to king Henrie the eight, king Edward the sixt, queene Marie, and queene Elisabeth, had the kéeping of the great seale committed vnto him the seuenth daie of March, in the yeare that the second person in trini|tie descended from the bosome of the father into the wombe of the mother one thousand fiue hundred for|tie and seuen, being the first yere of the reigne of the yoong king Edward the sixt, which seale he had in cu|stodie about seuen moneths, vntill the thrée and twen|tith or foure and twentith of October following, at what time sir Richard Rich was made lord chancel|lor.

Sir Richard RichSir Richard Rich knight, lord Rich, was aduan|ced to the dignitie of lord chancellor of England a|bout the 23 of October in the yere of our saluation one thousand fiue hundred fortie and seuen, being the first yeare of the reigne of the noble king Edward the si [...]t, in which place he remained about fiue yeers.

[...].Thomas Goderich or Goderike being bishop of Elie had the great seale deliuered to him, and was made lord chancellor of England the twentith of De|cember (as Iohn Stow hath noted in his chronicle) in the yeare of our redemption one thousand fiue hun|dred fiftie and one, being the fift yeare of the reigne of king Edward the sixt, in whi [...]h office he continued all the life of the said king Edward, which died in Iu|lie one thousand fiue hundred fiftie and thrée, being the seuenth yeare of his reigne, and about one mo|neth after vntill the thirtéenth or fouretéenth daie of August, in which quéene Marie made Stephan Gar|dener hir chancellor.

Sir Nicholas Hare, maister of the rolles,Sir Nicho|las Hare. had at the comming of quéene Marie to the crowne the kee|ping of the great seale, after the death of king Ed|ward, as lord kéeper by the space of one fortnight, and shortlie after was Stephan Gardener made chancellor.

Stephan Gardener bishop of Winchester was in August,Stephan Gardener. in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred fiftie and thrée, being the first yeare of the reigne of the vnfortunat quéene Marie, made chan|cellor of England. This man going in ambassage vnto Calis left the great seale in the custodie of William Paulet marquesse of Winchester, which bishop after his returne into England continued in that office all the time of his life, which he ended the 19 of Nouember, in the yeare that the word became flesh one thousand fiue hundred fiftie and fiue, being the third yeere of quéene Marie. After which the great seale lieng in the custodie of the prince, she on the new yeares daie following made a new chancellor.

Nicholas Heath bishop of Rochester,Nicholas Heath. almoner to the king, ambassador into Germanie, bishop of Worcester, president of Wales, and archbishop of Yorke, was vpon new yeares daie, in the yeare of our Lord God one thousand fiue hundred fiftie and fiue, being the third yeare of the reigne of quéene Marie, aduanced to the honorable dignitie of the chancellorship. But quéene Marie deceasing the sea|uentéenth daie of Nouember, in the yeare of grace one thousand fiue hundred fiftie and eight, and the sixt yere of hir gouernement, this Heath vpon the placing of the worthie quéene Elisabeth vpon the throne of the English gouernment, was remooued from his office, and maister Bacon aduanced.

Sir Nicholas Bacon esquier,Nicholas Bacon. attourneie of the court of wards, was made knight, and lord kéeper of the great seale the two and twentith of December, in the yeare of our redemption 1558, being the first yeare of the now reigning Elisabeth the Saba of England. Which name of lord kéeper he still kept du|ring his life, and the time of his office. In whose time there was an act of parlement established, to make the power of the keeper of the great seale equall with the authoritie of the chancellor. This man continued in this office, and woorthilie executed the same, being a man of rare wit and déepe experience, during the time of his life, which continued vntill the twentith of Februarie, in the yeare of our saluation 1578 after the account of England, being the one and twentith yeare of the rare and singular gouernement of the worlds woonder the famous quéene Elisabeth, which place this man kept eightéene yéeres, being (as I suppose) double as long time as anie other chancellor or kéeper of the great seale possessed that place, except Rafe Neuill bishop of Chichester, and Iohn Stafford bishop of Bath and Wels, both which held it equallie eighteene yeares with him: a strange thing, that in the course of almost 600 yeares, no such officer might possesse that place by twentie years togither.

Thomas Bromleie, the generall solicitor of quéene Elisabeth, a councellor of the law,Thomas Bromleie. and one of the inner temple, was aduanced to the dignitie of lord chancellor on the fiue and twentith day of Aprill, in the yeare of our redemption 1579, being in the one & twentith yeare of the reigne of the said quéene EEBO page image 1287 Elisabeth, which office at this daie he beareth.

Thus (although I maie be a little wetshod in pas|sing ouer the deepe sea of this difficultie of the chan|cellors, in which I am sure I am not ouer head and eares) I haue at length brought my chancellors to end: a worke of some labour and difficultie, of some search and charge, which I haue doone onelie of my selfe without the furtherance or help of some others, who more inconsideratlie than trulie doo disorderlie report, that I haue atteined vnto this in obtei|ning those names by some sinister means, from the priuat bookes of them who haue trauelled in the same matter. In which (as I said in the begining, so I saie againe) if anie imperfection for hast, by reason of the printers spéedie calling on me, haue now fallen out of my pen, it shall hereafter God willing be cor|rected in the large volume of their liues. Wherefore as I neither estéeme nor feare the secret reports of some others; so for their countries good it shall be well that they would deliuer something to the world to bring truth to perfection (if other men haue vnwil|linglie set downe error) and not as they doo, for a litle commoditie & gaine to themselues, neither benefit their countrie, nor speake well of such as would and doo helpe posteritie. Thus this much by Francis Thin, touching the chancellors of England.]

Ab. Fl. ex pub|licis aeditio|nibus B.G. & T. C. ¶Here though somewhat out of place (for it should haue béene entered in 1578) it were better to record the receiuing of the quéenes maiestie into Suffolke & Norffolke, than making no commemoration ther|of at all, to let it perish in thréehalfepenie pamphlets, and so die in obliuion. It maie also serue for a rest of recreation, after so long an introduction of serious matters, as also (and that most woorthilie) maie re|maine in record, to signifie what well affected sub|iects the quéens maiestie hath within hir dominions, to whome goods, lands, friends, kindred, or life, none of these seuerallie, nor all iointlie, are so pretious and deere, but for hir sake they can find in their hearts to esteeme them as doong. And now to the matter. The truth is (saith one that wrote the whole intertein|ment) that albeit they had but small warning cer|teinlie to build vpon,The recei|uing of the quéene into Suffolke and Norffolke. of the comming of the queenes maiestie into both those shires, the gentlemen had made such readie prouision, that all the veluets and silks were taken vp that might be laid hand on, and bought for anie monie, and soone conuerted to such garments and sutes of robes, that the shew thereof might haue beautified the greatest triumph that was in England these manie yeares.The number of gentlemen that receiued the quéene in|to Suffolke. For (as it was said) there were two hundred yoong gentlemen clad all in white veluet, and three hundred of the grauer sort apparelled in blacke veluet cotes, and faire chaines, all readie at one instant and place, with fiftéene hun|dred seruing men more on horssebacke, well and brauelie mounted in good order, readie to receiue the quéenes highnesse into Suffolke, which surelie was a comelie troope, and a noble sight to behold: and all these waited on the shiriffe sir William Spring, du|ring the quéenes maiesties abode in those parties, and to the verie confines of Suffolke.

But before hir highnesse passed to Norffolke, there was in Suffolke such sumptuous feasting and ban|kets, as seldome in anie part of the world haue béene seene before. The maister of the rolles sir William Cordall was one of the first that began this great feasting,Persons of worship in Suffolke that feasted hir highnesse du|ring hir abode amongst them. and did light such a candle to the rest of the shire, that manie were glad bountifullie and franke|lie to follow the same example, with such charges and costs, as the whole traine were in some sort pleased therewith. And neere Burie sir William Drurie for his part at his house made the quéenes highnesse a costlie and delicat dinner, and sir Robert Germine of Roeshbrooke feasted the French ambassadors two seuerall times, with which charges and courtesie they stood maruellouslie contented. The shiriffe sir Wil|liam Spring, sir Thomas Kidson, sir Arthur Hig|ham, and diuerse others of worship, kept great hou|ses, and sundrie either at the quéenes comming, or re|turne, solemnelie feasted hir highnesse, yea and de|fraied the whole charges for a daie or twaine, presen|ted gifts, made such triumphs and deuises, as in|déed was most noble to behold, and verie thankfullie accepted.

The Norffolke gentlemen hearing how dutiful|lie their neighbors had receiued the prince,Norffolke in|cited by the example of Suffolke to giue ye quéene roiall inter|teinment prepared in like sort to shew themselues dutifull: and so in most gallant maner they assembled and set forward with fiue and twentie hundred horssemen, wherof (as some affirme) were six hundred gentlemen, so braue|lie attired and mounted, as in déed was woorthie the noting, which goodly companie waited on their shirife a long season. But in good sooth (as it was credi|blie spoken) the bankets and feasts began here a|fresh, all kinds of triumphs that might be deuised were put in practise and proofe. The earle of Surreie did shew most sumptuous cheare, in whose parke were speaches well set out, and a speciall deuise much commended: and the rest, as a number of iollie gen|tlemen, were no whit behind to the vttermost of their abilities, in all that might be doone and de|uised.

But when the quéenes highnesse came to Nor|wich,What order was taken in Norwich for the receiuing and recreating of the quéene. the substance of the whole triumph and feasting was in a maner there new to begin. For order was taken there, that euerie daie for six daies togither, a shew of some strange deuise should be seene. And the maior and aldermen appointed among themselues and their brethren, that no one person reteining to the queene should be vnfeasted, or vnbidden to din|ner & supper, during the space of those six daies: which order was well & wiselie obserued, and gained their citie more fame and credit than they wot of: for that courtesie of theirs shall remaine in perpetuall me|morie whiles the walles of their citie standeth. Be|sides the monie they bestowed vpon diuerse of the traine, and those that tooke paines for them, will be a witnesse of their well dooing and good will, whiles the report of these things maie be called to remem|brance. Now, who can (considering their great charges and discreet gouernement in these causes) but giue them due land and reputation, as farre as either pen or report maie doo them good & stretch out their credit. For most assuredlie, they haue taught and learned all the townes and cities in England a lesson, how to behaue themselues in such like seruices and actions.

On saturdaie being the sixteenth of August 1578,The maior of Norwich with his at|tendants set forth to recei [...] the quéene. and in the twentith yeare of the reigne of our most gratious souereigne ladie Elisabeth, by the grace of God quéene of England, France & Ireland, defen|der of the faith, &c: the same our most dread and soue|reigne ladie (continuing hir progresse in Norffolke) immediatlie after dinner set forward from Braken|ash, where she had dined with the ladie Stile, being fiue miles distant from Norwich, towards the same hir most dutifull citie. Sir Robert Wood then esqui|er, now knight, maior of the same citie, at one of the clocke in the same happie daie, set forward to méet with hir maiestie in this order. First there rode be|fore him well and séemelie mounted, thréescore of the most comelie yoong men of the citie, as batchellers apparelled all in blacke satten dublets, blacke hose, blacke taffata hats, and yellow bands, and their vni|uersall liuerie was a mandilion of purple taffata, laid about with siluer lase: & so apparelled they mar|ched forwards two and two in a ranke. Then one EEBO page image 1288 which represented king Gurgunt,The builder [...] Norwich [...]astell repre| [...]nted. sometime king of England, which builded the castell of Norwich, called Blanch Flowre, and laid the foundation of the citie. He was mounted vpon a braue courser, and was thus furnished: his bodie armed, his bases of greene and white silke: on his head a blacke veluet hat, with a plume of white feathers. There attended vpon him thrée henchmen in white and gréene: one of them did beare his helmet, the second his target, the third his staffe: after him a noble companie of gentlemen and wealthie citizens in veluet coats and other cost|lie furniture, brauelie mounted. Then followed the officers of the citie euerie one in his place. Then the sword-bearer, with the sword & hat of maintenance. Then the maior and foure and twentie aldermen, and the recorder all in scarlet gownes, whereof so manie as had béene maiors of the citie, and were iu|stices, did weare their scarlet clokes: then followed so manie as had béene shiriffs, and were no alder|men, in violet gownes and sattin tippets. Then follo|wed diuerse others, to kéepe the people from distur|bing the araie aforesaid.

Thus euerie thing in due and comelie order, they all (except Gurgunt,The founder [...] Blanch Flowre stai| [...] person [...] meét the [...]. which staied hir maiesties com|ming within a flight shoot or two of the citie, where the castell of Blanch Flowre was in most beautifull prospect) marched forwards to a bridge, called Hart|ford bridge, the vttermost limit that waie, distant from the citie two miles or there abouts, to méet with hir maiestie; who within one houre or little more after their attendance, came in such gratious and princelie wise, as rauished the harts of all hir louing subiects, and might haue terrified the stoutest heart of anie enimie to behold. Whether the maie|stie of the prince, which is incomparable; or ioie of hir subiects, which excéeded measure, were the greater, I thinke would haue appalled the iudgement of Apollo to define. The acclamations and cries of the people to the almightie God for the preseruation of hir ma|iestie ratled so lowd, as hardly for a great time could anie thing be heard. But at last, as euerie thing hath an end, the noise appeased: and the maior saluted hir highnesse with the oration following, and yéelded to hir maiestie therewith the sword of the citie, and a faire standing cup of siluer and guilt, with a couer, and in the cup one hundred pounds in gold. The ora|tion was in these words.

24.2.1. Praetoris Nordouicensis ad se|renissimam Reginam, &c.

Praetoris Nordouicensis ad se|renissimam Reginam, &c.

_SI nobis ab Opt. Max. concederetur optio quid rerũ humanarũ nunc potissi|mùm vellemus: nihil duceremus anti|quius (augustissima princeps) quàm vt tuus ille, qui ita nos recreat, castissimi ocelli radius posset in abditissimos cordium nostrorũ angulos se conferre. Cerneres profectò quanta sint hilaritate perfusa, quàm in ipsis arterijs & venulis spiritus & sanguis gestiant: dumintuemur te huius regni lumen (vt Dauid olim fuit Israelitici) in hijs tan|dem finibus post longam spem, [...] pro [...] fratri| [...] ob [...]estatio. & ardentissima vo|ta exoriri. Equidem vt pro me, qui tua ex authori|tate & clementia (quod humillimis gratijs profite|or) celeberrimae huic ciuitati praesum, & pro hijs meis fratribus, at omni hoc populo quem tuis au|spicijs regimus, ex illorum sensuloquar, quod & ipse sentio: sic nos demum supplicibus votis expo|scimus, vt maiestatem tuam beneuolam nobis, & propitiam experiamur: vt nunquam cuiquam po|pulo aduenisti gratior quàm nobis. In illius rei lucu|lentissimũ indicium, insignia haec honoris, & offi|cij nostri, Henricus quar|tus ciuitati Nordouicensi princeps mu|nificentssimus quae nobis clementissimus princeps Hen|ricus quartus quinto sui regni anno cũ praetore, se|natoribus, & vicecomitibus cõcessit: (cum antea balliuis (vt vocant) vltra annalium nostrorum memoriam regeremur) perpetuis deinde regum priuilegijs, & corroborata nobis, & aucta magni|ficè, maiestati tuae omnia exhibemus, quae per tu|am vnius clementiam (quam cum immortalibus gratijs praedicare nunquam cessabimus) vicesimo iam anno tenuimus: at vnâ cum illis, hunc the|saurum, Praetoris p [...]o+se su [...]s tratri|bus quàm sig|nificanter facta o [...]atio. quasi pignus nostrarum & voluntatum & facultatum. Quas omnes, quantae, quantulaeu [...] sint, ad tuum arbitrium deuouimus: vt si quid om|ni hoc foelicissimi tui temporis decursu admisimus, quod amantissimos, obsequentissimos, amplitudinis tuae saluti, coronae, emolumento deuotissimos non deceat: statuas de nobis, & nostris omnibus, pro tua clementissima voluntate. Sin ita clauum huius ciuitatis (Deo duce) reximus: vt eam in portu saluam maiestati tuae conseruauerimus, & popu|lum primum gloriae Dei, & verae religionis, dein|de salutis, honoris, & voluntatis tuae studiosissi|mum, quantum in nobis est, effecerimus: tum non libet nobis id à te petere, quod insita tibi singularis clementia facillimè à te ipsa impetrabit. Tantum obsecramus, vt amplitudinem tuam Deus omni|bus & animi & corporis bonis cumulatissimè bea|re velit, Amen.

24.2.2. The maiors oration to the queene Englished.

The maiors oration to the queene Englished.

_IF our wish should be granted vnto vs by the almightie, what humane thing wee would chieflie desire: we would account nothing more pretious (most roial prince) than that the bright beame of your most chast eie which dooth so cheare vs, might pearse the secret and strait corners of our hearts. Then surelie should you see how great ioies are dispersed there, and how the spirits and liuelie bloud tickle in our arteries & small veines, in beholding you the light of this realme (as Dauid was of Israel) now at length, after long hope and earnest petitions, to appeare in these coasts. Tru|lie on mine owne part, which by your highnesse au|thoritie and clemencie (with humble thanks bee it spoken) doo gouerne this famous citie, The maior speaketh in his owne and his brethren the alderaiens behalfe. and on the part of these my brethren, and all these people which by your authoritie we rule (speaking as they meane, and as I my selfe doo thinke) this onelie with all our hearts and humble praiers we desire, that we maie so find your maiestie gratious and fauourable vnto vs, as you for your part neuer came to anie subiects bet|ter welcome than to vs your poore subiects here. For most manifest token whereof, we present vnto your maiestie here, these signes of honor and office, which we receiued of the most mightie prince Henrie the fourth, in the fift yere of his reigne, Henrie the fourth a most bounti [...]u [...]l prince to the citie of Nor|wich. then to vs granted in the name of maior, aldermen and shiriffs; whereas before time out of mind or mention, we were gouer|ned by bailiffs (as they tearme them) which euer since haue beene both established and increased with con|tinuall priuileges of kings: and which by your onelie clemencie (which with immortall thanks we shall neuer cease to declare) we haue now these twentie yeares inioied: and togither with those signes, this treasure is a pledge of our good willes and abilitie: which all how great or little so euer they be, wee powre downe at your pleasure, A most duti|full submis|sion. that if we haue neg|lected anie thing in all this course of your most hap|pie reigne, which becommeth most louing, obedient and well willing subiects to performe, for the preser|uation of your crowne, and aduancement of your EEBO page image 1289 highnesse, you maie then determine of vs and all ours at your most gratious pleasure. But if we haue (God being our guide) so ordered the gouernance of this citie, that we haue kept the same in safetie to your maiesties vse, and made the people therein (as much as in vs lieth) first most studious of Gods glorie and true religion, Wherein the dutie of sub|iects chieflie consisteth. and next of your maiesties health, ho|nour, and pleasure; then aske we nothing of you: for that the singular clemencie ingraffed in your high|nesse, will easilie of it selfe grant that which is requi|sit for vs to obteine. We onelie therefore desire, that God would abundantlie blesse your highnesse with all good gifts of mind and bodie.

Which oration ended, hir maiestie accepting in good part euerie thing deliuered by the maior, did thankefullie answer him in these words, or verie like in effect:The quéens maiesties ac|ceptable an|swer vttered by hir owne mouth in per|son. We hartilie thanke you maister maior, and all the rest, for these tokens of goodwill; neuer|thelesse, princes haue no néed of monie: God hath indued vs abundantlie, we come not therefore, but for that which in right is our owne, the hearts and true allegiance of our subiects, which are the grea|test riches of a kingdome; whereof as we assure our selues in you, so doo you assure your selues in vs of a louing and gratious souereigne. Wherewith was deliuered to the maior, a mace or scepter, which he carried before hir to hir lodging, which was in the bishop of Norwich his palace, two miles distant from that place. The cup and monie was deliuered to a gentleman, one of hir maiesties footmen to car|rie. The maior said to hir, Sunt hîc centum librae puri auri. The couer of the cup lifted vp, hir maiestie said to the footmen; Looke to it, there is 100 pounds. With that hir highnesse, with the whole companie, marched towards Norwich, till they came to a place called the Towne close, distant from the citie a good flightshot, where the partie which represented Gur|gunt came forth, as in due maner is expressed, and was readie to haue declared to hir maiestie this spéech following;Gurguntius his spéech cut off by a showre of raine. but by reason of a showre of raine which came, hir maiestie hasted awaie, the spéech not vttered. But thus it was as here followeth.

Leaue off to muse most gratious prince of English soile,
What sudden wight in martiall wise approcheth neere:
Gurguntius the el [...]est son of Belinus.King Gurgunt I am hight, king Belins eldest sonne,
Whose sire Dunwallo first, the British crowne did weare.
Whom truthlesse Gutlacke forst to passe the surging seas,
His falshod to reuenge, and Denmarke land to spoile.
And finding in returne, this place a gallant vent,
This castle faire I built, a fort from forren soile:
To win a conquest, get renowme and glorious name,
To keepe and vse it well, deserues eternall fame.
When brute through cities, townes, the woods & dales did sound:
Elizabeth this countrie peerelesse queene drew neere:
I was found out, my selfe in person noble queene
Did hast, before thy face in presence to appeare.
The ancient|nesse of Nor|wich citie by the founders age may be gathered.Two thousand yeares welnie in silence lurking still:
Heare, why to thee alone this seruice I doo yeeld.
Besides that, at my cities sute their founder first
Should gratulat most this ioifull sight in open field,
Foure speciall points and rare concurring in vs both
This speciall seruice haue reserud to thee alone:
The glorie though of each in thee dooth far surmount,
Yet great with small compard, will like appeare anon.
When doubtfull warres the British princes long had wroong,
My grandsire first vniting all did weare the crowne.
Of Yorke and Lancaster, who did conclude those broiles?
King Henrie the seuenth, and king Hen|rie the eight.Thy grandsire Henrie seuenth, a king of great renowne.
Mine vncle Brennus eke, my father ioining hands,
Old Rome did rase and sacke, and halfe consume with fire:
Thy puissant father so, new Rome that purple whore
Did sacke and spoile hir neere, of all hir glittering tire.
Lo Cambridge schooles by mine assignement founded first,
By thee my Cambridge schooles are famous through the world,
I thirtie wandring ships of banisht men relieued.
The throngs of banisht soules that in this citie dwell,
Do weepe for ioy: and praie for thee with teares vntold:
Gurguntius yeeldeth his estate to the quéene.In all these things thou noble queene doost far excell.
But lo to thee I yeeld as dutie dooth me bind
In open field my selfe, my citie, castle, keie,
Most happie fathers kings in such a daughter queene,
Most happie England were, if thou shouldst neuer die.
Go on most noble prince, for I must hast awaie
My citie gates doo long, their souereigne to receaue:
More true thou neuer couldst, nor loiall subiects find,
Whose harts full fast with perfect loue to thee doo cleaue.

Then hir maiestie drew néere the gates of the citie called saint Stephans gates, which with the wals there were both gallantlie and stronglie repared.S. Stephans gates in Nor|wich richlie beautified. The gate it selfe was thus inriched and beautified. First the portcullice was new made both timber & iron. Then the outward side of the gate was thus beautified. The quéenes armes were most richlie and beautifullie set forth in the chiefe front of the gate. On the one side thereof, but somewhat lower, was placed the scutchion of saint George his crosse: on the other side, the armes of the citie: and directlie vnder the queenes maiesties armes, was placed the falcon, hir highnesse badge, in due forme, and vn|der the same were written these words, God and the queene we serue. The inner side of the gate was thus beautified. On the right side was gorgeouslie set foorth the red rose, signifieng the house of Yorke; on the left side the white rose, representing the house of Lancaster; in the midst was the white and red rose vnited, expressing the vnion,The vnion of the white rose and the red. vnder the which was placed by descent the armes of the quéene, and vnder that were written these verses following.

Diuision kindled strife,
Blist vnion quencht the flame:
Thense sprang our noble Phenix deare,
The pearelesse prince of fame.

And besides that, at this gate, the waits of the ci|tie were placed with lowd musicke, who cheerefullie & melodiouslie welcomed hir maiestie into the citie, this song being soong by the best voices in the same.

The deaw of heauen drops this daie
on drie and barren ground,
Wherefore let fruitfull hearts I saie
at drum and trumpets sound
Yeeld that is due, shew that is meet,
to make our ioy the more,
In our good hope, and hir great praise,
we neuer saw before.
The sun dooth shine where shade hath beene,
long darkenesse brought vs daie,
The star of comfort now come in,
and here a while will staie.
Ring out the bels, plucke vp your spreets,
and dresse your houses gaie,
Run in for floures to strew the streets,
and make what ioy you maie.
The deaw of heauen, &c.
Full manie a winter haue we seene,
and manie stormes withall,
Since here we saw a king or queene
in pompe and princelie pall.
Wherefore make feast and banket still,
and now to triumph fall,
With dutie let vs shew good will,
to glad both great and small.
The deaw of heauen, &c.
The realme throughout will ring of this,
and sundrie regions mo
Will say, full great our fortune is,
when our good hap they kno.
O Norwich, heere the welspring runs,
whose vertue still dooth flo,
And lo this day dooth shine two suns
within thy wals also.
The deaw of heauen, &c.

This song ended, hir highnesse passed towards hir lodging, & by the waie in a church-yard, ouer against maister Pecks doore (a woorthie alderman) was a scaffold set vp & brauelie trimmed. On this scaffold was placed an excellent boy, well and gallantlie dec|ked, in a long white robe of taffata, a crimsin scarffe wrought with gold, folded on the Turkish fashion a|bout his browes, and a gaie garland of white flowers on his head, which boie was not séene, till the quéene had a good season marked the musicke, which was maruellous swéet and good, albeit the rudenesse of some ringers of bels did somewhat hinder the noise and harmonie: and as soone as the musike ended, the boy stepped reuerendlie before the queene, and spake these woords that follow in comelie order.

Great things were meant to welcome thee (O queene)The boies speach at ma|ster Pecks doore.
If want of time had not cut off the same:
Great was our wish, but [...]mall is that was seene,
For vs to shew before so great a dame.
Great hope we haue it pleasd our princes eie,
Great were the harmes that else our paines should reape:
Our grace or foile dooth in your iudgement li [...],
If you mislike, our griefs doo grow on heape:
If for small things we doo great fauour find,
EEBO page image 1290Great is the ioy that Norwich feeles this daie:
If well we waid the greatnesse of your mind,
Few words would serue, we had but small to saie.
But knowing that your goodnesse takes things well
That well are meant, we boldlie did proceed:
And so good queene, both welcome and farewell,
Thine owne we are in heart, in word, and deed.

The boy there vpon flang vp his garland, and the quéenes highnes said,The quéene liked this deuise. This deuise is fine. Then the noise of musike began againe, to heare the which the quéene staid a good while, and after departed to the ca|thedrall church, which was not far from thense. Then passed she forwards through saint Stephans stréet,The first pa|geant was in S. Stephans parish in this man [...]r. where the first pageant was placed in forme follow|ing. It was builded somewhat in maner like a stage of 40 foot long, & in breadth eight foot. From the stan|ding place vpward was a bank framed in maner of a frée stone wall, & in the height therof were written sentences, that is to saie: The causes of this common wealth are, God trulie preached, Iustice dulie execu|ted, The people obedient, Idlenesse expelled, Labour cherished, Uniuersall concord preserued.

From the standing place downewards it was beautified with painters worke,How the pa|geant was beautified with repre|sentation of the mysteries of the citie. artificiallie expres|sing to sight the portraiture of these seuerall loomes, and the weauers in them (as it were working) and ouer euerie loome the name thereof, that is to saie. Ouer the first loome was written, the weauing of worsted: ouer the second, the weauing of russels: o|uer the third, the weauing of darnix: ouer the fourth, the weauing of iust mockado: the fift, the weauing of lace: the sixt, the weauing of caffa: the seuenth, the weauing of fringe. And then was there the portrai|ture of a matrone, and two or three children, and ouer hir head was written these words: Good nurture changeth qualities. Upon the stage there stood at the one end eight small women children spining worsted yarne, and at the other end as manie knitting of worsted yarne hose: and in the middest of the said stage stood a pretie boy richlie apparelled, which repre|sented the common wealth of the citie. And all the rest of the stage was furnished with men, which made the said seuerall works, and before euerie man the worke in déed. Euerie thing thus readie, and hir maiestie come, the child representing the common wealth, spake to hir highnesse these words following.

Most gratious prince, vndoubted souereigne queene,
Our onelie ioy next God, and chiefe defense:
In this small shew, our whole estate is seene,
The wealth we haue, we find proceed from thense,
The idle hand hath here no place to feed,
The painfull wight hath still to serue his need.
Againe, our seat denies our traffike heere,
The sea too neare decides vs from the rest,
So weake we were within this doozen yeare,
As care did quench the courage of the best:
But good aduise hath taught these little hands,
To rend in twaine the force of pining bands.
From combed wooll we draw this slender threed,
  • 1. Pointing to the spinners.
  • 2. Pointing to the loomes.
  • 3. Pointing to the workes.
From thense the loomes haue dealing with the same,
And thense againe in order doo proceed,
These seuerall works which skilfull art dooth frame:
And all to driue dame need into hir caue,
Our heads and hands togither labourd haue.
We bought before the things that now we sell,
These slender impes, their works doo passe the waues,
Gods peace and thine, we hold and prosper well,
Of euerie mouth the hands the charges saues.
Thus through thy helpe and aid of power diuine,
Dooth Norwich liue, whose hearts and goods are thine.

This shew pleased hir maiestie so greatlie, as she particularlie viewed the knitting & spinning of the children, perused the loomes, and noted the seuerall works and commodities which were made by these means: and then after great thanks by hir giuen to the people, marched towards the market place, where was the second pageant thwarting the stréet at the enterance of the market,The second pageant with the situation of the same, and what re|presentations & bare. betwéene master Skinner & master Quash, being in bredth two and fiftie foot of assise, and was diuided into three gates, in the midst a maine gate, & on either side a posterne: the maine gate in breadth fourtéene foot, each posterne eight foot, their heights equall to their proportion: ouer each po|sterne was as it were a chamber, which chambers were replenished with musike. Ouer all the gates passed a stage of eight foot brode, in manerof a page|ant, curious, rich, & delitefull. The whole worke, from the pageant downewards, séemed to be iasper & mar|ble. In the forefront towards hir maiestie was the armes of England on the one side the gate, & on the other side the Which is hir owne badge.falcon with crowne and scepter. The other side was beautified with the arms of England on the one side of the gate, & the crest of England on the other. The pageant was furnisht with fiue perso|nages apparelled like women. The first was the citie of Norwich; the second Debora; the third Iudith; the fourth Hester; the fift Martia, sometime quéene of England. At the first sight of the prince,These mu|sicians were inclosed in the cham|bers of the said pageant. & till hir ma|iesties comming to the pageant, the musicians vsed their lowd musike, and then ceassed: wherewith hir highnesse staied, to whome the personage represen|ting the citie of Norwich, did speake in these words.

Whom fame resounds with thundring trump,ratling skies that rends the
And perseth to the hautie heauens, and thense descending flies
Through flickering aire: and so conioines the sea & shore togither,
In admiration of thy grace, good queene thart welcome hither:The citie of Norwich speaketh to the quéenes mai [...]stie.
More welcome than Terpsicore was to the towne of Troie.
Sea-faring men by Gemini conceiue not halfe my ioie.
Strong Hercules to Theseus was neuer such delight,
Nor Nisus to Eurialus as I haue in this sight.
Penelope did neuer thirst Ulysses more to see,
Than I poore Norwich hungred haue to gaine the sight of thee.
And now that these my happie eies behold thy heauenlie face,
The Lord of lords I humblie praie, to blisse thy noble grace
With Nestors life, with Sibils helth, with Cresus stocke & store,
With all good gifts of Salomon, and twise as manie more.
What shuld I saie? Thou art my ioy next God, I haue none other,
My princesse & my peerlesse queene, my louing nursse and mother.
My goods & lands, my hands and hart, my lims and life are thine,
What is mine owne in right or thought, to thee I doo resigne.How Nor|wich is affec|ted to the quéenes high|nesse.
Grant then (oh gratious souereigne queene) this onlie my request,
That that wh [...]ch shall be doone in me, be construed to the best.
And take in part my slender shewes, wherein my whole pretense
Is for to please your maiestie, and end without offense.
So shall I clap my hands for ioy, and hold my selfe as rich
As if I had the gold of Iude, and double twise as mich.
Where princes sitting in their thrones set God before their sightThen spake Debora the second person.
And liue according to his law, and guide their people right,
There doth his blessed gifts abound, there kingdoms firmlie stand
There force of foes cannot preuaile, nor furie f [...]et the land.
My selfe (oh peerlesse prince) doo speake by proofe of matter past,
Which proofe by practise I performd, and foild his foes at last.
For Iabin king of Canaan, poore Israell did spite,
And meant by force of furious rage to ouerrun vs quite.
Nine hundred iron chariots, he brought into the field,
With cruell capteine Sisera by force to make vs yeeld.
His force was great, his fraud was more, he fought, we did defend,
And twentie winters long did last this warre without an end.
But he that neither sleepes nor slackes such furies to correct,
Appointed me Debora for the iudge of his elect:
And did deliuer Sisera into a womans hand,
I slue them all, and so in rest his people held the land.
So mightie prince, that puisant Lord, hath plast thee here to be,The applica|tion of the former exam|ples.
The rule of this triumphant realme alone belongs to thee.
Continue as thou hast begun, weed out the wicked rout,
Uphold the simple, meeke and good, pull downe the proud & stout.
Thus shalt thou liue and reigne in rest, & mightie God shalt please,
Thy state be sure, thy subiects safe, thy commonwealth at ease.
Thy God shall grant thee length of life, to glorifie his name,
Thy deeds shall be recorded in the booke of lasting fame.
Oh floure of grace, oh prime of Gods elect,Then spake Iudith the third person.
Oh mightie queene and finger of the Lord,
Did God sometime by me poore wight correct
The champion stout, that him and his abhord?
Then be thou sure thou art his mightie hand,
To conquer those which him and thee withstand.
The rage of foes Bethulia did oppresse,
The people faint were readie for to yeeld:
God aided me poore widow nerthelesse,
To enter into Holofernes field,
And with this sword by his directing hand,
To slaie his fo, and quiet so the land.
If this his grace were giuen to me poore wight,The applica|tiõ of the for|mer examples
If widowes hand could vanquish such a fo:
Then to a prince of thy surpassing might,
What tyrant liues but thou maist ouerthro?
Perseuere then his seruant as thou art,
And hold for aie a noble victors part.
The fretting heads of furious foes haue skill,Then Hester spake the fourth person.
As well by fraud as force to find their preie.
In smiling lookes dooth lurke a lot as ill,
As where both sterne and sturdie streams doo swaie,
Thy selfe oh queene, a proofe hast seene of this,
So well as I poore Hester haue Iwis.
As Iabins force did Israell perplex,
And Holofernes fierce Bethulia besiege,
So Hamans slights sought me and mine to vex,
Yet shewd a face of subiect to his liege.
But force no fraud, nor tyrant strong can trap,
Those whom the Lord in his defense dooth wrap.
EEBO page image 1291The proofes I speake by vs haue erst bin seene,
The applica|tion of the for|mer exãples.The proofes I speake, to thee are not vnknowne.
Thy God thou knowst most dread and souereigne queene,
A world of foes of thine hath euerthrowne,
And hither now triumphantlie dooth call
Thy noble grace, the comfort of vs all.
Doost thou not see the ioie of all this flocke?
Uouchsafe to view their passing gladsome cheare,
Be still (good queene) their refuge and their rocke,
As they are thine to serue in loue and feare:
So fraud, nor force, nor foreine fo may stand
Against the strength of thy most puissant hand.
With long discourse (oh puissant prince) some tract of time we spend,
Then [...] Mar|tia the fift per|son.Uouchsafe yet now a little more, and then we make an end.
[...] blast of fame, whereof dame Norwich first did speake,
Not onelie shooke the aire and skies, but all the earth did breake,
It rent vp graues, and bodies raisd, ech spirit tooke his place,
And this alonelie word was heard: Here comes the pearle of grace,
Here coms the iewell of the world, hir peoples whole delight,
The paragon of present time, and prince of earthlie might.
The voice was strange, the wonder more: for when we viewd the earth
Ech prince that earst had reigned here, receiud againe his breath,
And with his breath, a libertie to hold againe his place,
If anie one amongst vs all exceed your noble grace.
Some comfort euerie one conceiud to catch againe his owne,
His vtmost skill was trimlie vsde, to haue his vertues knowne.
The plaies surpasse my skill to tell. But when ech one had said,
Apoll [...] did himselfe appeare and made vs all dismaid.
Will you contend with hir (quoth he) within whose sacred brest
Dame Pallas and my selfe haue framd our souereigne seat of rest?
Whose skill directs the muses nine, whose grace dooth Uenus staine:
Hir eloquence like Mercurie: like Iuno in hir traine?
Whose God is that eternall Ioue which holds vs all in awe?
Beleeue me, you exceed the bounds of equitie and lawe.
Therewith they shronke themselues aside, not one I could espie,
They coucht them in their caues againe and that full quietlie.
Yet I that Martia hight, which sometime ruld this land,
As queene for thirtie three yeares space, gat licence at his hand,
And so Gurguntius did, my husbands father deere,
Which built this towne and castell both, to make our homage here,
Which homage mightie queene accept: the realme and right is thine,
The crowne, the scepter, and the sword to thee we doo resigne,
And wish to God, that thou maist reigne, twise Nestors yeares in peace,
Triumphing ouer all thy foes, to all our ioies increase, Amen.
Herewith she passed vnder the gate, with such shanks as plainelie expressed hir noble nature: and the musicians within the gate vpon their soft instru|ments vsed broken musike, and one sang this dittie.
From slumber soft as I fell fast asleepe,
A dittie soong to soft musicke at the queénes entrance vn|der the gate.From sleepe to dreame, from dreame to deepe delight,
Ech gem the gods had giuen the world to keepe
In princelie wise came present to my sight:
Such solace then did sinke into my mind,
As mortall man on mould could neuer find.
The gods did striue, and yet their strifes were sweet,
Ech one would haue a vertue of hir owne.
Dame Iuno thought the highest place most meet
For hir, bicause of riches was hir throne.
Dame Uenus thought by reason of hir loue
That she might claime the high [...]st place aboue.
The virgins state Diana still did praise,
And Ceres praisd the fruit of fertile soile:
And Prudence did dame Pallas chieflie raise,
Minerua all for eloquence did striue,
They smild to see their quarelling estate,
And Ioue himselfe decided their debate.
My sweets (quoth he) leaue off your sugred strife,
In equall place I haue assignd you all:
A souereigne wight there is that beareth life,
In whose sweete hart I haue inclosd you all.
Of England soile she is the souereigne queene,
Your vigors there doo florish fresh and greene.
They skipt for ioy, and gaue their franke consent,
The noise resounded to the hautie skie:
With one lowd voice they cried all, content,
They clapt their hands, and therewith waked I.
The world and they concluded with a breath,
And wisht long reigne to queene Elisabeth.

The place of the queénes a|bode during the time of hir tariance in Norwich.Herewith she passed through the market place, which was goodlie garnished, and thense through the other stréets which were trimlie decked, directlie to the cathedrall church, where Te Deum was soong, and after seruice she went to the bishops palace, where hir maiestie kept the time she continued in Nor|wich. All this was on saturdaie the sixtéenth of Au|gust 1578. On the next daie after, which was sun|daie, when princes commonlie come not abroad (and time is occupied with sermons and laudable exerci|ses) T. C. was to watch a conuenient season, where and how might be vttered the things that were pre|pared for pastime. And so vpon mondaie before sup|per, he made a deuise, as though Mercurie had beene sent from the gods, to request the quéene to come a|broad, & behold what was deuised for hir welcome, the whole matter whereof dooth follow.

The manner of Mercuries coch & mes|sage to the queene, reque|sting hir high|nesse to come abroad, and see what pastime the gods had prouided for so noble a prince.The coch that Mercurie came in vnto the quéene, was closelie kept in secret a long season, and when the time came it must passe towards the court, it had a trumpetter with it, and the cochman was made to driue so fast, as the horsses should seeme to flie, which was so well obserued, as the people woondered at the swiftnesse therof, and followed it in such flocks and multitudes, that scarse in a great greene (where the preaching place is) might be found roome for anie more people. And when the coch approched in the hearing of a trumpet, the trumpetter sounded, and so came in to the greene sounding, vntill the coch was full placed before a window at the which the quéene stood, and might be plainelie séene and open|lie viewed. When Mercurie had espied hir highnesse, he skipped out of the coch, and being on the ground, gaue a iumpe or two, and aduanced himselfe in such a sort, that the quéene smiled at the boldnesse of the boie. Thus Mercurie beholding the quéene with great courage and audacitie, at the length bowed downe his head, and immediatlie stood bolt vpright, and shaked his rod, and so began his spéech with a most assured countenance, and brauelie pronounced it in déed, to his great liking and commendation.

Muse not good queene at me that message brings
From Ioue or iust Iehoua Lord of might,
No earthlie god, yet gouerns mortall things,
And sprites diuine, and shunning angels bright.
This lord of late to shew his mightie power,
Hath wonders wrought when world lookt least therefore:
For at his becke, this daie and present hower,
The heauens shakt, the thunderbolts did rore.
The earth did moue, the dead therein did rise,
And out of graue the ghosts of men are gone,
The wandring sprites that houered in the skies
Dropt downe from aire for world to wonder on.
The saints themselues that sat in glorie great,
Were sent in hast to worke Iehouas will,He reuealeth what he is by office.
And I that oft my restlesse wings doo beat,
Was cald to vse my wings and office still.
A common post is Mercurie you know,
When he commands that made the world of nought.
And flies as fast as arrow out of bow,
When message may expresse Iehouas thought.
Whose power diuine full long yer this hath seene,
That in this place should lodge a sacred queene.
And weigheng well, the prince whereof I speake,
Might wearie wax of common pastimes heere,
(For that he knowes hir iudgement is not weake)
Deuisd aboue, below there should appeere
(To welcome hir) some sights that rare should seeme,
And carelesse stood, what world thereof did deeme,
So that good queene, you take them well in worth.Rare sights if anie such were as Mercurie nameth.
No sooner had Iehoua meant these things,
But clouds clapt hands, and soules of men came foorth
Of heauen gates, yea goodlie crowned kings
Were flowen abroad from blessed Abrams brest:
Some in the aire, and tops of trees did rest,
Some fell on towres and statelie houses high,
Some sunke in seas, whose names were drowned now,
And some did light on land where euerie eie
May them behold, and note their manners throw.
And therewithall the blacke infernall spreets
Ran out of hell, the earth so trembling than,
And like yoong lads they hopt about the streets,
The satyres wild, in forme and shape of man,
Crept through the woods, and thickets full of breers,
The water nymphs, and feiries streight appeers
In vncouth formes and fashion strange to view:
The hags of hell that hatefull are of kind,
To please the time had learnd a nature new,
And all those things that man can call to mind,
Were glad to come and doo their dutie throw.
I seeing this, cald for my coch in hast,
Abide sir boie, then said Iehoua now,
Thou goest not yet vntill a prince be plast,
Where I appoint, thou hast nothing to saie.
Then still I stood, to know what should be done.Mercurie is attentiue to his charge.
With that a swarme of people euerie waie
Like little ants about the fields gan run,
Some to prouide for pompe and triumph great,
Some for good fare, yea houshold cates and meat,
And some they ran to seeke where poets dwell,
To pen foorth shews and paint out trifles well.
Some haild and puld to bring the carrege in,
Some ran to gaze on triumph neere at hand,
And some stood mute, as they amazd had bin
To see a court and princelie noble band
Come marching on, and make heere their abode.
But when I saw the carrege heere vnlode,
And well had weid the wonders I haue told,
O mightie God (quoth I) now giue me leaneThe charge giuen by Iu|piter to Mer|curie for ye re|creation of the quéene.
To go from thee some message to vnfold,
That by my speech the hearers may conceiue.
Thy godhead great hath brought this princesse here.
It shall be so (quoth he) dispatch and part,
And tell hir that she is to me so deere,
That I appoint by mans deuise and art,
That euerie daie she shall see sundrie shoes,
EEBO page image 1292If that she please to walke and take the aire,
And that so soone as out of doore she goes
(If time doo serue and weather waxeth faire)
Some od deuise shall meet hi [...] highnesse streigth,
To make hir smile, and ease hir burthened brest,
And take away the cares and things of weight
That princes feele, that findeth greatest rest.
When I had thus receiud my charge at full,
My golden rod in liuelie hand I tooke,
And bad in hast my flieng horses pull.
But yer I past, I gan about me looke,
To see that coch, and ech thing gallant were:
So downe I came all winged as you see.
And sith I haue espide that princesse there,
That greatest kings doo sue to by degree,
The quéenes rare estate described.And manie mo that sues no whit, doo feare
I kisse hir steps, and shew my maisters will,
And leaue with hir such graces from aboue,
As alwaies shall command hir peoples loue,
(Uphold hir reigne, mainteine hir regall state,
Find out false harts, and make of subiects true,
Plant perfect peace, and root vp all debate)
So with this grace good queene now heere adue,
For I may now on earth no longer staie,
Thus seruants must to maisters will obaie.

Mercurie hauing thus spoken to the quéene, whose gratious inclination is such, as will not haue anie thing dutifullie offered to passe vnregarded, was well heard, hir highnes standing at a window, and the spéech verie well taken and vnderstood. Mer|curie as he came passed awaie, at whose coch the peo|ple that had seldome séene such a deuise maruelled, and gazed verie much; for it had horsses to draw it finelie painted and winged,The descrip|tion of Mer|curies coch. to as great shew and or|der of that it presented, as wit might imagine: the cochman sutable to the same, and a trumpetter in right good garments, as decent for that purpose as could be deuised. But the coch was made and fra|med on such a fashion as few men haue séene: the whole whereof was couered with birds and naked spirits, hanging by the heeles in the aire and clouds, cunninglie painted out, as though by some thunder cracke they had béene shaken and tormented: yet staied by power diuine in their places, to make the more woonder and miraculous shew. And on the middle of that coch stood a high compassed tower be|decked with golden and gaie iewels, in the top wher|of was placed a faire plume of white feathers, all to bespanged and trimmed to the most brauerie:The descrip|tion of Mer|curie, his at|tire, abili|ments, &c. Mer|curie himselfe in blew satin lined with cloth of gold, his garments cut and slashed on the finest maner, a peaked hat of the same colour, as though it should cut and seuer the wind asunder; and on the same a paire of wings, and wings on his héeles likewise. And on his golden rod were little wings also, about the which rod were two wrigling or scralling ser|pents, which séemed to haue life when the rod was mooued or shaken. So in this sort and forme was Mercurie and his coch set foorth, and indéed at such a season as a great sort looked not for anie shew, nor things were readie, as some thought, to performe that was necessarie and expected: yet hap was so good, and the gratious fauour of the prince, that all was well taken, and construed to the best meaning of the deuisor. So ended that daies deuise, which of|fered occasion to further matter.

On tuesdaie following (for before that daie by meanes of the weather the quéene went not abrode) a verie pretie and pleasant shew was performed be|fore hir highnes without saint Benets gates, as she went towards Cossie parke to hunt. At which sea|son, although the deuisor was not well prouided of things necessarie for a shew (by meane of some cros|sing causes in the citie) yet hearing the quéene rode abrode,The deuisor ventureth the hazard of a shew. determined as he might (and yet by helpe of freends and hap) verie well to venture the hazard of a shew, and to be full in the waie where hir highnesse shuld passe towards hir dinner. In which determina|tion manie doubts were to be cast, and manie per|suaded him to tarrie a better time. But considering how time rolled on, and daies and houres did wast (without dooing anie thing promised and not perfor|med) he hastilie prepared his boies and men with all their furnitures, and so set forward with two coches handsomlie trimmed. The common people beholding the maner thereof, and gréedie to gaze on that should be doone, followed as their fansies did lead them: so that when the deuisor and his retinue came into the o|pen field, there was as great a traine and prease a|bout the shew, as came with the court at that in|stant, which graced much the matter, and gaue it some expected hope of good successe.

First, there was a fained deuise,The whole manner of the deuise or shew. that Uenus and Cupid were thrust out of heauen, and walking on the earth, met a philosopher; who demanded from whense they came. They told the philosopher what they were, and he replied, and began with truth & tants to tickle them so néere, that Uenus fell in a great an|ger, and Cupid ran awaie, and left his mother and the philosopher disputing togither. But Cupid bicause he would be nourished somewhere, ran to the court, and there sought for succor, & incountring the quéene began to complaine his state and his mothers, and told how the philosopher had handled them both. But finding neither answer nor aid, he returned againe, but not to his mother, for she was fallen mad vpon a conceipt that she was not made of. And Cupid wan|dering in the world, met with dame Chastitie & hir maids, called Modestie, Temperance, Good exercise, and Shame fastnes:Dame Chasti|tie & hir maids incounter with Cupid. and she with hir foure maids in|countring Cupid in a goodlie coch, and without anie honest gard waiting on him, set vpon him, threw him out of his golden seat, trod on his pompe, spoi|led him of his counterfeit godhead and cloke, & tooke awaie his bow and quiuer of arrows, the one headed with lead, and the other with gold, and so sent him like a fugitiue awaie, and mounted vp into the coch hir selfe and hir maids, and so came to the queene, and rehersed what had hapned. Although this was done in hir view, & bicause (said Chastitie) that the quéene had chosen the best life, she gaue the quéene Cupids bow, to learne to shoot at whom she pleased, sith none could wound hir highnesse heart, it was méet (said Chastitie) that she should doo with Cupids bow & ar|rows what she pleased; and so did Chastitie depart as she said to the powers diuine. Cupid in the meane while wandering in the world had found out Wan|tonnesse and Riot,What associ|ats Cupid found out to kéepe him companie. who soone fell into beggerie and ruine (a spectacle to be looked into) and felt such dai|lie miserie with Wantonnesse and Riot, that Cupid was forced to fling awaie once againe, and hazard himselfe to fall into the hands of naughtie people, or where fortune assigned: and comming abrode, hap|pened vpon the philosopher, who talked with him a|gaine, told him his errors, and other points of pride and presumption; declaring it was a great blasphe|mie & abuse, to report & beleeue that in heauen were anie other gods but one, who had the onelie rule of all, & that made all of naught. In which reasoning & discourse Cupid waxed warme, & yet in his greatest heat knew not how nor where to coole himselfe, at which time came Wantonnesse & Riot, & persuaded Cupid to plaie no longer the foole in striuing with philosophers, and go awaie with them. So Cupid de|parted, & went awaie with Wantonnesse and Riot, & the philosopher remained, & declared that all abuses & follies shuld come to no better end than presentlie was expressed by the miserie of Wantonnesse, Riot, and Cupid. Then Modestie and hir fellows,Chastitie and hir maids matched togi|ther, &c. leauing their mistresse dame Chastitie with the powers di|uine, came soft and faire in their mistresse coch, sing|ing a song of chaste life, as heere vnder followeth.

CHast life liues long and lookes
on world and wicked waies,
Chast life for losse of pleasures short,
dooth win immortall praise.
Chast life hath merrie moods,
and soundlie taketh test,
EEBO page image 1293Chast life is pure as babe new borne,
that hugs in mo [...]hers brest.
Lewd life cuts off his daies,
and soone runs out his date,
Confounds good wits, breeds naughtie bloud,
and weakens mans estate.
Lewd life the Lord doth loth,
the law and land mislikes,
The wise will shun, fond fooles doo seeke,
and God sore plages and strikes.
Chast life may dwell alone,
and find few fellowes now,
And sit in regall throne,
and search lewd manners throw.
Chast life feares no mishap,
the whole account is made,
When soule from worldlie cares is crept,
and sits in sacred shade.
Lewd life is laught to scorne,
and put to great disgrace,
In hollow caues it hides the head,
and walks with muffled face,
Found out and pointed at,
a monster of the mind,
A [...]ankred worme that conscience eates,
and strikes cleere senses blind.
Chast life a pretious pearle,
dooth shine as bright as sun,
The faire houre glasse of daies and yeeres,
that neuer out will run.
The beautie of the soule,
the bodies blisse and ease,
A thing that least is lookt vnto,
yet most the mind shall please.

And when the song was ended, modestie sent (as she said she was) from hir maistresse, spake to the quéene a good season, and so the matter ended. For this shew the deuiser had gratious words of the quéene openlie and often pronounced by hir high|nesse. On the same daie the minister of the Dutch church, pronouncing to hir maiestie at hir being a|brode the oration following, presented the cup there|in mentioned, which was esteemed to be worth fiftie pounds, verie curiouslie and artificiallie wrought.

24.2.1. Oratio ad serenissimam Angliae regi|nam habita 19. Augusti 1578 à mini|stro ecclesiae Belgogermanicae Nordouici in loco publico.

Oratio ad serenissimam Angliae regi|nam habita 19. Augusti 1578 à mini|stro ecclesiae Belgogermanicae Nordouici in loco publico.

_MAgna oratoribus, qui percelebratorum aetate vi|xerunt fuit laus, serenissima regina, quòd iudi|cum animos partim suauiloquentia,Quinam orato|re [...] antiqua aetate praeclarissima laudatissimi ex|titerunt. partim posita rei personaeque ante ipsorum oculos calamitate, in quemcunque vellent animi habitum transformarent. Prius membrum non vulgarem nobis ob oculos ponit hominum faci|litatem, quòd adeò sequaces dictóque audientes fuerint, vt se linguis duci paterentur. Posterius magnam vbique apud gen|tes, quarum respublica optabili ordine fuit constituta, obtinuit gratiam: longè autem maiorem apud eos, qui Christo nomen dederunt:Beneficiorum à regia maiestate collatorum agni|tio cum obsequio &c. omnium verò maximam apud te (ô serenissima regi|na) ecclesiae Christi nutrix, cuius animum verbo Dei obsequen|tem instruxit, non fucatus hic sermo, sed Christi spiritus, pie|tatísque Zelus. Ipsissima piorum calamitas afflictorúmque la|chrymae, lachrymae inquam Christi fidelium te commouerunt, misera dispersáque Christi membra quibusuis iniurijs obiecta, mille iam mortibus territa, in tutelam salutémque animi iuxta ac corporis recipere ac protegere. Ob haec singularia tua in nos pietatis beneficia, & quòd sub tutore optimo magistratu in hac tua Nordouicensi vrbe (quam maiestas tua nobis ob Christi religionem exulantibus domicilij loco clementer concessit) viui|mus, adde quòd populi in nos animum fauorabilem experimur, inprimis Deo patri, & Domino vnico seruatori nostro Iesu Christo, deinde & tibi serenissima regina immortales non quas debemus sed quas possimus agimus gratias. Porrò humile qui|dem & vnicum tamen nostrum est votum, animi nostri gratitudinem maiestati tuae ostendere. Ecce igitur nullum munus, sed animum nostrum: nullum regium splendorem, sed pietatis posteritatísque monumentum serenissimae tuae maiestati consecratum.Monumentum antiquum regiae maiestati exhi|bitum. Hoc autem eo gratius maiestati tuaefore confidi|mus, quòd ex inculpatipijssimí Iosephi historia, Dei erga ma|iestatem tuam bonitas, ad viuum sit delineata, quem nulla astutia, nullum robur, nulla denique regnandi libido; sed fides constans, christiani pectoris pietas, coelestísque virtus, singulari Dei fauore ex sanguinaria fratrum conspiratione, mortísque metu, ad summam dignitatem, regníque decus euexe [...]unt. In huius fratres non aliena videtur prouerbial [...]s illa apud Hebraeos sententia, Inuidia malarum rerum appetitus, & studium vanae gloriae hominibus saepissimè occasio sunt sui inte|ritus. Tamen quòd Iosephi animum attinet,Iosephus insig|niter lau [...]atus, neque [...] ea fuit praeditus & temperantia & fortitudine, vt nimis iniquus simul & prauus censeri posset, qui eum vel minimo vindicandi affectu accusare velit; adeò Dei prouidentiae & se & omne vitae suae studium, vitae inquam in alieno regno periclitantis, commi|sit, vt non aliunde quàm à solo Dei nutu pendêre visus sit. Sed quorsum ista? In te ne haec ipsa aliáque consimilia (ô serenis|sima regina) & regni tui ratione omnium oculis conspicua sunt? Haec inquam esse ecclesiae Christi foelicissimum gaudium, spirituale diadema, & summum decus, huius verò regni verè regium splendorem, atque perennem gloriam, quis nisimente captus inficias ire potest? Pijssimè tu quidem singulari Dei bonitate animum Iosephi tum in regni tui conseruatione,Regia maies [...]a [...] in omnibus Iose|pho aequiparat [...]. tum in regno Christi amplificando imitata es (ô nutrix ecclesiae Dei fidelissima) solius enim Dei est hunc per res (prout hominum oculis sunt subiectae) secundas disperdere, illum autem per quae|uis tẽtationum genera rerúmque discrimina extollere. Quos vt vasa suae misericordiae agnoscit, ita etiam & bonitate & spiri|tus sui tum consolatione, tum fortitudine ad aeternae vitae foeli|citatem prosequitur. Quod nostrum votum ratum esse, maies|tatem tuam regníque ordinem spirituali prudentia ac sapien|tia stabilire, eámque in longam aetatem seruare, tuae item ma|iestatis subditos vera sui cognitione magis ac magis imbuere, dignetur bonus ille & clemens Deus, per meritafilij sui Do|mini nostri Iesu Christi, Amen.

Regiae maiestati post orationem oblatum est monumentum aliquod, in cuius superficie artifi|ciosè sculpta erat historia Iosephi: ex lib. Genesios.

In circumferentia verò hoc carmen.
Innocuum pietas ad regia sceptra Iosephum,
Ex manibus fratrum, carnificísque, rapit:
Carcere & insidijs sic te regina tuorum
Ereptam duxit culmina ad ista Deus.
Inscriptio erat in ipsius capacitate scripta in orbem, hoc modo.

Serenissimae Angliae reginae Elisabethae, ecclesiae Belgicae Nordouici ob religionem exulãtes, hoc monumentum & pietatis & posteritatis ergô consecrabant, Anno salutis humanae, 1578.

In interiore ipsius parte erat insigne serpentis in gyrum conuoluti, cui media insidebat columba, cum hoc Christi elogio: Prudens vt serpens, simplex vt columba.

24.2.2. The minister of the Dutch church his oration in English.

The minister of the Dutch church his oration in English.

_THe oratours (most grations queene) which liued in the age of them that woone grea|test renowme, What ora|tors were best commen|ded in former times of best renowme. were highlie commended for that they could transforme the iudges minds, partlie by eloquence, and partlie by setting downe before their eies the calamitie of the thing and person they spake of, into what disposition them listed. The first part declareth vnto vs no common fe|licitie of men, in that they were so willing in follow|ing, and attentiue in hearing, as they would suffer themselues to be lead by eloquence. The last obtei|ned great fauour amongst all nations, whose com|mon weale was gouerned in good order, and farre greater amongst the christians: but greatest of all with thee (ô most excellent queene) the nursse of Christ his church, whose mind obedient to Gods word, the spirit of Christ, and zeale of godlinesse, and not this prophane kind of speech hath instructed. The verie calamitie of godlie men and teares of the affli|cted, the teares I saie of faithfull christians haue tho|roughlie mooued thee to defend and protect the mi|serable EEBO page image 1294 and d [...]persed members of Christ obiect to euerie kind of iniurie, [...] for the same. before beaten in peeces by a thousand deaths, with the safetie and preseruation as well of mind as bodie. For these thy singular bene|fits of godlinesse towards vs, and that we liue vn|der so good a tutor, being magistrate in this thy ci|tie of Norwich, which thy maiestie hath of clemencie granted vnto vs for a mansion place, which were banished for Christ his religion; and moreouer that we find the minds of the people fauourable towards vs, first wee giue immortall thanks, not such as wee ought, but such as we are able vnto God the father, and the Lord our onelie sauiour Iesus Christ; and then vnto thee most mercifull queene. Moreo|uer, it is our humble and yet our onelie petition, to shew vnto your maiestie the thankefulnesse of our mind. Behold therefore dedicated to your most ex|cellent maiestie, not anie gift but our mind, no prin|celie iewell but a monument of godlinesse and po|steritie. A monument of antiquitie presented to hir maiestie. The which we hope will be so much the more acceptable to your maiestie; for bicause the goodnes of God towards your maiestie is liuelie drawne out of the historie of the innocent and most godlie Io|seph, whom neither policie, strength nor desire of bearing rule, but constant faith, godlinesse of a chri|stian heat, and heauenlie vertue by Gods singular mercie deliuered from the bloudie conspiracie of his brethren and feare of death, and brought vnto high dignitie & roiall kingdome. To whose brethren that prouerbiall sentence of the Hebrewes is verie fitlie alluded: Enuie being the desire of euill things, and couetousnesse of transitorie renowme, Ioseph singularlie commended & not with|out cause. is oftentimes the occasion of mans destruction. But touching the mind of Ioseph, the same was indued with such temperance and fortitude, that he might be thought no lesse vniust than wicked, that would accuse him so much as with the least affection of reuengement: so wholie did he commit himselfe and all the gouerne|ment of his life, his life I say put in hazard in a strange kingdome vnto the prouidence of God, that he see|med to hang of no other thing than the onelie will of God. But to what end speake I this? Are not these selfe same things, and others their like (ô most excel|lent queene) by the eies of all men clearlie beheld in thee and the order of thy kingdome? What man (I saie) hauing his wits, can denie these things to be the most happie ioy, spirituall crowne, & chiefest or|nament of Christes church, & trulie of this kingdome the princelie beautie and perpetuall renowne? Thou surelie doost folow most holilie the mind of Ioseph, The quéenes maiestie com|pared to Io|seph, &c. by the singular goodnesse of God, as well in preser|uing thy kingdome, as in amplifieng the kingdome of Christ (ô thou most faithfull nursse of the church of God.) For it is in God onelie to destroie this man by prosperitie (as the world seeth) and aduance ano|ther by al kinds of aduersities, tentations, & dangers. Whom as he acknowlegeth the vessels of his mer|cie, so by his goodnesse togither with the consolation and strength of his spirit, he dooth bring them to the happinesse of eternall life. Which our petition that good and mercifull God grant may be ratified, in establishing your maiestie and gouernance of your kingdome with spirituall wisedome and vnderstan|ding, in preseruing the same full manie years, and in|duing your maiesties subiects more and more with true knowledge of him, for his sonnes sake our Lord Iesus Christ, Amen.

The oration ended, there was a certeine monu|ment presented to hir maiestie, in the vpper part whereof was artificiallie grauen the historie of Io|seph out of Genesis. In the inner part of the same there was the figure of a serpent, interfolding it selfe: in the middest whereof did sit a dooue with this sentence of Christ, Matth. 10, 16. Wise as the ser|pent, and meeke as the doue. In the circumference or compasse thereof was these verses to be read.

To roiall scepter, godlinesse,
Ioseph the innocent,
Dooth take from brothers bloudie hands,
and murtherers intent.
So thee, O queene, the Lord hath led
from prison and deceit
Of thine, vnto these highest tops
of your princelie estate.

On wednesdaie hir highnesse dined at my lord of Surreis, where were the French ambassadors also,The quéenes maiestie is banketted at the earle of Surreis. at a most rare and delicate dinner and banket. At which season the deuiser did watch with his shew (cal|led Manhood & Desert) at my lord of Surreis backe dore, going to the quéenes barge: but the roome was so little, that neither the shot, the armed men, nor the plaiers could haue place conuenient. Wherevpon he and his assistants tooke boats, and conueied their people downe the water, towards a landing place that they hoped the queene would come vnto. And there hauing althings in redinesse, they hoouered on the water three long houres, by which meanes the night came on, and so they were faine to withdraw themselues and go homeward, trusting for a better time and occasion, which in déed was offered the next daie after by the quéenes maiesties owne good mo|tion, who told the deuiser she would sée what pa|stimes were prepared, as hereafter you shall per|ceiue by the discourse of these matters, and by this shew of Manhood, and the shew of the Nymphes. Neuerthelesse, as hir maiestie returned homeward; within Bishops gate at the hospitall doore, master Stephan Limbert, master of the grammar schoole in Norwich stood readie to render hir an oration. Hir maiestie drew neare vnto him, & thinking him fearefull, said gratiouslie vnto him: Be not afraid. O singular affabilitie of a prince to put awaie a sub|iects bashful|nesse. He answered hir againe in English: I thanke your maiestie for your good incouragement: & then with good courage entered into this oration following.

24.2.1. Ad illustrissimam principem Elisabe|tham, Angliae, Franciae, & Hiberniae regi|nam &c: ante fores [...] Nor|douicensis, oratio Stephani Limberti ludimagistri publici.

Ad illustrissimam principem Elisabe|tham, Angliae, Franciae, & Hiberniae regi|nam &c: ante fores [...] Nor|douicensis, oratio Stephani Limberti ludimagistri publici.

_AEgyptum fama est inundante Nilo (se|renissima regina) & aureo Pactoli flu|mine quotannis Lidiam irrigari,Egregiae necnon impares Anglig dotes. quae res in ijs agris maxima fecunditatis causa putatur. In nos autem at adeo vniuersam Angliam, quae lat è patet, non è Tmolo aut alijs ne|scio quibus montibus, sed ex illo perenni & vber|rimo fonte bonitatis tuae, multi maximi pietatis, iusticiae, mansuetudinis, aliorúm innumerabili|um bonorum, prae quibus iam viluit aurum & ob|soleuit, copiosissimi riui profluxerunt. At vt ex infinitis vel vnum leuiter attingam, propterea quòd de pluribus dicere nec est huius loci & tem|poris nec facultatis meae. Insignem illam misericor|diam celsitudinis tuae, nobilissima regina, & ad leuandum pauperrimorum hominum inopiam in|credibilem propensionem, qua de plurimis virtu|tibus nulla Deo gratior ( [...] vt canit Homerus) in summa principe nul|la mortalibus admirabilior esse potest, quibus tan|dem laudibus efferemus? Quàm honorificis verbis prosequemur? [...], hoc est, hospitium pau|perum celeberrimum est apud omnes posteros re|giae virtutis at beneficentiae monumentum futu|rum,Henricus & E|douardus reges necnon Elisabe|tha regina praeci|pui benefactores agnoscuntur. institutum quidem ab illustrissimo Henrico patre celsitudinis tuae, à nobilissimo Edouardo fra|tre EEBO page image 1295 maximis tabulis consignatum, a tua verò maie|state, quod non minorem laudem meretur, Crinle|fordiensibus fundis & possessionibus egregiè nuper auctum at amplificatum, vt non tam alienis iam ornamentis, quàm proprijs virtutibus meritò lae|tari possis. Recordata quippe es pro tua singulari prudentia at eruditione, diuinam illam sapientis|simi Platonis legem, quam vndecimo de legibus li|bro scriptam reliquit, [...]. Tantamigitur benignitatem, tam eximi|am & incredibilem misericordiam tuam (illu|strissima princeps) quibus complectemur studijs? Quibus officijs, aut qua voce grati animi volunta|tem testificabimur? Cùm enim omnes referendae gratiae studio & labore, vel accuratissimas ratio|nes exquisiuerimus, ne vnius quidem huius bene|ficij, quo nos augustissimae maiestatituae obstrictos esse & deuinctos agnoscimus, magnitudinem asse|quipoterimus. Superabimur vel ab hoc vno & sin|gulari merito,Pares gratias pro imparibus bene|ficijs agi non posse. nedum sperandum est, vt immenso reliquorum meritorum pelago, quod tum in omnes tibi subditos publicè & generatim, tum in hanc ci|uitatem propriè ac particulatim exundauit, pares esse queamus. Verè nos iam [...] incolimus, & in beatis illis insulis de quibus meminit Hesiodus [...] aetatem agimus, qui non modò frugibus, lana, pecore, alijs subsidijs humanae vitae sed multo magis verae religionis verbí diuini, in quibus animi solùm acquiescunt, pretiosissimis opi|bus abundamus. Sunt qui Britanniam alterum or|bem appellârunt,Angliam meritò alterum orbem nuncupari. quod hac aetate nostra dici rectis|simè posse arbitror. Cùm enim omnes vndíque ter|rae grauissimis bellis affligantur, & discordiarum iactentur fluctibus, soli nos, celsitudine tua cla|uum moderante, in pacatissimo portu nauigamus, & ab orbe malorum disiuncti, in coelum quodam|modo foelicitatis sublati videmur. Quod est ergô officij nostri, primùm deo Opt. Max. gratias agi|mus, cuius vnius bonitati omnem hanc, quanta|cùn est, beatitudinem acceptam referimus, pre|camùr vt eam nobis propriam & perpetuam esse velit: deinde celsitudini tuae, serenissima regina, cuius opera, cura, solicitudine, & partam hanc no|bis foelicitatem, & tot annos conseruatam agnosci|mus. Laetamur hoc aspectu tuo, & gratulamur in|credibili studio, quod tum ex meo ipsius sensu lo|quor, tum omnes qui iam vndi, confluxerunt Nordouicenses tui à me dici postulant. At vti|nam in haec pector a posses oculos inserere,Nordouicensium veraeuet ex inti puris medullas prouenicus laetitia quam regiam maiestatem nidean [...]. & ocul|tos animorum nostrorum sinus perlustrare, vide|res profectò inclusam intus, quae tantis angustijs e|rumpere non potest, infinitam molem voluntatis. Fidem omnem, studium, obseruantiam, quae tantae principi debentur, vt haectenus promptissimè detu|limus, ita studiosissimè semper deferemus: & si quando casus aliquis inciderit (quod Deus omen a|uertat) sacrosanctae maiestatis tuae, aut istius flo|rentissimi regni, vel salus in discrimen veniat, vel dignitas periclitetur, non solùm bonorum om|nium ac facultatum effusionem, sed laterum nostro|rum oppositus & corporum pollicemur. Rogamus deinde & obsecramus excellentiam tuam, illustris|sima regina, vt & hoc nostrum qualecun offici|um à summa beneuolentia animó quàm gra|tissimo profectum boni consulas, & de no|bis Nordouicensibus sic existimes, ad lautiores te fortasse subditos venisse saepe, adlaetiores nunquam.

24.2.2. The oration of Stephan Limbert, pub|like schoolemaister, to the most magnificent prince, Elisabeth of England, France, and Ireland queene, &c: before the gates of the hospitall of Norwich.

The oration of Stephan Limbert, pub|like schoolemaister, to the most magnificent prince, Elisabeth of England, France, and Ireland queene, &c: before the gates of the hospitall of Norwich.

_IT is reported (most gratious queene) that Aegypt is watered with the yerelie ouer|flowing of Nilus, The excellent and [...]compa|rable blessings of England. and Lidia with the gol|den streame of Pactolus, which thing is thought to be the cause of the great frute|fulnes of these countries: but vpon vs, and further, ouer all England, euen into the vttermost borders, manie and maine riuers of godlinesse, iustice, humilitie, and other innumerable good things, in comparison of the which, gold is vile and naught worth, doo most plen|tifullie gush out, and those not from Tmolus, or other hilles I know not which, but from that continuall and most aboundant welspring of your goodnesse. And that of those infinit goodnesses I maie lightlie touch one, for that neither place, time, nor my abilitie dooth permit to speake of manie: with what praises shall we extoll; with what magnificent words shall we ex|presse that notable mercie of your highnesse (most re|nowmed queene) and vncredible readinesse to re|lieue the need of poore men, than the which of manie vertues none can be more acceptable vnto God, as Homer writeth, neither anie vertue in a mightie prince more woondered at amongst men. This hospi|tall of poore men is most famous, King Henrie king Edward and quéene Elisabeth ac|knowledged speciall bene|factors. which will be a monument of princelie vertue and beneficence a|mongst all posteritie, instituted by the most mightie king Henrie your highnesse father, confirmed with the great seale by the most noble king Edward your brother, but by your maiestie, which deserueth no lesse praise, of late notablie increased and amplified by the lands and possessions of Cringleford, that you maie not now worthilie reioise so much in others or|naments, as your owne vertues. For you are said for your singular wisdome and learning, to haue studied that diuine law of the most wise Plato, which he left written in the eleuenth booke of lawes. Such your great bountie therefore, so exceeding and incredible mercie (ô most vertuous prince) in what bookes shall we comprehend? With what duties, or with what voice shall we testifie the good will of a thankefull mind? For when we diligentlie seeke all the most ex|quisit and curious means of thankesgiuing: we can|not so much as atteine vnto the greatnesse of this one benefit, Condigne thanks vnp [...]|sible to be giuen. by the which we acknowledge our selues bound and streictlie holden to your most roiall ma|iestie. We shall be ouercome, euen with this one and singular benefit, so much the lesse hope haue we then in anie point to counteruaile the huge sea of the rest of your benefits, which ouerfloweth on euerie side as well publikelie & generallie ouer all your subiects, as properlie and particularlie vpon this citie. We cer|teinlie now inhabit, and lead our liues in those most happie Ilands, of the which Hesiodus maketh men|tion, which not onelie abound with all maner of graine, wooll, cattell, and other aids of mans life; but much more with the most pretious treasure of true religion and the word of God, in the which onlie the minds of men haue rest and peace. England de|seruedlie cal|led another world. There be that call England another world, which I thinke maie be most true in this our age. For whereas all lands on euerie side of vs are afflicted with most grieuous warres, and tossed with the flouds of dissention, we onelie (your highnesse gouerning our sterne) doo saile in a most peaceable hauen, and seuered from a world of mis|chiefs, doo seeme after a sort to be taken vp into a heauen of happinesse. We therefore (according to our bounden dutie) first giue thanks vnto God almightie, vnto whose goodnesse onelie with thanks we referre all this our happinesse, how great soeuer it be, & praie that he would vouchsafe to make the same proper and perpetuall vnto vs. And afterwards vnto your highnesse (ô most gratious queene) by whose studie, care and diligence we confesse this blessednesse to be gotten, and so manie years preserued vnto vs. Their vnfrig|ned reioising to see hir maiestie. We are glad in this beholding you, and we reioise with desire more than maie be beleeued, which as I speake of mine owne thought, so also all the subiects of Nor|wich desire me to saie the same in their behalfe. And EEBO page image 1296 I would to God you could pearse these our breasts with your eies, and throughlie view the hidden and couered creeks of our minds! Then vndoubtedlie should you behold an infinit heape of goodwill close|lie shut vp within, which cannot breake out of so nar|row straits. All the faith, studie, and obedience, which are due to so great a prince, as hitherto we haue most willinglie imploied, so will we alwaies most diligent|lie performe the same: and if at anie time anie chance shall happen (which fortune God turne from vs) that [...]he state of thy blessed maiestie, or of this flourishing realme should come in danger, or the worthinesse therof be in hazard, we do not onlie protest the effu|sion of all our goods and substance, but also the put|ting foorth and brunt of our strengths and bodies therein. Finallie, we desire and beseech thy excellen|cie (most renowmed queene) well to accept of this our dutie, howsoeuer it be, proceeding from a singu|lar good will, and a most thankefull mind, and so to thinke of vs citizens of Norwich, that perhaps you haue manie times come to people more wealthie, but to more ioifull neuer.

Immediatlie after the beginning of the oration hir maiestie called to hir the French ambassadors, whereof there were three, and diuerse English lords, and willed them to harken, and she hirselfe was ve|rie attentiue, euen vntill the end thereof. And the oration ended, after she had giuen great thanks therefore to maister Limbert,The quéenes high commen|dation of ma|ster Limberts oration. she said to him; It is the best that euer I heard; you shall haue my hand: and pulled off hir gloue, and gaue him hir hand to kisse, which before kneeling on his knees, he arose and kissed; and then she departed to the court without a|nie other shew that night, but that she sent backe to know his name. The next night being thursdaie there was an excellent princelie maske brought be|fore hir after supper by maister Goldingham in the priuie chamber, it was of gods and goddesses both strangelie and richlie apparelled. The first that en|tred was Mercurie,The descrip|tion of an ex| [...]llent and princelie maske. then entred two torchbearers in purple taffata mandillions laid with siluer lace, as all other the torchbearers were; then entred a consort of musike, to wit, six musicians, all in long vestures of white sarsenet girded about them, and garlands on their heads, plaieng verie cunninglie; then two torchbearers more; then Iupiter and Iu|no, then two torchbearers more; then Mars and Ve|nus, then two torchbearers more; then Apollo and Pallas, then two torchbearers more; then Neptune and Diana; and lastly Cupid concluding the matter.

Thus when they had once marched about the chamber, Mercurie dischargeth his message in these words to the quéene: The good meaning maior and all his brethren,Mercuries message to the quéene. with the rest, haue not rested from praieng vnto the gods to prosper thy comming hi|ther; and the gods themselues mooued by their vnfai|ned praiers, are readie in person to bid thée worthilie welcome; and I Mercurie the god of merchants and merchandize, and therefore a fauourer of the citizens, being thought méetest am chosen fittest to signifie the same. Gods there be also which cannot come, be|ing tied by the time of the yeare, as Ceres in haruest, Bacchus in wines, Pomona in orchards. Onelie Hymineus denieth his good will, either in presence or in person: notwithstanding Diana hath so counter|checked him therfore, as he shall hereafter be at your commandement. For my part, as I am a reioiser at your comming,Then march|ed they about againe, and that done Iu|piter spake to the quéene in this sort, and then gaue hir [...]nding wand of whales [...]in [...] wrought. so am I a furtherer of your wel|come hither; and for this time I bid you farewell.

Feare not oh queene, thou art beloued so,
As subiects true will trulie thee defend:
Feare not my power to ouerthrow thy wo,
I am the God that can ech misse amend.
Thou doest know great Iupiter am I,
That gaue thee first thy happie souereintie.
I giue thee still as euer thou hast had,
A peerelesse power vnto thy dieng daie:
I giue thee rule to ouercome the bad,
And loue to loue thy louing subiects aie.
I giue thee heere this small and slender wand,
To shew thou shalt in quiet rule the land.
Is Iuno rich? No sure she is not so,Then Iuno spake, whose g [...]t was a purse curiou|slie wrought.
She wants that wealth that is not wanting heere,
Thy goods get friends, my wealth wins manie a fo,
My riches rust, but thine shine passing cleere.
Thou art beloued of subiects farre and uie,
Which is such wealth as monie cannot buie.
Farewell faire queene, I cannot giue thee ought,
Nor take awaie thy good that is so bound:
Thou canst not giue that I so long haue sought,
Ne can I hold the riches thou hast found.
Yet take this gift, though poore I seeme to be,
That thou thy selfe shalt neuer poorer be.
Where force dooth fiercelie seeke to foster wrong,Then after they had mar|ched againe about, Mars gaue his gift, which was a faire paire of kniues, and said:
There Mars dooth make him make a quicke recoile,
Nor can indure that he should harbor long,
Where naughtie wights manure in goodlie soile.
This is the vse that aids the force of warre,
That Mars dooth mend, that force dooth seeke to marre.
And though oh queene thou beest a prince of peace,
Yet shalt thou haue me fastlie sure at need:
The stormes of strife and blustering broiles to cease,
Which forren foes or faithlesse friends may breed.
To conquer, kill, to vanquish and subdue,
Such fained folke, as loues to liue vntrue.

These words were ingrauen vpon the kniues:

To hurt your fo and helpe your frend,
These kniues are made vnto that end:
Both blunt and sharpe you shall vs find,
As pleaseth best your princelie mind.
In vaine (faire queene) from heauen my comming was,Then spake Uenus whose gift was a white doue.
To seeke to mend that is no waie amis:
For now I see thy fauour so dooth passe,
That none but thou, thou onelie she it is,
Whose beautie bids ech wight to looke on thee,
By view they may another Uenus see.
Where beautie boasts, and fauour dooth not faile,
What may I giue to thee O worthie wight?
This is my gift, there shall no wo preuaile,
That seekes thy will against thy willes delight,
Not where they will, but where it likes thy mind,
Accept that friend if loiall thou him find.

The doue being cast off, ran directlie to the queene, and being taken vp and set vpon the table before hir maiestie, sate so quietlie as if it had béene tied. Then after they had marched againe about, Apollo presented his gift, which was an instrument called a bandonet, and did sing to the said instrument this short and pithie dittie, as he was plaieng therevpon:

It seemeth strange to see such strangers heere,The song of Apollo to the quéene.
Yet not so strange but strangers knowes you well:
Your vertuous thoughts to gods doo plaine appeere,
Your acts on earth bewraies how you excell:
You cannot die, loue here hath made your lease,
Which gods haue sent, and God saith shall not cease.
Uertuous desire desired me to sing,
No subiecs sute, though suters they were all,
Apollos gifts are subiect to no king,
Rare are thy gifts that did Apollo call,
Then still reioise, sith God and man saie so,
This is my gift, thou neuer shalt haue wo.
Most worthie wight, what wouldst thou haue of me?Pallas then speaketh and presenteth hir gift, which was a booke of wisdome.
Thou hast so much, thou canst inioie no more:
I cannot giue that once I gaue to thee,
Nor take awaie the good I gaue before.
I robbed was by natures good consent,
Against my will, and yet I was content.
A Pallas thou, a princesse I will be:
I queene of losse, thou goddesse which hast got:
I sometime was, thou onelie now art she:
I take, thou gauest that [...]ucke that was my lot.
I giue not thee this booke to learne thee aught,
For that I know alreadie thou art taught.
What art thou (queene) that gods do loue thee so?Then Nep|tune spake: his gift was a great artifi|ciall fish, and in the bellie of it a pike, which he threw out be|fore hir ma|iestie.
Who woon their wils to be [...]o at thy will?
How can the world become thy cruell fo?
How can Disdaine or Malice seeke to kill?
Can sea or earth deuise to hurt thy hap?
Sith thou by gods doost sit in fortunes lap.
As heauen and earth haue vowed to be thine,
So Neptunes seas haue sworne to drench thy foes,
As I am god, and all the waters mine,
Still shalt thou get, but neuer shalt thou lose:
And sith on earth my wealth is nought at all,
Accept good will, the gift is verie small.
Who euer found on earth a constant friend,
That may compare with this my virgin queene?Diana pre|sented a bow and arrowes nocked and headed with siluer; hir speach was this.
Who euer found a bodie and a mind
So free from staine, so perfect to be seene?
Oh heauenlie hew, that aptest is to soile,
And yet doost liue from blot of anie foile.
Rare is thy gift, and giuen to few or none,
Malist therefore of some that dare not say,
More shines thy light, for that I know but one,
That anie such shew, to follow on their waie.
Thou thou art shee, take thou the onelie praise,
For chastest dame in these our happie daies.
EEBO page image 1297Accept my bowe, sith best thou do [...]st deserue,
Though well I k [...]ow [...]hy mind can thee preserue.
Cupido his speach, his gift an arrow of gold.Ah ha, I see my mother out of sight,
Then let the boy now plaie the wag a while,
I seeme but weake, yet weake is not my might,
My boiesh wit can oldest folke beguile.
Who so dooth thinke, I speake this but in iest,
Let me but shoot, and I shall quench his rest,
Marke here my shafts: this all is made of wood,
Which is but soft, and breeds but soft good will,
Now this is gilt, yet seemes it gold full good,
And dooth deceiue blind louing people still.
But here is one is seldome felt or seene:
This is of gold, meet for the noblest queene.
Wherefore dame faire, take thou this gift of me,
Though some deserue, yet none deserue like you,
Shoot but this shaft at king or Cesar: he,
And he is thine, and if thou wilt allow,
It is a gift that manie here doo craue,
Yet none but thou this golden shaft maie haue.
There was written vpon the shaft:
My colour, ioy, my substance pure,
My vertue such as shall indure.

The quéenes behauiour af|ter all this welcomming.Hir maiestie receiued these gifts verie thankeful|lie, the gods and goddesses with the rest of the maske marched about the chamber againe, and then depar|ted in like maner as they came in. Then the queene called vnto hir master Robert Wood, the maior of Norwich, whom first she heartilie thanked, and tooke by the hand, and vsed secret conference: but what I know not. And thus this delightfull night passed, to the ioy of all that saw hir grace in so pleasant plight.

On thursdaie in the morning, my lord chamber|laine gaue the deuisor warning the quéene would ride abrode in the after noone,The deuisor is commanded to be readie with his shewes to de|light the queene. and he commanded him to be readie, dutifullie to present hir with some shew. Then knowing which waie the queene would ride (by coniecture and instructions giuen) the deui|sor caused a place to be made and digged for the nymphes of the water, the maner and proportion whereof was in this forme and fashion. First there was measure taken for threescore foot of ground eue|rie waie, the hole to be made déepe and foure square, which ground was all couered with canuas painted greene like the grasse, and at euerie side on the can|uas ran a string through curteine rings, which string might easilie be drawne anie kind of waie, by reason of two great poales that laie along in the ground, and answered the curteine or canuas on each side, so that drawing a small cord in the middle of the can|uas, the earth would séeme to open, & so shut againe as the other end of the cord was drawne backward.A proper de|uise and verie de [...]ectable of a caue & twelue water nym|phes, &c. And in the same caue was a noble noise of musike of all kind of instruments, seuerallie to be sounded and plaied vpon, and at one time they should be soun|ded all togither, that might serue for a consort of bro|ken musike. And in the same caue also was placed twelue water nymphes, disguised or dressed most strangelie, ech of them had either vpon white silke, or fine linnen, gréene sedges stitched cunninglie on a long garment, so well wrought and also set on, as scarse anie whit might be perceiued. And euerie nymph had in hir hand a great bundle of bulrushes, and had on hir head a garland of iuie, vnder the which iuie was a coife of mosse, and vnder the mosse was there long goodlie heare like golden tresses that coue|red hir shoulders, and in a maner raught downe vn|to hir middle.

Now touching the beautie of the nymphes, they sée|med to be the chosen children of the world, and be|came their attire so well, that their beautie might haue abused a right good iudgement. For diuerse of those that knew them before (albeit they were bare faced) could scarse know them in their garments, and sundrie tooke them to be yoong girles and wen|ches, prepared for the nonce, to procure a laughter. These nymphs thus apparelled, and all things in good plight and readinesse,What was de|uised to be done by the nymphs at the quéens com|ming néere the water side. there was deuised, that at the quéenes comming néere the water side (as this caue stood at the brim of the riuer) one nymph should pop vp out of the caue first, and salute the queene with a speach, and then another: and so till foure of them had finished their speaches, there they should re|maine; and when they retired into their caue, the mu|sike should begin: which sure had beene a noble hea|ring, and the more melodious for the varietie there|of, and bicause it should come secretlie and strange|lie out of the earth. And when the musike was doone, then should all the twelue nymphs haue issued togi|ther, & dansed a danse with timbrels that were trim|med with belles, and other iangling things, which timbrels were as brode as a siue, hauing bottoms of fine parchment, and being sounded, made such a confused noise and pastime, that it was to be woon|dered at: besides the strangenesse of the timbrels (yet knowne to our forefathers) was a matter of ad|miration vnto such as were ignorant of that new found toy, gathered and borrowed from our elders. So in order and readinesse stood that shew for the time.

And to kéepe that shew companie (but yet farre off) stood the shew of Manhood and Desert,The shew of Manhood and Desert with the furniture declared. as first to be presented, and that shew was as well furnished as the other; men all, saue one boy called Beautie; for the which, Manhood, Fauour, and Desert, did striue (or should haue contended) but good Fortune (as victor of all conquests) was to come in, and ouer|throw Manhood, Fauour, Desert, & all their powers, and onelie by fine force (vpon a watchword spoken) should laie hand on Beautie, and carrie or lead hir a|way. The other sutors troubled with this kind of dea|ling, should talke togither, and sweare to be in one mind for an open reuenge: and vpon that Fortune should crie Arme, arme. The other side called for their friends, at the which stirre should appeare both their strengthes: but good Fortune should farre in power exceed his enimies. And yet to shew that Destinie (and who best can conquer) shall gouerne all, For|tune should make an offer, that six to six with sword and target should end the brall and businesse. Then six gentlemen on either side with rebated swords and targets (onelie in dublet and hose, and murrion on head) approched and would claime the combat, and deale togither twelue blowes apéece, and in the end fortune should be victor: and then the shot and ar|med men should fall at variance so sharpelie (vpon mistaking of the matter) that Fortunes side should triumph and march ouer the bellies of their enimies:A bloodie fight and yet harm|lesse doone by art. in which time were legs and armes of men (well and liuelie wrought) to be let fall in numbers on the ground, as bloudie as might be. Fortune, regarding nothing but victorie, marcheth so awaie in great tri|umph: and then should haue come into the place a song for the death of Manhood, Fauor, and Desert, and so the shew should haue ended.

But now note what befell after this great busi|nesse and preparation.All the prepa|ration disap|pointed by thunder and raine. For as the queenes highnesse was appointed to come vnto hir coch, and the lords and courtiers were readie to mount on horssebacke, there fell such a showre of raine (& in the necke there|of came such a terrible thunder) that euerie one of vs were driuen to séeke for couert and most comfort, insomuch that some of vs in bote stood vnder a bridge and were all so dashed & washed, that it was a grea|ter pastime to sée vs looke like drowned rats, than to haue beheld the vttermost of the shewes rehearsed. Thus you sée, a shew in the open field is alwaies sub|iect to the sudden change of weather, and a number of more inconueniences. But what should be said of that which the citie lost by this cause; veluets, silkes,The cities los [...]e by occa|sion of this tempest. tinsels, and some cloth of gold being cut out for these purposes, that could not serue to anie great effect af|ter? Well, there was no more to saie, but an old ad|age, that Man dooth purpose, but God dooth dispose, EEBO page image 1298 to whose disposition and pleasure the guide of grea|ter maters is committed. So this thursdaie tooke his [...]aue from the actors, and left them looking one vpon another, & he that thought he had receiued most [...], kept greatest silence, and lapping vp (among a bundle of other misfortunes) this euill chance, eue|rie person quietlie passed to his lodging.

The next daie being fridaie, in which daie the court remooued, the stréets towards saint Benets gates were hanged, from the one side to the other, with cords made of hearbs and floures, with gar|lands coronets, pictures, rich cloths, and a thousand d [...]ses. At the gates themselues there was a stage made verie richlie apparelled with cloth of gold and crimsin veluet, whervpon in a close place made ther| [...]n for the purpose, was placed verie swéet musike: & one readie to render hir this speach following.The queens [...] Norwic [...] [...] take [...]. The daiefull houre of hir departure came, she passed from the court, to those gates, with such countenances, both of hir maiesties part, and hir subiects now dolo|rous now chéerefull, as plainlie shewed the louing [...]earts of both sides. When she came there the speach was thus vttered vnto hir in verie plausib [...]e sort:

Terrestrial ioies are tide with slender file,
Each happie hap full hastilie dooth slide,
As summer season lasteth but a while,
So winter stormes doo longer time abide:
Alas what blisse can anie time endure?
Our sunshine daie is dasht with sudden shoure.
Could toong expresse our secret ioies of hart,
(Oh mightie prince) when thou didst come in place?
No no God wot, nor can expresse the smart
Thy subiects feele in this departing case.
But gratious queene, let here thy grace remaine
In gratious wise, till thy returne againe.
In lieu whereof, receiue thy subiects harts,
In fixed faith continuallie thine owne:
Who readie rest to loose their vitall parts
In thy defense, when anie blast is blowne.
Thou art our queene, our rocke and onelie staie,
We are thine owne to serue by night and daie.
Farewell oh queene, farewell oh mother deare,
Let Iacobs God thy sacred bodie gard:
All is thine owne that is possessed here,
And all in all is but a small reward
For thy great grace, God length thy life like Noy,
To gouerne vs, and eke thy realme in ioy. Amen.

Th [...]se words were deuised by B. Goldingham, and spoken by himselfe, to whome hir maiestie said: We [...]anke you hartilie. Then with the musicke in the same place was soong this short dittie following, in a verie sweet voice, to the great delite of the hearers;

What vaileth life, where sorow sokes the hart?
A dittie soong in a verie swéet voice.Who feareth death that is in deepe distresse?
Release of life dooth best abate the smart
Ofhim, whose woes are quite without redresse.
Lend me your teares, resigne your sighes to me,
Helpe all to wai [...] the dolor which you see.
What haue we doone, she will no longer staie?
What may we doo to hold hir with vs still?
Shee is our queene, we subiects must obaie,
Grant, though with greefe, to hir departing will.
Conclude we then, and sing with sobbing breath,
God length thy life (oh queene Elisabeth.)

Fridaies [...] vpon the remoouing of [...] court.On fridaie, the court vpon remooue, the citie trou| [...]d with manie causes, and some séeking to doo ser|uice like the deuiser, mooued him to doo somewhat of himselfe, bicause his aids (as manie times they were before) were drawne from him, each one about his owne businesse, and he left to his owne inuentions and policie, at which exigent or casuall things of for|tune, he drew his boies vnto him, that were the Nymphs on the water, and so departed the citie, with such garments and stuffe necessarie as fitted his purpose and the matter he went about. Then he chose a ground, by the which the quéene must passe, inclo|sing his companie in the corner of a field, being de|fen [...]ed with high and thicke bushes, and there some parts he made, which the boies might misse, bicause the time was short for the learning of those parts. But he being resolued to doo somewhat might make the quéene laugh,A pleasant de|uise to make the quéene laugh. appointed that seauen boies of twelue should passe through a hedge from the place of abode (which was gallantlie trimmed) and deliuer seauen spéeches. And these boies (you must vnder|stand) were dressed like Nymphes of the water, and were to plaie by a deuise and degrees the feiries, and to danse (as néere as could be imagined) like the feiries. Their attire and comming so strangelie out, made the queenes highnesse smile and laugh withall. And the deuiser hearing this good hope, be|ing apparelled like a water sprite, began to sound a timbrell, & the rest with him, all the twelue Nymphs togither (when the seauen had repaired in) sounded timbrels likewise. And although the deuiser had no great harting, yet as he durst,The deuisers [...]oings well taken of the queene, &c. he led the yoong foolish feiries a danse, which boldnesse of his [...]red no dis|grace, but as he heard, was well taken. The quéene vpon their retire in, hasted to hir highnes lodging, which was seuen miles off, and at that present, when the shew ended, it was past fiue of the clocke.

All these shewes finished, hir maiestie in princelie maner marched toward the confines of the liberties of the citie of Norwich, which was supposed almost two miles. Before she came there,Maister ma|ior [...] to [...] ano|ther or [...]ion, is wil [...]ed [...] forbeare [...] and [...] maister maior brake to my lord chamberlaine, that he was to vtter to hir maiestie an other oration, whereof my lord seemed to haue good liking: but before they came to the said confines, maister maior was wil [...]ed to for|beare the vtterance of the same his oration, bicause it was about seauen of the clocke, and hir maiestie had then fiue miles to ride. Neuerthelesse he gaue to hir maiestie both his orations in writing, which she thanked him for. She also thanked the maior, euerie alderman, and the commoners, not onelie for the great chéere they had made hir, but also for the open housholds they kept to hir highnesse seruants, and all others.The maior of Norwich knighted. Then she called maister maior and made him knight: and so departing, said: I haue laid vp in my breast such good will, as I shall neuer forget Norwich; and proceeding onward did shake hir ri|ding rod and said: Farewell Norwich, with the wa|ter standing in hir eies.The quéenes words at h [...]r departing. In which great good will to|wards vs all, I beséech God to continue hir maiestie with long and triumphant reigne ouer vs, Amen.

Now to come to the returne of the queenes ma|iestie from Norfolke and Suffolke, in which two counties hir highnesse knighted certeine gentle|men, as namelie in Suffolke George Colt,Gentlemen of Suffolke & Norffolke knighted. Philip Parkar, Robert Iermine, William Spring, Tho|mas Barnardiston, Thomas Kidson, Arthur He|dingham: In Norffolke, Thomas Knou [...]t, Nicho|las Bacon, William Pastons, Edward Clée [...]e, Rafe Shelton, Henrie Woodhouse, Thomas Gau|die, Robert Wood maior, Roger Woodhouse. Th [...]se gentlmen hir maiestie knighted, for that they should all their life time after haue the greater regard to God and their prince.The quéenes maiestie de|parteth from Norwich and is now inter|teined b [...] the waie. Now the queenes maiestie pas|sing from Norwich, she came to sir Roger Wood|houses that night, where she was well receiued, and noblie interteined. From thense to Wood rising at sir Edward Cleeres. From thense to sir Thomas Kidsons, where in verie déed the fare and bankets did so excéed a number of other places, that it is wor|thie the mention. A shew representing the feiries (as well as might be) was there séene, in the which shew a rich iewell was presented to the queenes highnes. From thense to master Reuets, where all things were well and in verie good order, and meat liberallie spent.

But now to speake a little by the waie of Gods mightie hand and power, that framed mens hearts so [...]ell in manie parts, before the quéenes highnesse c [...]e to Cambridgeshire, and to tell how blessedlie o [...]r great and good God did deale with our deere so|uereigne ladie, in causing euerie person to shew the dutie, is a matter of great discourse, and of no little weight and comfort to all good minds that shall consider of the same. Such a Lord is our great God, EEBO page image 1299 that can fr [...]me all things to the best, and such a so|uereigne ladie we haue, that can make the crooked paths streight where she commeth, & draw the harts of the people after hir whersoeuer she trauelleth. So from master Reuets hir highnesse came to my lord Norths, who was no whit behind anie of the best for a franke house, a noble heart, and well ordered inter|teinement. And there was an oration made by a gentleman ofCambridge,The vniuer|si [...]ie of Cam|bridge present a faire and statelie cup to the quéene. with a statelie and a faire cup presented from the vniuersitie, all the ambassa|dors of France beholding the same. And the gentle|men of the shire (as in manie other places) did beare the quéenes meat to the table, which was a great li|king & gladnesse to the gentlemen, & a solemne sight for strangers & subiects to looke vpon. From my lord Norths to sir Giles Allingtons, where things were well, and well liked. From thense to sir Iohn Cuts. From thense to M. Kapels, where was excellent good cheere & interteinement. From thense to Hide hall, T.C. where I heard of no great cheere nor banket|ting. From thense to Rockwood hall, but how the traine was there interteined, I am ignorant of. From thense to master Stonars, and from thense to my lord of Leicesters house, where the progresse ended, & (to knit vp all) the good chéere was reuiued, not onelie with making a great feast to the quéene and the French ambassador, but also in feasting so|lemnelie (at seuerall times) the whole gard,The lord of Leicesters bountifull in|terteinement. on sun|daie and mondaie before the queene came, at his owne table, vsing such courtesie vnto them for the space of two daies, as was and is worthie of perpe|tuall memorie. Thus much of the quéenes highnesse returne, whom God hath so well preserued, that she like a worthie prince to our great comfort prospe|reth in peace, to the great disgrace of the enimies of God, and aduersaries of our common weale and countrie, wherin God continue hir maiestie, Amen.

The quéenes maiestie, now gone from Norwich, carried awaie with hir all the gladnesse of the citie, which sprang from hir presence; in place whereof suc|céeded melancholie sadnes: in somuch that the verie aier altered with the change of the countrie cheere proceeding from the departure of hir highnes roi|all person: which he meant that made these verses, wherwith the description of this progresse shall end.

Ad solem nubi|bus obductum die lunae 18. Augusti, 1578.Splendide Phoebe redi, cur te sub nube recondis?
Innuba Pallas adest, splendide Phoebe redi.
Hasta minax procul est, non Gorgonis ora videbis,
Pallas inermis adest, splendide Phoebe redi.
Scilicet à tanto metuis tibi lumine forsan:
Ne superet radios foemina Phoebe tuos.
Pulcher Apollo tibi ne sit regina rubori
Ipse decore tuo vincis, & illa suo.
Euge redux reducem quia pulsa nocte reducis
Phoebe diem: toto est gratius orbe nihil.
Haec pepulit tetri tenebras noctémque papismi,
Et liquidum retulit relligione diem.
Euge nigras nebulas radijs quiasaepe repellis
Phoebe tuis: pene est gratius orbe nihil.
Texuerant remoras discrimina mille papistae:
Neceptum princeps continuaret iter:
Nec tamen hunc nebulae potuerunt condere solem:
Quamuis tu nebulis cedis Apollo tuis.
Ergô iubar nostrum repulisse obstaculo cernis:
Sic age, sol nebulas lumine pelle tuo.
Splendide Phoebe redi, cur te sub nube recondis?
Innuba Pallas adest, splendide Phoebe radi.
Eiusdem in eandem.Sustinet, ornat, habet, regnum, literaria, formam,
Prouida, docta, decens, Iuno, Minerua, Venus.
Singula dona trium simul Elizabetha dearum
Prouida, docta, decens, sustinet, ornat, habet.
Esse deas lusi: diuinam dicimus istam:
Quamuis nec liceat nec libet esse deam.
In shadowing clouds why art thou clo [...]d? O Phebus bright [...]etire:To the s [...]nne couer [...]d with cloudes vpon mon [...]a [...], be|ing the 1 [...] of August 15 [...].
Unspoused Pallas present is, O Phebus bright retire.
The thretning speare is flong far off, doubt not grim Gorg [...]s ire:
Unarmed Pallas present is, O Phebus bright retire.
Perhaps thou art afraid: And why? at this so large a light:
Least that a woman should excell, thy beams (O Phebus) bright.
Let not a queene, a virgine pure, which is, and euer was,
O faire Apollo, make thee blush: you both in beautie passe.
O Phebus safe and sound returne, which, banishing the night,
Bringst backe the daie: in all the world nothing of like delight:
She, onelie she, the darkenesse draue of poperie quite awaie:
And by religion hath restord the bright and lightsome daie.
O Phebus with thy beams, which foilst the clouds both blind & blacke,
The world, in maner all, a thing of like delight doth lacke.
A thousand dangers and delaies the papists had deuisd,
To thend our princesse should abridge hir progresse enterprisd:
Yet this our bright & shining sun, cast light through euerie cloud:
Although in clouds thou art content, Apollo oft to shroud.
Thou seest our sunne in comelie course, cuts off ech stop and staie:
Do thou the like, and by thy light driue euerie cloud awaie.
In shadowing clouds why art thou closd? O Phebus bright retire:
Unspoused Pallas present is: O Phebus bright [...]etire.
Hir kingdome all by prouidence, queene Iuno doth vphold:By the same concerning the queene.
And of Minerua ladie learnd, is learned lore extold:
And Uenus faire of countenance, hath beautie vncontrold.
These sundrie gifts of goddesses three, Elisabeth possesseth:
By prouidence hir peoples peace, and comfort she increaseth:
Hir learning, learning amplifies: hir beautie neuer ceaseth.
I did but ieast, of goddesses to giue them three the name:
This ladie maist thou goddesse call, for she deserues the same:
Although she will not vndertake, a title of such fame.

Matthew Hamont,Mathew Ha|mont burnt at Norwich. by his trade a ploughwrite of Hetharset three miles from Norwich, was conuen|ted before the bishop of Norwich, for that he denied Christ our sauiour. At the time of his appearance it was obiected that he had published these heresies following. That the new testament and gospell of Christ are but méere foolishnesse, a storie of man,The heresies that he held. or rather a méere fable. Item, that man is restored to grace by Gods méere mercie, without the meane of Christs bloud, death and passion. Item, that Christ is not God nor the sauiour of the world, but a méere man, a sinfull man, and an abhominable idoll. Item, that all they that worship him are abhominable ido|laters, & that Christ did not rise againe from death to life by the power of his godhead, neither that he ascended into heauen. Item, that the Holie ghost is not God, neither that there is anie such Holie ghost. Item, that baptisme is not necessarie in the church of God, neither the vse of the sacrament of the bo|die and bloud of Christ. For the which heresies he was condemned in the consistorie, and sentence was pronounced against him by the bishop of Norwich on the thirtéenth daie of Aprill, and thervpon deliue|red to the shiriffes of Norwich. And bicause he spake words of blasphemie (not to be recited) against the quéenes maiestie and others of hir councell, he was by the recorder, master sergeant Windham, and the maior sir Robert Wood of Norwich condemned to lose both his eares, which were cut off on the thir|teenth of Maie in the market place of Norwich, and afterwards, to wit on the twentith of Maie, he was burned in the castell dich of Norwich.

This yeare in the moneth of Maie,An English|man made a locke and a keie, weieng but one whea [...] corne. Marke Sca|liot blacke smith citizen of London, borne in the pa|rish of saint Clements Da [...]e without Temple bar, and now dwelling in Cornehill néere vnto Leaden hall, for triall of workemanship, made one hanging locke of iron, steele and brasse, of eleuen seuerall pée|ces, a pipe keie filed three square with a pot vpon the shaft, & the bow with two esses, all cleane wrought, which weied but one graine of gold or wheat corne. He also at the same time made a chaine of gold of three and fortie linkes, to the which chaine the locke and keie being fastened, and put about a fleas necke, she drew the same with ease. All which, locke, keie, chaine, and flea, weied but one graine and a halfe. A thing almost incredible, but that my selfe (amongst manie others) haue séene it, & therfore must affirme it to be true.

The first of Iune deceased Robert Horne doctor of diuinitie, bishop of Winchester,The bishop [...] Winchester deceased. and prelat of the garter, at Winchester place in Southworke, and EEBO page image 1300 was buried at Winchester. ¶This man was lear|ned and eloquent, of a round and readie vtterance, sound in religion and zelous in the truth; in testimo|nie whereof he chose rather to forsake his natiue soile, and to liue a stranger in a forren land, than with offense of conscience to tarrie at home within the sight and hearing of the manifold abhominati|ons which supported poperie: so that although death haue deuoured his mortall bodie, yet in respect of his vertue and godlinesse, his name shall be im|mortall; according to the truth of this sentence:

Corpore deposito viuit virtute superstes,
De virtute nihil mors violenta rapit.

Iohn Wolton bish [...]p of Ex|cester.Iohn Wolton now liuing, was called to be bi|shop of Excester, & consecrated at Lambith by Ed|mund Grindall archbishop of Canturburie, in Au|gust 1579. He is a professor of diuinitie, and a preacher of the gospell, and vniuersallie séene in all good letters. This William Wolton, being in suc|cessiue order the eight and fortith that occupied the said sée, from the first that inioied the same episco|pall aduancement, ministreth iust occasion to insert a catalog of all the bishops of Excester as they fol|lowed one after another in that sée, being an apt col|lection, and verie answerable to the description of Excester, and the ancient foundation of saint Pe|ters church there; mentioned in the third yeare of the reigne of king Edward the sixt, page 1007, and continued to page 1028.

24.2.1. A catalog of the bishops of Exce|ster collected by Iohn Vowell aliâs Hooker, gentleman.

A catalog of the bishops of Exce|ster collected by Iohn Vowell aliâs Hooker, gentleman.

Werstanus.1 WErstanus, at a prouinciall synod holden in Westsex, in the yeare 905, was con|secrated bishop of Deuon, and had his see at bi|shops Tauton: and in the yeare following 906 he died, and was buried in his owne church.

Putta.2 Putta, after the death of Werstanus, was e|lected and consecrated bishop, and had his sée at Tauton: and taking his iourneie towards Credi|ton, to sée and visit the king (or as some saie, Uf|fa the kings lieutenant) was by the said Uffas men slaine, and then vpon his death the sée was remo|ued to Crediton.

Eadulphus.3 Eadulphus, brother to Alpsius duke of Deuon and Cornewall, and founder of Lanceston, was consecrated bishop of Deuon, but installed at Cre|diton, where he had his sée, and continued bishop two and twentie yeares, and then dieng about the yeare 932, he was buried in his owne church.

Ethelgarus.4 Ethelgarus, in the yeare 932, succeeded Ea|dulphus, and in his time king Athelstane subdued the Cornish people, reedified this citie, and compas|sed the same with a stone wall: he founded the mo|nasterie of saint Peters for monks of saint Be|nets order. This Ethelgarus, after he had béene bishop ten yeares, died, and was buried in his owne church.

Algarus.5 Algarus, in the yeare 942 after Ethelgarus, was constituted & installed bishop at Crediton, and hauing béene bishop about ten yeares, died and was buried in his owne church.

Alfwoldus.6 Alfwoldus, as Matthew Westminster writeth, was next bishop after Algarus, and consecrated by the aduise of Dunstane, in the yeare 952. In this time Odogarus earle of Deuon, and father in law to king Edgar, builded the abbeie of Tauestoke: and king Edgar called home all the monkes of saint Peters which were dispersed, and without a|nie abbat, and made Sidemannus abbat, who was afterwards bishop. This Alfwoldus after sixtéene yeares that he was consecra [...]e [...], died and was bu|ried in his owne church.

7 Alfwolfus, as Dicetus affirmeth, was conse|crated bishop in the yeare of our Lord 969,Alfwolfus. and after nine yeares died, and was buried in his owne church.

8 Sidemannus of an abbat was made a bishop,Sideman|nus. in the yeare 978. In this mans time the Danes o|uerran and spoiled the whole countries of Deuon and Cornewall, burned the towne of Bodmen, and the cathedrall church of saint Petrokes, with the bi|shops house. Wherevpon the bishops sée was remo|ued from thense to saint Germans, where the same continued, vntill the remouing and vniting thereof vnto Crediton. Sidemannus in the twelfe yeare after his consecration died, and was buried at Cre|diton in his owne church 990.

9 Alphredus, whome Dicetus calleth Alfricus,Alphredus. abbat of Malmesburie, was consecrated bishop, and installed at Crediton: he was taken for a lear|ned man, because he wrote two bookes, the one in|tituled Derebus coenobij sui, and the other De rerum natu|ris. In this bishops time, king Ethelred endowed the bishoprike of saint Germans with lands, li|berties, and priuileges. The Danes made a fresh inuasion in and vpon all Deuon and Cornewall, burned and spoiled the abbie of Ordolphus at Taue|stoke: they besieged Excester, and being remoued from thense, were fought withall at Pinneho, a|bout thrée miles from the citie, and ouerthrowne. Alphredus, after he had béene bishop about nine yeares, died in the yeare 999, and was buried in his owne church.

10 Alwolfus (as Dicetus writeth) was the next bishop. In his time Sweno king of Denmarke,Alwolfus. by intisement of one Hugh then earle of Deuon, came with a great host and besieged the citie of Ex|cester, tooke it and burned it, and with great cruel|tie vsed the people, vntill in the end Almarus then earle of Deuon, and the gentlemen did yéeld and submit themselues, and so obteined peace. This Al|wolfus about the fiftéenth yeare of his bishoprike, in the yeare 1014 died, and was buried in his owne church.

11 Arnoldus,Arnoldus. by the report of the archdeacon of London, succéeded Alwolfus, and was installed at Crediton. In this mans time, king Canutus gaue to Athelwold abbat of S. Peters of this citie great gifts, and sundrie priuileges, in recompense of his fathers great iniuries. Arnoldus in the fiftéenth yeare of his bishoprike 1030 died, and was buried in his owne church.

12 Leuigus or Leuingus abbat of Tauestoke,Leuigus, or Leuingus. and nephue to Brithwaldus bishop of Cornewall, was chosen the next bishop, and according to the or|ders then vsed, consecrated and installed. He was in great fauour and credit with king Canutus, vp|pon whome he attended in pilgrimage to Rome; and after his vncle the bishop of saint Germans be|ing dead, obteined of the king that the bishops sée was remoued from saint Germans vnto Crediton, and both were thereby reduced and vnited into one bishoprike, and so hath euer since continued. Hée was after the death of Brithegus bishop of Worce|ster, remoued to that church, and there died, and was buried as some suppose: but some affirme, that in the time of Hardicanutus the king, at the accusa|tion of Alfredus then archbishop of Yorke, for that he should be consenting to the death of Alfredus the sonne of Etheldred, that he should be deposed of his bishoprike there, and so did returne vnto Tauestoke, where he died. But Dicetus affirmeth, that he purged himselfe of this crime, and by that meanes was re|stored, both to the fauour of the king, and to his bi|shoprike EEBO page image 1301 againe, and died bishop of Worcester. It is recorded that he was bishop of Crediton fiftéene yeares.

Leofricus.13 Leofricus, a man descended of the bloud and line of Brutus, but brought vp in the land of Lotho|ringia or Loreine, was so well commended for his nobilitie, wisedome, and learning, that king Ed|ward the Confessor had him in great fauour, and made him first one of his priuie councell; then lord chancellor of all England: and lastlie the bishoprike of this prouince being void, he was made, consecra|ted, and installed bishop of the same. By him and by his meanes, the bishops sée was remoued from Crediton vnto this citie of Excester: for at his re|quest, king Edward togither with quéene Edith his wife came to Excester, & remouing the monkes from hense to Westminster, did also remoue the bishops sée from Crediton vnto his citie, and did put the bishop in possession. For he conducting the bishop on the right hand, and the quéene on the left hand, brought him to the high altar of his new church, and there placed him in a seat appoin|ted for him. He suppressed sundrie houses or cels of religion within his sanctuarie, and appropriated and vnited them to his owne church; as also by the good liberalitie of the king obteined great reuenues, possessions, priuileges, and liberties to be giuen vnto the church. In this mans time, William duke of Normandie made a conquest of this whole realme, as also in the yeare 1068 besieged this citie of Excester, which after by composition he re|stored to his former estate againe. Also in his time, Richard de Brion, a noble man of Normandie, the sonne of Baldwin of Brion, & of Albred the néece to the Conqueror, was made baron of Okehampton, warden of the castell of Excester, and vicount of Deuon. This Leofricus, after that he had well and worthilie ruled his church and diocesse by the space of three and twentie yeares, he ended his daies in peace, and died in the yeare 1073, and was buried in the cemiterie or churchyard of his owne church, vnder a simple and a broken marble stone, which place by the since inlarging of his church is now within the tower of the same, where of late, in the yeare 1568, a new monument was erected in the memorie of so good, woorthie, and noble a personage, by the industrie of the writer hereof, but at the char|ges of the deane and chapter.Osbertus or Osbernus.

14 Osbertus or Osbernus, a Norman borne, and brother to an earle named William, was pre|ferred to this bishoprike, and in the yeare 1074 was consecrated and installed to the same. Polydorus writeth, that one Galfrid who ioined with Odo, earle of Kent and bishop of Baion, against William Ru|fus, should be bishop of Exon: but it was not, nor could not so be. In this mans time, William the Conqueror, and William Rufus his sonne died. This Osbertus or Osbernus, after he had béene bishop thirtie yeares, was blind, and died, and lieth buried in his owne church.

William Warlewast.15 William Warlewast a Norman borne, and chapleine both to the Conqueror and his two sons, William and Henrie: he was a graue and a wise man, and for the same was preferred by Henrie the king to this bishoprike, in the yere one thousand one hundred and seuen, and was consecrated by Ansel|mus archbishop of Canturburie, in the moneth of August the same yeare. He first began to inlarge his church, which at that time was no bigger than that which is now called the ladie chappell. He foun|ded and builded the monasterie of Plimpton, and placed therein regular canons: in his latter daies he waxed and became blind. And yet notwithstand|ing for his wisdome the king sent him in ambassage vnto pope Paschalis the second, wherein he so wise|lie dealed, and so discréetlie behaued himselfe in his message, that he made a reconciliation betweene the pope and the king, and returned with great praise and commendation. Not long after his returne, and hauing small ioie of the world, he gaue ouer his bi|shoprike, and became one of the religious canons in his owne house of Plimpton, where he died and was buried, he was bishop about twentie yeares.

16 Robert Chichester, deane of Sarisburie,Robert Chichester. was consecrated bishop vnder Anselmus archbishop of Canturburie, Anno 1128, and the eight and twen|tith yeare of king Henrie the first. He was a gentle|man borne, and therefore estéemed for his zeale in religion, wherein he was deuout according to those daies; and thinking his labours to be best imploied that waie, did eftsoons go in pilgrimage, sometime to Rome, sometime to one place, sometime to an|other; and euer he would bring with him some one relike or other. He was a liberall contributor to the buildings of his church. In his time was founded and builded the monasterie of S. Stephans in Lan|ceston, and furthered by Reinold erle of Cornewall; but vnto it this bishop was an aduersarie, not for misliking the worke, but for feare of an intrusion vpon his liberties. Likewise at this time was buil|ded the priorie of saint Nicholas in Excester, by the abbat of Battell, vnto which abbeie this priorie was a cell. In this mans time also king Henrie made William Rideuers a Norman (and his kinsman) earle of Deuon; and therewith the lordshop of Twi|fordton, and the honor of Plimpton, togither with the third pennie of his reuenues in Deuon, which in the whole was then thirtie marks, whereof this earle had ten. Also in this mans time king Henrie died, and king Stephan entred, and tooke vpon him the crowne, whereof insued great warres. This bishop, after that he had occupied the place two and twentie yeares, died, and was buried in his owne church. But the moonke of Westminster writeth that he should be bishop seuen and twentie yeares, and died in the yeere one thousand one hundred fiftie and fiue, but he neuer saw the records of this church which are to the contrarie.

17 Robert Warlewast,Robert Warlewast. nephue to William the bishop of this church, deane of Sarisburie, was con|secrated bishop by Theobaldus archbishop of Can|turburie, in the yeare one thousand one hundred and fiftie, he nothing degenerated from the steps of his predecessors, but was altogither of the same bent and disposition. In his time king Stephan died, and Henrie the second was crowned king. This Robert after that he had occupied this sée nine yéers or there|about, died, & was buried at Plimpton by his vncle.

18 Bartholomeus Iscanus, otherwise Bartho|lomew of Excester,Bartholome|us Iscanus. was consecrated bishop of Ex|cester vnder Theobald archbishop of Canturburie, in the yeare a thousand one hundred fiftie nine, he was called Iscanus of Isca, which is one of the ancientest names of this citie. He was a meane citizens son, but being verie apt vnto learning, his parents and friends kept him to schoole; and he so well profited therein, that he came and prooued to be a verie well learned man: and being bishop he wrote sundrie bookes, as of predestination, fréewill, penance, and o|thers. Of all men he could not brooke nor fauor Tho|mas Becket archbishop of Canturburie for his con|tempt and disobedience against the king, for the which he sharplie improoued, rebuked, and inueighed against him openlie in the parlement house holden at Northampton; and with such effectuall reasons, and pithie arguments, he did so temper the same, that the whole parlement relied vnto his iudgement and opinion herein against Thomas Becket. And EEBO page image 1302 after his death, such was the gravitie, modestie, and wisedome of the man, that he was speciallie chosen to be ambassador for the king vnto pope Alexander the third; and so wiselie, and with such discretion vsed the same, that notwithstanding his cause and mes|sage had manie aduersaries, yet he reconciled the pope and the king, obteined the goodwill and fauour of the pope, and brought his message to good effect. This bishop was in great familiaritie and acquain|tance with Baldwin of Excester his countriman, now archbishop of Canturburie, who was a poore mans sonne in this citie; but for his learning aduan|ced to this estate. In this bishops time, about the yeare of our Lord one thousand one hundred thrée score and eight, William Fitzralfe a citizen of this citie founded a cell for moonks within this citie, and dedicated the same to saint Alexius, which not long after was united to saint Iohns within the east gate of the same citie. In his time also Reinold of Court|neie a nobleman of Normandie, the son of Elorus the son of Lewes, named Lewes le Grosse king of France came into this land, and married Hawise daughter and heire to Mawd the daughter and heire to Adelis, sister and heire to Richard de Briono the first vicount of Deuon, and in hir right was vicount of Deuon. This Bartholomew, after he had béene bishop about fouretéene yeares, in the yere one thou|sand one hundred eightie and foure, died: but where he died, and where he was buried it dooth not appeere. In this bishops time about the yeare one thousand one hundred and seuentie, one Iohannes Corinien|sis a Cornish man borne, was a famous learned diuine, he was a student at Rome and other places in Italie, and by that meanes grew into great ac|quaintance with pope Alexander the third: he wrote diuerse bookes, and namelie one De incarnatione Chri|sti, against Peter Lombard, who affirmed, Quòd Chri|stus secundum quod homo est, aliquid non est; and this he de|dicated to pope Alexander.

Iohn the chanter.19 Iohn the chanter of the cathedrall church of this citie was consecrated and installed bishop of this church, in the yeare one thousand one hundred eightie and foure, he was well reported of for his li|beralitie in continuing the buildings of this church, wherein he was nothing inferior to his predecessors. In his time king Henrie Fitzempresse died, and he himselfe, hauing beene bishop about six yeares, died in the yeare of our Lord one thousand one hundred ninetie and one.

Henrie Marshall.20 Henrie Marshall archdeacon of Stafford, the brother to Walter earle marshall of England, was consecrated bishop by Hubert archbishop of Cantur|burie, in the yeare one thousand one hundred ninetie and one; he finished the building of his church, accor|ding to the plot and foundation which his predeces|sors had laid; and that doone, he purchased the patro|nage and lordship of Woodburie of one Albemarlie, which he gaue and impropriated vnto the vicars cho|rall of his church. In this mans time, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand two hundred and one, one Simon Thurnaius a Cornish man borne, brought vp in learning, did by diligence and studie so prosper therein, that he became excellent in all the liberall sciences, and in his daies none thought to be like him. He left Oxenford, where he had béene a student, and went to Paris, and there became a priest, and studied diuinitie, and therein became so excellent, and of so deepe a iudgement, that he was made chéefe of the Sorbonists; at length he became so proud of his learning, and did glorie so much therein, that he would be singular, & thought himselfe to be another Aristotle: and so much he was therein blinded, and waxed so farre in loue with Aristotle, that he prefer|red him before Moses and Christ. But behold Gods iust iudgement. For suddenlie his memorie failed him, and he waxed so forgetfull, that he could neither call to remembrance anie thing that he had doone, neither could he discerne, read, or know a letter of the booke. This Henrie, after that he had spent and liued twelue yeares in his bishoprike, he died, and li|eth buried in the north side of the chancell of his church, in a verie faire toome of marble, in the yeare one thousand two hundred and six.

21 Simon de Apulia,Simon de Apulia. in the yeare one thousand two hundred and six was installed bishop of this sée, of him there remaineth no memoriall at all. In his time were famous Ioseph Iscanius, and Alexander Neckam; the one was verie well learned in the La|tine and Gréeke toong, and in the liberall sciences; the other was prior of saint Nicholas, and was an v|niuersall man, being a profound philosopher, an elo|quent orator, a pleasant poet, and a déepe diuine. In this bishops time the doctrine of eleuation, adorati|on, reseruation, and praieng for the dead, being esta|blished by pope Honorius the third, the parish chur|ches within this citie were limited, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand two hundred twentie & two. In this mans time, in the yeare one thousand two hundred and twelue, one Iohannes Deuonius, so surnamed, because he was borne in Deuon, being well bent to good studies, was much commended for his learning and modestie. He was familiar and of great acquaintance with Baldwin archbishop of Canturburie, and being made abbat of Ford, was in such fauor with king Iohn, that he chose him to be his confessor and chapleine: he was a writer, and compiled diuerse bookes which were then accounted of. Being dead, he was buried in his abbeie, the people much lamenting the want of so good a man. This bishop hauing spent eightéene yeares, died, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand two hundred twentie and foure, & was buried in his owne church.

22 William Brewer, verie shortlie after the death of the foresaid Simon, was elected bishop, and consecrated by Stephan Langton archbishop of Canturburie,William Brewer. in the yeare of our Lord one thousand two hundred twentie and foure. He was borne and descended of a noble house and parentage, being brother to sir William Brewer knight, the husband of the eldest daughter, & one of the heirs to William de Uerona, erle of Deuon; and who also was founder of the abbeies of Tor, of Hartland, and other mo|nasteries. This bishop so wiselie and discréetlie be|haued himselfe, that he was had in great reputati|on among all men, and in speciall fauour with the king. For king Henrie, hauing giuen his sister ladie Isabell to wife vnto Frederike the emperor, did commend and betake hir to this bishop, to be conuei|ed and conducted to the emperor. And such was the fame and good report spred of him, that as he passed through the countries, they were from place to place receiued with great honor; and being come to the ci|tie of Coleine, the archbishop there did not onelie ve|rie honorablie receiue them, but also accompanied them vnto the citie of Wormes, where the mariage was solemnized. When this bishop had séene the marriage, and all things performed, he tooke his leaue, and was dismissed with great presents, and honorablie accompanied homewards by the archbi|shop and others. At his returne he was ioifullie re|ceiued of all the noble men about the king, and most thankfullie by the king himselfe, and whome the king vsed as his speciall and most trustie councellor in all his weightie causes. This bishop being come home to his owne house, andminding (as his predecessors had doone) to leaue some good memoriall behind him, he made a deane, and constituted twentie foure pre|bendaries within his church. To the one he impro|priated EEBO page image 1303 Brampton and Coliton Rawleie: for the o|thers he purchased so much land, as out whereof he assigned to euerie prebendarie foure pounds by the yeare, and of these he ordeined his chapter. Also in this mans time, in the yeare one thousand two hun|dred and fortie, Gilbert Long and Robert his bro|ther citizens of this citie builded and founded the ho|spitall of saint Iohns, within the east gate of this ci|tie, for the sustenance of certeine poore folks, called afterwards the poore children of saint Iohns, & gaue all their lands and tenements to the same, which was sufficient. The yeare following, the cell of Alexius was remooued and adioined to saint Iohns; and then the founders being dead, the charge and gouerne|ment of that house was by those founders commen|ded to the maior of this citie, & they thenseforth were founders and patrons thereof. In the yeare of our Lord one thousand two hundred fortie and foure, there grew a contention concerning the poore lazer sicke people of the Magdalen without the south gate of this citie, whose maner and vsage was then, with a clapdish vpon euerie market daie to resort and come to the markets, and there to beg euerie mans deuotion: but by reason of their sicknesse, which was lothsome and abhorred, the peoples deuotion waxed short and scant against them: as also euerie man murmured against their going & begging at large. Where vpon the matter being brought into question betwéene the bishop and this citie, it was concluded that a perimutation should be made: and that there|fore the bishops should be patrones, and haue the gouernement of saint Iohns, and the maior and his successors to be gardians and founders of the hospi|tall of the Magdalen; with a prouiso, that the proctor of the hospitall of the Magdalen should on one daie in euerie moneth come with his box to saint Peters church at the time of seruice, and there receiue and gather the deuotion of the canons, which is vsed at these presents. This poore house remaineth still, but the other for want of good freends was suppressed and dissolued. This bishop, after he had continued in his church about nineteene yeares, he died, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand two hundred fortie and foure, and lieth buried in the middle of his owne church vnder a plaine marble stone.

Richard Blondie.23 Richard Blondie, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand two hundred fortie and fiue, was conse|crated and installed bishop, Bonifacius then being archbishop of Canturburie. This Richard was a man of a mild spirit, but verie stout against such as in his time did offer anie iniurie to the church. And in his old yeares being but a weake man, he was much carried and ruled by such as were his officers and about him, who taking the opportunitie of the time, vsed all the meanes they might to inrich them|selues. His chéefest officers were one Lodeswell his chancellor, Sutton his register, Fitzherbert his of|ficiall, and Ermestow the kéeper of his seale. These with others of the chéefe seruants of his houshold compacted among themselues, that whilest the bi|shop was yet liuing, who then laie sicke and verie weake in his bed, to make and conueie vnto them|selues conueiances of such liuelihoods as then laie in the bishops disposition; and accordinglie made out aduousons and other such conueiances as to them seemed best, all which were forthwith sealed and deliuered according to the orders among them con|cluded. But these their subtill dealings were not so closelie conueied, but that the next bishop follow|ing boolted and found the same out; and did not one|lie reuerse all their dooings, but also did excommuni|cat them, and who were not absolued vntill they had doone their penance for the same: which was doone at saint Peters church openlie, vpon Palmesun|daie, being the nineteenth daie of March, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand two hundred threescore and seuen. This bishop Richard in the twelfe yeare of his bishoprike, died, and was buried in his owne church.

24 Walter Bronescome,Walter Bro|nescom [...]. archdeacon of Sur|reie, was consecrated bishop of Excester vpon Passion sundaie, in the yeare of our Lord one thou|sand two hundred foure score and six vnder Bonifa|cius then archbishop. He was borne in this citie of Exon, and was the sonne of poore parents; but he be|ing of a verie towardnesse and good disposition, and verie apt to learning, they partlie of themselues and partlie by helpe of their friends, did put him to schoole and kept him to his booke, wherein he proued and pro|spered so well that he was verie well learned. At the time of his election he was no priest, and therefore not capeable of anie such dignitie: but immediatlie he tooke that order vpon him, and forthwith was con|secrated bishop. All which being doone within fiftéene daies, it was counted as for a miracle; namelie that be should be elected bishop, then made priest, and at last to be consecrated within that space. For so ma|nie dignities (as they termed it) to be cast vpon one man in so short a time, had not béene lightlie séene. He founded the college of Glaseneie in Perrin in Cornewall, and indowed the same with faire posses|sions and reuenues. He purchased the Barton of Rokesdon and Clist, and gaue it to the hospitall of S. Iohns within the east gate of the citie of Exce|ster. He instituted in his owne church the feast cal|led Gabriels feast; and gaue a peece of land for the maintenance thereof. He also did by a policie pur|chase the lordship and house of Clist Sachisfield, and by a deuise did inlarge the Barton thereof, by gain|ing of Cornish wood from his deane and chapter: and builded then a verie faire & a sumptuous house, and called it bishops Clist, which he left to his succes|sors. Likewise he got the patronage of Clist Fo|meson, now called Sowton, and annexed the same to his new lordship, which (as it was said) was in this order. He had a frier to be his chapleine and confes|sor, which died in his said house of Clist, and should haue bin buried at the parish church of Faringdon, bicause the said house was and is in that parish: but bicause the parish church was somewhat far off, the waies soule, and the weather rainie, or for some other causes; the bishop willed and commanded the corps to be carried to the parish church of Sowton, then called Clist Fomeson, which is verie néere and bor|dereth vpon the bishops lordship: the two parishes there being diuided by a little lake called Clist. At this time one Fomeson a gentleman was lord and patrone of Clist Fomeson, and he being aduertised of such a buriall towards in his parish, and a léech waie to be made ouer his land, without his leaue or consent required therein, calleth his tenants togi|ther, and goeth to the bridge ouer the lake, betwéene the bishops land and his, and there méeteth the bi|shops men bringing the said corps, and forbiddeth them to come ouer the water. But the bishops men nothing regarding the same, doo presse forwards to come ouer the water; and the others doo withstand and fall at strife about the matter, so long, that in the end my lords frier is fallen into the water. The bi|shop taketh this matter in such griefe, that a holie frier, a religious man, and his owne chapleine and confessor should so vnreuerentlie be cast into the wa|ter, that he falleth out with the gentleman, and (vpon what occasion I know not) he sueth him in the law, and so vexeth and tormenteth him, that in the end he was faine to yéeld himselfe to the bishops deuotion, and séeketh all waies he could to currie the bishops good will, which he could not obteine, vntill for his re|demption EEBO page image 1304 he had given and surrendred vp his patro|nage of Sowton with a péece of land, all which the said bishop annexeth to his new lordship. Thus by policie he purchased the manor of bishops Clist, by a deuise gaineth Cornish wood, and by power wre|steth the patronage of Sowton. This bishop after he had occupied this see about thrée and twentie years, died and was buried in his owne church, in a sump|tuous toome of alabaster.

Peter Quiuill.25 Peter Quivill, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand two hundred foure score and one, was con|secrated bishop of this church, vnder Iohn archbi|shop of Canturburie. He first instituted a chanter and a subdeane in his church. To the one he impro|priated Painton and Chidleigh, and to the other the rectorie of Eglosehaile in Cornewall, he was a libe|rall and a speciall benefactor to the hospitall of saint Iohns in Excester as well in goods as in liuelihoods, he first began to inlarge & increase his church from the chancell downewards, and laid the foundation thereof. In his time in the yeare of Christ one thou|sand two hundred foure score and fiue, Walter Lich|lade the first chanter was slaine in a morning as he came from the morning service, then called the Mat|tins, which was then woont to be said shortlie after midnight. Upon which occasion the king came vnto this citie, and kept his Christmasse in the same, and therevpon a composition was made betweene the bishop and the citie for inclosing of the churchyard, and building of certeine gates there, as appéereth by the said composition bearing date in Festo annuncia|tionis beatae Mariae 1286. The king at the sute of the earle of Hereford, who at his being here was lodged in the house of the Greie friers, which then was néere the house of S. Nicholas, obteined of the bishop, that they should be remoued from thense to a more whole|some place, which was to the place without the south gate: wherof after the kings departure grew some controuersie, bicause the bishop refused to performe his promise made to the king. This man also impro|priated the parish of S. Newleine, and the parish of Stoke Gabriell, and vnited the same to the office of the chancellor of the cathedrall church; & vnder con|dition, that the said chancellor should continuallie read a lecture within the said citie, of diuinitie or of the decretals: and if he should faile to doo this, that then it might and should be lawfull to the bishop to resigne the said parsonages impropriated, and to be|stow it at his pleasure, as appeereth by the said grant vnder the seales of the said bishop, deane and chap|ter, dated the twelfe of the calends of Maie 1283. This bishop not long after, and in the eleuenth yeare of his bishoprike, died; being choked in drinking of a sirrup, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand two hundred ninetie and two, & was buried in his owne church. The Franciscans or Greie friers of this ci|tie imputed his death to his hard dealing with them. For whereas he had promised the king to prouide a conuenient place for them to build their house in, and had willed their warden named Deodatus, to séeke out and make inquirie for the same: yet not|withstanding when he had so doone, bicause the same was in his sée, he did swarue from his said promise, and did vtterlie denie to performe the same, by the persuasion of one Peter Kenefeld, a Dominican or Blacke frier, and Confessor vnto the said bishop. For he enuieng the good successe of the Franciscans, per|suadeth with the bishop, that in no wise he should per|mit them to inioy the place which they had gotten, nor to build therein; bicause it was within his sée: for saith he, as vnder colour of simplicitie they créepe into the hearts of the people, and hinder vs poore preachers from our gaines and liuings; so be ye sure, that if the canons put foot within your liberties, they will in time so incroch vpon the same, as that they will be cleane exempted from out of your libertie, and iurisdiction. The bishop being soone persuaded and contented contrarie to his promise to yéeld ther|vnto, denieth the Franciscans; and vtterlie forbid|deth them to build or to doo anie thing within his sée or libertie. About two yeares after, the bishop kept a great feast vpon the sundaie next before saint Fran|cis daie, and among others was present with him one Walter Winborne one of the kings chiefe iu|stices of the bench; and who was present when the bi|shop at the request of the king made promise to fur|ther and to helpe the Franciscans, and who in their behalfe did now put the bishop in mind thereof, and requested him to haue consideration both of his owne promise and of their distresse. The bishop mis|liking these spéeches, waxed somewhat warme and offended, and in open termes did not onelie denie to yeeld herevnto, but wished himselfe to be choked what daie soeuer he did consent or yéeld vnto it. It fortuned that the same wéeke, and vpon the daie of saint Francis eue, the bishop tooke a certeine sirrup to drinke, and in too hastie swallowing thereof his breath was stopped, and he forthwith died. The Fran|ciscans hearing thereof, made no little a doo about this matter, but blazed it abrode that saint Francis wrought this miracle vpon the bishop, bicause he was so hard against them.

26 Thomas Bitton the yeare following was e|lected bishop, & the sée of Canturburie being void,Thomas Bitton. he was consecrated by Iohn Roman archbishop of Yorke. He left no memoriall of anie great things doone by him, sauing that he continued in the buil|ding of his church; as also was a fauourer of such learned men as were in his diocesse in his time: namelie Robert Plimpton a regular canon of Plimpton, and professor of diuinitie, and who wrote two bookes, Walter of Exon a Franciscane frier of Carocus in Cornewall, who at the request of one Baldwin of Excester wrote the historie of Guie of Warwike; William of Excester doctor of diuinitie and warden of the Franciscane friers of this citie; Godfrie surnamed Cornewall, a subtill schooleman, and a reader of diuinitie sometimes in Paris. This bishop, after fouretéene yeares that he had occupied this sée, died, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand thrée hundred and six, and was buried in his owne church.

27 Walter Stapledon,Walter Sta|pledon. in the yere of our Lord one thousand thrée hundred and seauen, being elected bishop of this citie, was consecrated by Robert Winchelseie archbishop of Canturburie. He descen|ded of a most noble parentage, which ioined with his learning, wisedome, & politike head, did him great credit and fauour with the king, who had him not onelie one of his priuie councell, but also made him lord treasuror of England. At his inthronization or installing he kept a solemne obseruation. For being come first to the citie, immediatlie after his conse|cration, as soone as he came to the east gate, he a|lighted from his horsse, and went in on foot, all the stréet being couered and laied with blacke cloth; he was led on both sides with two men of worship: and sir Hugh Courtneie knight, who clamed to be steward of his feast, went next before him. The feast it selfe was verie sumptuous and liberall. A contro|uersie was betweene him & the said sir Hugh Court|neie, concerning his chalenge to be his steward, but it was compounded and ended. This bishop as he grew and increased in wealth, so he was carefull in the well disposing of part therof. For the increase of learning he builded and erected two houses in Oxen|ford, the one named Stapledons inne, but since Ex|cester college, the other Hart hall. He was also a spe|ciall EEBO page image 1305 benefactor vnto the hospitall of saint Iohns in Excester; vnto the which, for the reléeuing of certeine poore children therein, he impropriated the rectorie or personage of Ernescome. In the controuersie be|twéene his maister king Edward the second, and Charles the French king, he was sent ambassadour to the French king, and ioined in commission with the quéene, for the treatie of a peace and reconcilia|tion: which though it were obteined, yet he ioining with the Spensers, who fauoured not the queene, he returned into England; leauing the queene behind him. And whereas they practised what they could, to put enimitie betweene the king and hir; and to set hir besides the cushion, they themselues fell into the same snares, which they had laied for others. For not long after, the queene, by the helpe of the earle of He|nauld, and of sir Iohn his brother, came into Eng|land with a great armie. Whereof the king and the Spensers, being affraied, departed from London to Bristow, leauing the bishop at London, and made him custos of the same; who requiring the keies of the gates of the citie of the maior, the commoners tooke him and beheaded him, as also his brother sir Richard Stapledon, in Cheapside, and carried his bodie to his house without Templebar, & there bu|ried it in a sandhill; namelie the fiftéenth of October in the yeare of our Lord one thousand thrée hundred twentie and nine. But the quéene forgetting all dis|curtesies, and reuerencing his calling, commanded his corps to some more honourable buriall: where|vpon the same was taken vp, and brought to this ci|tie, and with great solemnitie was buried in his owne church, vpon the eight and twentith of March, where his epitaph by the writer thereof is set. Thus after that he had béene bishop about twentie yeares, he ended his daies.

Iames Barkeleie.28 Iames Barkeleie, vpon the six and twentith of March, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand thrée hundred twentie and seauen, before the buriall of his predecessor in his owne church, was consecrated bi|shop of this citie. He descended of the noble house of the lord Barkeleie, and albeit he were reputed to be a verie godlie and a wise man, yet he had no time to yéeld the triall thereof. For he died in the fourth mo|neth after his consecration, vpon the foure & twen|tith daie of Iulie, in the yeare of our Lord one thou|sand thrée hundred twentie and seauen, and was bu|ried in his owne church as some say, but some thinke he neuer came hither at all.

Iohn Gran|desson.29 Iohn Grandesson, being in Italie with pope Iohn the two & twentith. After the death of Iames Barkeleie, the king presented him vnto the pope, who accepted the presentation, & consecrated him bishop of this diocesse on the eight of October, Anno 1327. He was borne and descended of the ancient house of the Grandessons, dukes of Burgognie, his father was named Gilbert, the brother of Otho the great lord Grandesson. Which Gilbert comming into this land, was well interteined by the king and nobilitie, and had a good liking of the countrie, that by meanes of Henrie earle of Lancaster, with whome he came into England, he married ladie Sibill, daughter and one of the heires to Iohn Tregos, lord of the ca|stell of Ewas, néere Hereford east, and by hir had is|sue fiue sonnes, and foure daughters; of which this bishop was one, and was borne in the parish of Ash|perton, in the diocesse of Hereford. He was from his childhood verie well afftected to learning, and be|came a good scholar and professor of diuinitie, of which method he wrote two books, the one intituled Pontifi|cales maiores, and the other Pontificales minores. He was also verie graue, wise, and politike, and therby grew into such credit with pope Iohn the two and twen|tith, that he was not onelie of his priuie councell, but also Nuntius apostolicae sedis; and in all matters of weight and importance an ambassadour for him to the emperour, to the kings of Spaine, of France, of England, and of all others the mightiest princes of christendome. And being on a time sent in an ambassage to king Edward the third, he did with such wisedome and grauitie behaue himselfe, that the king was rauished in loue with him; and did so tenderlie loue and fauour him, that he neuer ceassed, vntill he had procured him from the pope, and then he gaue him the archdeaconrie of Notingham, and be|stowed great liuings on him. He made him one of his priuie councell, and in the end preferred him to this bishoprike. After this, there being some disliking betwéene pope Clement the sixt, and the king; he for his approoued wisedome was sent in an ambassage to the pope, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand thrée hundred fortie and thrée, for an intreatie of a peace and an amitie betweene them to be had; and with such wisedome he did his message, that he obtei|ned his purpose, and made a reconciliation. After his returne home to his bishoprike, he was altogi|ther giuen in dooing some good things. He builded & founded the college of saint Marie Otreie, and in|dowed the same with great and goodlie liuelihoods, he was a liberall benefactor to the vicars chorall of his owne church, as also to the college of Glasneie in Perrin; he builded the two last arches in the west end of his church, vauted the roofe of all the church, and fullie performed and ended the buildings of the same, and then inriched his said church with plate, ornaments, and great riches. Also he builded a verie faire house in his sanctuarie at bishops Teington, which he gaue and left full furnished unto his succes|sors, and did impropriate vnto the same the parso|nage of Radwaie, to the end as he setteth downe in his testament, Vt haberent locum vndè caput suum recli|narent, si fortè in manum regis eorum temporalia caperentur: and which his halsening in the end came partlie to effect. For not onelie the most part of the temporal|ties of this bishoprike, but this new builded house and impropriation are come to be the possessions and inheritances of temporall men. This bishop wa|xed old, and féeling in himselfe a decaie of nature, made his last will and testament, wherein he made such large and bountious legacies to the pope, em|perour, king, queene, archbishop, bishops, colleges, churches, and to sundrie persons of high estates and callings; that a man would maruell, considering his great and chargeable buildings & works other|wise, how and by what meanes he could haue attei|ned to such a masse of welth and riches; but his wise|dome and policie considered, it was easie. For first, he sequestrateth from himselfe and out of his house the troope of manie men and horsses, reteining and kéeping no more than to serue his reasonable estate; his diet was frugall, his receipts great, his expenses no more than necessarie. Moreouer, he had taken and set an order with all the ecclesiasticall persons of his diocesse, that at the time of their deaths, they should leaue and bequeth all their goods to him or to some other in trust, In pios vsus, & towards his charge|able buildings; and so well he was beloued, and his dooings liked, that they all accepted this his order: by meanes whereof he grew within the course of fortie yeares to infinite wealth and riches. He was in all his life time a plaine man, and void of all vaine glo|rie and pompe; and preuenting that none should be vsed at his buriall, commanded the same to be doone plainelie & simplie; and that none of his executors, chapleins, seruants, nor none of his houshold should weare anie moorning blacke cloths at the same, but onelie their accustomable & common apparell, which then was commonlie greie coloured cloths. This EEBO page image 1306 bishop was no lesse graue and wise, than stout and of courage, if occasion did so require. And amongest other things this is reported of him; that about the yeare of our Lord one thousand thrée hundred thirtie and one, Simon Mepham, then archbishop of Can|turburie, sent his mandatum to this bishop, that he would visit his church & diocesse vpon mondaie next after Ascension daie then following. This bishop (vpon what occasion it is not written) did refuse this mandatum, and appealed from the same, aduerti|sing the archbishop that he should not visit his church nor diocesse. Notwithstanding, the archbishop at the time appointed came to this citie, and went to S. Peters church, nothing thinking that anie durst to withstand him. But the bishop knowing of his com|ming, goeth to the church doore, méeteth the arch|bishop, and forbiddeth him to enter into his church; but the archbishop pressing forward, as with force to enter, the bishop being then well garded, denied and resisted him: whervpon the archbishop departed, and after at a prouinciall counsell holden at London, the archbishop complained hereof, but by meanes of the like discord betwéene him & his suffragans, he pre|uailed not. In this bishops time one William of Ex|cester, a verie well learned man, was a canon of this church; and he ioining with Nicholas de Cesena, Okeham, Walsingham, and others, did openlie preach, that Christ and his apostles were but poore men, and had no temporall possessions: neither was anie emperor or laie man subiect to the pope, but on|lie in matters of religion. But when he heard that pope Iohn the thrée and twentith had excommunica|ted, and would condemne them all for heretikes; this William, to saue his liuings, secretlie shroonke a|waie from his old companions, and changed his co|pie, and writeth certeine conclusions against them and his owne preachings. Also in this bishops time, about the yeare of our Lord one thousand thrée hun|dred and fortie, one Iohn of Bampton, so named, bicause he was borne at Bampton, in this diocesse, and a moonke of the order of the Carmelites, was a verie good scholar, and first did openlie read Aristotle in the vniuersitie of Cambridge where he was a scholar; and afterwards he studied diuinitie, and was made doctor: he wrote certeine bookes, which are not extant. This bishop, after that he had occupied this church about two and fortie yeares, he died vpon S. Swithins daie, in the yeare of our Lord one thou|sand three hundred sixtie and nine, and was buried in a chappell which he builded in the west wall of his owne church.

Thomas Brenting|ham.30 Thomas Brentingham, after the death of this Iohn Grandesson, was at one instant chosen bishop of Excester and bishop of Hereford, who refusing the one tooke the other, and was consecrated bishop of Excester vpon the tenth daie of March, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand thrée hundred and seauen|tie, being the feast daie of Nereus and Achilles, William of Worcester then archbishop of Cantur|burie. This Thomas was a man verie well lear|ned, and experted both in ecclesiasticall matters, and in politike gouernement, and in both these respects greatlie reuerenced and estéemed; and for that cause, at the parlement holden at Westminster, in the tenth yeare of the reigne of king Richard the second, was chosen one of the twelue péeres of the realme vnder the king. He was a benefactor to the Ca|lenderhaie of the vicars chorall of his owne church, and performed and supplied in buildings and other|wise, what his predecessors had left vndoone. And ha|uing beene bishop foure and twentie yeares, he di|ed the third of December, in the yeare of our Lord 1394, and was buried in the north side of the bodie of his owne church.

31 Edmund Stafford vpon the twentith daie of Iune,Edmund Stafford. in the yeare of our Lord one thousand thrée hundred ninetie and fiue, was consecrated at Lam|beth by William Courtnaie archbishop of Cantur|burie. He was borne and descended of noble paren|tage, being brother to Ralfe lord Stafford created earle of Stafford by king Edward the third; he was both wise and learned, and for his wisedome grew into great credit with the king, and was both of his priuie councell, as also lord chancellor of England. At the parlement holden at Westminster, the one and twentith yeare of the reigne of king Richard the second, he being then speaker of the higher house, made a verie learned and pithie oration, to prooue the absolute authoritie of a king: his theme was, Rex vnus erit omnibus. And hauing discoursed at large of the authoritie of a king, he did conclude; Quòd potesta [...] regis esset sibi sola, vnita, annexa solida; and whosoeuer did by anie meanes impeach the same, Poena legis me|ritò esset plectendus. And for the furtherance of good letters, he did increase two fellowships in the col|lege of Stapledons inne in Oxford, reformed the statutes of the house, and altered the name of it, and called it Excester college. After that he had conti|nued bishop in much honor about thrée and twentie yeares, he died the fourth of September, being the seuenth yeare of king Henrie the fift, and lieth bu|ried in his owne church in a verie faire toome of ala|baster.

32 Iames Carie bishop of Chester,Iames Carie. then being at Florence when news was brought to pope Martin the fift of the said late bishop Staffords death, was there made bishop of this church, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand foure hundred and nineteene, and also consecrated; but long he inioied not his office, for there he died, and was buried.

33 Edmund Lacie bishop of Hereford was translated from thense vnto this church in the feast of Easter,Edmund Lacie. and in the eight yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the fift, in the yeare of our Lord God one thousand foure hundred and twentie. He was a man verie deuout and religious, but subiect to flat|terers, who carried him to their pleasure; he was a liberall benefactor vnto the vicar of Calenderhaie. Great contentions were betwéene him and the citie for liberties, which by arbitrement were compoun|ded. He founded the chapter house in his owne church. He was a professor of diuinitie, and verie well learned. For in the second yeare of his bishop|rike, being the ninth yeare of the kings reigne, there was a parlement holden at Westminster, in which great complaints were made against the loose and dissolute life of the religious men, and especiallie the blacke moonks. And this matter being brought to the conuocation house, this bishop as chéefe proloqun|tor of that assemblie, did make a verie learned and a pithie oration before the king, then of purpose pre|sent, and the whole cleargie, much lamenting that the religious men were so far straied from the rules of their professions, and the holinesse of their prede|cessors. And when he had at large discoursed the same, he deliuered vp certeine articles in writing, praieng for reformation. Which his spéeches were so effectuallie vttered, and his articles so pithilie pen|ned, that both the king and the clergie did not onelie with great liking and allowance praise and com|mend the same; but also tooke order that there should be a prouinciall councell called out of hand for a re|formation. Which was then promised, but not perfor|med, by reason of the kings death, which not long af|ter followed. But yet in the waie of good spéed, it was then concluded and agréed, that euerie third benefice, being of the gift of anie of the prelats, or of anie mo|nasterie, should from thenseforth for seauen yeares EEBO page image 1307 be giuen to some scholar of Oxford or Cambridge. This bishop, after he had liued fiue and thirtie yeares in this bishoprike, died and was buried in the north wall of the queere in his owne church. After whose death manie miracles were said and deuised to be doone at his toome, wherevpon great pilgrimages were made by the common people to the same.

George Neuill.34 George Neuill succéeded Edmund Lacie, and was consecrated in the feast of saint Katharine, in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred fiftie and fiue, he was of a noble parentage, being the second son at Richard Neuill earle of Sarisburie, he finished and ended the chapter house which his prede|cessor had begun. And after that he had beene bi|shop about ten yeares, he was remooued to Yorke, and made archbishop there, in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred thrée score and fiue.

Iohn Booth.35 Iohn Booth, after the translation of George Neuill to Yorke, was consecrated bishop vnder Thomas Burscher archbishop of Canturburie, vpon the two and twentith daie of Februarie, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand foure hundred three score and six. He was by profession a ciuillian, and a bat|chelor of the same, he gouerned his church verie well, and builded (as some suppose) the bishops sée in the queere. But being werie of the great troubles which were in this countrie betwéene king Edward the fourth and the earle of Warwike, he remooued from hense to his house of Horsleigh in Hamshire, where in the twelfe yere of his bishoprike he died, vpon the fift of Aprill, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand foure hundred seuentie and eight, and lieth buried at saint Clements in London.

Peter Court|neie.36 Peter Courtneie, immediatlie after the death of Iohn Booth, was presented to this bishoprike, and consecrated by Thomas archbishop of Canturburie in Nouember, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand foure hundred seuentie and seuen at saint Stephans in Westminster; he was the son of sir Philip Court|nie of Powderham, his mother was named Elisa|beth, daughter to Walter lord Hungerford. He for his wisedome and good behauiour was in great fa|uor & credit with king Henrie the seauenth, by whose means he was translated from this church to Win|chester, in the ninth yeare of his being bishop here, and in the fift yeare of his being there he died, vpon the twentith daie of December, in the yere one thou|sand foure hundred ninetie and one, and lieth buried in his owne church. He finished the north tower of saint Peters, and gaue the clocke bell which is in the same, and which beareth the name Peter.

Richard Fox.37 Richard Fox, vpon the remoouing of Peter Courtneie, was consecrated bishop of this church, vnder Thomas archbishop of Canturburie, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand foure hundred thrée score and six. He was a verie wise man, and in great credit and estimation with king Henrie the seuenth, vnto whome he was a faithfull councellor, and of his councell; with whom he acquainted himselfe at Pa|ris, when he was there a student. For king Henrie then erle of Richmond, being at Uenice, and aduer|tised how the nobilitie of England was bent to haue him for their king, came from thense to Paris, and sought vnto Charles then king of France for aid and helpe: in which the earle his sutes this Fox was a speciall traueller and councellor; and in the end, God giuing the succes, the erle obteined the crowne, and hauing had due triall of the fidelitie, wisedome, & trust of this bishop, he made him lord priuie seale; and kept and vsed him & his aduise in all his weightie matters as well at home as abrode. He being am|bassador sundrie times to the kings of France and Scotland, and of a verie hartie good will and loue, the king made him godfather to his second son king Henrie the eight. There was a kind of emulation, betwéene this bishop and the earle of Surreie, both of them being verie wise and of great seruice to the king and commonwealth: howbeit, in some diuer|sitie of respects, the one hauing no issue to care for, did deale without anie priuat affection or singular gaine; and the other hauing issue, was desirous to aduance his house and honor. These affections did bréed some dislike betwéene them two, yet the king finding a faith vnto himselfe, and a commoditie to the commonwealth, misliked it not, if the same ex|céeded his measure: and they more warme than commendable for their callings and estates. The king then or the councell would deale betwene them for the appeasing and pacifieng of them, and to them he was both friendlie, louing, and liberall. The one he deliuered out of the tower, pardoned him of his offenses, restored him to his lands, receiued him in|to speciall fauor, made him of his priuie councell, as also lord treasuror of England, and his generall into Scotland, & augmented his liuelihoods. The other he first made bishop to this church, then remooued him to Bath, and from thense vnto Durham, and lastlie vnto Winchester. Erasmus, in his booke intituled The preacher or Ecclesiastes, declareth how that the king vpon a time, wanting some péece of monie, was to borow the same of the commons, and of the clergie. And for the dealings with the clergie, the matter was by commission committed to this bi|shop. Who when they came before him, vsed all the excuses that they could, to shift themselues from len|ding of anie monie. Some came verie séemelie and well apparelled, and awaited vpon by their men, ac|cording to their liuelihoods; and these alledged, that they were greatlie charged in hospitalitie and house kéeping, with other charges incident to the same, so that they had no monie, & therefore could paie none. Some came poorelie and barelie apparelled, and they alledged that their liuelihoods were but small, and yet their charges were great, and by that meanes the world was so hard with them that they had it not to spare. This bishop, hauing heard all these excuses, vsed this dilemme. To the richer sort he said; Forso|much as you are so well and séemelie apparelled, and doo kéepe so great houses, and haue all things necessa|rie about you; it is a manifest argument, that you haue some store about you, or else you would not doo as ye doo: and therefore yee must néeds lend. To the other, who pretended excuse of their pouertie, he thus replied vnto them; that forsomuch as they were so bare in their apparell, and so sparing of their expenses, it must néeds be that they saued their pursses and had monie, and therefore they must néeds paie, and so ad|iudged them to lend vnto the prince. Now as he a|rose by learning, so he was a great fauorer and fur|therer of learning: and for the good increase of the same he builded and founded Corpus Christi col|lege in Oxenford. In his latter daies he waxed and was blind, and dieng in Winchester, he was there buried in his owne church, after that he had beene bi|shop of Excester six yéers, he was remoued to Bath, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand foure hundred ninetie and two.

38 Oliuer King, immediatlie vpon the transfer|ring of bishop Fox,Oliuer King. was consecrated bishop of this church, in Februarie, one thousand foure hundred ninetie and two, Iohn Morton then archbishop of Canturburie. This Oliuer was chapleine to king Henrie the seuenth, and deane of Windesor, and re|gister of the order of the garter. In his time were the rebellions of Ioseph the blacke smith in Corne|wall, and of Perken Warbecke. This bishop after that he had occupied this sée about fiue yeares, he di|ed in the yeare of our Lord one thousand foure hun|dred EEBO page image 1308 ninetie and seuen, and (as some suppose) he was buried at Windesor.

Richard Redman.39 Richard Redman, immediatlie vpon the death of bishop Oliuer King, was translated from his bi|shoprike in Wales to this citie; but after fiue yeares he was remooued vnto the bishoprike of Elie, and installed there in September in the yeare of our Lord one thousand fiue hundred and one. He was a gentleman borne, and descended of a verie worship|full house, which ioined with his wisedome and lear|ning, did much increase his credit and good report.

Iohn A|rundell.40 Iohn Arundell, next after the translation of bishop Redman, was remooued from Couentrie and Lichfield vnto this citie, and was installed the fifteenth of March, one thousand fiue hundred and one. Wherein he sought not the preferment for anie liuelihoods, but rather desirous to be a dweller and resiant in his countrie where he was borne: for he was descended of the Arundels of Lanherne in Cornewall, a house of great antiquitie and worship. He long inioied not his new bishoprike, for after two yeares after his installing, he had occasion to ride vnto London, and there died, and was buried in S. Clements church without Templebar, in the yeare one thousand fiue hundred and three.

41 Hugh Oldham, vpon the death of Arundell, by the preferment of the countesse of Richmond and Derbie,Hugh Old|ham. vnto whom he was chapleine, was prefer|red vnto this bishoprike, and installed in the same. He was a man hauing more zeale than knowledge, and more deuotion than learning; somewhat rough in spéeches, but friendlie in dooings. He was carefull in the sauing and defending of his liberties, for which continuall sutes was betwéene him and the abbat of Tauestoke; he was liberall to the vicars chorall of his church, and reduced them to the kéeping of com|mons, and towards the maintenance thereof he gaue them certeine reuenues, and impropriated vn|to them the rectorie of Cornewood. He alb [...]it (of him|selfe) he were not learned yet a great fauourer and a furtherer of learning and of learned men. Notwith|standing, he was sometime crossed in his honest at|tempt therein. He first was minded to haue inlar|ged Excester college in Oxford, as well in buildings as in fellowships: but after being a requester to the fellowes for one Atkins to be a fellow, in whose fa|uour he had written his letters and was denied, he changed his mind, and his good will was alienated. About the same time doctor Smith bishop of Lin|colne was building of the college named Brasen nose, and was verie willing and desirous to ioine with him: but being denied to haue the nomination of a founder, his mind was changed. Not long after, being aduertised that bishop Fox of Winchester was minded to erect & found a new college, he ioi|ned with him, and contributed vnto him a great masse of monie, and so a college was builded for scho|lars, and great liuelihoods prouided for them: & then the house was named Corpus Christi college. Where|of the one of them bare the name of a founder, and the other of a benefactor. Howbeit, some diuersitie was betwéene these two bishops at the first, to what vse this college should be imploied. For the founder was of the mind that he would haue made it for a house of moonks; but the benefactor was of the con|trarie mind, and would haue it for scholars, alleging that moonks were but a sort of buzzing flies, & whose state could not long indure; wheras scholars brought vp in learning would be profitable members to the commonwealth, and good ornaments to the church of God, and continue for euer. The founder being a wise man, and of a déepe iudgement, when he had paused and considered hereof, yeeldeth herevnto: and so it was concluded betweene them to make and build a college for scholars. And forthwith for the good direction, guiding, and gouernement of the said col|lege and scholars; such wise, good, & politike statutes and ordinances were by good aduise and counsell de|uised, established, and ordeined; as whereby the said college hath beene, and yet continueth one of the best nursseries for training and instructing of good scholars in learning within that vniuersitie. This bi|shop and the abbat of Tauestoke did still contend and continue in law during their liues: and during which sute this bishop died, being excommunicated at Rome, and who could not be suffered to be buried, vntill an absolution from Rome was procured for him. After that he had béene bishop about sixteene yeares, he died the fiue and twentith of Iune, one thousand fiue hundred and ninetéene, and was bu|ried in his owne church.

42 Iohn Uoiseie, otherwise Harman,Iohn Uoiseie succéeded Oldham, by the preferment of king Henrie the eight, whose chapleine he then was, and deane of his chapell as also of this church; he was doctor of the lawes, verie well learned and wise, and in great fa|uour with the king, who sent him sundrie times in ambassages to forreine princes; he was lord presi|dent of Wales, & had the gouernement of the kings onlie daughter ladie Marie princesse of Wales. Of all the bishops in the land he was accounted the court likest and the best courtier. And although he were well reported for his learning, yet better liked for his courtlike behauiour, which in the end turned not so much to his credit, as to the vtter ruine and spoile of the church: for of two and twentie lord|ships and manors, which his predecessors had and left vnto him, of a goodlie yearelie reuenue he left but three, & them also leased out. And where he found fouretéene houses well furnished, he left onelie one house bare and without furniture, and yet charged with sundrie fées and annuities; and by these means this bishoprike, which sometimes was counted one of the best, is now become in temporall lands one of the meanest, and according to the foreprophesieng of bishop Grandesson, a place scarse left for the bi|shop to laie and rest his head in; and yet neuerthelesse he was a great fauourer of learned men, and especi|allie of diuines, whome he preferred in his church a|boue others. He was verie bountions and liberall vnto all men, but especiallie vnto courtiers, vnto his owne kindred and countriemen. Upon manie he be|stowed much, to the confusion of some of them; and vpon the others he spent much by building of a towne called Sutton Colshull where he was borne, which he procured to be incorporated, and made a market towne, and set vp therein making of kear|sies, but all which in the end came to small effect. In his time, after the death of king Henrie the eight, there was an alteration of religion by king Ed|ward the sixt, wherof insued a rebellion & commotion in this diocesse: which in some part was imputed to this bishop, bicause he laie farre from it, and dwelled in his owne countrie. Wherevpon he resigned the bishoprike into the kings hands, after that he had beene bishop about thirtie yeares, and liued by the rents of the temporaltie of the bishoprike, which when he alienated and discontinued, he did receiue vnto him for terme of his owne life.

43 Miles Couerdale,Miles Co|uerdale. after the resignation of Uoiseie, was by king Edward made bishop of this citie, & consecrated at Lambeth by Thomas Cran|mer archbishop of Canturburie, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand fiue hundred and fiftie. He was borne in the north countrie, and from his childhood giuen to learning, wherein he profited verie much: he was one of the first which professed the gospell in this land in the time of king Henrie the eight, he EEBO page image 1309 translated the bible out of the Hebrue into English, and wrote sundrie bookes vpon the scriptures. Which doctrine being verie new and strange in those daies, and he verie streightlie pursued by the bishops, made his escape, & passed ouer into low Germanie, where he printed the bibles of his translation and sent them ouer into England, and therof made his gaine wherby he liued. But the bishops, namelie D. Sto|kesleie bishop of London, when he heard hereof, and minding to preuent that no such bibles should be dis|persed within this realme, made inquirie where they were to be sold, and bought them all vp; supposing that by this meanes no more bibles would be had: but contrarie to his expectation it fell out otherwise. For the same monie which the bishop gaue for these bookes, was sent ouer by the merchant vnto this Co|uerdale, and by that meanes he was of that wealth and abilitie, that he imprinted as manie more and sent them ouer into England; but he was then so narrowlie sought for, that he was driuen to remooue himselfe out of Flanders into Germanie, and dwel|led vnder the Palsegraue of Rhene, where he found much fauour. First he taught yoong children, and ha|uing learned the Dutch toong, the prince Palatine gaue him a benefice, named Burghsaber, where he continued and liued verie well, partlie by that bene|fice, and partlie by the liberalitie of the lord Crome|well, who was his good lord and reléeued him verie much. At length, when the religion was altered in England, and the gospell had a frée passage, he retur|ned & did verie much good in preaching of the same. And when the commotion in Deuon was for religi|on, he was appointed to attend the lord Russell, when he came to suppresse the same, and verie shortlie for his learning and godlie life was made bishop of this see; who most worthilie did performe the office com|mitted vnto him. He preached continuallie vpon eue|rie holie daie, and did read most commonlie twise in the wéeke in some one church or other within this ci|tie. He was after the rate of his liuings a great kée|per of hospitalitie, verie sober in diet, godlie in life, friendlie to the godlie, liberall to the poore, and cour|teous to all men, void of pride, full of humilitie, ab|horring couetousnesse, and an enimie to all wicked|nesse and wicked men: whose companies he shun|ned, and whom he would in no wise shrowd or haue in his house and companie. His wife a most sober, chast, and godlie matrone; his house and houshold another church, in which was exercised all godlinesse and vertue. No one person being in his house, which did not from time to time giue an account of his faith and religion, and also did liue accordinglie. And as he had a care for the successe in religion, so had he also for the direction of the gouernement in ecclesi|asticall causes. And bicause he was not skilfull ther|in, neither would be hindered from his godlie stu|dies, and be incombered with such worldlie matters, which neuertheles he would haue be doone in all vp|rightnesse, iustice, and equitie; he sent to Oxford for a learned man to be his chancellor, and by the mini|sterie of the writer hereof he procured and obteined one master Robert Weston doctor of the ciuill law, & afterwards lord chancellor of Ireland, vnto whome he committed his consistorie, and the whole charge of his ecclesiasticall iurisdiction; allowing vnto him, not onelie all the fées therevnto apperteining, but al|so lodged and found him, his wife, familie, horsse, and man, within his owne house, and gaue him a yearelie pension of fortie pounds. And surelie the bi|shop was no more godlie and carefull of his part, concerning preaching; but this man also was as di|ligent and seuere in dooing of his office, without re|proch of being affectionated or corrupted. And not|withstanding this good man, now a blamelesse bi|shop, liued most godlie and vertuous: yet the com|mon people, whose old bottels would receiue no new wine, could not brooke nor digest him; for no other cause, but bicause he was a preacher of the gospell, an enimie to papistrie, & a married man. Manie de|uises were attempted against him for his confusion, sometimes by false suggestions, sometimes by open railings, and false libels; sometimes by secret back|bitings, and in the end practised his death by impoi|soning: but by Gods prouidence the snares were broken and he deliuered. After that he had béene bi|shop about thrée yeares king Edward died, and then queene Marie hauing the crowne, the religion was altered, and he depriued. And notwithstanding the malice of prelats and archpapists was most bitter against him, and who had sworne his death: yet by the goodnesse of God he was most miraculouslie pre|serued, and deliuered from out of their hands, at the sute and by the meanes of the king of Denmarke: who so earnestlie sued, & so often wrote to the quéene for him, that he was deliuered and sent vnto him; with whome after that he had staied a while, he went againe into Germanie to the Palsgraue, who most louinglie receiued him, placed him againe in his for|mer benefice of Burghsaber, where he continued vntill the death of quéene Marie. And then the prea|ching of the gospell being againe receiued, & hauing a free passage, he returned into England; but would neuer returne to his bishoprike, notwithstanding it was reserued for him, & sundrie times offered him; but liued a priuat life, continuing in London, prea|ching & teaching the gospell, so long as the strength of his bodie would permit; and at length being ve|rie old and striken in yeares, he died, and was hono|rablie buried at saint Magnus church in London.

44 Iohn Uoiseie,Iohn Voi|seie. after the depriuation of Miles Couerdale, was restored to this church, and for the better setling of the Romish religion did here state for a while: but his mind was addicted to his owne countrie, that he returned thither, and made his on|lie abode there, practising there what he could, to haue the making of kersies to come to some effect; but the same being more chargeable than profitable, came to small proofe. This man being verie old died in his owne house, with a pang, and was buried in his parish church there, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand fiue hundred fiftie and fiue.

45 Iames Troblefield succéeded bishop Uoi|seie,Iames Tro|blefield. and was consecrated in the yeare of our Lord one thousand fiue hundred fiftie & six, he was a gen|tleman borne, and of a good house, verie gentle and courteous; he professed diuinitie, but most zelous in the Romish religion, & yet nothing cruell nor blou|die. And yet that he might not séeme to doo nothing, he was contented to prosecute and condemne a gilt|lesse poore séelie woman, named Agnes Pirest for re|ligion and heresie, & who was burned in Southing|ham for the same. It was laied to hir charge (as dooth appeare by an indictment taken at Lanceston, Dit lunae in quarta septimana quadragesimae, anno Philippi & Mariae secundo & tertio, before William Stanford then iustice of the assise) that she should denie the re|all presence in the sacrament of the altar, and that the same was but a signe and a figure of Christs bo|die, and that none dooth eat reallie the bodie of Christ but spirituallie. He was verie carefull to recouer some part of the lands of his bishoprike, which his predecessor wasted, and did obteine of quéene Marie, to him and to his successors, the fee farme of the ma|nor of Credition. After that he had béene bishop about two yeares, quéene Marie died; and he was depri|ued, and liued after a priuat life.

46 William Alleie,William Al|leie. in the second yeare of quéene Elisabeth, was chosen bishop, and installed the sixt of EEBO page image 1310 August, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand fiue hundred sixtie and one. In all quéene Maries time, which were called the Marian daies, he trauelled from place to place in the north countrie, where he was not knowne; and sometimes by practising of physike, and sometimes by teaching of scholars, he picked out a poore liuing for himselfe and his wife, and so continued, being not knowne to haue béene a priest, during all quéene Maries time: after whose death he went to London, and there did read diuini|tie lecture in Paules verie learnedlie, and to his great commendation; and from whense he was ta|ken and made bishop of this citie. He was verie well learned vniuersallie, but his chiefe studie and profession was in diuinitie, and in the toongs. And being bishop, he debated no part of his former tra|uels, but spent his time verie godlie and vertuouslie. Upon euerie holie daie (for the most part) he prea|ched, and vpon the weeke daies he would and did read a lecture of diuinitie; the residue of his time, and free from his necessarie businesse, he spent in his priuat studies, and wrote sundrie books, whereof his prelections or lectures which he did read in Paules, and his poore mans librarie he caused to be imprin|ted: the like he would haue doone with his Hebrue grammar, and other his works, if he had liued. He was well stored, and his librarie well replenished with all the best sort of writers, which most gladlie he would impart and make open to euerie good scholar and student, whose companie and conference he did most desire & imbrace. He séemed at the first appée|rance to be a rough and an austere man, but in ve|rie truth, a verie courteous, gentle, and an affable man; at his table full of honest speeches, ioined with learning and pleasantnesse, according to the time, place, and companie. All his exercises, which for the most part was at bowles, verie merrie and plesant, void of all sadnesse, which might abate the benefit of recreation; loth to offend, readie to forgiue, void of malice, full of loue, bountifull in hospitalitie, liberall to the poore, and a succourer of the néedie, faithfull to his friend, and courteous to all men; a hater of co|uetousnesse, and an enimie to all euill and wicked men, and liued an honest, a godlie, and vertuous life. Finallie, he was indued with manie notable good gifts and vertues, onelie he was somewhat credulous, of a hastie beléefe, and light of credit, which he did oftentimes mislike & blame in himselfe. In his latter time he waxed somewhat grosse, and his bodie full of humors, which did abate much of his woonted exercises: and hauing béene bishop about eight yeares, he died the first of Aprill one thousand fiue hundred and seauentie, and was buried in his owne church.

William Bradbridge.47 William Bradbridge, deane of Sarisburie, was the next bishop, and consecrated at Lambeth by Matthew Parker archbishop of Canturburie, the eightéenth of March one thousand fiue hundred and seauentie: he was a professor of diuinitie, but not taken to be so well grounded as he persuaded himselfe, he was zelous in religion, but not so for|wards as he was wished to be. In his latter daies he delighted to dwell in the countrie, which was not so much to his liking, as troublesome to his clergie, & to such as had anie sutes vnto him. It was thought he died verie rich, but after his death it proued other|wise: he died suddenlie, no bodie being about him, at Newton Ferris, the ninth yeare of his bishoprike, vpon the nine and twentith of Iulie, in the yeare of our Lord 1578, and was buried in his owne church. Thus farre the collection of Iohn Hooker, agréeing with the records.]

I. Stow. The seuentéenth daie of Iulie the quéenes maie|stie being on the riuer of Thames,A trai [...]orous fact o [...] Tho|mas Apple|treé. about nine of the clocke at night (betwixt hir highnesse manour of Gréenewich & Dartford) in hir priuie barge, accom|panied with the French ambassador, the earle of Lincolne, and maister vicechamberlaine; it chanced that one Thomas Appletrée, a yoong man, and ser|uant to maister Henrie Carie, with two or thrée o|thers, being in a bote on the Thames, rowing vp and downe betwixt the places aforenamed: the foresaid Thomas had a caliuer or harquebus charged with bullet, and shooting at randon, by misfortune shot one of the watermen, being the second man next vnto the bales of the said barge (which sat within six foot of hir highnesse) cleane through both armes, and mooued him out of his place. For the which fact the said Thomas being apprehended and condemned to death, was on the one and twentith of Iulie brought to the water side, where was a gibbet set vp, direct|lie placed betwixt Dartford and Gréenewich. But when the hangman had put the halter about his necke, the right honorable sir Christopher Hatton capteine of the gard, and one of hir maiesties priuie councell, shewed the queenes maiesties most grati|ous pardon, and deliuered him from execution. This yeare Iohn Fox of Woodbridge, William Wick|neie of Portsmouth,Iohn Fox an Englishman deliuered two hundred and threé score christians frõ captiuitie of the Turke. and Robert More of Harwich Englishmen, hauing béene prisoners in Turkie a|bout the space of thirteene or foureteene yeares, with more than two hundred and sixtie other christians of diuerse nations, by killing their kéeper, maruel|louslie escaped, and returned into their natiue coun|tries.

This yeare in the moneths of September and October fell great winds and raging flouds in sun|drie places of this realme,Winds and high waters. as in the towne of New|port: the cotages were borne downe, the corne lost, pasture ground ouerwhelmed, and cattell drowned. In the towne of Bedford the water came vp to the market place, where cup boords, chests, stooles, and fourms swam about the houses; their fewell, corne and haie was wrackt & borne awaie. Also the towne of saint Edes in Huntingtonshire was ouerflowed suddenlie in the night, when all men were at rest; & the waters brake in with such force, that the towne was almost all defaced; the swans swam downe the market place, and all the towne about the botes did flote. The towne of Gormanchester was suddenlie supprest, their houses flowed full of water, when men were at rest, and their cattell with other things were destroied.

The one and twentith of Nouember, Anno reg. 22. sir Thomas Gresham knight agent to the quéenes highnesse, who had in his life built the roiall Exchange in London,Sir Thomas Gresham de|ceassed. betwéene six and seuen of the clocke in the euening, comming from the same Exchange to his house (which he had sumptuouslie builded) in Bishopsgate stréet of London, suddenlie fell downe in his kitchin, and being taken vp was found spéechlesse, and pre|sentlie dead, who afterwards was solemnlie bu|ried in his owne parish church of saint Helen there, where he had prepared for himselfe a sumptuous toome or monument, without anie epitaph or inscrip|tion therevpon. This sir Thomas Gresham in his testament (which long before his death he had ordei|ned) bequeathed diuerse large legacies not yet per|formed.

The eight and twentith daie of March, one Fran|cis aliàs Marmaduke Glouer was hanged on a gi|bet set vp for that purpose by the standard in Cheape,

Glouer a murtherer hanged in Cheape.

Dod executed for murther.

for wilfullie murthering sergeant Grace after he was by him arrested. Also on the next morrow, be|ing the nine and twentith daie of March, the same gibet was set vp at Hog lane end vpon east Smith|field, néere vnto the tower of London, thereon to EEBO page image 1311 haue hanged one Richard Dod for murthering of mistresse Skinner a widow, in hir house there by, But sir Owen Hopton lieutenant of the tower, cõ|manding the officers perteining to the shiriffes of London backe againe to the west side of the crosse, tooke the shiriffe of the out shire with the prisoner in|to an house, and after long talke brought the priso|ner forth againe, & deliuered him to the officers, to be by them brought backe to London. Then he cau|sed the gibet to be taken downe and carried awaie at his pleasure, and without further contention (to my knowledge) the said Richard Dod was in the af|ter noone of the same daie hanged at Tiborne.

A great earthquake.On the sixt of Aprill, being wednesdaie in Easter weeke about six of the clocke toward euening, a sud|den earthquake happening in London, and almost generallie throughout all England, caused such an amazednesse among the people as was woonderfull for the time, and caused them to make their, earnest praiers to almightie God. The great clocke bell in the palace at Westminster strake of it selfe against the hammer with the shaking of the earth, as di|uerse other clocks & bels in the stéeples of the citie of London and elsewhere did the like. The gentlemen of the Temple being then at supper, ran from the ta|bles, and out of their hall with their kniues in their hands. The people assembled at the plaie houses in the fields as at the Whoreater (the Theater I would saie) were so amazed, that doubting the ruine of the galleries, they made hast to be gone. A péece of the temple church fell downe, some stones fell from saint Paules church in London: and at Christs church neere to Newgate market, in the sermon while, a stone fell from the top of the same church, which stone killed out of hand one Thomas Greie an apprentise, and an other stone fell on his fellow seruant named Mabell Eueret, and so brused hir that she liued but foure daies after. Diuerse other at that time in that place were sore hurt, with running out of the church one ouer another for feare. The tops of diuerse chim|neies in the citie fell downe, the houses were so sha|ken: a part of the castell at Bishops Stratford in Essex fell downe. This earthquake indured in or about London not passing one minute of an houre, and was no more felt. But afterward in Kent, and on the sea coast it was felt thrée times; as at Sand|wich at six of the clocke the land not onelie quaked, but the sea also fomed, so that the ships tottered. At Douer also the same houre was the like, so that a péece of the cliffe fell into the sea,A water|quake. with also a péece of the castell wall there: a péece of Saltwood castell in Kent fell downe; and in the church of Hide the bels were heard to sound. A peece of Sutton church in Kent fell downe, the earthquake being there not on|lie felt, but also heard. And in all these places and others in east Kent, the same earthquake was felt three times to moue, to wit, at six, at nine, and at e|leuen of the clocke. The nineteenth daie of Aprill the ferrie at Lambeth was drowned with fiue men and foure horsses;A ferrie drowned. other two men and fiue horsses swam to land and were saued.

William Lambe es|quier decea|sed, his al|mesdeéds.On the one and twentith of Aprill, in the yeare 1580 departed this life master William Lambe esquier, sometime gentleman of the chappell in the reigne of king Henrie the eight, citizen of London, and frée of the clothworkers. Of this mans almes|deeds and manifold charities, some before, some since his death put in effectuall practise, thus reporteth a memoriall recorded in print, agréeing in truth with his last will and testament: an extract whereof for others imitation is necessarilie here to be inserted. This gentleman remembring that learning bring|eth preferment, yea euen to them which are put base|lie borne, as it pleased God to mooue him by his good and gratious spirit, he prooued himselfe by testimo|nials of his dooings a louer of learning, and a fauou|rer of euerie honest profession. For in the towne of Sutton Ualens in Kent, this worshipfull gentle|man at his owne costs and proper expenses erected a grammar schoole for the education of youth in the feare of God, in good maners,The erection of a gram|mar schoole & necessarie al|lowance to the maister and vsher. in knowledge and vn|derstanding.

He also weieng with himselfe, that the labourer ought of right to haue his hire; and that, no man goeth to warre of his owne proper charge, besides o|ther commodities which he thought méet and neces|sarie, hath allowed the master twentie pounds, and the vsher ten pounds from time to time, as either place shall be supplied by succession, for their yearelie stipends and perpetuall pensions. To continue the rehersall of his good déeds in Sutton aforesaid, note his tender & pitifull heart toward the poore, for whose sustentation, maintenance, and reliefe, he hath buil|ded six almes houses for the impotent,Almes houses built for the poore. and hath gi|uen six pounds to be yearelie paied vnto them for their necessarie prouision. Moreouer, besides this cha|ritable déed, to keepe still within the compasse of Kent, marke the singular loue which this gentleman did beare vnto learning; for the furtherance wherof, and the more incouragement of poore scholers, he hath giuen to the schoole of Maidstone ten pounds a yeare for euer, with this caueat or prouiso,Allowance for poore mens children to be kept at schole. that néedie mens children should be preferred to the enioieng of this singular benefit.

That this gentleman had not onelie a regard for the seed-plots of learning, to haue them watered with the springs of his bountie: but also a prouident eie,The common+wealth re|membred. and a carefull hart for the profit of the common|wealth, the particulars following substantiallie doo prooue. For, séeing in his life time the decaie of sun|drie trades, the ruine of diuerse occupations, and o|ther inconueniences, which are like to grow to the vndooing of a multitude, except by policie they be preuented: of a méere, affection (if I said fatherlie I were not controllable) he hath freelie giuen to the poore clothiers in Suffolke,A reliefe to poore clothi|ers in diuerse places. to the poore clothiers of Bridgenorth in Shropshire, and to the poore clothi|ers at Ludlow in the said countie, thrée hundred pounds, to be said by euen portions, to each seuerall towne of the said counties one hundred pounds a péece, for their supportation and maintenance at their worke and occupation. So litle estéemed he the mucke of this world, in respect of dooing good, speci|allie when he saw old age drawing him to his graue: of which mind it were to be wished all richmen would be (whom God hath made his stewards) when they wax crooked & bow backt, and (as the poet saith)

Obrepit canis rugosa senecta capillis.

Furthermore, the well of his weldooing not yet waxing drie, but yéelding liquor of reliefe verie largelie, hath watered other places. For, as the coun|trie, so likewise the citie (the citie I meane of Lon|don) hath cause,London the better by ma|ster Lambe. yea iust cause with open mouth to magnifie the goodnesse of God, so mightilie working in this praiseworshie esquier. The memorable mo|numents, which shall liue when he is dead, and shall flourish when he is rotten, are witnesses of the loue, which he being a citizen bare vnto this citie. For, let vs begin with the conduit which he of his owne costs,A remem|brance of Holborne conduit foun|ded and fini|shed in An. 1577. not requiring either collection or contribu|tion, founded of late in Holborne, not sparing ex|penses so it might be substantiall, not pinching for charges so it might be durable and plentifull, as they can testifie which saw the seeking of the springs, the maner of making the trenches, the ordering of the pipes, lieng in length from the head to the said conduit, more than two thousand yards: and finallie, the framing of euerie necessarie appur|tenance EEBO page image 1312 therevnto belonging.The wast water at the iudge run|ning at the standard. Besides this, means is made, by a standard with one cocke at Hol [...]orne bridge to conueie the wast, which doth such seruice, the water thereof being both swéet, pleasant, and whol|some, as neither rich nor poore can well misse. Which great worke as he aduisedlie attempted, so he com|mendablie finished, hauing disbursed therabouts, of his owne costs & charges, to the sum of 1500 pounds.

And yet further note the wisedome and proui|dence of this gentleman, who considering that the right vse of a good thing might cut off manie occasi|ons of vnthristines and idlenesse,Prouident considera|tions. and knowing that we are placed in this world to follow the vocation wherevnto we are called: besides that, séeing the hardnesse of this age wherein we liue, that manie would worke if they had meanes, manie neglect and care not for worke though they haue meanes, some would willinglie withstand pouertie if they might, some had rather beg and doo woorsse than giue them|selues to labour, hath béene thus beneficiall to poore women that are glad to take pains,Poore women benefited by the conduit. as to bestow vp|on them a hundred and twentie pales, wherewith to carrie and serue water: an honest shift of liuing, though somewhat toilesome. To descend and come downe to other his almesdeeds, you shall vnderstand that he being a member of the right worshipfull cor|poration and societie of Clothworkers,The right worshipfull Clothwor|kers remem|bred. was not for|getfull of that companie, vnto whome he hath giuen his dwelling house in London, with other lands, and tenements, to the value of thirtie pounds or there|abouts, by them to be thus bestowed: to wit, for the hiring of a minister to read diuine seruice thrise a weeke, that is, euerie sundaie, wednesdaie, and fri|daie throughout the yeare, in the chapell or church be|longing to his house, called by the name of saint Iames in the wall by Criplegate: and for foure ser|mons there yéerelie to be made and preached,Allowance for foure yearelie ser|mons. a com|petent allowance.

Out of which sum also of thirtie pounds, it is proui|ded that a deduction be made by the said Clothwor|kers for apparelling twelue men, and as manie wo|men,Euerie poore man and poore women a shirt, a smock, a gowne, and a paire of shooes, &c. in forme as followeth: that is to saie, to euerie one of the twelue men one fréeze gowne, one loco|rum shirt, & a good strong paire of winter shooes: to twelue women likewise one fréeze gowne, one loco|rum smocke, & a good strong paire of winter shooes, all readie made for their wearing: remembred al|waies that they must be persons both poore and ho|nest, vnto whome this charitable déed ought to be ex|tended. Prouided also, that the execution hereof be done the first daie of October, orderlie from yeare to yeare for euer whiles the world dooth last. Moreouer, he hath giuen to those of his companie foure pounds fréelie, not for a time, but perpetuallie: and thus doth his bountifulnesse manie waies appeare. To the pa|rish of S. Giles without Criplegate,Saint Giles without Cri|plegate bene|fited. he hath giuen fiftéene pounds to the bels and chime, hauing meant (as it seemeth if they had taken time) to be more libe|rall in that behalfe. The said bels & chime were in his life, & also after his deth kept in good order according to his will: but afterwards vpon occasion some of them newlie cast became ill of sound & out of tune: a fault in some which would be amended. The poore of the parish aforesaid, by their reliefe in his life time se|cretlie ministred, haue iust cause to lament the losse of this right bountifull almoner. For by his means their succour was the more: now it is to be feared it will be so much the lesse, by how much it may be sup|posed he incresed their reliefe. Thus regarded he not so much his priuat thrift, as the cõmon good, giuing therein to the world a testimonie of christian pru|dence, whose nature is to prefer the benefit of manie before the profit of one, according to that of the poet:

Publica priuatis qui sapit anteferet.

Th's gentlemans distributions are so diuerse, and so manie, that the rehersall of them requireth a large discourse. It is well knowen, and that can the wor|shipfull companie of the Stationers witnesse,Reliefe for the poore people. M. Lambes loue to the worshipfull Stationers. that this gentleman, for the space of these fouretéene or fiftéene yeares, whiles he liued, was pitifull to the poore of the parish of S. Faiths, and other parishes: in which said parish church euerie fridaie ordinarilie throughout the yeare, distribution was made of their allowance by the hands of the said worshipfull Sta|tioners, to whome that charge was and is commit|ted: namelie, to twelue poore people twelue pence in monie, and twelue pence in bread. Neither is this charitable déed laid asleepe,Perpetuall prouision for the poore. but continued euen to the worlds end, for the perpetuall succor of the poore and impotent, a legacie of six pounds, thirtéene shillings and foure pence, allowed to that end; the bestowing whereof is in the hands of the said worshipfull socie|tie of Stationers, the distributors of this almesse to the poore: who are put in mind to praise God for that prouision, in this request of the benefactor grauen in mettall, and fixed fast in the wall hard by his toome:

I praie you all that receiue bread and pence,
To saie the Lords praier before ye go hence.

As for Christes hospitall,Reliefe for Christes ho|spitall. vnto the which he hath prooued himselfe a fatherlie benefactor, towards the bringing vp of the poore children, he hath giuen six pounds, which they shall inioie for the terme of fiue hundred yeares. Moreouer (marke the rare liberali|tie of this vertuous gentleman) he hath giuen to the said hospitall one hundred pounds in readie monie,A purchase for the said hospitall. wherewith to purchase lands, that their reliefe, by the reuenues of the same, might be perpetuall: a nota|ble deed, and an vndoubted worke of perfect christia|nitie. As for S. Thomas spitle in Southworke, to|ward the succour of the sicke and diseased, he hath gi|uen foure poundes yearelie, and for euer:Reliefe for S. Thomas spittle. so that we may sée in all his procéedings with what mercie he was mooued, with what pitie pricked: and finallie, in all respects how godlie giuen. And here by the waie it is to be noted, that wheras it was reported, that he gaue to the hospitall, commonlie called the Sauoie, founded by king Henrie the seuenth, to purchase lands for the behoofe of the said hospitall, one hun|dred pounds in monie: it is nothing so.Why he staid his benefi|cence from the hospitall of the Sauoie. For his be|neficence towards that hospitall was staid, not tho|rough anie default in him; but bicause such agrée|ments could not be concluded vpon, as he reasona|blie required. Wherefore his contribution that waie ceased, sore (I dare saie) against his godlie will. Thus much I was desired to speake touching that mat|ter, to the intent that nothing but plaine truth might be reported, with the contrarie whereof he was not a little offended.

And although offendors deserue rather to be puni|shed than fauoured, wherevpon by politike gouerne|ment it is prouided, that their bodies apprehended,Prisons for offendors. be committed to appointed places of imprisonment: yet this good gentleman remembring that the holie Ghost willeth vs not to withdraw our hand from a|nie of our brethren in distresse, considering that cha|ritie should not be parciall but indifferent, hath for the reléefe of the poore prisoners of the two Coun|ters, of Newgate, of Ludgate, of the Marshalseie,Reléefe for poore priso|ners. of the Kings Bench, and of the white Lion, dealt ve|rie bountifullie, and discréetlie: giuing vnto the two Counters, six pounds to be paied vnto them both by twentie shillings a moneth: and to the other prisons aboue mentioned, six mattresses a péece, the whole number being two doozen and a halfe. In considera|tion of which charitable déed,A charitable worke in|déed. how deepelie they are bound, if they haue anie sparkle of grace, to thanke God for his goodnesse shewed vnto them by the mi|nisterie of this gentleman, all the world maie per|ceiue. EEBO page image 1313 It were iniurie offered, to let slip vnremem|bred his mindfulnesse of poore maides marriages: and how willing he was to helpe them, it appeareth by his good gift of twentie pounds to be equallie di|uided among fortie such in number by equall porti|ons of ten shillings a péece:Marriage monie for poore maids. with this caueat, that these poore maides so to be married, should be of good, name and fame: wherein marke how in all his be|quests, wisedome is ioined as a yokefellow with his bountie.

Lastlie, and for conclusion, this discréet gentle|man,His loue to|wards his seruants. carried awaie with the zeale of a good consci|ence, tendering the state of his seruants, left them also at a resonable good staie. For besides their halfe yeares boord freelie giuen and granted, he hath béene beneficiall to them in diuerse other respects, which I passe ouer vnremembred. But alas! these sorowfull seruants doo not a little lament the losse of so louing a maister. I omit the hundred & eight fréese gownes readie made, which he bequeathed at his funerall to poore people, both men and women: with the dis|spersing of the remnant of all his goods after his bu|riall, where need and reason required. And thus you see what monuments this gentleman hath left be|hind him, to beare witnesse to the world of the fruit|fulnesse of his faith:His faith was fruitfull. which if (as saint Iames saith) it maie be iudged by works, and that it is a dead and a barren faith which declareth not it selfe by déeds: then the sequele maie be this, that the faith where|with he (of whome this is written) was indued, she|weth it selfe to be the same faith which is wished, and I would to God were in the heart of euerie chri|stian. As for his religion, it was sound; his professi|on sincere; his hearing of Gods word, attentiue & diligent; his vse of praier, deuout: in his sickenesse patient, willing to forsake the world, and to be with Christ, in whose faith he died; and lieth intoomed in a faire large vawt in saint Faiths vnder Paules, this epitaph grauen in brasse or copper, fixed vpon his graue stone, comprising a note of our mortalitie:

As I was, so are ye:
As I am, you shall be:
That I had, that I gaue:
That I gaue, that I haue:
Thus I end all my cost:
That I left, that I lost.

Hitherto concerning maister Lambes almes|déeds, wherein thus much hath at large beene spoken for others example, whome as God hath indued with riches: so it were to be wished they would vse them no woorse.] The first daie of Maie, after twelue of the clocke in the night, I. Stow. An earth|quake in Kent. was an earthquake felt in di|uerse places of Kent, namelie at Ashford, great Chart, &c: which made the people there to rise out of their beds, and run to the churches, where they called vpon God by earnest praiers to be mercifull vnto them. T. C. Of this earthquake one writeth thus. Ma|nie thousands haue heard and commonlie it is re|ported, that latelie in Kent an other earthquake was séene and felt, and so terriblie and sore the earth did tremble and quake, that it wakened people that soundlie slept, and had like to haue roc|ked them all asléepe that were awake. So feare|full was the matter, and so dreadfull is the wrath of God in time of visitation, and wicked season of ini|quitie. This was a pretie naturall cause: in deed so I thinke. For the naturall diseases of man, and the naughtie filthinesse of the flesh (full of lust and infir|mities) caused God for the correction of natures in|clination, to make Douer, Sandwich, Canturbu|rie, Grauesend, and sundrie other places tremble and shake.

Castels and ships séene in the aier.The eightéenth daie of Maie, about one houre be|fore sun setting, diuerse gentlemen of worship, and good credit, T. C. riding from Bodnian in Cornewall to|wards Foie, there appeared to their séeming in the northeast, a verie great mist or fog, much like vnto the sea: and the forme of a cloud in the fashion of some great castell, with flags, & streamers thereon as it were standing in the sea, which presentlie va|nished awaie. In whose stéed, and néere to the same place, appeared an other cloud which altered into the likenesse of a great argosie, furnished with masts, and other necessaries; and hir sailes séeming full of wind, made hir waie on the southwest of the castell, hauing streamers and flags verie warlike, with two boats at either sterne. There incontinent appeared againe the forme of a castell, and behind the same came following on the southwest side, an other great argosie, furnished as the first. This being past, there appéered three or foure gallies with their masts and flags in warlike sort, hauing boats at their sternes; and thereby appeared other small clouds to the num|ber of twelue, which altered into the proportion of the said castels, and one following an other, as soone as anie of them vanished other came in their rooms; and this continued the space of an houre. Shortlie af|ter the sights in the aier aforesaid, T. C. Woonders in Wiltshire and Summerset|shire. a worthie Gen|tleman in the countrie writ to a right good gentle|man in the court, that there was seene vpon a downe called Brodwels downe, in Summerset|shire, thrée score personages all clothed in blacke, a furlong in distance from those that beheld them; and after their appearing, and a little while tarieng, they vanished awaie; but immediatlie, an other strange companie in like maner, colour and number appea|red in the same place, and they incountered one an other, and so vanished awaie. And the third time ap|peared that number againe all in bright armour and incountered one an other, and so vanished awaie. Foure honest men which saw it, reporting the same abroad, were examined thereof, before sir George Norton, to whome they sware, that those things they had séene were true, as here before is rehearsed.

Moreouer, it is crediblie reported of manie honest men, that fiue miles from Blonsdon in Wiltshire, T. C. a crie of hounds was heard in the aier, the selfe same daie that the first earthquake was, and the noise was so great that was made, that they seemed thrée or foure score couples: whereat diuerse tooke their greihounds, thinking some gentlemen had béene a hunting in the chase, and thought to course: yet some of those that went out of their houses, séeing nothing below abroad, looked vpwards to the skies, and there espied in the aier fiue or six hounds perfectlie to be discerned. Now (to saie my fansie) I doubt not but thousands hold these newes for fables inuented for pleasure. But I protest before God and man, I can beléeue a great deals more stranger matter than this, in this strange world: for the people so estrange themselues from God by vsing manie strange fa|shions, and clapping on new conditions & natures, that except he shew some miracles, his godhead would quickelie be forgotten on earth, and men would beléeue there were no other world but this.

The thirtéenth of Iune, about six of the clocke in the morning, at Shipwash within the baronie of Bo|thell in Northumberland, there happened a tempest of lightning and thunder, after the which, on a sud|den came a great showre of haile,Haile stones of strange shapes. amongest the which were found stones of diuerse shapes maruel|lous to behold, as in the likenes of frogs, mattocks, swords, horsse shooes, nailes, crosses of diuerse sorts, skuls of dead men, &c. The seuentéenth day of Iune,A monstrous birth. in the parish of Blasedon in Yorkeshire, after a gret tempest of lightning & thunder, a woman of foure score yeares old, named Alice Perrin, was deliue|red of an hideous monster, whose head was like vn|to EEBO page image 1314 a sallet or headpeece, the face like vnto a mans, except the mouth, which was round and small, like vnto the mouth of a mo [...]so, the fore part of the bodie like to a man, hauing eight legs not one like an o|ther, and a taile halfe a yard long. Which monster brought into the world, besides an admiration of the diuine works of God, an astonishment at his iudge|ments. But of these we may saie as a stranger said sometime vpon the like occasion of prodigies and woonders successiuelie insuing, not without weigh|tie signification; to wit, that such things be as tales told to the deafe, verie few weieng in their minds the meaning & effect of strange accidents, and ther|fore thinke vpon nothing lesse than a reformation of their wicked life: for the which things sake God sendeth these and manie such significant warnings, before he taketh the rod in hand, and whippeth vs till we smart: we then not looking to the meanes that prouoke this vengeance, as willing to auoid them: but murmuring at the iust iudge, vnder whose hea|uie hand we grone, & charging him to be the author of all misfortunes falling vpon vs: which Homer trulie séemeth right well to haue noted in this sense:

[...] oratio apud H [...]erum.Cur stulti incusant mortales numina coeli?
Et sibi nos dicunt autores esse malorum?
Cum praeter fati leges in aperta ferantur
Damna, suaementis proprijs erroribus orti.

About the eightéenth daie of Iulie, the lord Greie tooke his voiage towards Ireland as lord deputie thereof,Soldiors transported into Ireland. after whom was sent diuerse bands of lustie souldiors, both horssemen and footmen, vn|der the leading of expert capteins, of whose prospe|rous and happie successe against their enimies, the I|rish and others, diuerse pamflets haue béene publish|ed, & matter more at large is set downe in the histo|rie of Ireland. The thrée and twentith of Septem|ber,Monstrous birth. at fennie Stanton in Huntingtonshire, one Agnis wife to William Linseie was deliuered of an vglie and strange monster, with a face blacke, the necke red, mouth and eies like a lion, on the fore|head a roll of flesh that might be turned vp with ones finger, on the hinder part of the head a lumpe of flesh proportioned like a fether, being hollow, with one eare growing on the lower part of the chéeke, his bellie big and hard, the armes big, hauing fiue fin|gers and a thumbe on either hand, and in place of toes on the left foot fiue fingers and a thumbe, on the right foot a thumbe and seuen fingers, & in the place of priuitie the shape both of male & female: a strange sight to be seene, and I feare, signifieth our mon|strous life, which God for his mercie giue vs grace to amend, without procrastination or putting off from daie to daie, as the poet significantlie saith:

Cras vultis, sed vult hodie vindex Deus, & cras,
Aut non vult, aut vos obruet atra dies.

The eight daie of October, immediatlie after the new moone,Blasing star. there appeared a blasing star in the south, bushing toward the east, which was nightlie séene (the aier being cléere) more than two moneths. The eighteenth of October were made eight serge|ents at law,Sergeants least. to wit, William Fléetwood recorder of London, Edward Flowerdue, Thomas Snag, William Periam, Robert Halton, Iohn Clench, Iohn Pickering, Thomas Warmsleie; maister Snag before named was sicke, and therefore was sworne in his chamber at Greies inne, the other se|uen were sworne at Westminster, and held their feast at the new Temple at London.

The quéenes maiestie being informed, that in sun|drie places of this realme, [...]roclamati|on against the familie of loue. certeine persons secretlie taught damnable heresies, contrarie to diuers prin|cipall articles of our beléefe and christian faith, who to colour their sect named themselues the familie of loue, and then as manie as were allowed by them to be of that familie to be elect and saued, and all o|thers of [...]hat church soeuer they be, to be reiected and damned. And for that vpon conuenting of some of them before the bishops & ordinaries it was found that the ground of their sect is mainteined by cer|teine lewd, hereticall, and seditious books, first made in the Dutch toong, and lastlie translated into Eng|lish, and printed beyond the seas, & secretlie brought ouer into the realme, the author whereof they name H. N. &c. And considering also it is found, that those sectaries held opinion, that they may before a|nie magistrat or ecclesiasticall or temporall, or anie other person, not being professed to be of their sect, by oth or otherwise denie anie thing for their aduan|tage: so as though manie of them are well knowne to be teachers and spreaders abroad of these dange|rous and damnable sects; yet by their owne confes|sion they can not be condemned.The quéenes maiesties purpose to root out this pestilent sect. Therefore hir ma|iestie being verie sorie to sée so great an euill, by ma|lice of the diuell to be brought into this hir realme, and by hir bishops and ordinaries she vnderstandeth it verie requisit, not onelie to haue those dangerous heretiks and sectaries to be seuerelie punished; but that also all other meanes be vsed by hir maiesties roiall authoritie, which is giuen hir of God to de|fend Christs church, to root them out from further infecting of hir realme: she hath thought méet and conuenient, and so by hir proclamation comman|deth, that all hir officers and ministers temporall shall in all their seuerall vocations assist the bishops of hir realme, and all other person to search out all persons dulie suspected, to be either teachers or pro|fessors of the foresaid damnable sects, and by all good meanes to proceed seuerelie against them, being found culpable by order of the lawes ecclesiasticall or temporall: and that all search be made in all pla|ces suspected, for the books and writings maintein|ing the said heresies and sects, and them to destroie and burne, &c: as more at large may appéere by the said proclamation, giuen at Richmond the third of October, and proclamed at London on the nine|téenth daie of the same moneth.

About this time there arriued vpon the west coast of Ireland,Victorie a|gainst the I|rish and other in Ireland. a certeine companie of Italians and Spaniards, sent by the pope to the aid of the earle of Desmond in his rebellion, which fortified themselues stronglie néere vnto Smerwike, in a fort which they called castell del Ore, there erecting the popes ban|ner against hir maiestie. Which when the lord Greie of Wilton deputie of Ireland vnderstood, he mar|ched thitherward, and on the sixt of Nouember, hea|ring of the arriuall of the Swift, the Tigre, the Aid, the Merlion, & other of the quéenes maiesties ships, and also of thrée barks fraughted from Corke and Limerike with vittels, on the morrow after marched towards the fort, vnto the which he gaue so hot an assault, that on the ninth of Nouember the same was yéelded, all the Irishmen and women hanged, and more than foure hundred Spaniards, Italians, and Biscaies put to the sword; the coronell, capteins, secretarie, and others, to the number of twentie saued for ransome. In which fortresse was found good store of monie, bisket, bakon, oile, wine, and diuerse other prouisions of vittels sufficient for their companie for halfe a yeare, besides armour, powder, shot, and other furniture for two thousand men and vpwards.

The eight and twentith daie of Nouember were arreigned in the kings bench, Anno reg. 23. Randoll han|ged for coniu|ring. William Randoll for coniuring to know where treasure was hid in the earth, and goods felloniouslie taken were become; Thomas Elks, Thomas Lupton, Rafe Spacie, and Christopher Waddington, for being present, aiding, and procuring the said Randoll to the coniuration a|foresaid; EEBO page image 1315 Randoll, Elks, Spacie, and Waddington were found guiltie, & had iudgement to be hanged; Randoll was executed, the other were repriued. A|bout the 24 of December in the town of Walsham in the countie of Sussex,Strange spéeches of a child. a child of eleuen yéers old, named William Withers, laie in a trance for the space of ten daies without anie sustenance, and at the last comming to himselfe he vttered to the stan|ders by manie strange spéeches, inueieng against pride, couetousnesse, coldnesse of charitie, and other outragious sins. To behold this child there resor [...]d diuerse godlie & zelous preachers, as also knights, es|quiers, & gentlemen, all of them hearing and séeing that which was woonderfull. And among others that came thither, there was a gentleman of great cre|dit and worship, with certeine of his men to heare and behold the child: who hauing espied a seruing|man that had béene there with his maister two times, whom he had sharplie tawnted for his great and monstrous ruffes, spake vnto him verie vehe|mentlie, and told him that it were better for him to put on sackecloth and mourne for his sinnes, than in such abhominable pride to pranke vp himselfe like the diuels darling,Pride in great ruffes reprooued and reformed in a seruingman. the verie father of pride and lieng, who sought by the exercise of that damnable sinne to make himselfe a preie to euerlasting torments in helfire. Wherevpon the seruingman, as one prickt in conscience, sore sorowed and wept for his offense, rent the band from his necke, tooke a knife and cut it in péeces, and vowed neuer to weare the like againe. This for the strangenesse thereof will be condemned as a lie, speciallie of vnbeléeuers and peruers world|lings, whose hearts are so hardened, that they will not beléeue though one rise from the dead, or though God should speake vnto them from heauen (as the poet noteth trulie) which he hath doone in times past:

—solióque tremendus ab alto
Ab. Hart. in R. L. Altitonans coelo signa stupenda dedit.

Against Ie|sui [...]s and massing priests.About the twelfe daie of Ianuarie proclamation was published at London, for reuocation of sundrie the quéenes maiesties subiects remaining beyond the seas vnder colour of studie, and yet liuing con|trarie to the lawes of God, and of the realme: and also against the reteining of Iesuits and massing priests, sowers of sedition, and other treasonable at|tempts,One executed for counter|feiting the quéenes hand. &c. The thirtéenth of Ianuarie a man was drawne to saint Thomas of Waterings, and there hanged, headed, and quartered, for begging by a li|cence wherevnto the quéenes hand was counterfei|ted.

On the sixteenth daie of Ianuarie, the lords and barons of this realme began to sit in the parle|ment house at Westminster:Parlement at Westminster. and on the twentith daie of Ianuarie the quéenes maiestie went from White hall to the parlement house by water. Where|as a great chalenge of iusts was signified by waie of deuise before hir maiestie on Twelfe night last past, to haue beene performed the fiftéenth daie of Ianuarie,Iusting at Westminster. hir maiesties pleasure was for diuerse considerations the same should be deferred vntill the two and twentith daie of the same moneth; on which daie the same was most couragiouslie accomplished in the accustomed place at Westminster, where ma|nie staues were valiantlie broken; but through the great concourse of people thither repairing, manie of the beholders, as well men as women, were sore hurt, some maimed, and some killed, by falling of the scaffolds ouercharged.

Mice deuoure the grasse in Daneseie hundred.This yeare about Hallowntide last past, in the marishes of Daneseie hundred, in a place called Southminster, in the countie of Essex, a strange thing happened. There suddenlie appéered an infinite multitude of mice, which ouerwhelming the whole earth in the said marishes, did sheare and gnaw the grasse by the roots, spoiling & tainting the same with their venemous teeth: in such sort that the cattell which grased thereon were smitten with a murreine and died thereof. Which vermine by policie of man could not be destroied, till now at the last it came to passe, that there flocked togither all about the same marishes such a number of owles, as all the shire was not able to yeeld: whereby the marsh holders were shortlie deliuered from the vexation of the said mice.

This yeere (against the comming of certeine com|missioners out of Francis into England) by hir ma|iesties appointment, Banketting house at West|minster. on the six and twentith daie of March in the morning (being Easter daie) a banket|ting house was begun at Westminster, on the south west side of hir maiesties palace of White hall, made in maner and forme of a long square, thrée hundred thirtie and two foot in measure about; thirtie princi|pals made of great masts, being fortie foot in length a peece, standing vpright; betwéene euerie one of these masts ten foot asunder and more The walles of this house were closed with canuas, and painted all the outsides of the same most artificiallie with a worke called rustike, much like to stone. This house had two hundred ninetie and two lights of glasse. The sides within the same house was made with ten heights of degrées for people to stand vpon: and in the top of this house was wrought most cunning|lie vpon canuas, works of iuie and hollie, with pen|dents made of wicker rods,How this banketting house was garnished and decked with artificiall de|uises. and garnished with baie, rue, and all maner of strange flowers garnish|ed with spangles of gold, as also beautified with hanging toseans made of hollie and iuie, with all maner of strange fruits, as pomegranats, orenges, pompions, cucumbers, grapes, carrets, with such o|ther like, spangled with gold, and most richlie han|ged. Betwixt these works of baies and iuie, were great spaces of canuas, which was most cunning|lie painted, the clouds with starres, the sunne and sunne beames, with diuerse other cotes of sun|drie sorts belonging to the quéenes maiestie, most richlie garnished with gold. There were of all man|ner of persons working on this house, to the number of thrée hundred seuentie and fiue: two men had mis|chances, the one brake his leg, and so did the other. This house was made in thrée wéeks and three daies, and was ended the eightéenth daie of Aprill;The costs and charges of this ban|ketting house. and cost one thousand seuen hundred fortie and foure pounds, nineteene shillings and od monie; as I was credi|blie informed by the worshipfull maister Thomas Graue surueior vnto hir maiesties workes, who ser|ued and gaue order for the same, as appeareth by re|cord.

On the sixteenth daie of Aprill arriued at Douer these noblemen of France (commissioners from the French king to hir maiestie) Francis of Burbon prince dolphin of Auergne,Noblemen of France arriued at Douer. Arthur Cossaie marshall of France, Lodouic Lusignian lord of Laneoc, Ta|uergius Caercongin countie of Tillir, Bertrand Salignacus lord Mot Fenelon, monsieur Manais|sour, Barnabie Brissen president of the parle|ment of Paris, Claud Pinart, monsieur March|mont, monsieur Ueraie; these came from Graues|end by water to London, where they were honorably receiued and interteined; and shortlie after being ac|companied of the nobilitie of England, they repaired to the court and banketting house prepared for them at Westminster, as is afore said, where hir maiestie

—(decus illa Britannûm
Gemmáque non alijs inuenienda locis)
with amiable countenance & great courtesse recei|ued them: and afterward in that place most roiallie feasted & banketted them. Also the nobles & gentle|men of the court, desirous to shew them all courtesie EEBO page image 1316 possible fittest for such estates, and to sport them with all courtlie pleasure, agréed among them to prepare a t [...]iumph, which was verie quicklie concluded: and being deuised in most sumptuous order, was by them performed in as valiant a manner to their end|lesse fame and honor. The chiefe or chalengers in these attempts were these: the earle of Arundell, the lord Windsore, maister Philip Sidueie, and maister Fulke Greuill, who calling themselues the foure fo|ster children of desire, made their inuention of the foresaid triumph in order and forme following.

The excel|lent inuen|tion of the triumph.The gallerie or place at the end of the tiltyard ad|ioining to hir maiesties house at Whitehall, wheras hir person should be placed, was called and not with|out cause, The castell or fortresse of perfect beautie, for as much as hir highnesse should be there inclu|ded; whereto the said foster children laid ti [...]le and claime as their due by descent to belong vnto the them. And vpon deniall or anie repulse from that their de|sired patrimonie they vowed to vanquish and con|quer by force who so should séeme to withstand it. For the accomplishing whereof they sent their chal|lenge or first defiance to the quéenes maiestie: which was vttered by a boie on sundaie the sixtéenth of A|prill last, as hir maiestie came from the chappell, who being apparelled in red and white, as a martiall mes|senger of Desires fostered children without making anie precise reuerence at all, vttered these spéeches of defiance from his masters to hir maiestie, the ef|fect whereof insueth.

O ladie, that dooth intitle the titles you possesse with the honor of your worthinesse,The first de|fie of chal|lenge. rather crowning the great crowne you hold, with the [...]ame to haue so excelling an owner, than you receiuing to your selfe anie increase, keeping that outward ornament: vouchsafe with patient attention to heare the words which I by commandement am here to deli|uer you, wherein if your ears (vsed to the thankes|giuing of your people & the due praises of the earth) shall féele a statelie disdaine to heare once the sound of a defie, yet dare I warrant my selfe so far vpon the replie & deceiuing shew of rare Beautie, as that malice can not fall from so faire a mind vpon the sea|lie messenger, whose mouth is a seruant to others direction. Know yée therefore alonelie princesse, that herby (for far off they are neuer) there lies incamped the foure long haplesse, now hopefull fostered chil|dren of Desire:Desire and h [...]r foure fo|stered chil|dren. who hauing béene a great while nou|rished vp with that infectiue milke, and too too much care of their fierie fosterer (though full oft that drie nursse despaire indeuored to weine them from it) being now as strong in that nurture, as they are weake in fortune, incouraged with the valiant counsell of neuer fainting Desire, and by the same assured, that by right of inheritance euen from euer, the fortresse of beautie dooth belong to hir fostered children: lastlie, finding it blazed by all toongs, in|graued in all hearts, and proued by all eies, that this fortresse built by nature is seated in this realme: these foure I saie and saie againe, thus nourished, thus animated, thus intituled, and thus informed, doo will you by me,Uertuous desire not to be excluded from perfect Beautie. euen in the name of iustice, that you will no longer exclude vertuous Desire from per|fect Beautie. Whereto if you yéeld (O yéeld for so all reason requireth) then haue I no more to saie, but re|ioise that my saiengs haue obteined so rightfull and yet so blissefull a request. But if (alas but let not that be needfull) Beautie be accompanied with dis|dainefull pride, and pride waighted on by refusing crueltie; then must I denounce vnto you (wo is me, answer before it be denounced) that they deter|mine by request to accomplish their claime. And bi|cause they will better testifie to the world, they haue bin brought vp vnder the wings of honorable De|sire, this honorable forewar [...]ing [...] send you; that vpon the foure and twentith daie of this moneth of Aprill they will besiege that fatall fortresse, vow|ing not to spare (if this obstinaci [...] continue) the sword of faithfulnes, and the fire of affection.The chal|lenge made and how to be tried. Now if so it fall out, the worthie knights of your court (mooued with passion in themselues) disdaine of any senders baldnesse, or parciall thing (which I most doubt) to the maiestie of your eies, will either bid them battell before they approch, or suffering them to approch, will after labour to leuie the siege; they pro|test to meet them in what sort they will choose, wish|ing onelie it may be performed before your owne eies, whome they know as euen in iudgement as daintie in choosing where if so they li [...]t, first at the tilt in so manie courses, as your selfe shall please to ap|point; and then if anie will call them to the course of the field with lance and sword, they hope to giue such true proofes of their valour, as at lest shall make their desires more noble. Uowing on the other side, that if before the night part the fraie, they doo not o|uercome all them that come in against them, they will yeeld themselues slaues vnto you for euer. This therefore O quéene (greater in that you are queene of your selfe, than in passing the whole compasse of the earth) haue I deliuered my charge, not as a chal|lenge to your knights, against whome (but in so iust a cause) they acknowledge themselues vnable to match the meanest but as a plaine proclamation of war, vnles the fortres of Beautie,The fortresse of Beautie. that hath woone so manie to loose themselues, be speedilie surrendered. And now it shall be séene what knights you haue, whome Beautie may draw to resist a rightfull title. And I for my poore part mooued by that I sée in you (though I serue your enimies) will dailie praie that all men may sée you, & then you shall not feare anie armes of aduersaries: or if enimies you must haue, that either they may haue the mind of them that send me, or their fortune in that they haue long desired.

At which daie abouesaid for certeine vrgent oc|casions, the said challenge and triumph,Urgent cau|ses why the challenge was deferd. by hir maie|sties commandement, was deferred till the first daie of Maie: at which daie for like causes it was further deferred till the next mondaie following, being the eight daie of Maie: and so till Whitsun mondaie, when they first began to performe it. The said daie being come, the foure foster children had made pre|paration to besiege the fortresse of Beautie, and thereto had prouided a frame of wood, which was co|uered with canuas, and painted outwardlie in such excellent order,The order of the rowling trench with most excellent inuentions. as if it had bin verie naturall earth or mould, and caried the name of a rowling trench, which went on whéeles, which waie soeuer the persons within did driue it. Upon the top whereof was pla|ced two cannons of wood, so passing well coloured as they séemed to be in déed two faire field peeces of ordinances, and by them was placed two men for gunners clothed in crimson sarcenet, with their bas|kets of earth for defense of their bodies by them. And also there stood on the top of the trench an en|signe bearer in the same sute with the gunners, dis|plaieng his ensigne, and within the said trench was cunninglie conueied diuerse kind of most excellent musike against the castell of Beautie. These things thus all in a readinesse, the challengers approched, & came from the stable toward the tiltyard, one after another in braue & excellent order as followeth.

First, the earle of Arundell entred the tiltyard, all in gilt and ingrauen armour,The earle of Arundels en|trie the first daie and his attendants. with caparisons and furniture richlie and brauelie imbrodered, ha|uing attendant vpon him two gentlemen vshers, foure pages riding on foure spare horsses, and twen|tie of his gentlemen. All which aforesaid were appa|relled in short clokes and venetian hose of crimson EEBO page image 1317 veluet, laid with gold lace, doublets of yellow sattin, hats of crimson veluet with gold bands and yellow feathers, and yellow silke stockes. Then had he six trumpetters that sounded before him, and one and thirtie yeomen that waited after him apparelled in [...]assocke coats, and venetian hose of crimson veluet, laid on with red silke and gold lace, doublets of yel|low taffatie, hats of crimson taffatie, with yellow feathers, and yellow worsted stockings.

The lord Windsors en|trie the first daie and his attendants.After him procéeded the lord Windsore, in gilt and ingrauen armour, with caparisons and furni|ture, richlie imbrodered with gold, hauing atten|dant on him foure pages riding on foure spare hors|ses, and foure and twentie gentlemen, all apparelled in short cloaks of scarlet, lined through with orange tawnie taffatie, and laid about with siluer lace, dou|blets of orange tawnie sattin, venetian hose of o|range tawnie veluet, blacke veluet caps, with siluer bands and white feathers, and siluered rapiers and daggers, with scabberds of blacke veluet; foure trumpetters, and two footmen in cassocke coats and venetian hose of orange tawnie veluet, and blacke veluet caps with siluer bands and white feathers, foure groomes of his stable leading of his foure hors|ses, in cassocke coats and venetian hose of orange tawnie taffatie and orange tawnie felts with siluer bands, and white feathers. Then had he thrée score yeomen in coats of orange tawnie cloth, with the vnicorne of siluer plate on their sléeues, and orange tawnie felts with siluer bands and white feathers.

M. Sidneis entrie, now sir Philip S [...]d|neie and his attendants.Then procéeded maister Philip Sidneie, in verie somptuous maner, with armour part blew, and the rest gilt and ingrauen, with foure spare horsses, ha|uing caparisons and furniture verie rich and costlie, as some of cloth of gold imbrodered with pearle, and some imbrodered with gold and siluer feathers, verie richlie and cunninglie wrought: he had foure pages that rode on his foure spare horsses, who had cassocke coats, and venetian hose all of cloth of siluer, laied with gold lace, and hats of the same with gold bands and white feathers, and ech one a paire of white bus|kins. Then had he a thirtie gentlemen and yeomen, & foure trumpetters, who were all in cassocke coats and venetian hose of yelow veluet, laied with siluer lace, yelow veluet caps with siluer bands and white fethers, and euerie one a paire of white buskins; and they had vpon their coats, a scrowle or band of sil|uer, which came scarfe wise ouer the shoulder, and so downe vnder the arme, with this poes [...]e, or sentence written vpon it, both before and behind, Sic nos non nobis.

Then came maister Fulke Greuill, in gilt ar|mour,M. Fulke Greuils en|trie with his traine of atten|dants. with rich and faire caparisons and furniture, hauing foure spare horsses with foure pages riding vpon them, and foure trumpetters sounding before him, and a twentie gentlemen and yeomen atten|ding vpon him, who with the pages and trumpet|ters were all apparelled in loose ierkins of tawnie taffatie, cut and lined with yelow sarsenet, and laied with gold lace, and cut downe the arme and set with loopes and buttons of gold, venetian hose of the same lined (as aforesaid) laied with gold lace downe the side with loopes and buttons of gold, with ech a paire of yelow worsted stockings, and hats of tawnie taf|fetie with gold bands and yelow feathers. Hauing thus all entered the tiltyard, they proceeded on with the rowling trench before them, which staied against the queene, and they passed by, as though they would behold the Fortresse of beautie; and so went about the tilt. At last the boie that vttered the first defiance pronounced these speeches to hir maiestie.

If the message latelie deliuered vnto you had beene beleeued and followed (O quéene) in whome the whole storie of vertue is written,The second defie or cha|lenge. with the language of beautie; nothing should this violence haue née|ded in your inuiolate presence. Your eies, which till now haue béene onelie woont to discerne the bowed knées of knéeling hearts, and inwardlie turned, found alwaies the heauenlie peace of a swéet mind, should not now haue their faire beames reflected with the shining of armour, should not now be dri|uen to see the furie of desire, nor the fierie force of fu|rie. But sith so it is (alas that so it is) that in the defense of obstinate refusall there neuer groweth victorie but by compassion; they are come: what néed I saie more, you sée them, readie in hart as you know, and able with hands as they hope, not onelie to assailing but to preuailing. Perchance you despis [...] the smalnesse of number. I saie vnto you, the force of desire goeth not by fulnesse of companie. Naie ra|ther view with what vnresistable determination themselues approch, and how not onelie the heauens send their inuisible instrument to aid them:Meaning the musike with|in the mount. but al|so the verie earth the dullest of all the elements, which with naturall heauinesse still striues to the sleepie centre; yet for aduancing his enterprise is content actiuelie (as you shall sée) to moue it selfe vpon it selfe to rise vp in height, that it maie the better command the high and highminded fortresses. Manie words,Wherewith the mount mooued & ros [...] vp in height. when deeds are in the field, are tedious both vnto the speaker and hearer. You sée their forces, but know not their fortunes; if you be resolued, it boots not, and threats dread not. I haue discharged my charge, which was euen when all things were readie for the assault, then to offer partlie a thing not so much vnu|sed as gratious in besiegers. You shall now be sum|moned to yéeld, which if it be reiected, then looke for the affection at alarme to be followed with desirous assault. The time approcheth for their approches, but no time shall staie me from wishing, that howsoeuer this succéed, the world maie long inioie hir chiefest ornament, which decks it with hir selfe, and hir selfe with the loue of goodnesse.

Which spéech being ended, the rowling trench or mount of earth was mooued as néere the queenes maiestie as might be, which being setled,The rowling trench mooued néere to the quéene. the musike plaied verie pleasantlie, and one of the boies being then accompanied with cornets, summoned the for|tresse with this delectable soong, here vnder noted.

Yeeld, yeeld, ô yeeld, you that this fort doo hold, The fortresse summoned in soong.
which seated is, in spotlesse honors feeld,
Desires great force, no forces can withhold:
then to desires desire, ô yeeld ô yeeld.
Yeeld yeeld ô yeeld, trust not on beauties pride,
fairenesse though faire, is but a feeble sheeld,
When strong desire, which vertues loue dooth guide,
claimes but to gaine his due, ô yeeld ô yeeld.
Yeeld yeeld ô yeeld, who first this fort did make,
did it for iust desires, true children beeld,
Such was his mind, if you an other take,
defense herein dooth wrong, ô yeeld ô yeeld,
Yeeld yeeld ô yeeld, now is it time to yeeld,
before th'assault begin, ô yeeld ô yeeld.

When that was ended, an other boie turning him|selfe to the foster children and their retinue, soong this alarme with plesant voice & seemelie countenance.

Alarme alarme, here will no yeelding bee, The alarme soong.
such marble eares, no cunning words can charme,
Courage therefore, and let the statelie see,
that nought withstands desire, alarme alarme.
Alarme alarme, let not their beauties mooue
remorse in you to doo this fortresse harme,
For sith warre is the ground of vertues loue,
no force, though force be vsed, alarme alarme.
Alarme alarme, companions now begin,
about this neuer conquered wals to swarme,
More praise to vs we neuer looke to win,
much maie that was not yet, alarme alarme.
EEBO page image 1318Alarme alarme, when once the fight is warme,
then shall you see them yeeld, alarme alarme.

The shooting off of the two canons, the one with swéet water, and the other with swéet powder.Which ended, the two canons were shot off, the one with swéet powder, and the other with swéet wa|ter, verie odoriferous and pleasant, and the noise of the shooting was verie excellent consent of melodie within the mount. And after that was store of pre|tie scaling ladders and the footmen threw floures and such fans [...]es against the wals, with all such deui|ses as might seeme fit shot for desire. All which did continue till time the defendants came in.

The maner of the defen|dants com|ming in.Then came in the defendants in most sumptuous maner, with euerie one his seruants, pages, and trumpetters (hauing some more, some lesse) in such order as I haue here vnderplaced them, with eue|rie one his sundrie inuention, which for that some of them be mysticall and not knowne to manie, I omit therefore for breuities sake to speake of anie. Yet such spéeches as were spoken or presented for them to hir maiestie, so manie as were, or at the least as I could come by, I haue here in their order placed them, whereby their inuentions for whome they were spoken, are therein plainelie declared. Therefore I referre you to the reading of them hereafter. But thus the defendants entered the tiltyard, one after an other as followeth.The defen|dants names that run at [...]. First maister Henrie Greie, sir Thomas Perot, maister Anthonie Cooke, maister Thomas Ratcliffe, maister Henrie Knolles, mai|ster William Knolles, maister Robert Knolles, maister Francis Knolles, maister Rafe Bowes, maister Thomas Kelwaie, master George Goring, maister William Tresham, maister Robert Alex|ander, maister Edward Dennie, maister Hercules Meautus, maister Edward Moore, maister Richard Skipwith, maister Richard Ward, maister Ed|ward Digbie, maister Henrie Nowell, maister Henrie Brunkerd. And afterwards in the middest of the running came in sir Henrie Leigh, as vn|knowne, and when he had broken his six staues went out in like maner againe. So passing on one after an other, when sir Thomas Perot & maister Cooke came to the end of the tilt, ouer against the quéenes maiestie, one of their pages arraied like an angell vttered these spéeches vnto hir.

Despaire, no not despaire (most high and happie princesse) could so congeale the frozen knight in the aier,The spéech of sir Thomas Perot and maister Cooke to the quéene. but that desire (ah swéet desire) inforced him to behold the sun on the earth, whereon as he was ga|zing with twinkling eie (for who can behold such beames stedfastlie?) he begun to dissolue into drops, melting with such delight, that he séemed to preferre the lingering of a certeine death before the lasting of an vncerteine life. Such is the nature of ingrauen loialtie, that it chooseth rather to haue the bodie dis|solued, than the mind disliked. Thus consuming with content (a swéet sickenesse is conceipt) and pining with more than speakeable passions, he suddenlie be|held that sun to be besieged which he so deuoutlie ser|ued. Wherewith boiling in no lesse disdaine, than sur|prised with immoderat pens [...]uenesse, he vttered these words: O Ioue, if thou meane to resolue nature into contraries; why doo I liue to sée it? If into nothing, why doo I liue at all? If the foot scale the head, there is no rest; if desire ouershoot dutie, there is no reason: and where either of these are, there can be no rule. And so setting more sighs than maie be numbred by ciphers, this present time (ah griefe) this present time, that honest & faire hearted frozen knight died (what said I) euen that which againe with griefe I must say died, whose ghost making speedie passage into the Elisian fields (for what more swift than a soule) in the midst of the infernall multitude, [...] the sun is meant hir ma|iestie, called before The fortresse of beautie. with schréeches, cries & clamors made both heauen & hell to redouble this eccho: O times, O men, O corruption of ma|ners! The sun is besieged, the sun (O mischiefe) the sun is besieged. Which strange and vnacquainted termes caused not onelie murmuring amongst the ghosts beneath, but a musing amongst the gods a|boue: who as well to represse the tumults, which might haue risen among the shadows, as to reuenge the pride which began to grow on the earth, sent downe an angell with this commandement; Go de|scend,Sir Thomas Perot & mai|ster Cooke were both in like armour beset with ap|ples and fruit, the one signi|fieng Adam & the other E [...]e who had haire hoong all downe his helmet. and cause Adam and Eue to appeare on the earth in that sort as they were in paradise, that the world may know them & woonder at them. For see|ing out of their loin [...]s haue issued those preposterous limmes, I know none more fit to correct them. Cer|tes none more willing. They will attempt anie thing for thy sake, and seruice of that earthlie, and yet (O strange conceipt) most heauenlie sun. For as they were before driuen from their desire, bicause they desired to know the best: so now shall they b [...] driuen vnto their desire, which they couet to honour most. This shall be their reward, they shall come néere and yet shall not search, and be they farre off, it shall warme. A cloud maie sometimes barre their sight, but nothing shall depriue them of the safegard: yet command them to be humble in affection, though feruent, least they séeme to disdaine that pride in others which they desire themselues.

The sun in the highest delighteth in the shadow which is shortest,The angell speaketh to the quéene. nourisheth the tree whose root grow|eth déepest, not whose top springeth loftiest. This commission and counsell ended, all things were in a moment accomplished with such celeritie (for to the gods time is tied) that they were sped so soone as they were spoken. And now most renowmed and diuine sun, Adam and Eue being present, vouchsafe to heare somwhat in their behalfs pronounced. Sir knights, if in beséeging the sunne ye vnderstood what you had vndertaken, ye would not destroie a common bles|sing for a priuat benefit. Will you subdue the sun?He speaketh to the chalengers in the behalfe of the two knights A|dam and Eue. Who shall rest in the shadow where the wearie take breath, the disquiet rest and all comfort? Will ye be|reue all men of those glittering & gladsome beams? What shall then prosper in the shining, but you will clime it by the raies? O rare exhalations! Brothers you may be to desire, but sons ye are to ill hap, which thinke you can not sinke déepe inough into the sea, vnlesse you take your fall from the sun. Desist you knights, desist, sith it is impossible to resist: content your selues with the sunnes indifferent succor, suffer the inniper shrub to grow by the loftie oke, and clame no prerogatiue where the sun grants no pri|uilege; for being of the same mettall that others are, the sun will worke the like effects, as she doth in o|thers. The giants would haue bin gods, if they could haue scaled the heauens; and you no lesse than stars could you conquer the same: but as their throwing hill vpon hill did manifest their pride, but nothing further their pretense; so your laieng chalenge vpon claime, and conquest vpon chalenge, may well proue a will but no worthinesse; a desire to reach, but no possibilitie to recouer. In which your soaring as|saies if you chance to fall, the only comfort you haue is to crie with Phaeton, Magnis excidimus ausis. But if no persuasions may mooue your minds, Magnis excidi|mus ausis, the crie of Phae|ton at his fall. know yée proud knights, there are that haue hearts as big as mounteins, and as far aboue you in prowesse as ye are aboue all in presumption, yet not so vaine (which ye terme valiant) to assalt the sun. And whie? bicause it is impregnible. We content to inioie the light, yée to eclipse it; we to rest vnder the féet, yée to run ouer the head; we to yéeld to that which nothing can con|quer, you to conquer that which maketh all men cap|tiues. But were it possible that head could deuise, courage attempt, or hand execute anie thing that might shew the depth of our vnspotted loialtie, soon [...] EEBO page image 1319 should be séene (and for your selues too soone) that your enterprises should be of as small account then, as now they are of likelihood; so déepe an impression is ingrauen in our thoughts, for the maiestie of that sun which now persing our eies hath fullie subdued our hearts, that we are prest in hir defense to offer the whole world defiance. In proofe whereof I am charged to throw downe this gantlet,The defen|dants gantlet throwne downe, &c. which who so dareth take vp, shall féele both the heat of their iust conceiued quarrell, and the reproch of their owne deserued follie, not by riding in breaking a few sta [...]es to end the strife, but at tourneie, or what else soeuer they can deuise, or dare aduenture to win the benefit of Beautie. Thus most renowmed & diuine Beautie, whose beams shine like the sun, haue Adam & Eue aduentured to defend the sun. The same I call Beautie the light of the world, the maruell of men, the mirrour of nature, on which their incounter if those fauourable gleames may fall, they will not on|lie thinke to haue doone good herein, but to be restor|ed againe to paradise. The one meaneth to repose his trust in a woman, who like Eue cannot be beguiled, the other to rest on a saint which by a serpent will not be tempted. Thus being placed in the garden of your graces, O of all things most gratious, where vertues grow as thicke as leaues did in paradise, they will take héede to tast of the forbidden fruit, contented to behold, not coueting to take hold. And for that it hath beene long argued, and no arguing can end,The defen|dants [...]u [...]e and desire. whether the first offense came by the crude|litie of Adam, or the simplicitie of Eue; the one de|fending his fault by sound arguments, the other ex|cusing hirs by sharpe answers: they most humblie sue for this, that either by six courses betwéene them the quarrell may be ended, or by your hignesse per|emptorie sentence determined. For they both being in the world, are desirous that one might beare the blame of both. And what herein your excellencie shall set downe, there is none shall gainesaie; for when|soeuer the question shall be mooued, no other reason shall be allowed or liked than this; Elizabetha dixit. This speach being thus ended, sir Thomas Perot and master Cooke procéeded backward on the other|side of the tilt. And when master Ratclife came like|wise against the queene, one of his pages pronoun|ced these spéeches in his masters behalfe to hir ma|iestie.

So manie were the misfortunes (most renow|med and beautifull princesse) of the desolate knight my master,M. Ratclifs s [...]éech to the quéen [...]. as neither the shortnesse of the time will suffer me to repeat, nor the greatnesse of the myste|rie to remember. But let this suffice, that some there were and so manifold, that geometrie whereon the bodie of man hangeth could not beare being intolle|rable, nor the mind which consisteth in arithmetike number being infinit. Thus alwaies crossed by for|tune, whose crossing is no blessing, he determined to separate himselfe as far from societie, as his actions were from successe; who wandering through manie deserts, yet finding as he thought no place desolate, happened at the last to come to a clif [...]e adioining to the maine sea,A moss [...]e cliffe. couered all with mosse, whereon he was walking: much delighted with the solitarie seat, but not well liking the cold situation, he sudden|lie sunke into a hollow vault, surprised at the first with feare, but séeing it at the last a place of succour, he accounted his former miseries méetlie appeased by this present fortune.Mosse and nothing but mosse. In this den he vsed for his bed mosse, for his candle mosse, for his céeling mosse, and vnlesse now and then a few coales, mosse for his meat: a drie food God wot and a fresh, but so moi|stened with wet teares, and so salt, that hard it was to coniecture, whether it were better to féed or to fast. Here he gaue himselfe to continuall meditation, se|parating his mind from his bodi [...], his thought from his hart, yea diuorcing himselfe from himselfe, in so much that with his strange diet and new conc [...]its he became so inchanted that neither the remem|brance of others, nor a thought touching himselfe could enter into his mind an alteration seldome heard of, that the place whereas he was shrowded in, should make him to forget who he is. Liuing thus a long tim [...] for that no lim should seeme short, rising according to his maner to walke in the mosse in the grisping of the day, he espied vpon the shore certeine men either cast awaie by shipwracke, or ouer boord by pirates, vnto whome he went; and perceiuing by their plaints one which laie dead amongst them to be their master, inquired [...]hense they were? But th [...]y not willing to repeat their misfortunes, opened the bosome of the gentleman, and pulled out a scroll conteining a claime, a chall [...]nge,A claime or conquest of beautie con|teined in a scroll. naie a conquest of Beautie. At the sight whereof, suddenlie (quoth he) Beautie and therewithall appalled paused, entring by litle and litle out of his present melancholies in|to his former misfortunes, who as one awaked out of a long dreame began thus to bebate. O Beautie, where thy fortr [...]sse is founded I know, but what these brethren should meane I maruell; for as I am assured that to win thée none could be so fortunate, so did I thinke that to claime thée none could be so fond; when as thou O diuine Beautie art of euerie one to be desired, but neuer to be conquered of De|sire. But as the eagle beholding the sunne, coue|teth to build hir nest in the same,A similitude. and so dimmeth hir sight: so they vewing the brightnesse of Beautie are incensed to conquere it by Desire. And what then? Bicause she is inuincible shall I be indiffe|rent? No, I will forsake this caitife cottage, and will take arms to defend that Beauties castell. Nothing shall remooue me from mine attempt, which being performed, nothing can mooue me. Yea but she ha [...]h seruants alreadie a number; I but vnles I be there, not the whole number: but manie were famous, but none more faithfull: yet alas, if thou go, thou shal [...] euer be infortunat: better alwaies infortunat, than once disloiall. Which words being ended, he deman|ded whether they would in like case aduenture with one of no lesse courage than their master, but certein|lie of greter affection: whose seruice he hauing vpon small intreatie obteined, for that belike they were desirous to see the euent for the which they had suffe|red such aduentures, he departed to his caue, hewing a shield out of the hard cliffe inriched onelie with soft mosse: a double signe of his desire, thinking that nothing could manifest Beautie so well as Pytha|goras walnut, a tender rine and a hard shell. And now most excellent and diuine Beautie, diuine it must néeds be that worketh so heauenlie, sith he is called from his solitarie caue to your sumptuous court, from bondage to libertie, from a liuing death to a neuer dieng life,Here the [...] deliuered M. Ratclifs shield to the quéene. and all for the sake and seruice of Beautie: vouchsafe his shield, which is the ensigne of your fame, to be the instrument of his fortune. And for prostrating himselfe to your féet, he is here readie prest to aduenture anie aduentures for your gratious fauour.

Which spéech being ended,Here enter the foure [...]oes of sir Francis Knolles. he retired backe as the rest. And after him came the foure sonnes of sir Francis Knolles, one after an other, according to their age, and all in like armour: who comming to the end of the tilt, staied till these spéeches were vtte|r [...]d by one of their pages, who being apparelled like vnto Mercurie, pronounced these spéeches in the knights behalfes to hir maiestie.

Report hath bruted all abroad,The spéech of the foure sons of sir Francis Knoll [...]s, [...] by [...] page being appar [...]| [...] like vnto Mercurie. that desperat De|sire with a woonderfull armie of affections hath laid his siege against the inuincible fortresse of péere|lesse EEBO page image 1320 beautie, and that the chiefest champions of this most famous enterprise are foure of fansies fel|lowes, fosterbrothers to desire, and drie nurst by despaire, valiant knights, and honorable personages, whose hautie hearts deserue renowme at least, for venturing to win the golden fleece without Medeas helpe. The giants long ago did scale the clouds men saie, in hope to win the fort of Iupiter. The wanton youth, whose waren wings did frie with soa|ring vp aloft, had scapt vnscorcht if he had kept a meaner gale below. So falles it out in this attempt, desire vaunts to conquer Beauties fort by force, wherein the goddesse keepes continuallie watch and ward, [...] and Beautie. so that desire may despaire to win one inch of hir against hir will. Hir statelie seat is set so high, as that no leuell can be laid against hir walles: and sooner may men vndertake to hit a starre with a stone, than to beat hir braue bulworkes by batterie. No vndermining may preuaile, for that hir fort is founded vpon so firme a rocke, as will not stir for ei|ther fraud or force. And is there anie hope to win by famine such a fort as yeelds continuall food to all hir foes? And though they feed not fat therwith, yet must they either feed thereon or fast: for Beautie is the on|lie bait whereon desire bites; and loue the chiefe re|sto [...]tie that ladie Beautie likes, so that she can no more be left without meat, than men can liue with|out minds.Why desire [...]serues least to win beau|tie. Of all affections that are, desire is the most worthie to woo, but lest deserues to win Beau|tie: for in winning his saint, he looseth himselfe: no sooner hath desire what he desireth, but that he dieth presentlie: so that when Beautie yéeldeth once to desire, then can she neuer vant to be desired againe. Wherfore of force this principle must stand, it is con|uenient for desire euer to wish, and necessarie that he alwais want. O rare and most renowmed Beau|tie, O goddesse to be honored of all, not to be equalled of anie, become not now a prisoner: your fortresse is inuincible. No doubt desire will content himselfe with a fauourable parlée, and wait for grace by loial|tie, not chalenge it by lance; although he make neuer so braue. The world dooth know that ladie Beautie néeds no rescue to raise this siege, for that she sits a|boue all reach, hir heauenlie lookes aboue when she so lists can dazell all mens eies. But though she li [...]t not vse those meanes, yet it is méete that all hir ser|uants come and shew themselues deuout to doo hir will: perchance hir pleasure is to sée the forts tried of these foure foster friends. O happie, ten times happie they whose hap shall be with fauour of hir dei|tie,The foure sonnes of sir Francis Knolles. to take in hand this braue attempt: in hope whereof these foure legitimate sonnes of despaire, brethren to hard mishap, suckled with sighes, and swathed vp in sorrow, weaned in wo, and drie nurst by desire, long time fostered with fauourable coun|tenance, and fed with sweet fansies, but now of late (alas) wholie giuen ouer to griefe and disgraced by disdaine, are come with readie hearts and hands, to prooue against these other foure, that desire dooth not deserue one winke of good fauour from ladie Beau|ties smiling eies, for threatning to win hir fort by force. They doubt not the victorie, if onelie they may find some like shew from their saint in fauor of their enterprise. If Mercurie haue said amisse, blame those bright beams which haue bereft him of his wit; if well, vouchsafe one becke to bid him packe awaie.

These spéeches being ended, both they and the rest marched about the tilt, and so going backe to the ne|ther end thereof prepared themselues to run,The running [...] the tilt. euerie one in his turne, each defendant six courses against the former challengers: who performed their parts so valiantlie on both sides, that their prowesse hath demerited perpetuall memorie, and worthilie woon honor both to themselues and their natiue countrie, as fame hath the same reported. When this daies sport was thus accomplished, the boie that vttered the defiances, in these few speeches tooke his good|night of the quéene.

In the triall of this debatefull question O your selfe) what can be said more than is?The boie that vttered the defian [...] in this speech tooke his good night of the queene. You see that seeing begins to faile. Night the ordinarie truce ma|ker, though no truce be treated if at least your pre|sence make it not lightsome will wrap all in hir blacke and mourning weeds, perchance mourning, for that the noblest desire hath beene subiect to vnde|serued torments: and therefore these knights by the authoritie of darkenes verie vndesirouslie are com|pelled to depart from whence they came. To con|clude, thus much they command me in their names to confesse, that such excellencie they find in your knights, and in comparison of them such vnablenesse in their selues, that if desire did not banish despaire as a traitor out of his kingdome, it would haue al|readie vndermined their best grounded determina|tion: but no inward nor outward wound, no weake|nesse, no wearinesse, can dant desire, nor take awaie the naturall effects that follow it. Therfore hauing left them no other courage than desire, no other strength than desire, no other beginning or ending cause but desire, they will continue this hard and hardie enterprise to morow. In the meane time they can find no place in their hearts that dooth not wish you as swéet rest, as Psyche was conueied vn|to by the gentle Zephyrus, and if it be possible by the same ghost visited. They wish that when your lids looke vp, your eies may be brightened, to see to morrow a better daie than this, and therewithall so singular successe, as you may long, fréelie, and ioy|fullie inioy your selfe, to the delight of lookers, and woonder of markers. ¶This said, and all the trium|phant shewes ended, the knights in verie comelie and conuenient order (as they came) departed:

Et fessos soluunt artus, mollissima quaeque
Gustant, & dulci membra quie [...]e f [...]uent.

The next daies shew was doone in this order.Here entereth a most excel|lent and braue charriot, with ra [...]e curious, and costlie worke with the foure chal|lengers in it, which charri|ot was verie curiouslie sha|dowed with fine lawne. The foure foster children of desire entered in a braue cha|riot (verie finelie and curiouslie decked) as men fore|wearied & halfe ouercome. The charriot was made in such sort, as vpon the top the foure knghts s [...]t, with a beautifull ladie, representing desire about them. Wherevnto their eies were turned, in token what they desired. In the bulke of the charriot was conueied roome for a full consort of musike, who plaid still verie dolefull musike as the charriot mooued. The charriot was drawne by foure horsses according to the foure knights, which horsses were apparelled in white and carnation silke, being the colours of de|sire. And as it passed by the vpper end of the tilt, a he|rald of armes was sent before to vtter these spéeches in the knights behalfe to hir maiestie.

No confidence in themselues,The first spéech the second daie. O most vnmatched princesse, before whome enuie dieth, wanting all néerenes of comparison to susteine it, & admiration is expressed, finding the scope of it void of conceiue|able limits, nor anie slight regarding the force of your valiant knights, hath incouraged the foster children of desire to make this daie an inheritour of yesterdaies action: but the wing of memorie alas, the sworne enimie vnto the wofull mans quietnesse, being constantlie held by the hand of perfection, and neuer ceassing to blow the cole of some kindled de|sire, hath brought their inward fire to blaze forth this flame vnquenchable by anie meanes: till by death the whole fewell be consumed. And therefore not able to maister it, they are violentlie borne whither de|sire draweth, although they must confesse (alas) that yesterdaies braue onset should come to such a confes|sion, that they are not greatlie companied with hope, EEBO page image 1321 the common supplier to desires armie.Hope the sup|plier to desirs armie. So as now from summoning this castell to yéeld, they are fal|len lowlie to beseech you to vouchsafe your eies out of that impregnable fortresse, to behold what will fall out betwixt them and your famous knights: wherin though they be so ouerpressed with the others valour, that alreadie they could scarselie haue béene able to come hither, if the charriot of desire had not carried them; yet will they make this whole assem|blie witnesses so farre of their will, that sooner their soules shall leaue their bodies than desire shall leaue their soules. In that onelie standeth their strength that gaue them their first courage, and must be their last comfort. For what resistance is there, where not onlie they are met with forren enimies, such as state|lie disdeine, which looketh from so high a tower to poore desire, that though (in it selfe) it be great, yet in hir eies (so seated) it séemeth small, or such on the o|ther side as vnfortunat despaire, which maketh the countrie so barren where they laie their siege, that it would take awaie all the food of fansie: but euen ci|uill warre yesterdaie grew betwixt them and others who beare the same badge of desire: that they doo so, as thus bestead they are brought to this faire passe, to desire no more, but that this death or ouerthrow maie be séene by those eies who are onlie vnhappie, in that they can neither find fellows nor sée themselues.

Which spéech being doone, the defendants came in, in such order as they came in the daie before. There|fore I shall not need to make a new repetition of the same, sith all hath béene touched alreadie. Then went they to the tourneie,Tourneies & barriers cou|ragiouslie tried. where they did verie noblie, as the shiuering of the swords might verie well testifie; and after that to the barriers, where they lashed it out lustilie, & fought couragiouslie, as if the Gréeks and Troians had dealt their deadlie dole. No partie was spared, no estate excepted, but ech knight indu|red to win the golden fleece, that expected either fame or the fauour of his mistresse, which sport continued all the same daie. And towards the euening the sport being ended, there was a boie sent vp to the quéene being clothed in ash coloured garments in token of humble submission, who hauing an oliue branch in his hand, & falling downe prostrate on his face, and then kneeling vp, concluded this noble exercise with these words to hir maiestie.

Most renowmed princesse of princes, in whome can nothing obteine victorie,The last spéech to the quéene signi|fieng the hum|ble hearted submission of the foure fo|ster children of desire. but vertue. The foster children of desire (but heires onelie to misfortune) send me to deliuer in such words as sorrow can af|foord their most humble hearted submission. They ac|knowledge this fortresse to be reserued for the eie of the whole world, farre lifted vp from the compasse of their destinie. They acknowledge the blindnesse of their error, in that they did not know desire (how strong soeuer it be) within it selfe to be stronger without it selfe than it pleased the desired. They ac|knowledge they haue degenerated from their foste|rer in making violence accompanie desire. They ac|knowledge that desire receiued his beginning and nourishment of this fortresse, and therefore to com|mit vngratefulnesse in bearing armes (though desi|rous armes) against it. They acknowledge noble desire should haue desired nothing so much, as the flourishing of that fortresse, which was to be estée|med according to it selfes liking. They acknow|ledge the least determination of vertue (which stands for the gard of this fortresse) to be too strong for the strongest desire, & therefore they doo acknow|ledge themselues ouercome, as to be slaues to this fortresse for euer, which title they will beare in their soreheads,An oliue branch pre|sented to the quéene. as their other name is ingrauen in their hearts. For witnesse thereof they present this oliue branch to your presence, in token of your trium|phant peace, and of their peaceable seruitude, where|by they present themselues as bondmen by those bonds, which the losse of life can onelie loose. Onelie from out of that which was theirs they craue thus much, to giue some token to those knights, which maie be iudged to haue doone best in ech kind of wea|pon, or who by his deuise hath come in best sort in this desirous strife. This being doone, they being now slaues (in whome much dutie requireth) for feare of offense, dare saie no further; but wish from the bot|tome of their captiued hearts, that while this realme is thus fortified and beautified; desire maie be your chiefest aduersarie.

Which speech being ended, hir maiestie gaue them all praise and great thanks, which they estéemed so well, and thought themselues rewarded according to their owne wishing: and so they departed ech one in order, according to the first comming in. And thus ceassed these courtlie triumphes, set foorth with most costlie brauerie and gallantnesse, whereof I maie saie as the academicall poet sometime said at the gratious entering of hir maiestie into Cambridge:

Hîc cocco murex, aurum superatur ab auro,
Naturam certant vincere quaeque suam:
Nil ibi sat pulchrum, quamuis pulcherrima quaeque,
Et quamuis vincant omnia, victa iacent.

The one and twentith of Iune in the night, the lowest images (which were of Christs resurrection,Crosse in Cheape de|faced. of the virgin Marie, and of kings and bishops of this realme) about the crosse in Cheape (being six square) on all the sides, were broken and defaced: where vp|on two daies after, proclamation was made tho|rough out the citie, that who so would bewraie the dooers thereof, should haue fortie crownes for their labour: but nothing came to light.Thomas Butcher whipped and rescued. The seauen and twentith of Iune, Thomas Butcher brewer, was conuicted in the Guildhall of London, for that he as principall, and others as accessaries, to the number of a thousand persons, on the fiue and twentith of Iune last past, about ten of the clocke in the night, with force of armes, in west Smithfield of London, & other stréets of the citie congregated themselues, and with diuerse exclamations, prouoked the people in maner of a rebellion, contrarie to the peace & sta|tutes of the realme. On the eight and twentith of Iune, the same Thomas Butcher, being areigned at the Iustice hall in the old Bailie, was found giltie, and had iudgement to be whipped on the next market daie from Newgate thorough Smithfield, Long lane, Aldersgate street, saint Martins le grand; & so thorough the citie to the bars without Aldgate, & then to be committed to Newgate. On the 30 of Iune, the same T. Butcher, being deliuered vnto Iames Mase and other beadles, to haue receiued execution, as is aforesaid, he being whipped from Newgate into west Smithfield, was there rescued, taken from the beadles, and sent to shift for himselfe abrode: for the which fact the one & twentith of Iulie, William Downe, I. Hand, T. Harres, and T. Appowell,Foure men whipt and set on the pillorie. thrée shoomakers and a brewer, were whipped from Newgate to the middest of Smithfield, and there set on the pillorie, whereon they stood from ten of the clocke till twelue, and from thense againe commit|ted to prison. The thirtéenth of Iulie, Richard Cox doctor of diuinitie,Bishop of E|lie deceassed. sometime schoolemaister to king Edward the sixt, deane of Westminster, and of Christs college in Oxenford, and of late bishop of Elie deceassed, and was buried at Elie; whose epi|taph (alluding to his name and the execution of his charge, wherein he was iust) hereafter followeth:

Vita caduca vale, salueto vita perennis,
Corpus terra tegit, spiritus alta tenet.
In terra Christi gallus Christum resonabam,
Da Christe in coelis te sine fine sonem.

EEBO page image 1322 Two men of strange sta|tures to be [...].This yeare were to be séene in London two Dutchmen of strange statures, the one in height sea|uen foot & seauen inches, in bredth betwixt the shoul|ders thrée quarters of a yard and an inch, the com|passe of his brest one yard, an halfe, and two inches; & about the wast one yard, quarter, and one inch; the length of his arme to the hand a full yard: a comelie man of person, but lame of his legs (for he had bro|ken them with lifting of a barrell of béere.) The other was in height but thrée foot, had neuer a good foot, nor anie knée at all, and yet could he danse a galli|ard, he had no arme, but a stumpe to the elbow or lit|tle more on the right side, on the which, singing, he would danse a cup, and after tosse it about thrée or foure times, and euerie time receiue the same on the said stumpe: he would shoot an arrow néere to the marke, flourish with a rapier, throw a bowle, beat with an hammar, hew with an ax, sound a trumpet, and drinke enerie daie ten quartes of the best béere, if he could get it. About the seauenteenth of Iulie, I saw these men in the parish of saint Peter vpon Cornehill, the taller sitting on a bench bareheaded, the lesser stood on the same bench, and hauing on his head a hat with a feather, was yet the lower. Also the taller man standing on his féet, the lesser (with his hat & feather on his head) went vpright betwéene his legs, and touched him not.

The eightéenth of Iulie, Euerard Hance, aliàs Ducket,Euerard Hance exe|cuted. a seminarie priest, was in the sessions hall in the old Bailie of London arreigned, where he before the quéenes iustices affirmed that himselfe being now in England was subiect to the pope in ecclesiasticall causes, and that the pope hath now the same authoritie here in England that he had an hun|dred yeares past, and which he hath now at Rome, with other traitorous spéeches: for the which he was condemned to be drawne, hanged, and quartered, and was executed accordinglie on the last of Iulie. At the same sessions were brought from the Fléet, the Gatehouse,Men arreig| [...] for not [...]ning to [...]rch. Newgate, and the Counters, sun|drie prisoners, indicted for refusing to come to church; all which being conuicted by their owne confession, had iudgement according to the statute, to paie twentie pounds for euery moneth of such wilfull ab|sence from the church. The first of Nouember, mon|sieur Francis duke of Aniou,Monsieur [...] of [...] into England. the Frenc [...] kings bro|ther, and other nobles of France (hauing latelie ar|riued in Kent) came to London, and were honoura|blie receiued, and reteined at the court with banket|ting, and diuerse pleasant shewes and pastimes, of whome more hereafter in place conuenient.

On mondaie being the twentith of Nouember, Edmund Campion, Ex libro cui ti|tulus A disco|uerie of Ed|mund Cam|pion dedica|ted to certeine [...] of the councell. Edmund Campion with diuerse o hers ar|reigned of high treason. The fore| [...] [...]. Rafe Sherwin, Lucas Kerbie, Edward Rishton, Thomas Cotcham, Henrie Or|ton, Robert Iohnson, & Iames Bosgraue. All these before named persons were brought vnto the high barre at Westminster: where they were seuerallie, and altogither indicted vpon high treason, the sum whereof followeth in briefe as thus. That these per|sons, contrarie both to loue and dutie, for sooke their natiue countrie, to liue beyond the seas, vnder the popes obedience, as at Rome, Rheimes, and diuerse other places: where (the pope hauing with other prin|ces practised the death and depriuation of our most gratious princesse, and vtter subuersion of hir seat & kingdome, to aduance his most abhominable re|ligion) these men, hauing vowed their allegiance to the pope, to obeie him in all causes whatsoeuer, be|ing there, gaue their consent; yea vttermost furthe|rance they might, to aid him in this most traitorous determination. [...] why [...] And for this intent and purpose they were sent ouer to seduce the hearts of hir maiesties louing subiects, and to conspire and practise hir gra|ces death, as much as in them laie, against a great daie, set and appointed, when the generall hauocke should be made, those onelie reserued that ioined with them. This laied to their charge, they boldlie and impudentlie denied. Wherevpon a iurie was im|panelled, their owne confessions, their owne wri|tings, and credible witnesses Vina voce produced to their faces, approouing them giltie of the former al|legations, as hereafter followeth.

After the indictment was read vnto them, and their answer, that it was beyond their power to prooue them faultie in such matters, so stiff [...]lie they stood in their apparant impudencie; first was mooued to them sundrie treasons past, attempted against hir maiestie by those of their sect and disposition: yet notwithstanding the vttermost of their malice, how mightilie God had defended his chosen Elisabeth, returning their dealings to their owne destruction. Among sundrie these treasonable practises, which the pope, the ancient aduersarie to hir maiestie hath at diuerse times set abroch, the rebellion in the north may remaine as a witnesse of his excéeding malice and spite against hir grace and gouernement.The rebellion in the north, onlie through the popes meanes. Wher|to let vs ad the bull sent ouer by Iohn Felton, which traitorouslie he placed on the bishop of Londons gate: in which bull, the pope vtterlie excommunica|ted hir maiestie, she was an heretike,The sum of the popes bull which our Englishmen beyond the seas hold as their authori|tie to rebell a|gainst hir ma|iestie. he had dispos|sessed hir of hir crowne and dominion, she was not the lawfull quéene of this realme, and hir subiects were not bound to obeie anie of hir laws or decrées; but they were all frée, and perfectlie discharged of their allegiance to hir, so that they might lawfullie, when time serued so conuenient for them, both stirre rebellion against hir, and also enter into armes a|gainst hir maiestie. The popes will in this hath bin put in execution, as through the ill demeanor of di|uerse persons to him affected it was mooued in the north, where mainteining themselues on the autho|ritie of the pope and his traitorous bull secretlie dispersed abrode, they entred into a plaine and ma|nifest rebellion.Doctor San|ders his re|bellion in Ire|land, through whome the people were seduced to fight against their lawfull princesse. The like was put in practise in Ire|land through doctor Sanders and other traitors, who there ioined themselues togither vnder the popes standard, to bring to passe their secret appointment in this realme. Through their persuasions and dea|lings, the people were mooued in the popes name to fight against their lawfull princesse vnder his ban|ner; and to rebell against hir so notoriouslie as they might. The incouragement to this great disobedi|ence they receiued through doctor Sanders a fugi|tiue and ranke traitor to his prince and countrie, as also through diuerse Iesuits both English and Irish, whose hypocriticall shew of holinesse and diuellish persuasions on the behalfe of the pope their maister and head, intised a multitude of the people there to change their profession in religion, and to yeeld them|selues to the popes authoritie, whereby they should renounce the most certeine and iust title of hir maie|stie: and when foren forces should be assembled there, they to ioine with them in their intent, and so traitorouslie rebell against their lawfull souereigne. All these practises tooke their originall from the pope, as well by sending his secret messengers, as also by his traitorous bull, which being sent by Pius quin|tus, is neuerthelesse confirmed (in the former au|thoritie) by this pope Gregorie the thirtéenth, and remaineth in hope to take effect at some time or o|ther,This bull re|maineth in his former force by this pope, onelie a toller [...]tion for the straitnesse to the subiects ther [...] in amen|ded. for which he doth watch opportunitie as conue|nientlie as he maie. But God the iust auenger of all causes, as he hath hither to preserued hir maiestie & this litle Iland from all their malicious attempts and practises, and hath deseruedlie throwne the yoke of their shame on their owne necks: so will he no doubt continue his fatherlie care, that his children shall be preserued, & their aduersaries confounded.

EEBO page image 1323 Campion de|sireth not to heare how these treasons [...]ook [...] their o|riginall, and how from time to time they haue béene en|terprised and confounded: wherefore to blind the peo|ples cies he maketh this counterfeit answer.But saith Campion: What is this to vs here present? What apperteineth this to our indictment? We are here both seuerallie and all togither indicted of high treason; and for that that is obiected against vs we must answer. Let not other mens offenses be laid to our charge, that we should answer for other mens falts committed long since. Some of vs were then but nouices here in the vniuersities, and were altogither ignorant of these matters. What haue we to doo with anie thing that they did? They that were offendors, let them answer to what you can lay against them. For vs that be here at this instant, you must either saie; Thou Campion didst this thing, or thou (naming some of the other) committedst this offense, and ther vpon bring your proofes and witnes|ses, otherwise you shall neuer be able to touch vs. As for these assertions, for the strength they haue against vs, I will not estéeme it worth a penniworth of pip|pins. And therefore to your indictment.

This answer so smoothlie deliuered, and with such coie lookes and protestation of action gested, that all the standers by gaue perfect notice of the man, both of his nature and disposition, as also of his prompt & ingenious wit, to shadow an absolute truth with a shew of great wisedome and learning. For this he knew right well, that before he came to that place, he had woone a maruellous goodlie report, to be such a man as his like was not to be found, either for life, learning, or anie other qualitie that might beautifie a man. So that by his fauorers and fréends it was, blowen abrode, that we had neither doctors, nor o|thers that were worshie to enter disputation with him, he was so farre aboue them all, that they might not deale with him. Here to doo the great titles which they adorne him withall giue credit, saieng thus:

Ex libello que|da [...] fa [...]ose.Quid? Campiano de [...]rat doctrina perito,
Doctrinae natus qui penetrale fuit:
Cui fuit in primis sponsata scientia cunis,
Quíque puer nulli mente secundus erat:
Ingenuas iuuenis qui sedulus imbibit artes,
Vírque videbatur vix habuisse parem, &c.

Now being brought vnto a publike triall, it stood him vpon to argue somewhat of the praise that had béene giuen him: wherefore in verie quaint and fa|miliar eloquent gloses he stood vpon quirks and fine deuise of spéech, thinking as he had deluded manie before, so at that present he might blind the eies of iu|stice, & acquite himselfe of his horrible tresons. But as truth sheweth most braue when she goeth bare & naked, and deceipt finest when he is cunninglie flo|rished; euen so the poore habit of the one discouered the proud hart of the other, and confounded his bold|nesse with hir sacred brightnesse, giuing all men to vnderstand, that Veritas vincit omnia. And bicause Campion would haue made such a cunning conuei|ance of the matter, as though it neither might or could attaint him or anie of them: it was giuen him to vnderstand, that they would not alone touch him in the sequele of the former causes, but them all, and he that thought himselfe the cléerest. Wherevpon do|ctor Sanders and doctor Bristow,Doctor San|ders and doc|tor Bristows bookes were there read vn|to them wher|in most traito|rously they de|fended the re|bellion against hir maiestie. their traitorous writings in defense of the popes bull exhibited a|gainst hir maiestie, were read vnto them, how they both allowed it, and also the rebellion in the north. Af|terwards it was manifestlie prooued to their faces, that Bristows booke in allowance thereof, named his Motiues, was especiallie commanded to be vsed amongest them both at Rome and at Rheimes, eue|rie one being expreslie charged not to be without one of these bookes.

This with open mouths they altogither denied, some that they had neuer séene it,They denied what one of their owne fe|lows had con|fessed, & sub|scribed to, and what euerie one of the witnesses knew to be most certeine and some that they neuer heard of anie such commandement: when as Iohn Hart one of their owne fellowes had auouched had auouched it, and there vnto subscribed. Besides, my selfe when M. A. I came to Rheimes, saw them as common amongst them, as the litle catechisme here amongst children, the inequalitie of the number con|sidered. Againe, at Rome they were as common likewise in the seminarie, and among the English|men in the citie, for M. A. my selfe had it, and one of do|ctor Allens catechismes deliuered me, with great charge to embrace it as my chiefe instruction. My companion that went with me had one likewise; the rest of the witnesses had seene how common they were, and in what reuerence and authoritie they e|stéemed them: yet these men would with shamelesse faces denie it; yea, and if they might haue beene so credited, would haue sworne against it. This ma|nifest reproofe they would not grant vnto, but Cam|pion taketh vpon him to wrest it according vnto his humor, by answering that the booke was not so ill as they tooke it for, nor deserued anie such iudgement of preiudice. Now he thought he could not be taken tardie, but supposed his argument to passe vnreprou|able; for that in the new imprinting of this booke, such matters as did most sharplie touch them,Campion an|swered this point subtilie, because in the last edition of the booke the chiefe matters against them|selues were abridged. were abridged, thinking none of the former bookes should come to light. But here Campion ouershot himselfe, for so slie an answer could not couer so foule a ble|mish. When they had notably conuicted them of these matters, which with obstinacie they still denied, they came to the intent of their secret comming ouer in|to this realme, which was for the death of hir maies|tie, and ouerthrow of the whole realme, which should be by domesticall rebellion and forren hostilitie, the sum whereof in briefe is thus. This little Iland, God hauing so bountifullie bestowed his blessings vpon it, that except it prooue false within it selfe, no trea|son whatsoeuer can preuaile against it, and the pope being hereof verie well persuaded, by reason that all his attempts haue prooued of no effect: he hath found out a meane, whereby he assureth himselfe to spéed of his desire. Secret rebellion must be stirred here at home among our selues, the harts of the peo|ple must be obdurated against God and their prince;The generall determinati|on how to bring to passe their intent in this realme. so that when a foren power shall on a sudden inuade this realme, the subiects thus seduced must ioine with these in armes, and so shall the pope atteine the sum of his wish. And all this must be wrought by certeine locusts of the popes seminaries maintein|ed at Rome & Rheimes, arriuing in England, and dispersing themselues into such places,Their owne confession how they be|haue them|selues when they come into England. where they thinke themselues to be surest, some in one place, and some in another; and disguising themselues like gentlemen, seruingmen, or what apparell they may find meetest for them, haue accesse to manie and sundrie places, where hauing reconciled some, their fréends must likewise be of the same stampe. And so, what from father to son, husband and wife, kinsman and acquaintance, a number are seduced & brought into their detestable dealings. For, after they haue gotten anie litle ground within them to build vpon, then doo they laie vnto them, what a generall bloudie daie is toward England, that the pope and other for|ren princes haue fullie determined to ouerrun the realme; then better it were for you (saie they) to yéeld your selues willinglie, than to sée so horrible a slaughter, both of your princesse, and all that dare presume to take hir part. Your selues, yea and your freends shall abide the same hard iudgement, except you ioine with vs in this action. Thus through ter|rifieng, and a thousand traitorous fetches they haue; one friend bringeth another, and one kinsman ano|other. So that, as they themselues will make their boast, in short time they doubt not to haue the most part of all England: yea and further they pre|sume, that hir maiestie thinking hir selfe in most EEBO page image 1324 safetie, shall then be soonest of all beguiled & deceiued. These are the men that make themselues so sound and substantiall,Campion co| [...]reth their cõming ouer, affirming it was for the safegard of soules. that they are as true subiects to hir maiestie, as the best of vs. Yea, saith Campion, ne|uer shall you prooue this, that we came ouer either for this intent or purpose: but onelie for the sauing of soules, which meere loue and conscience compelled vs to doo, for that we did pittie the miserable estate of our countrie. But where are your proofes (saith he) these are but quirkes by the waie, our liues I perceiue standeth vpon points of rhetorike, you haue shewen vs the antecedent, now let vs haue the Ergo. With this continuall course of boldnesse and impu|dencie, Campion and his fellowes would grant no|thing, but stiflie denied euerie cause: and Campion he tooke it for a custome to wrest euerie [...]hing as pleased him,When he had no other shift, he fell into these words. saieng: that the iurie were not men learned, and therfore causes of conscience ought not to be committed to them, neither was that barre ap|pointed to define on causes of conscience: wherfore, all that you doo (saith he) is but to bring vs in Odium with the iurie. After this order he deluded the peo|ple, appealing still to the deuoutnesse of his consci|ence: bicause he saw the matter brought to the ve|rie push that would generallie conuict them all, for the witnesses were produced and sworne, Harts con|fession and their owne writings before them, so that they would remooue them from their ordinarie illu|sions.

The depositiõ of G. Eliot.George Eliot, one of the ordinarie yeomen of hir maiesties chamber, vpon his oth gaue foorth in eui|dence as followeth. That he, liuing here in England among certeine of that sect, fell in acquaintance with one Paine a préest: who gaue him to vnder|stand of a horrible treason intended against hir ma|iestie and the state, which he did expect shortlie to happen, the order how & after what manner in bréefe is thus. That there should be leuied a certeine com|panie of armed men, which on a sudden should enter|prise a most monstruous attempt: a certeine com|panie of these armed men should be prepared against hir maiestie, as manie against my L. of L. as manie gainst my L. T. as manie against S. F. W. and di|uerse other, whose names he dooth not well remem|ber. The deaths of these noble personages should be presentlie fulfilled, and hir maiestie vsed in such sort, as modestie nor dutie will not suffer a subiect to re|hearse: but this should be the generall crie euerie where,Meaning the quéene of Scots. Queene Marie, queene Marie. It was also ap|pointed and agréed vpon who should haue this man of honours roome, and who should haue thai office, e|uerie thing was determined, there wanted nothing but the comming ouer of such préests and others, as were long looked for. Upon this report, this aforena|med George Eliot tooke occasion to question with this Paine, how they could find in their hearts to attempt an act of so great and horrible crueltie, con|sidering how high an offense it should be to God, be|side great dangers might arise thereby.A most traito| [...]ous and v [...]l|lan [...]us an|swer: of eue|rie true sub|iect to be read with reue|rence of the person. Whereto Paine made answer, that the killing hir maiestie was no offense to God, nor the vttermost crueltie they could vse to hir, or anie that tooke hir part, but that they might as lawfullie doo it as to a brute beast; and himselfe would be one of the formost in execu|ting of this villanous and most traitorous action.

By this you may perceiue, that the death of hir maiestie and ouerthrow of this realme was through|lie agréed vpon,No iot of their good will wanted, if God did not (as he dailie dooth) preuent their pur|poses. and fullie determined: there wan|ted nothing but opportunitie, for preests both then and after came ouer continuallie to further it, so much as in them laie. To the said effect did A. M. vtter most odious matter, the reading whereof would make anie true English hart quake & trem|ble: and to write it, what loiall subiect is able to a|bide? And therefore as deriued from the diuell to his dearlings we omit the same; counting it more loi|altie to [...]ull such deuises and consultations asléepe, than to publish them to the world in bl [...]cke & white: due reuerence to the principall obiects alwaies re|serued. All which abhominable stuffe, circumstances of times, places, persons, and other particulars dulie pondered, giue euident demonstration what affec|tion these fellowes affoord their lawfull queene and countrie: well is he that can imagine most against hir maiestie, and highlie is he esteemed that beareth the most traitorous hart to hir.Campion nor his fellowes will grant to anie thing, but raile and vse bold spee|ches, whereby their guiltie consciences were disco|uered. Yet Campion and the rest of his fellowes they plead ignorance in all these causes, they bolster vp one another with large protestations, railing words, and subtill surnuses: affirming that they were not sent hither for anie such intent which is as vntrue, as we know it for truth, that the Lord God liueth in heauen.

For this M. A. I am able to saie my selfe, that at di|uerse other times, it was whispered among them in the seminarie: that shortlie there should be préests appointed for England, to win the people against the appointed time, when as a great armie should be readie to ioine with them: and Campion, who was then at Praga in Bohemia, he was spoken of a|mongst them all, to be a rare and singular fellow, and therefore generallie was taken for a méet man to be sent about such a message, so that they iudged that he should be sent for to be a chiefe man in this matter.Campion co|uereth their traitorous in|ten [...]s vnder the sauing of soules. Well (saith Campion) it may be they had such an opinion of me, which in my selfe I find not to be deserued; and it may be that I was appointed to be sent into England, according as those other preests were, for the sauing of soules and benefit of my countrie: must it follow then that we are sent to practise the death of the quéene, and to seeke the ruine of our countrie? Alas, this is a hard case, and I de|sire you of the iurie to marke it, for these are but shadowes without anie substance.A holie kind of life were it not for the B This you are to note, that we which enter into that Blessed societie of the Iesuites: we doo as it were forsake the world, vowing our selues to chastitie and sinceritie of con|science, to obeie our superiours, and to be readie to go whither they shall appoint vs. If they send vs to the Indies, or to anie such places, where the people haue not the true catholike faith: we are bound by dutie in conscience to go whither they appoint vs. And shall it then be said that we come for the destru|ction of the prince and countrie, where we settle our selues? Alas, that were a hard case,Note here the perfect image of hypocrisie. for christian cha|ritie willeth vs to comfort one another, and if we can to get the shéepe into the fold which hath long run astraie. And when we heare confession, we doo not persuade them to anie disobedience; for that is against the nature of confession: God forbid that we should once thinke anie such thing.

Behold the subtill shifts that he found out still to flie vnto, yea though the manifest disproofe laie be|fore them, yet would he find some cauill or other: for not onelie the euidence of their generall determina|tion beyond the seas was shewed them, but also the traitorous articles were there read vnto them, which Iohn Hart had copied out for doctor Allen (concer|ning the procéeding of these traitorous causes,When mani|fest proofes of their treasons were laid be|fore them: they would in no wise gran [...] their guilti|nesse. and for which he went purposelie to Rome to confer with the pope about) and subscribed vnto, that they were certeine and true, as also their owne confessions and writings were laid open before them, approouing them notablie guiltie of the matters aforesaid, and yet in their lieng pam [...]hlets scattered here & there in sundry hands, they haue faces of brasse to report, that

Insidiae sanctos implicuere viros.

Charles Sled, who sometime serued master doctor Morton in Rome, in whose house there was manie EEBO page image 1325 matters determined, both by doctor Allen when he came to Rome, and diuers other doctors liuing there in the citie, as also diuerse of the seminarie: he like|wise vnderstood of the prouision for the great daie, that it was generallie spoken of among the Eng|lishmen: and to be more certeine he kept a iournall or booke of their dailie dealings, noting the daie, time, place, and persons present at their secret confe|rences, and verie much matter hath he iustified a|gainst them. One Cradocke a merchant, when he was in Rome, he vnderstood the aforesaid determi|nation, and how that doctor Shelleie the English pri|or, who is a knight of the Rhodes, for that he some|what spake against such crueltie to be vsed to his na|tiue countrie, was somewhat misliked of himselfe, and had almost béene turned out of his office. And this aforesaid Cradocke being in prison there for the space of twentie moneths and more: it was said to him, that he might account himselfe blessed of God that he was there, bicause he should not sée the grie|uous ruine of his natiue countrie.Consider eue|rie matter and then iudge how they con|cord and agreé togither. He that hath but halfe an eie may sée how these matters concord and agrée togither, and noting euerie thing as it lieth, may plainelie sée their horrible and traitorous de|uises.

And further, there was a little booke in Latine, which they themselues brought ouer with them,A booke which they vse as their instruction, how to an|swer to euerie question so|phisticallie. it was there openlie read vnto them: wherin was cer|teine rules and orders prescribed, how they should behaue themselues here in England, and how if they were demanded of anie thing, they should make answer indirectlie: or to take the word it selfe, according as it is mentioned in the booke, they must answer Sophisticè, whereby is meant as thus. If they be examined as concerning their allegiance to hir maiestie, they will make their answer after this maner; She is our lawfull souereigne ladie & quéene, and we obeie hir. But then obiect vnto them; Will you obeie hir, notwithstanding the popes exommu|nication, or anie thing that he commandeth to the contrarie? Then will they answer: We desire you not to charge our consciences,To doo their dutie is a weightie bur|den to their consciences, and therefore they abide in their obstina|cie and blind|nesse. and that you would not enter so deepe into our consciences, we trust the pope will not command vs anie thing against hir: & a hundred such like sléeuelesse answers they make, neuer agréeing to anie certeintie, but holding the pope in more reuerence than they doo hir maiestie.

For this consideration they carrie with them, that if by their shew of humilitie, & their deuised order of craftie answering, they might mooue our magi|strats to haue a good opinion of them, & not to deale so strictlie as law and their deseruing dooth worthi|lie merit: then they might with lesse suspect go a|bout their holie fathers businesse, in that their sophi|sticall answers couered so foule an abuse. And then so manie as come after them, purposelie sent a|bout the same affaires, séeing their passage made be|fore them, and being schooled after the same maner: they might withdraw the hearts of a number of hir maiesties subiects, by such meanes as is before largelie expressed; so that destruction should come vpon vs, before we had discouered their trecherous dealings. But God be thanked, as all their deuises haue had their deserued successe, this sophisticall or|der hath sped alike with them for companie: and this let them fullie assure themselues, that what meanes soeuer they séeke against their princesse and coun|trie, God will reward them after their owne dea|lings.

To Campion himselfe the former questions were put foorth at the barre:Campion his owne answer as concerning his allegiance to hir maie|stie. and this answer he made to them. She is my lawfull souereigne ladie & quéene, and I doo obeie hir. But when he was demanded, al|though the pope did expresselie command him the contrarie: if he would neuerthelesse faithfullie o|beie hir? Oh then! they must not so deepelie enter in|to his conscience, that barre was not a barre to de|fine on causes of conscience: that question touched his conscience, wherefore he flatlie said he might not answer it. No, no, he knew full well that the trai|torous affaires he came about, would not allow him such a direct answer as they had looked for, and glad|lie would haue had, that of a Saule they might haue made him a Paule. Wherefore his secret and guile|full behauiour made perfect appéerance of his wic|ked intent, which he shadowed vnder the counter|feit cloke of sauing soules, and reconciling his coun|triemen to the catholike faith, vnder the sweet bait of the amiable title of the societie of Iesus, to which order hauing bequeathed himselfe (and become a re|solute and obstinate votarie) he thirsted after the kingdome of heauen; if we maie beléeue their owne report concerning Campion, of whome they saie:

Nominis inde tui sancto deuotus Iesu
Ille sodalitio coelica regna sitit.

Here it can not be greatlie amisse,The cause why this pope hath tolerated the former bull of Pius Quinius. to rehearse vn|to you the cause why this pope hath tolerated the former bull, seeing this sophisticall kind of answer|ing grew chieflie thereby. When anie of these secret messengers should be sent about their holie fathers determination here in England, to reconcile, shriue, & win hir maiesties subiects to their diuelish intent: if such misaduenture should happen to them, that their secret delings came to the eares of iustice, then they fell into the danger of law. Wherfore to shadow their subtiltie, and to prosecute the effect of their mes|sage, the pope thought good to harten them by this so|phisticall addition. For well we know, & themselues likewise are not ignorant thereof, that being exa|mined, if they should denie the quéenes maiestie to be their supreme princesse and gouernesse in all cau|ses: then they fell into condemnation by hir lawes. Againe, if they denied the authoritie of the pope, as of force they must néeds doo, if they will estéeme themselues good subiects, and manifest a dutifull and obedient heart to hir maiestie: then they breake their vow made to the pope, and so fall into his cursse and condemnation likewise: so that this is certeinlie appointed them, to cleaue faithfullie to the one, and vtterlie to forsake the other.

Yet that they might haue as much fauour and friendship,Our English doctors con|ferring with the cardinals found out the meane for this toleration. as the furtherance of such a cause requi|red: this hard clause (being well scanned of diuerse our English doctors and others, both at Rome and at Rheimes) was thorough earnest sute deliuered to diuerse of the cardinals, who laieng their heads togither, and throughlie searching the bottome of e|uerie doubt: a toleration for that strict point was found out, which was ordeined as you haue heard before. Then in all she hast the pope was giuen to vn|derstand thereof, who respecting what might be for his benefit, and what might turne to his discommo|ditie, authorized them this former toleration, which (God be thanked) carried as slender strength as the rest of his practises hath doone. Yet all this being knowne to vs, Campion & his fellowes will grant no knowledge, but pleade still their deuout con|sciences. An other of their owne bookes was also there read vnto them,An other booke how to handle all ma|ner of persons to win them to their in|tent. wherein was other orders pre|scribed them, how they should handle a nobleman, how a gentleman, and how a poore man: which be|ing openlie read before them, gaue all there present to vnderstand, how assuredlie they had appointed the course for their treason. A number of inuincible proofs passing against them, they came at last to the point of their comming ouer; how suddenlie, how ha|stilie, & all thorough a generall appointment. Campi|on, he had staid a long time at Praga in Bohemia,Campion sent for from Pra|ga to go with other priests appointed for England. EEBO page image 1326 and on a sudd [...]n he was hastilie sent for to Rome: by his owne confession he knew not wherefore, but the message was in such hast, that he must come thither with all speed.

When he came to Rome, he staied there but fiue daies: in which time, receiuing the summe of their charge from the pope, as is their vsuall woont, and their father generall deliuering them what he hath in office: he was dispatched from thense with other préests, who had their Viaticum from the popes trea|surie, and were all especiallie appointed for Eng|land. These préests were sent (as all other are) about the chéefe cause,The priests are there one|lie mainteined for this pur|pose, and none come from thense, but a|bout this cause, which proueth them altogither gil|tie. for that none come from thense but onelie for that purpose. The estate of the cause before expressed, it is too manifest, that Campion and his fellowes are guiltie of the matters obiected against them. For this you are to remember, that none must staie there without they will be préests; when they re|ceiue their préesthood, they enter into their oth, which oth conteineth the summe of the treason: so that all which come from thense (hauing taken that oth) come about the exe [...]ion of the treason, in that none but they that are especiallie sent, can haue their Viaticum of the pope; and then he sending them, the case is too euident.

Let not a light iudgement passe ouer a matter of so great respect, let the popes intent of kéeping them there be considered, the great malice and spite that he beareth hir maiestie and the relme, and then their oth to execute his commandements; all these laid to|gither, discouereth the depth of their trecherie. But what answereth maister Campion to this? He con|fesseth that he was quietlie setled at Praga,Campion granteth, he came as the other priests did to recon|cile & shrine: but he wil not allow that he came for anie treason. and lit|tle expected anie such hastie sending for: beside that, he went to Rome with great spéed, tarrieng there no longer than fiue daies, as is before expressed, and that he receiued his Viaticum of the pope, when as he was dispatched thense with other préests, purposelie appointed for England, and that he came no other|wise than they did, nor for anie other intent than for the benefit of soules, as he still termed it: but he would not grant that he came for anie treason.

So that to seduce hir maiesties subiects, to per|suade them from their duetie and obedience, and to ioine themselues in such sort, as their princesse and countrie must be destroied thereby: this is no trea|son in his opinion. Howbeit, Campion and his fel|lowes pleaded ignorance still, they saw and would not sée,Iames Bos|graue, his ha|stie comming from Uilna, whẽ he heard that priests were appoin|ted for Eng|land. they were so craftilie schooled. Iames Bos|graue, he was at Uilna in Polonia, and as he con|fessed himselfe, he vnderstood that there was préests appointed for England: vpon which report he came awaie from thense in verie great hast. And in his passage, he mentioned to one in the ship, who was sworne, and confessed the same before certeine iusti|ces, that there was such matter towards in Eng|land, as hath béene before expressed: and therevpon he sought to haue woone him, if his purpose could haue taken effect. Campion seeing this begun some|what to touch the quicke, and that in truth it discoue|red the dealings of them all: he taketh vpon him to answer on his behalfe, for that they all reposed them|selues on him.

He saith, that if Bosgraue did heare such news, that there were papists appointed for England,Campion fre|quenteth his accustomed order of subtil answering. whie should they take hold on so small a cause? Flieng reports are not to be credited, for albeit he heard such newes, how knew he, if they were certeine or no? Againe (quoth he) the man hath beene long out of England, and he doth not speake English per|fectlie: it maie be then that some word maie escape him vnawares, which you are not to build vpon, con|sidering the defect of the man, for he maie peraduen|ture speake he knoweth not what. And where you saie, that such a one hath auouched before certeine iu|stices, that he vsed such and such words to him; where is the man, we are not to credit a written paper, what know we if it be true or no? Let vs heare him selfe saie so, and then we will beléeue it.Traitors will neuer beleeue anie truth, es|peciallie if it touch them|selues. Sée what a number of shifts he had cõtinuallie to wast the time, and all to no pupose. The mans owne confession was there, wherto himselfe had subscribed, and foure or fiue iustices set their hands to it for the certeintie thereof; yet this was not sufficient to answer them.

Robert Iohnson he was likewise at Auinion in France,Robert Iohn|son his com|ming from Auinion in France. from whense he came also in verie great hast, vpon the report he had heard of priests that were appointed for England. Now there is an o|ther thing to be considered, that these men, setled where they were, by their owne confession they must not depart from thense without they be appointed by their superiors, then it is easie to be answered, that they came by their superiors apointment at this pre|sent: and as the generall determination was, so they came all for one cause & intent. Edward Rishton, he being here in England,Edward Rishtons let|ter to Ri|chardson one of the con|demned. wrote a letter to Richardson a priest, and who is likewise condemned amongest them; which letter was there openlie read to his face. How there were foure goldsmiths of his occupation latelie come ouer, who indeed were priests, and how all things went successiuelie forwards.Campions letter to mai|ster Pownd in the Tower. And Campi|on being in the Tower wrote a letter vnto Pownd likewise, wherein he gaue him to vnderstand that he was verie sorie, that through his frailtie he had be|wraied those, at whose houses he had béene so fréend|lie interteined; wherefore he asked God hartilie for|giuenesse, and them all whome he had so highlie of|fended.Campion was resolute in the chiefe matter. But (saith he) as for the chiefe matter that is as yet vnreuealed, and come racke come rope, ne|uer shall that be discouered. A number of matters more were brought against them, which to rehearse, would require a farre more large discourse: but to be bréefe, in the end, this was the full and certeine is|sue. That these men, when they were beyond the seas: the generall agréement and determination a|mongest them, was to worke the death of our most gratious princesse, to destroie hir dominion, and to erect such as pleased them when this aforesaid daie should take effect. And that their comming ouer, was to seduce hir louing subiects, to win their obe|dient hearts from hir, so that they should be in a rea|dinesse to ioine with a foren power, and so they should likewise be destroiers of their princesse and coun|trie. And that in the meane while they themselues sought to accomplish hir maiesties death, so much as in them laie.

This was manifestlie prooued by verie large and ample euidence, credible witnesses, and their owne confessions and writings: whereon the iurie, hauing wiselie and discreetlie pondered and searched and séene into the depth of euerie cause, worthilie and de|seruedlie gaue them vp all guiltie of the treasons whereof they were indicted and arreigned. Which being doone, after a godlie and comfortable exhorta|tion, persuading them patientlie to suffer and abide the death for them appointed, and to be heartilie sorie for their greeuous and hainous offenses, the sentence of death was pronounced on them: that they should depart to the places from whense they came,Sentence of death denoun|ced against Campion and his confe|derats. and from thense to be drawne on hurdles to the place of execution, where they should he hanged till they were halfe dead: then to be cut downe, their priuie mem|bers to be cut off, and their entrailes taken forth, and to be burned in the fire before their eies: then their heads to be cut off, their bodies parted into foure quarters to be disposed at hir maiesties pleasure, and the Lord God to receiue their soules to his mer|cie. Afterwards they were conueied from thense EEBO page image 1327 with botes to a place of landing for them appointed, from whense they were conducted to the Tower of London, diuers of them giuing foorth sundrie lewd and dishonest spéeches: as Thomas Coteham, seeing so manie people to behold them, desired that fire and brimstone might fall from heauen, to destroie both the citie and all that were in it: with diuerse other wicked words, which for modesties sake I omit here to rehearse, desiring God in mercie to giue men better grace.

On the next daie, being tuesdaie and the one and twentith daie of Nouember, there was brought to the said high barre these persons following; Iohn Hart, Thomas Foord, William Filbie, Laurence Richardson, Iohn Shert, Alexander Brian, and Iohn Collington.A verie holie thing, but ve|rie méet for his deuotion. Alexander Brian, he had shauen his crowne himselfe, & made him a crosse of a peece of a trencher, which he held in his hand openlie & prai|ed to: which when he was rebuked for, he boldlie and stoutlie made answer; that his crowne was of his owne shauing, and he had good hope to doo it againe. In breefe, they were all indicted on the selfe same treasons as they were the daie before; and Iohn Harts traitorous sermon which he made at Rhems against hir maiestie auouched to his face, their owne writings and confessions with substantiall witnesse produced against them, so that they were found gil|tie of their treasons, as the other were before them, except Iohn Collington, he was quit of the former high treason by the Iurie.

On fridaie being the first of December, Ed|mund Campion Iesuit,Execution of Campion, Sherwin, and Brian. Ralfe Sherwin, & Alexan|der Brian seminarie priests, being condemned for high treason against hir maiesties most roiall per|son, as also for traitorous practises, touching the sub|uersion of the true & vndoubted religion here main|teined, with the vtter ruine and ouerthrow of this realme of England, were drawne from the Tower of London on hurdles, to the place of execution ap|pointed, garded with such a sufficient companie as might expresse the honor of iustice the larger in that behalfe. Being come to the place of execution, where diuerse of hir maiesties honorable councell, with manie honorable personages, and gentlemen of worship and good account, beside a multitude of people not here to be remembred attended their comming; Edmund Campion was first brought vp into the cart, where after the great rumor of so manie people somewhat appeased, he spake thus.

First he began (the people then present expec|ting his confession) with a phrase or two in Latine,Campion in his confession implieth a de|fense of his in|nocencie. when immediatlie after he fell into English in this maner. I am here brought as a spectacle before the face of God, of angelles, and of men, satisfieng my selfe to die as becommeth a true christian & ca|tholike man. As for the treasons that haue béene laid to my charge, and I am come here to suffer for: I de|sire you all to beare witnesse with me, that thereof I am altogither innocent. Wherevpon answer was made to him by one of the councell, that he might not seeme to denie th'obiections against him, hauing béene prooued so manifestlie to his face, both by suffi|cient witnesse and euidence. Well my lord (quoth he) I am a catholike man, and a priest, in that faith haue I liued hitherto, and in that faith I doo intend to die; and if you esteeme my religion treason, then of force I must grant vnto you, as for anie other treason I will not consent vnto. Then was he moo|ued as concerning his traitorous and hainous of|fense to the quéenes most excellent maiestie. Where|to he answered; She is my lawfull princesse and quéene. There somwhat he drew in his words to him|selfe, whereby was gathered, that somwhat he would haue gladlie spoken: but the great timiditie and vnstable opinion of his conscience, wherein he was all the time euen to the death, would not suffer him to vtter it.

Here is with iudgement a deepe point and high matter to be considered,Cam [...]ion no|ted to be verie vainglorious. that this man alwaies di|recting the course of his life to a vaineglorious ima|gination, and alwaies couetous to make himselfe famous; at this instant made a perfect discouerie of himselfe. For being somewhat learned,Campion described all matters whatsoeuer (as you haue heard before) he bare a|waie with a maiesticall countenance, the visor of vanitie aptlie fitting the face of onelie hypocrisie; what was sound he would make sophisticall, what was the infallible truth of it selfe he would carrie in his owne conceipt, and delude the people with a pleasant quirke, or some such stuffe, onlie to purchase him credit and affection. And he was not to learne to set a coragious countenance on euerie such slight reason, whereby he peruerted manie, deceiued more, and was thought such a champion, as the pope neuer had the like. But now behold the man, whom neither racke nor rope should alter, whose [...] was such as he boasted inuincible: feare had caught hold on this braue boaster, and terror entred his thoughts, where|by was discouered his impudent dissimulations. Now let it with patience be mooued a little, that the outward protestations of this man vrged some there present to teares, not entring into conceipt of his inward hypocrisie to make a plausible definition of this perillous deceiuer, not by coniecture, but by proofe it shall be thus answered.

Edmund Campion,A further des|cription of Edmund Campion. as it is by men of suffici|ent credit reported, at what time he spent his studie here in England both in the hospitall, and also at the vniuersitie of Oxford, was alwaies addicted to a maruellous suppose in himselfe of ripe iudgement, prompt audacitie, and cunning conueiance in his schoole points: wherethrough he fell into a proud and vaineglorious iudgement, practising to be eloquent in phrase, and so fine in his quirks and fantasticall coniectures, that the ignorant he woon by his smooth deuises, some other affecting his pleasant imagina|tions he charmed with subtiltie and choked with so|phistrie. The learned, who beheld his practises and peremptorie order of life, pitieng his follie, and wi|shing him a more staied determination, lothed his maners; yet loued the man, bicause christian chari|tie willed them so to doo. Now this glorious Thraso hauing by his libels made himselfe famous, and vn|der shew and suppose of great learning (though in|deed being approoued, found verie simple to the spee|ches giuen of him) subdued manie to affect him ve|rie much, when he was taken he knew it stood him vpon, not to loose the credit openlie he had woone se|cretlie. Wherefore in his former ridiculous maner, both in prison, at his arreignment,Campions curious care to keepe the credit he had woone in England. yea and at his death, he continued the same in all points, which the foulnesse of his treasons blemished euerie waie. Now indéed, as our English nation is both louing and pitifull: so manie seeing the gifts of God so well bestowed on the man, and by him applied to so great abuse, through naturall kindnesse bemoned his case, wishing he had not fallen into so traitorous a cause. Then was mooued to him againe his treasons and hainous offenses against the quéenes maiestie, which impudentlie he still denied, séeming to vtter words on the behalfe of one Richardson, one likewise of the condemned traitors, taking on his conscience that it was not be. Which hath bin prooued to the contra|rie, for that it is knowne how this Richardson is he, who distributed Campions libels and bookes abrode: and when he was put to his oth, whether it was he or no, he refused to sweare on his behalfe. And because the world might be fullie resolued, that (notwiths [...]an|ding EEBO page image 1328 all the pretended & colourable meanes be could vse for his excuse and innocencie he was to suffer death deseruedlie as a traitor, &c. There was read to his face in the hearing of the assemblie a pamphlet published by authoritie as followeth.

24.2.1. An aduertisement and defense for truth against hir backebiters, and speciallie against the whispering fauourers and colourers of Camp [...]n [...] and the rest of his con|federats treasons.

An aduertisement and defense for truth against hir backebiters, and speciallie against the whispering fauourers and colourers of Camp [...]n [...] and the rest of his con|federats treasons.

_ALthough at the late arreignements at Westminster of Edmund Campion, & other his complices condemned there of sundrie high tresons, it was manifest|lie declared and fullie prooued,The true oc|ca [...]ion of Cam+pions & other of his st [...]mpe comming in|to England how they all, vnder pretense of the names of Iesuits, seminarie priests, & other persons of like condition, had secretlie come into this realme, by sending of sundrie persons au|thorised by the pope, to mooue the people by their se|cret persuasions to change their professions in the matter of religion, of long time quietlie established in this realme, and to be reconciled to the obedience of the pope, and withdrawen from their naturall al|legiance due to the quéenes maiestie, and by these meanes to be readie in their hearts and minds and otherwise prouided, to ioine their forces as well with such as their heads and superiors which sent them in|tended speedilie to procure to be sent into this relme, as with other rebellious subiects by them to be there|to also excited, of purpose to depriue hir maiestie of hir life, crowne, and dignitie; in like maner as late|lie hath béene notoriouslie attempted and put in exe|cution by doctor Sanders an arrant and detestable traitor, and whilest he liued one of the said Campi|ons companions, and by other English and Irish Iesuits and traitors in Ireland,The euill practises of the Iesuits in Ireland. where they had first by their like secret meanes and persuasions, intised a great multitude of people of that land, first to change their profession of religion, and to acknow|ledge the popes authoritie, and to renounce the iust authoritie of hir maiestie; & so departing from their allegiance, vpon the arriuall of forten forces they did enter into a manifest rebellion, against the which al|mightie God the iust auenger of rebels by his good|nesse hath giuen hir maiestie (through hir good mini|sters) power to the vanquishing, not onelie of those forren forces, but also of a great number of the re|bels there.The procée|ding of iustice against Cam|pion, &c: defa| [...]ned. Yet it is maliciouslie, falselie, and traito|rouslie by some of the secret fauourers of the said Campion, and other the said condemned traitors whispered in corners, that the offenses of these trai|tors were but for their secret attemptings as Iesu|its, by exhorting and teaching; with shriuing, mas|sing, and such like acts, to mooue people to change their religion, & to yeeld their obedience to the pope as Christs vicar (although the same be of themselues offenses verie heinous, and séeds of sedition not al|lowable by the lawes of the realme) whereas in ve|rie truth neuerthelesse it did manifestlie appeere vp|on their indictments, and at their arreignements, by sundrie confessions of some of their owne compani|ons, and by manie good proofes and witnesses produ|ced and sworne before their faces, that their facts whereof they were arreigned and condemned, were such as were in truth hie tresons committed against hir maiesties roiall person, and against the ancient lawes and statutes of this realme,Campion and his com [...]lices offense was ranke trea [...]on. which manie hun|dred yeres past were in force against like traitors, and not for facts of doctrine or religion, nor yet for of|fenses against anie late or new statutes, the same being manie conspiracies at sundrie times beyond the seas, at Rome in Italie and other places, and lastlie at Rheimes in France, where there are nou|rished by the popes authoritie in seminaries multi|tudes of English Iesuits, seminarie priests, and fu|gitiues, whereof their heads and gouernors vse con|tinuallie in their sermons, and in their bookes pub|likelie printed, as traitors to declare their traitorous minds as far forth as they can, to the depriuation of the queenes maiestie of hir life and crowne: to which ends the said Campion and his said companions, by procurement of their said heads, came secretlie into this realme, to mooue the subiects to renounce their naturall obedience;The su [...] and dri [...]t of pope Pius his s [...]|ditious bull. & according to a bull of the last pope Pius published to persuade all sorts with whom they durst secretlie deale, that hir maiestie by the said popes excommunication was not the lawfull quéene of the realme, nor that the subiects were bound to obeie anie of hir lawes or ministers: but that they were all frée, and discharged of their obedience and allegiance, and that they might lawfullie, yea that when time might serue, they ought to take armes a|gainst hir maiestie, as in the late rebellion in the north was manifestlie by like meanes put in exe|cution, and as now also latelie was notoriouslie at|tempted in Ireland, by stirring vp the people in the popes name, and vnder his st [...]ndard to an open ge|nerall rebellion. And to haue brought these things to passe in this realme, was the comming into this realme of the said Campion and his complices most manifestlie tried and prooued;Much mis|chiefe preuen|ted by the timelie atta|ching of Cam|pion and his like. as if by Gods goodnes by their apprehensions, after their secret wandrings and disguisings of themselues in a great part of the shires of the realme, these traitors had not beene now staied, and by iust punishmments ordered to be e [...]e|cuted, there would haue appéered such mischiefe as islamentable to be thought of; to the danger of hir maiesties person, and to the hazard and ruine of the whole realme by inuasion of the same with forren e|nim [...]es, and by raising of inward warre within the realme; the end and euent whereof, as of warre ci|uill, can not be without great greefe mentioned or imagined.

And to the further reproofe and condemnation of the said Campion and other the traitours now con|demned,How the trai|tors stood opinioned to ye said factio [...]s bull, &c. they being all seuerallie and earnestlie re|quired at the place of their arreignement to declare what they thought of the said popes bull by which hir maiestie was in the popes intention depriued of the crowne) and of doctors Sanders, and of Bristowes traitorous writings in maintenance of the said bull, and allowance of the rebellion in the north, and of Sanders traitorous actions in Ireland; and be|ing likewise demanded what they did thinke if the present pope should publish the like bull: none of them all, but one onelie named Rushton, could be persuaded by anie their answers to shew in anie part their mislikings either of the former bull, or of doctor Sanders, or Bristowes traitorous writings or actions, or of the pope that now is, if he should now publish the like bull against hir maiestie; so as they did apparantlie shew their traitorous harts still fired to persist in their diuelish minds against their naturall allegiance: whereof God giue all good sub|iects, being true Englishmen borne, grace to be|ware, and in no sort to giue eare or succour to such pernicious traitors, howsoeuer they shall be couered with hypocrisie, & false and fained holines of Rome.

This aduertisement read and heard, the time by pitifull delaies began to passe awaie, in somuch that the executioner was now to fall to his charge: wher|vpon Campion was exhorted to praie with the peo|ple in English; naie, to doo so he was desired, how|beit he would not: but said his Pater noster in Latine, and desired all those of the household of faith to saie EEBO page image 1329 one Credo for him. Manie indirect answers he made, as when he was mooued to aske the quéene forgiue|nesse, and when the preacher requested him to shew some signe of a penitent sinner, then shortlie he re|plied: You and I, we are not of one religion. After a few silent praiers to himselfe, the cart was drawen awaie, & he committed to the mercie of God. There he hanged till he was dead, when being cut downe, he was bowelled and quartered, according as it was appointed by iustice.Rafe Sher|wins beha|uiour at his death. Rafe Sherwin séemed a man of better iudgement, more learned, and more obedient; he said the Lords praier in English, belée|uing in God that made him, in Christ his sonne that saued him, and in the Holieghost that sanctified him: and according to the saieng of S. Augustine, desired Iesus, that he would be to him Iesus, as much to saie, as his sauiour and redéemer. He likewise con|fessed himselfe a catholike man and a préest, inten|ding to die in that faith. But when the treasons were mooued to him, he likewise did make deniall thereof. He asked the quéenes maiestie forgiuenesse, and de|sired that she might long liue and reigne ouer vs. Then was read to him the booke of the aduertise|ment, which before had beene read to Campion, and after a few praiers he likewise ended his life.Alexander Brians de|menour at his death. Alex|ander Brian séemed more obstinate and impious, vsing verie little signe of repen [...]ance and hartie hu|militie: he vsed manie praiers to himselfe, and spake verie little worthie the rehearsall. Iustice being ex|ecuted on him, he and Sherwin were quartered, ac|cording as Campion had beene before them.

¶No sooner had iustice giuen the blow of executi|on, and cut off the foresaid offendors from the earth; but certeine enimies to the state politike and ecclesi|astike, greatlie fauouring them, and their cause, which they falslie gaue out to be religion, dispersed abroad their libels of most impudent deuise, tending to the iustifieng of the malefactors innocencie, to the heinous and vnrecompensable defamation of the course of iustice and iudgement against them com|mensed and finished: in somuch that speaking of the daie whereon they died, they blushed not to intitle them martyrs, saieng among other things not pub|lishable, as in these few verses extracted followeth:

Ex libello quo|dam famoso.Vna dies viuos pariter caesósque videbat,
In coelum missos vidit & vna dies:
Aeternísque breui gaudent pro morte coronis,
Haec sunt martyribus dona parata pijs.
Foelix illa dies mensis fuit illa Decembris,
Martyrijs donans coelica regna tribus:
Foelix quae sanctum suscepit terra cruorem,
Quem caecata odij fuderat ira Alludit ad Angliam. tui:
Supremúmque manens foelix constantia finem,
Atque in conspectu mors pretiosa Dei, &c.

Thus slanderouslie against the administration of iustice scattered these vipers brood their lieng re|ports, therein to the skies aduancing the children of iniquitie as spotlesse; yea forging most monstruous fables, put them in print; as though God and na|ture had suffered violence to their vnappeaseable in|dignation, for that men of such integritie forsooth and extraordinarilie sanctified, suffered to shamefull a death: Abr. Fl. Ex concione a|pud crucem Paulinam per D. Sellar 6. Feb. 1586. in somuch that it was bruted abroad not by men, but brute beasts, that on the selfe same daie wheron Campion was executed, the riuer of Thams did neither eb nor flow, but stood still. O miracle! Whether this were a lie or not, as all the world may sweare it was no truth; this is certeine and vndoub|ted, that there was found a facultie about Campion a litle before his death, wherein authoritie was giuen him from the bishop of Rome Gregorie the thir|téenth, to execute the sentence of the bull published by Pius Quintus against all the quéens maiesties subiects as heretiks, &c: and yet this man forsooth (al|beit notorious) died not for treason but for religion, as with fowle mouths they are not ashamed to saie:

Relligio crimen non mala vita fuit.

But of this matter inough, & now to the processe of English accidents after this tragicall narration.] When the quéene of England and the monsieur euen duke of Aniou vnderstood by report made to hir ma|iestie and his highnesse by monsieur de Pruneaux (who had béene sent ouer a litle before from the duke to the prince of Orange,Monsieur the duke of Aniou departeth out of England. and had prosecuted the trea|tie the former yeares as his ordinarie ambassador) what good will and great longing he had found in the prince of Orange, who was come into the Ile of Walkeren with a great number of gentlemen, and with the deputies of the states, and of the chiefest of the best cities of the low countrie to receiue his highnesse, and to doo him most humble seruice: and when they had also heard the ambassage of the lords of Ohain & Iunius, sent from the lords of the state to the duke, to shew vnto him the excéeding great de|sire which all the people had to sée his highnes, for the present ratifieng of the former couenants that had passed betwixt them: for accomplishing whereof it was néedfull that he should passe ouer with all spéed: whereby the same thing was confirmed which had béene declared oft afore by the lord of mount saint Aldegond, ordinarie ambassador to hir maiestie and his hignes: vpon the intelligence of these things, it was resolued by hir maiestie & his highnes, that the monsieur should depart. Wherevpon the quéene cal|ling the lord Howard, commanded him (for the earle of Lincolne was then sicke) to take vpon him the charge of the admerals ship, and to go to Rochester, and there to choose vessels méet for transporting of the monsieur & his traine, & to furnish them with men of war, mariners, and all manner of necessaries as well of war as of vittels. Which thing was doone with such diligence and speed, that the ships being readie with all things in lesse than eight daies, passed out of the riuer of Rochester and the Thames, and were conueied to the downes néere to the towne of Sandwich, where the monsieur was to take ship|ping. And for so much as the monsieur came into England accompanied but with a few princes and lords, & they also had left their traine in France, & some of the same lords were sent backe againe after|ward by his commandement and for his seruice; the quéene determined to giue him a companie & traine méet for his greatnesse, taking his iournie about so great & noble exploit. And therfore (as agréeing with hir highnesse hart) she commanded the earle of Lei|cester master of hir horsses, the lord of Hunsdon go|uernour of Berwike hir maiesties néere kinsman,

—(cuius fuerat matertera pulchra
Reginae genetrix Henrici nobilis Nempe Annae Henrici 8 vx [...], sereniss. reginae Elisabethae ge|netrix. vxor)
and the lord Howard the viceadmerall (of whom the first two were of hir priuie councell, and all thrée were knights of the order (of the garter) to attend vpon him, and to assemble as great a number of English lords and gentlemen as could be gotten in so litle time, to honour him withall: wherevnto the said lords obeied verie willinglie. And there went with them to accompanie them, the lord Willough|bie, the lord Windsore, the lord Sheffield, the lord Howard, the lord Awdleie second sonne to the late duke of Norffolke: master Philip Sidneie nephue to the forenamed erle of Leicester, sir George Careie, and master Iohn & Robert Careie all thrée sonnes of the said lord of Hunsdon; master William How|ard brother of the said lord Howard, sir Thomas Sherleie, sir Thomas Perot, sir William Russell, sir William Drurie, & sir George Bowser knights, and a great number of gentlemen; namelie, master Henrie Windsore brother to the lord Windsore, ma|ster EEBO page image 1330 Iohn Borough brother to the lord Borough, master Walter Ralegh, master George Carew, master Edward Hobbie, master Francis Darcie, master Michaell Stanhoope, master William Knols master Francis Knolles, master George Digbie, master Thomas Uauasor, master Anthonie Milde|maie, master Henrie Nowell, master Nicholas Gorges, master Michaell Harecourt, master Fulke Greuill: so as the whole traine that attended vpon the said earle, was to the number of an hundred gen|tlemen, and more than three hundred seruingmen. The lord of Hunsdon had of gentlemen and others togither to the number of a hundred and fiftie: and the lord Howard had as manie; besides manie more, whereof diuerse were hir maiesties seruants. The quéene determined to accompanie the monsieur to the sea side, & yet neuerthelesse commanded the said lords to kéepe their course, and to attend vpon his highnesse to the said place, with all maner of solem|nities, interteinments, and feastings. He on the o|ther side desired and besought hir maiestie not to de|part from London, as well for that the iournie would be painefull vnto hir; and for that he saw the weather faire and wind fauorable, and therefore was loth to loose anie occasion of performing his voiage with all spéed. But he could not preuaile.

The quéenes maiestie lodgeth at Rochester.Wherevpon hir maiestie tooke hir iournie with hir whole court, the first daie of Februarie, & lodged that night at Rochester. The next daie abiding still at Rochester, hir maiestie shewed him all hir great ships which were in that place, into most whereof his highnesse and the prince and lords of his traine ente|red, not without great admiration of the French lords & gentlemen, who confessed that of good right the quéene of England was reported to be ladie of the seas. Also he beheld how all those ships were rea|die furnished and well appointed. And hir maiestie told him that all those vessels & the furniture of them should doo him seruice, when soeuer he would imploie them: for the which he most humblie thanked hir ma|iestie, and so after all the great ordinance had béene shot off, they returned for that daie againe to Roche|ster. The third day they went to Sittingborne, where dining both togither, the queene was serued after the English manner by the greatest ladies of hir court; and the monsieur after the French manner by the gentlemen of his traine, which ladies and gentle|men dined afterwards togither. Then his highnesse besought hir maiestie againe to go no further, decla|ring vnto hir that the faire weather passed awaie. But notwithstanding his intreatance the quéene went on still to Canturburie.The quéenes maiestie ac|cõpanied the monsieur to Canturburie where they & their traine parted. At which place, after one daies tarriance, when she had openlie feasted all the French nobilitie, either part tooke their leaue of other, not without great griefe and shew of verie great amitie, especiallie betwéene hir maiestie and the monsieur. Which thing was perceiued also in the lords and gentlemen of both nations, & likewise in the ladies, to all whome it was like griefe to de|part after they had béene conuersant and had liued friendlie and brotherlie togither by the space of three moneths, without anie change or alteration of good willes. But the honor which inforced his highnesse, asswaged his griefe, and made him to proceed on his iournie with the said prince and lords of both nati|ons.

The sixt daie of the same moneth, whereas he was determined to haue taken ship, he was counselled to lodge that night of Sandwich, bicause the wind was somewhat changed. Howbeit, some of the English gentlemen, namelie master Killegreie, master Diar and diuerse others, to eschew thronging at their im|barking went to Douer, and there taking ship the same night laie a while at anchor, and somwhat after midnight sailed awaie with certeine other vessels. The seuenth daie in the morning about nine of the clocke, his highnesse tooke the sea in three great ships of war. In the greatest of them named the Discoue|rer, sailed the monsieur himselfe with the erle of Lei|cester, and the lord Howard the viceadmerall; in the second called the Sentinell went the prince Dol|phin; and in the third was the countie of Louall, and the lord of Hunsdon. Now as his highnesse was yet at anchor, there came a post from a lord of England, who brought him word that the states of the low countries were reuolted, and namelie the citie of Antwerpe, and therefore he praied him not to depart vntill he had more certeine newes. Notwithstand|ing this, his highnesse determined to depart, and so sailed awaie with fifteene ships: and he had so faire weather (which continued euen vntill after his enie|ring into Antwerpe, and his feasting and solemne interteinement there) that the heauen, the winds, the sea, and the earth séemed all to fauour his voiage, and to further the gladnesse which the people shewed in receiuing him with so great good will.

In the meane time the prince of Orange,The prince of Orange ta|keth order for the intertein|ment of the monsieur. séeing the time fit, departed from Middleborough, where he had taried the monsieurs comming six weekes and more, and came to Flushing to take order for all things that were requisit for the honorable and com|modious interteinement of so great a prince. At the which place, vnderstanding by the letters of the said lords ambassadours and others, that the monsieur was departed from London and come to Cantur|burie; and therefore thinking it would not be long yer he arriued there: he dispatched monsieur Tres|lon his viceadmerall of Zeland, with a litle pinnesse called the Chase, to go before to meet the monsieur: commanding him that as soone as he had discouered his fléet, he should giue him a watchword thereof by the shot of two cannons. Monsieur Treslon hauing about noonetide discouered the ships that were par|ted from Douer, and thinking that they had béene the great fléet, gaue his watchword, which was the cause that a certeine vessell went foorth to the sea to méet his highnesse; but anon after perceiuing his er|rour, he returned to Flushing, where by and by the fléet of Douer arriued. Then monsieur Treslon go|ing foorth, found the monsieur and the great fleet be|twéene Newport and Dunkirke: where after saluta|tion giuen and taken on either side, the monsieur standing vpon the hatches of his ship, espied his owne secretarie named Nephue standing likewise vpon the hatches of the Chase;Nephue the monsieurs secretarie. to whome he sent his shipbote, commanding him to come aboord to him, which thing he did, and there aduertised the monsieur that as concerning the reuolting of the states there was no such matter, but that all things went verie well, & that his highnesse was waited for with great longing. That daie, by reason the wind was turned northeast, they could go no further, but were faine to cast anchor ouer against a place called Ostend, where they passed that night, waiting for the tide the next morning. His ships were perceiued by them of Flushing, where after midnight arriued the lord of S. Aldegond, who assured the prince of Orange,The lord of S. Aldegond, the prince of Orange and the prince of Espinoie, &c, that the next morning the monsieur would arriue there with the tide. Wherevpon the prince of Orange and the prince of Espinoie with a great number of gen|tlemen tooke the sea the next morning: but bicause the tide was against them, and on the other part the monsieur hauing a side wind with him was con|streined to hast to the land. By meanes whereof the prince, being not able to come aboord to him with his ship, was faine to turne saile backe againe to Flush|ing, where the prince Dolphin had taken land alrea|die, & sought euerie where for the prince his brother. EEBO page image 1331 When they had imbraced and saluted one an other like brethren; the prince of Orange, perceiuing the monsieur to approch verie néere, tooke the water a|gaine. But when he perceiued him to come downe into his bote to take land, he turned backe againe, and hied him so fast that he tooke land before him, and there tarried his comming. As soone as he was ar|riued, while he was yet in his bote readie to come a|land, the prince receiued him with great reuerence; and imbracing his highnesse knée,Embracing of the knée. because he saw the weather was cold said vnto him in few words, that he was verie glad to sée that happie daie, which had beene so long expected, wherein he had the honor to behold his highnesse, and to offer vnto him his most humble seruice, with goods and life, & all that he had besides; hoping that by meanes of his highnesse, that countrie hauing indured so great aduersitie, should now be fullie set at libertie. Wherevnto the monsieur answered verie wiselie and brieflie. And when he had imbraced him with such honor as was due in respect of his age and dooings:The mounsier landeth. he came aland, and was brought by the prince to the palace of the citie: howbeit not without great difficultie, by rea|son of the great prease of men of war and other peo|ple pestering one an other, the folke of that countrie thronging to sée his highnesse, and the Englishmen which as then were come downe thither in great numbers preasing to know the prince of Orange. In the meane while the trumpets and drums sounded with such noise that the aire rang of it, and all the or|dinance shot off, as well of the quéenes ships as of the other ships, wherof the number was great which laie then in the rode, with so great roring and thundering,Lustie dis|charging of guns on all sides. that they conueied the newes of his highnesse happie arriuall in the low countrie to Ca|lis, and to other places of France. They of Flushing shot two peales, with so great noise by reason of the great number of the péeces that are in the towne, that all the ground rang of it. The monsieur found in that place all sorts of his officers; for his houshold and his gard of Swisses and Frenchmen, departing from Calis and Bullongne foure daies afore, were come to Middleborough.

The monsieur verie ioifullie receiued.The magistrates of the citie waited for him at the gates of the citie, who told him by the mouth of their recorder, that they were verie glad of his comming, and thought themselues happie to sée him, in hope, that by his guiding and gouernement they should sée their countrie restored to tranquillitie, and set vp againe in hir former renowme. The states of Bra|bant speaking by the mouth of monsieur van Stra|len Amptman of Antwerpe, after their welcom|ming of him, declared with what mind the noble and good cities of Brabant had expected him, beseeching him most humblie to honor the countrie of Brabant with his presence out of hand. Next then the deputies of the citie of Bruxelles (besides the declaration which they made of their owne good will, and gene|rallie of all the peoples of that countrie) declared al|so particularlie, with what great goodwill and affecti|on his highnesse had beene waited for in that citie, the cheefe seat of the lords of that countrie; and that after so manie mischéefes which they had suffered for withstanding the tyrannie of the Spaniards, next vnto God they had not anie hope, but in the com|ming of his highnesse their prince and lord. After|ward they of Antwerpe were heard, who declared the affection of the people toward his highnesse, their long longing for him, and the great desire which they had to see their prince and souereigne.Antwerpe reioiseth at the monsieurs comming. The colonels and capteins of the towne spake afterward, and de|clared vnto him how carefullie and diligentlie they had kept the citie, in hope to put it shortlie into his hands, and reioising likewise at his comming.

Unto all these orations his highnesse answered verie sagelie and brieflie, as vnto all the residue, to the well liking and contentment of all that stood by. The prince of Orange tarried a while with the mon|sieur in the towne house of the citie: and then taking his leaue went to visit the princes and lords of both the nations that came with him to sée how they fa|red, and to take order that they should want nothing, so far forth as the abilitie of the towne of Flushing (which is none of the greatest) could extend, where such prouision was made, that all were well lodged and serued, notwithstanding that aboue fiue hun|dred men of the onelie English lords were come a|land that daie.English lords and their re|tinues. All that after noone was spent in fea|sting, in making of bonefires, in fireworks, in sounding of trumpets, and in all maner of tokens of ioie, which all men vttered vniuersallie for the comming of so great a prince. Also the foure mem|bers of Flanders, which came by the counsell of the prince of Orange, waited to present themselues vn|to him at Middleborough.

The prince of Orange,Thrée waies to Middlebo|rough. perceuing that the mon|sieur was minded to go the next daie to Middlebo|rough, told him that there were thrée waies, the one about the castell of Ramekins, to enter in at the great chanell of Middleborough by the bout of the foreland; an other by the little chanell through the countrie; and that he had kept ships in a readinesse to go the outer waie, and a great fort of botes to go the inner waie, because his highnesse could not ior|neie either by coch or on horssebacke by reason of the winter, and there was but onelie one causeie where|by folke trauelled ordinarilie on foot. The monsieur beholding the fitnesse of the time, for indéed it was verie faire weather, and vnderstanding that the waie was not past a good French league in length, vnder|tooke to go it on foot, and so did all the rest of the prin|ces, lords, and gentlemen, as well of the same coun|trie, as of France and England.The monsieur is met going to Middlebo|rough. A great sort of the monsieurs house, which were lodged alredie at Mid|dleborough, came to méet him, speciallie his gard of Frenchmen and Swissers. A good waie out of the towne the magistrate of Middleborough came to meet him, as it were, about a third part of the waie, and there making an oration to him, told him of the great and long desire which all the people had of his comming, and that the people of Middleborough for their owne part thought themselues greatlie ho|nored, in that he had vouchsafed to come to their ci|tie, offering all dutifulnesse vnto him. His gard al|so met him in the same place, & then began the Swis|sers to march on in their order, striking vp their drums after their manner. Moreouer, six companies of the citizens well armed and well araied stood im|battelled without the towne, who kept their place till the monsieur was past, and then they followed after leisurelie behind.

The deputies of the states of the earledome of Zeland waited his comming at the towne gate;The deputies of the states of the earledome of Zeland. who hauing declared the gladnesse which they concei|ued, reioised at the happie successe which his highnes had had in making the peace in France, and in res|cuing the citie of Cambraie by his armie and in his owne person, and in his passing into England, which they knew he had taken vpon him for none o|ther cause than for the furtherance of the affaires of those countries; and finallie for that hauing put his person in danger of that passage, he was now hap|pilie arriued in Zeland, most humblie thanking his highnesse, and declaring what hope they had concei|ued of his presence, and therewithall offering right humblie whatsoeuer their dutie required.The monsieur would doo as the companie did At the en|trie of the gate one brought him a coursor of Na|ples, but he determined with himsefe (séeing that EEBO page image 1332 the princes and lords had not their horsses there) to go through with his iornie on foot, and so entred into the citie of Middleborough in this order. First went the magistrates of the citie with their vnder officers and ministers of iustice. Next them the deputies of the states of Zeland. After them followed diuerse gentlemen of all the three nations, with the deputies of the cities of Brabant, and of the foure members of Flanders. Then marched the Swissers after their accustomed fashion; in whose traine were a great sort of noblemen and also gentlemen, of whome the most part were Englishmen of the retinue of the thrée lords sent thither by the quéene.The earle of Leicester and other English lords. Behind them insued as it were in one troope togither, the prince Dolphin, the earle of Leicester, the prince of Espi|noie, the countie de Lauall, the lord of Hunsdon, the lord Howard [...]nd the rest of the lords. Then came the monsieur himselfe, hauing on his left hand some|what more than halfe a pase beneath him, the prince of Orange, of whome he alwaies asked some questi|on. After him followed his gard of Frenchmen, and after them the gard of the prince of Orange; and last of all the six ensigns that stood in battell raie without the citie, and ten others which had marshalled the stréets vnto the market place, where all the rest of the citizens were imbattelled. Throughout all the stréets from the gate to the monsieurs lodging, there were railes, and at euerie tenth pase on either side were burning cressets.Burning cressets on each side. And so his highnesse and all the nobilitie which accompanied him, passed on, maruel|led to sée so goodlie a citie in so little an Ile, and so néere to thrée other good towns, not distant one from another aboue one league. But most of all they won|dered at the beautie of the marketsted, and of the common hall of the citie. His highnes lodging was verie well and richlie hanged and furnished, conside|ring the small respit that the inhabitants had, so as he was verie well and commodiouslie lodged, both he and all the princes, noblemen, and gentlemen of all nations that attended vpon him. That euening was passed in feasting, in making of bonfires in the stréets, in artificiall fireworks vpon the towers and stéeples,The monsieur Taiard re|corder of Gant. and in sounding of trumpets. The next mor|ning the twelue deputies of the foure members of Flanders speaking to his highnesse by the mouth of monsieur Taiard the recorder of Gant, declared at large the great goodwill of all the people of Flan|ders towards him, and that like as they had beene of the first that had sent vnto him, so they hoped to be of the first that should yéeld all humble seruice and sub|iection vnto him. Wherevnto his highnesse answe|red verie discréetlie, as his custome was. He pas|sed the rest of the time in plaieng at tennis with the prince of Orange, and after with other lords.

The thirtéenth daie he had a solemne feast made him in the townehall,A solemne feast held in the townehall. where his highnesse comman|ded the tables to be prepared of purpose, that he might haue the companie of the prince Dolphin, the prince of Orange, the earle of Leicester, the prince of Espinoie, the countie de Lauall, the lord of Huns|don, and the lord Howard. For the lords of England were highlie regarded & honored euerie where, both in respect of hir maiestie which sent them, and also for the worthines of their persons. The feast was excel|lentlie well furnished of all things, & speciallie of ta|pistrie worke & other deuises of sugar; insomuch that both the Frenchmen and Englishmen confessed, that they had not béene woont to sée such manner of seruices in their countries. The fourteenth daie the prince of Orange would néeds go sée the putting of the ships in a readinesse, which should carrie the mon|sieur and his traine, which were in number foure and fiftie, and therefore he would haue gone to the fore|land of Middleborough. Whereof the monsieur hea|ring would néeds go with him.The mon|sieur go|eth to see the towne of Ermwiden. On thursdaie the fif|téenth of that moneth, his highnesse went to see the towne of Ermwiden, which is about halfe a league from Middleborough. And vnderstanding that the English lords were gone to sée the towne of Uere, (called by strangers Camfer by reson of the passage that was sometime in the towne of Campe which is now drowned) he also tooke bote and went thither, where all the companie was verie well receiued by the inhabitants, notwithstanding that they were taken vnprouided. The sixteenth daie his highnesse was determined to haue taken ship, but there arose so great a storme, that the mariners councelled him to forbeare the sea for that daie: by reason whereof his imbarking was deferred till the next morrow, at which time his highnesse with all his traine sailed awaie.The mon|sieurs ships painted with his owne co|lours. He himselfe was caried in a ship painted all ouer with his owne colours beset with a number of flags and pensils of the armes of Aniou. The resi|due had their accustomed flags so greatlie feared of the Spaniards, belaied with the colours of the prince of Orange. This fléet came that daie against Beer|land in the Ile of south Beueland, where they cast anchor and spent that night there. The next daie be|ing arriued luckilie at Lislo, after manie shot of or|dinance from the fort and from the ships of warre which accompanied his highnesse, they did cast an|chor againe. He himselfe went aland, and laie that night in the capteins lodging longing for the morn|ing.The fort of Lislo. This fort of Lislo is builded a thrée leagues be|neath Antwerpe vpon the point of a dike or causeie in the parish of Lislo. The place is so commodious, that with a musket a man may easilie shoot from the one banke of the riuer Skeld to the other; and by rea|son that the streame of the riuer and the tide of the sea, which passeth that waie twise a daie, doo make it crooked, that place being occupied by the enimie, might greatlie hinder and annoie the sailing there|of. And therefore the citizens of Antwerpe follow|ing the aduise and platforme laid forth by the prince of Orange, bestowed great cost in fortifieng that place, which hath a great tower with great bulworks rampires, and ditches, and is so well strengthned and flanked to the purpose, and hath the water so at com|mandement, that as now it is not to be woone by a|nie force. The next daie being mondaie, the nine|téenth daie of Februarie,The monsieur prepareth to make his en|trie into Ant|werpe. his highnesse departed thense to make his entrie into the renowmed citie of Antwerpe.

24.2.1. The roiall interteinement of the right high and mightie prince, Francis the French kings onelie brother, by the grace of God duke of Brabant, Aniou, Alanson, Berrie, &c, into the citie of Antwerpe.

The roiall interteinement of the right high and mightie prince, Francis the French kings onelie brother, by the grace of God duke of Brabant, Aniou, Alanson, Berrie, &c, into the citie of Antwerpe.

_IN all great and statelie shewes and assemblies, they that are the authors and setters foorth of them, indeuour to beautifie and commend as much as they can the things which they offer to the sight of those whome they intend to honour, and of those which resort thither from strange places, to delight them|selues with the beholding of them. The ancient historiographers describe vnto vs manie great triumphes, and statelie interteinements of em|perours, kings, and great capteins, and they for|get not to put into their writings the great costli|nesse and charges, and whatsoeuer else was set foorth to the shew, to content the eies of the beholders. And albeit that neither gold, siluer, pretious stones, tapi|strie, cloth of silke, fine linnen, diuersities of vessels, nor varietie of paintings were spared, but all such things haue inriched those shewes: yet notwithstan|ding, EEBO page image 1333 there is not anie thing that hath yéelded grea|ter grace,The finest shew that can be made what it is. beautie, and contentment to such assem|blies, than the multitude and brightnesse of armorie and of things perteining to martiall affaires, as en|gines, artillerie, and shewes of cities and castels bea|ten downe or taken by force from the enimies. And therefore in the Romane empire (which excelled all the other not onlie in conquests, martiall discipline, and politike order of gouernment, but also in sump|tuousnes and roialtie) although infinit numbers of publike games and exercises were exhibited by them being the greatest lords of the world, who not onelie spared not anie thing that was in their owne power, but also made the cities and countries, which were anie waie bound vnto them, to send vnto them whatsoeuer rare and exquisit things they could come by, to serue their turnes in the shewes which they ex|hibited to the people: yet notwithstanding their tri|umphes haue so borne the bell aboue all the rest, that the word triumphing which commeth thereof,The tri|umphs of the Romans ex|celled all their other shewes. hath béene applied to all high, great, and statelie dooings. Not that in their other shewes anie thing was spa|red, which might content the eies euen of couetous folke, or satisfie the bloudthirstie harts of such as tooke no pleasure but to behold the sheading of bloud, yea oftentimes of mans bloud before their eies: but in their triumphings nothing was so glori|ous as the armorie and personages of the great cap|teines that had béene conquerors, which thing con|tented the beholders far more without all compari|son. And therefore when men intend to betoken the exceeding huge greatnesse of Rome, they terme it the triumphant Rome, which importeth as much as the rich, wealthie, and victorious Rome, replenished with great numbers of noble capteines, and valiant souldiors. And this terme is come of the great num|bers of triumphs, which were séene there in the times of the Scipios,Other shewes of the Romãs verie gallant. Paules, Claudies, Metelles, Pom|peis, Cesars, and others. True it is that the other shewes also were verie glorious and beautifull to be|hold, and did (I wote not how) tickle the harts of such as were fed with the beholding of their riches and of the infinite numbers of lions, tigres, panthers, beares, and swordplaiers incountring one another to the death: but yet the beholding of a goodlie com|panie of men armed in goodlie armour, marching in good order (besides the contenting of the sight, which is far better than to sée riches) dooth also wonderful|lie rauish mens minds, and driue the beholder into an astonishment, setting him after a sort besides himselfe; and yet neuerthelesse filling him with a ioy and contentation surmounting all others. For as in the pleasures of the bodie, those seeme greatest which doo most alter the senses with their pleasantnes:A comparison betwéene the pleasures of the bodie and delights of the mind. so fares it also with the delights of the mind, which be|come so much the greater, when admiration being matched with them, dooth also moreouer rauish the vnderstanding, and set a man as it were out of his wits. And therefore when great personages (who can better iudge of matters than plaine simple folke can) doo make discourse of things that are beautifull and desireable to behold: they speake of gold, siluer, pretious stones, pictures, vessels, tablets, and diuers other exquisit iewels: but yet they passe ouer those things & stand not vpon them. But when they come to talke of faire armour, good horsses, and such other things as belong to knighthood and chiualrie: then they make such tariance vpon them, as they hold it for a thing fullie agréed vpon & granted, that in beau|tie and glorie nothing is comparable to a goodlie ar|mie.

Onelie this matter remaineth still in question vndecided;A questiõ vn|decided touch|ing gallant and glorious [...]hewes. namelie, whether is the pleasanter sight, to sée three or foure great battels of footmen well ap|pointed in bright armour, well flanked with small shot, and with their great ordinance before them: or to sée as manie squadrons of horssemen, or else two or three hundred ships furnished with their flags and banners, and ranged in order as if they were readie to giue battell. But as for the rest of all goodlie things, all men are fullie agréed that they come no|thing néere to anie of those thrée, and much lesse doo them all thrée togither, if a man might behold them all at once: as it is reported that at one instant a man might haue séene the great armie of Xerres both footmen and horssemen ranged in battell raie: and also the two fléets of the Persians and of the Greekes fighting vpon the sea by Salamine, where by the wisedome and valiantnesse of Themistocles, the Gréekes got that famous victorie of the Persi|ans. In mine opinion that is the ca [...]e why the glad receiuing and ioifull entering of Francis duke of Brabant into the citie of Antwerpe seemed so good|lie and roiall to all such as saw it: in somuch that there hath not beene anie of them which hath not con|fessed that he neuer saw the like. And yet were there verie manie present at it, as well of the same coun|trie as of strangers, which haue séene manie statelie and roiall meetings, both in the same citie and in o|ther cities of the low countries, and also in other great cities of other countries, as Paris, London, Rone, and Lions: and yet neuertheles the common voice is, that this last hath passed all the rest. And tru|lie the citie had no more but six daies respit to pre|pare for it, as I said before:The respit that Antwerp had to pro|uide for this triumphan [...] shew. in somuch that they could not put to making anie worke of silke, nor of gold and siluer beaten or wouen, nor anie imbrode|rie: no nor in so short time make anie meane appa|rell new, nor anie rare costlinesse of imageries, pil|lers, triumphall arches, or other pageants: but were constreined to make a shift with such things as they had in a readinesse aforehand of their owne store.

In other interteinments there haue in deed beene séene great plentie of riches and roialties in attires of kings and quéenes, princes and princesses, lords and ladies, citizens and their wiues; but in this in|terteinment no such were séene: howbeit there was not anie grosenesse, nor ought that might not well beséeme the neatnesse and finenesse of that people, although it came nothing neere the sumptuousnesse of other interteinements. As touching triumphall arches, chariots, portraitures, and such other shewes; although there were manie wittie inuentions and agreeable to the time: yet haue men séene of them in other places, which might match these. And as touch|ing the number of their people,Paris for multitude of people passeth although it was great: yet it is well knowen that Paris excéedeth them in that behalfe. But the onelie reason of this contentment commeth chéeflie of the great number of people in armour, being not fewer than twentie thousand, in so good and so faire armour: and of their order and obedience, and of the small noise which all that huge multitude made: in somuch that if it had not béene for the thundering of the canons, and the sounding of trumpets, clarions, halboies, and other instruments, there was no more noise than is a|mong a councell of graue men. That then was in mine opinion the onlie verie cause, which was great|lie furthered by their beholding of the monsieur of Brabant,Monsieur of Brabant his attire and ha|bit. who representing the statelinesse of old time, was clothed in a large mantell, with the bon|net of his dukedome vpon his head: so that among that great number of people (which were so well ar|med, that thrée of the best cities in christendome could not shew so manie faire armors of their owne) his highnesse resembled a pretious stone or iewell set in fine gold. And bicause that they which were the beholders thereof (for they could not be euerie where, EEBO page image 1334 nor sée euerie thing) will be verie glad to vnderstand of the things that so escaped them, and delight their minds now with the remembrance of the things which they saw before, as they delighted their eies and minds with the beholding of them that daie: and strange nations,The cause why this re|port was published in print. to whom the fame of that so renow|med daies worke is come, will take pleasure to vn|derstand the same, whereof they could not be behol|ders. Therefore is this booke set foorth, for the satisff|ing of all men, and also to make it knowen to a number of men (who partlie for enimitie, partlie for enuie, and partlie for other surmises and mistrusts will not beléeue it) with what mind and affection the prince of Orange, and the other lords and noblemen of Brabant, the good cities, and the small townes, and namelie the most renowmed citie of Antwerp, haue receiued their new prince and souereigne lord.

The ninetéenth daie of the foresaid moneth in the forenoone,The mõsieur saileth toward Antwerpe. the monsieur the duke of Aniou departed from Lislo and sailed towards Antwerpe, hauing in his companie but twentie ships, for the rest had gotten to Antwerpe afore, as well to put themselues in a readinesse as for other affaires. And he came about eight of the clocke nigh to the new towne, and passing along by the townes side, left the foreland of Flanders on his right hand and the towne on his left, and passed beyond all the towne and the place where the castell was. By the waie he heard all the canons shot off from that part of the towne which fa|ceth the riuer, & from a great number of ships which rode at anchor there: and he saw all the wharfes fur|nished with men of warre of the citie, well armed, who welcommed him with their shot, and were an|swered againe by the ships of warre that accompa|nied him, conducted by monsieur de Treslon and the viceadmerals, and diuerse capteins of Flushing. And so the first foot that he did set on land in Bra|bant,The mon|sieur lan|deth at a vil|lage in Bra|bant. was at a village called Kiell, which is at the canon wharfe at Antwerpe. The states of Brabant, the magistrates of the citie, and diuers other states, comming in like order on horssebacke to the same place with their trumpets, sergeants and heralds, ap|parelled in cotes of the armes of Lothier, Brabant, and Limborough, alighted there, and waited on foot at the wharfe to receiue his highnesse, and to shew him the good will and affection of the states and peo|ple. But the prease of people was so great, which re|sorted thither to sée the prince, whome they looked for to be their duke; and againe there were so manie im|pediments in his landing; that it was found better for them by the aduise of the prince of Orange to re|turne backe, and to tarie for his highnesse vpon a theater which was prepared for him.

This theater was set vp towards a corner of the castell,A theater e|rected for the monsieur to shew himselfe vpon to the people. and opened towards the citie, so as his high|nesse being there, might at one time view both the citie and the castell, and behold the counterscarffes: the déepe ditches full of faire water cléere to the ve|rie bottome of the chanell, inclosed on either side with hewne stone: the great and faire buildings, the goodlie walles, beautifull to looke on and verie thicke: and the broad rampires garnished with trees planted by hand, that it resembled a little forest. The monsieur was brought vp to this theater accompa|nied with the prince Dolphin the onelie sonne of the duke of Montpanuser:Prince Dol|phin, the earle of Leicester, &c: the earle of Leceister, and other English lords representing the quéene of Eng|land: the princes of Orange and Espinoie, the coun|tié de Lauall, the other English lords, the countie de Chateauroux, and a great sort of the barons, lords and gentlemen, besides the chiefe magistrats and maisters of the companies of the citie of Antwerpe.

The lords of the state of Brabant waiting vpon the theater, came dutifullie downe to go and méet his highnesse: which thing he perceiuing, did stand still. Then the prince of Orange stepped foorth to take his place among the states, as one of the chiefe lords and barons of the duchie of Brabant.Kissing the monsieurs hand. As soone as they had saluted his highnesse, and with great hum|blenesse kissed his hand, they mounted vp the steps againe with him, after whome followed the princes and lords of France and of England: and when they were come vp aboue, they ranged themselues on ei|ther side.A chaire of estate. There was set for the monsieur a chaire co|uered with cloth of gold, wherein he sat him downe. And vpon the theater there was likewise a trauerse of cloth of gold, and all the theater was couered with tapistrie. On the front of the theater on the highest part thereof were the armes of the marqueship of the holie empire: and a little beneath them on the right hand did stand the armes of Brabant with a wreath of fruits: and on the left hand stood the armes of the citie of Antwerpe.Banners with the armes of Aniou. Also there were set vp two banners of silke azured with the armes of Aniou, & in one partition were written these same verses:

O noble prince, whose footsteps faith
and gentlenesse preserue:
Receiue thou here the honour which
thy vertue dooth deserue.
That these low countries maie at length
take breath by meanes of thee,
And thou a father to vs all
in name and dooings bee.

After that euerie man had taken his place, and si|lence was made, the states of Brabant began their oration by the mouth of monsieur de Hesseiles doc|tor of both the lawes, secretarie to the said estates,The summe of monsieur de Hesseiles oration to the monsieur. and one of their councell. The summe whereof was, that the barons, noblemen, & deputies of the chiefe cities, and of the other good townes, representing the states of the duchie and countrie of Brabant, hauing now the good hap to sée among them and to behold face to face the prince, in whome next vnto God they had wholie set the hope of their deliue|rance, and of the establishing of their ancient rest and libertie, did highlie thanke the almightie Lord, which had shewed them that fauour: taking it for an assured warrant, that he of his infinite goodnesse and prouidence, had not forgotten nor forsaken their iust quarrell: but had chosen his highnesse to be the defender of his people and the administrer of his iu|stice: to the end that to Gods glorie, and to his owne honour and renowme, the stormes of all troubles, & of all other things that annoied their estate, might by the beames of his princelie maiestie, wisedome, and prowesse be chased awaie; and the brightnesse of their former prosperitie heretofore knowne to all nations, be made to spring vp & shine foorth againe. In respect wherof they gaue his highnesse most hum|ble thanks for the singular loue and good will,The states thankefulnes signified. which he of his owne onelie motion and princelie disposi|tion had vouchsafed to continue towards them vnto that instant, notwithstanding all the crosse dealings and practises that cunning heads could skill to put foorth to the hinderance of their affaires, forsomuch as they were not ignorant that for their calamities and miseries sakes, nothing could haue fallen in, which could haue made more to the fauour and fur|therance of their case. Which thing they had esteemed and would estéeme for euer, as a péerelesse president of his incomparable staiednes and rare constancie:They ac|knowledged themselues indebted to th [...] monsieur. for the which, and for the great number of his other benefits and gratious dealings towards them, they were & euer should be bound to acknowledge them|selues indebted to his highnesse with all faithfull o|bedience, and were readie that daie (by Gods grace) to submit themselues to him, as his humble vassals and subiects. And although they doubted not but EEBO page image 1335 that his highnesse did well vnderstand, and was ful|lie satisfied, not onelie of the generall causes which had vniuersallie mooued the states of the prouinces of the low countries togither, to sue to him for suc|cour, and to put themselues into his hands: but also of the particular causes, which the states of that du|chie and countrie of Brabant had to renounce their obedience to the king of Spaine: yet notwithstan|ding, to the intent to put his highnesse in remem|brance therof, and to confirme that sacred resolution and high enterprise of his, builded therevpon, and moreouer to yeeld some reason of all their dooings to the princes and noblemen, and vnto the rest of that whole companie,The secreta|rie vnto the states falleth to the point of the matter. who for the honour of his highnesse were come thither of courtesie, to further the solem|nitie of his interteinment: to the intent that at this his repaire thither (which alwaies was called ioifull) they might vtter the more good will and gladnesse of heart; they would saie no more but this, that as long as the dukes of Brabant (speciallie since the falling of that duchie into the hands of the dukes of Bur|gognie, and other the famous ancestors of his high|nesse) gaue themselues vnto the gouerning of their subiects by themselues, thereby making it to appéere that they loued them, and were not carelesse of them; they reaped so great commodities and notable ser|uices at their hands, that their names and puissan|ces became oftentimes renowmed, yea and some|times dreadfull to the greatest monarchs, kings, and common-wealths of christendome, whereof their warres and conquests made proofe: howbeit that of those things, as of matters familiarlie knowne by the histories, it was not requisit to make discourse in that place and time, which were appointed to greater matters. But after that their dukes and princes ei|ther by other allurements, or being withheld in their other countrie and seigniories, began to leaue them for a time, and afterward at length to forget them, abandoning them to the pleasure and will, and some|times also to the lust and couetousnesse of their vnder officers, whereof the king of Spaine had lastlie fini|shed and perfected vp the worke, leauing them dis|dainefullie as husbandlesse and fatherlesse, vtterlie destitute of his presence by the space of twentie yeares; it came to passe, that hauing altered & chan|ged almost all the whole state of the countrie, and committed the offices to such as by the lawes and priuileges of the countrie were not capable of them; or rather to such as would giue most for them, and yet the vnsatiable couetousnesse,The king of Spaines offi|cers full of ty|rannicall lord|lines and vil|lanie. malice, and excée|ding tyrannicall lordlinesse of the Spaniards being not contented therewith: in the end, when they had abused the whole common-wealth after their owne lust, they grew into so great pride, that they fell to snatching of the priuat goods and substance of the in|habitants, to liuing vpon the labour and sweat of the poore: yea and to rauishing the chastitie of mens wiues and daughters: and (to fill vp the measure of all abhomination and crueltie) they fell to taking a|waie the liues, & to sucking the bloud of those which sought by all meanes to please them. Wherevpon in the end the great and righteous God (who hath a care of his seruants) being offended thereat, made that people (who had aforetimes beene of great valour) to call to mind their former state and libertie: and gaue them both will and courage to mainteine the same, in such sort as they had receiued from their forefa|thers. Which thing they said could not be better doone than by the election which the said states of Brabant,The cause why the states of Brabant made the mon|sieur their prince & lord. vnited with the other prouinces, had made of his highnesse person to be their prince and lord, of pur|pose to bring all things backe to their former order; hauing first sought (howbeit in vaine) for all reme|dies of their mischiefes, and of the disorders of the estate, from the causes and welsprings thereof. De|claring that the dukes in old time had béene of great valour, prowesse, and power; and had made manie renowmed voiages and exploits of warre, and that amongest others, they had chosen a duke of Aniou heretofore, who had béene equall with the rest in chiualrie & feats of armes, as their conquests and dominions witnessed: that they had had their princes gentle, mild, gratious, familiar, and fauou|rable to their subiects: and that his highnesse had in that behalfe alreadie giuen such proofes of his gen|tlenesse, truth, and soundnesse, that to their seeming, some ancient duke of Burgognie was raised vp a|gaine vnto them. Insomuch that in his onelie high|nesse, they firmelie beleued themselues to haue re|couered whatsoeuer good renowme the duks of Bra|bant, Aniou and Burgognie could haue left vnto them. Wherefore, insomuch as there remained no more,The states loialtie and fealtie signi|fied by their secretarie. but to proceed in the performance of the chiefe worke, which it had pleased the souereigne God to put into the hands of his highnesse, and of the said states to performe that daie: they on their part were readie and resolute to doo him the homage, fealtie, du|tie, and obedience, which loiall subiects and good vas|sals ought to doo to their rightfull princes: of which sort they trusted in God without doubting, that his highnesse was, & that he would promise by solemne oth vnto God so to continue.

Herevnto his highnesse answered in effect,The mon|sieurs answer to the foresaid oration. that intending not to hold the states with long talke, but onelie to be mindfull of the honor and good will which they had vouchsafed to yéeld to him, in that among so manie other great princes, they had chosen him out to deliuer them from the oppression and tyran|nie of the Spaniards, and to rule them according to their customes, lawes, and priuileges: he thanked them hartilie for it, assuring them that the iustnesse and equitie of their case, their honourable dealings in his behalfe, and the loue which they had shewed him, had made him to resolue with himselfe to take vpon him their protection, and the reestablishing of their ancient libertie, and to hazard therein whatsoe|uer abilitie God had put into his hands, and whatso|euer else it should please the king his lord and bro|ther, and the queene of England,The mon|sieurs promise euen to the shedding of his bloud. of their fauour to bestow vpon him; yea euen to the shedding of his owne bloud and the spending of his life.

This doone the foresaid monsieur Hessels told his highnesse, how it was the custome there, to proclame openlie before the people in the Dutch toong the points and articles of the ioifull entrance, which the dukes of Brabant are bound to promise and sweare at their admission. Herevpon, when as one held the said articles translated into French, readie to re|hearse them point by point after the proclaiming of them in Dutch, forsomuch as the daie was farre spent, and communication had béene had thereof al|readie, the monsieur to win time thought it expedi|ent, by the aduise of the prince of Orange, that they should be read but onlie in Dutch. Which thing was doone by the said monsieur Hessels, with a new pre|face added to the articles, conteining breeflie the rea|sons and causes of that dealing. After the reading of the said articles, it was demanded of his highnes whether he liked of them, and whether he were con|tented to be sworne to them, or whether it were his pleasure to be further satisfied of them?The monsieur is content to sweare to the articles a|gréed vpon. Wherevpon he said to the prince of Orange, that forsomuch as he had séene the articles, and conferred of them with him as they came by ship out of Zeland, he held him|selfe well satisfied with them, and was well conten|ted to sweare vnto them. Which spéech of his was foorthwith proclamed, and with further declaration, that for their better contentation his highnesse was EEBO page image 1336 desirous to haue them all knowne, that although the said articles were read but onelie in Dutch, yet would he of his owne good mind, with aduised de|liberation and certeine knowledge be sworne vnto them.

Then did the said monsieur Hessels recite vnto the people in the Dutch toong, the first oth which the dukes of Brabant were of old time accustomed and bound to take for the obseruing of the said articles. Which doone, deliuering the booke wherein it was conteined to messier Thierreie de Leisfield chancel|lor of Brabant,Two oths that the dukes of Brabant were accu|stomed to take. he read the same oth againe openlie in French, & the monsieur spake it after him word for word. Then the monsieur Hessels taking the booke againe, told the people that the dukes of Bra|bant made an other second oth to the barons, noble|men, cities, boroughs, & all the inhabitants & sub|iects of the countrie, to be to them a good & iust prince, and not to deale with them after his owne will, nor by waie of rigor, but by law and iustice, & according to their priuileges. Which oth was likewise rehear|sed in the Dutch toong, & the booke deliuered againe to the said chancellor, and the monsieur repeated the oth after him as he had doone the first. Then were the mantle and bonnet of the dutchie brought vnto him,The mantle and bonnet of the dutchie of Brabant. which were crimosin veluet; the mantle was trailed on the ground, and both of them were furred with powdered ermine turned vp verie brode. The prince of Orange told his highnesse, that it behooued him to be apparelled in those robes. And when he as|ked whether he must weare them into the citie? It was answered, yea: and that it was the solemne attire of the princes and dukes of Brabant of old time.The mon|sieur created duke of Bra|bant. Wherevnto when his highnesse had agréed, the prince did first put vpon him the said mantle, and fastening the button thereof, said these words; My lord, you must keepe this button fast closed, that no man may pull your mantle from you. And then he set the bonnet vpon his head, and said vnto him: Sir I praie God you may well kéepe this attire, for now you may well assure your selfe that you be duke of Brabant.

Then the said Hessels told him how the custome required that the states should presentlie be sworne to him againe to yéeld him fealtie. Wherevpon he vttered to the people the forme of the oth; and then the said chancellor required it of the barons, noble|men, and deputies, and they pronounced it after him according to the maner of the former othes,The states promise their fealtie and obedience. reue|rentlie dooing againe their homage, and promising fealtie and obedience. After the taking of the othes on both sides, as well by the monsieur as by the states of Brabant, while his highnesse was yet still in his robes of estate, the magistrates of Antwerpe commanded their recorder and councellor maister Uanderwerke to come vp vpon the stage, to make him an offer of the marquesship of the sacred em|pire, in the name of the citie of Antwerpe, which thing he did as followeth.An offer of the marquesship of the sacred empire made to the mon|sieur. Most gratious lord and prince, the markegraue, amptman, boroughma|sters, and skepons, the treasurors, and receiuers, the chiefe burgesses, and quartermaisters, the wardens, and ancients of the handicrafts, togither with the coronels, wardens of guilds, and capteins of the ci|tie, were verie glad when they vnderstood of your highnesse happie arriuall in the Ile of Walkeren, as they haue caused to be verie largelie and with all humilitie and reuerence shewed vnto you, by their deputies sent to your highnesse for the same purpose. But now, forsomuch as they sée your highnesse not onelie arriued in the countrie of Brabant, but also receiued for duke, and for their prince and lord: their fore-conceiued ioie is greatlie increased and made fullie perfect, trusting that by this your comming there will once insue an end of the desolations, cala|mities, and miseries, whereinto the countrie hath béene brought by the vniust gouernement past, and by the more vniust and wrongfull warre which the e|nimies hold yet still to bring the whole countrie to destruction, with all maner of calamities and oppres|sions which they are able to deuise.The magi|strates of Antwerps thankfulnesse to the mon|sieur signified. And therfore they giue your highnesse most humble thanks for the paines & trauell which you haue vouchsafed to take to come into this countrie: yeelding infinitelie like thanks vnto God, for that he hath giuen & sent them such a prince, as not onelie is of abilitie and power, but also is verie willing, and well disposed to de|fend them from all enimies, & to rule and gouerne them with all good policie & iustice, according to the priuileges, lawes, and customs of the countrie. For although they be ioined in league with the rest of the states of Brabant, and generallie with all the states of the low countries, & that they haue all entred into armes iointlie togither; yet their so dooing hath not béene to exempt and withdraw themselues from the iust gouernement of their lord and prince, but onlie to mainteine their ancient liberties, lawes, and pri|uileges, that being gouerned according to the same, they might liue with all dutifull obedience in good rest, peace, and tranquillitie.The soue|reigntie of what places the monsieur had vnderta|ken. The full accomplish|ment of which their desires, they thinke themselues to haue most happilie obteined, sith it hath pleased God of his infinit grace & mercie to put into your highnesse heart, to take vpon you the souereigntie of these low countries, the dukedome of Brabant, the citie of Antwerpe, and the marquesship of the sacred empire. For séeing that God hath stirred them vp so great a prince, the brother of a mightie king; they haue no doubt at all, but that your highnesse will (by Gods grace) soone find means to deliuer these coun|tries from the wretched warres wherein they haue béene so long plunged.

The markegraue, amptman, boroughmaisters, skepons, and other members of this citie, thinke it not expedient to repeat the causes of the warre, and the equitie of the case whereon they stand; forsomuch as it hath diuerse times heretofore béene discussed largelie enough by the generall estates: and moreo|uer béene notablie knowne to the world, and manie waies allowed by your highnesse. Yet againe ther|fore with all humble submission and reuerence, they thanke your highnesse, that it hath pleased you to a|gree vnto them, and to promise the maintenance of their priuileges, lawes, and customs: yea and of the articles comprised in the principall composition, and in the ioifull entrance into the dutchie of Brabant, assuring your highnesse,Antwerpe and the mar|quesship pro|miseth hum|ble subiection. that the people of the citie of Antwerpe, and of the marquesship of the holie empire shall be, and continue right humble subiects to you, euen to the spending of their bodies & goods, and whatsoeuer else they be able to make for the in|creasing of your honour and glorie. Herevnto his highnesse answered verie gratiouslie, that he than|ked those noblemen for their good will and affection towards him; and that he meant to shew them by his dooings how desirous he was to gouerne and rule the countrie with good policie and iustice. And all this he did at large and with verie great grace. This doone, the said Uanderwerke turning himselfe to the people cried with a lowd voice, that his highnesse, as duke of Brabant, Alanson, Aniou, Berreie, &c: would be sworne to the citie of Antwerpe, and the marquesship of the sacred empire, desiring them to praie vnto God, that by that so good and solemne deed Gods name might be sanctified, the safetie and prosperitie of the countrie procured, and the honour and glorie of the said duke increased.

Then was the oth, which his highnesse should take, EEBO page image 1337 read openlie to the people in the Flemmish toong by the same Uanderwercke.The oth that the monsieur should take openlie read to the people. Which being doone, mon|sieur the amptman read the same oth to his high|nesse in French, and his highnesse made and perfor|med the same in his hands, which the boroughma|ster of the towne of Antwerpe held vp, bicause the receiuing of the oth at his hand belonged vnto him. Also the said boroughmaster, whose name was sir Philip of Schoonehouen, knéeling downe before the dukes highnesse, at the same time gaue him a gilt keie in token of subiection, and that he might dispose of the citie as of his owne: which keie was deliue|red againe by his highnes to the boroughmaster, to whome he said verie gratiouslie, that he assured him|selfe, that the said boroughmaster and all the bur|gesses and inhabitants of the citie, would kéepe the citie faithfullie for him, as they had doone vntill that instant.

After the finishing and accomplishment of all the said solemnities, the heralds of Brabant and Lo|tricke (or in the vulgar Brabant, Wallon, Lothier, that is to saie Lotharing, or the true Lorraine) cried with a lowd voice,A largesse cast among the standers by. God saue the duke of Brabant, And then sounding the trumpets, they made a lar|gesse, casting a great sort of péeces of gold and siluer among the standers by. These péeces were of two sorts: the one sort had on the one side the image of the monsieur then duke of Brabant: the other sort had on the one side the armes of Aniou & Brabant, and about the verges was written; Francis of France duke of Brabant. On the otherside of them all was a deuise of the sunne, with the monsieurs owne inscription, Cheriseth and Chaseth, which is the monsieurs ordinarie posie.The mon|sieurs posie. Without the towne were three regiments of the citizens, to the number of a thrée thousand men in order of battell, who made a goodlie shew with their faire armours and their en|signes displaied.A shew of mẽ in armour. And they neuer went out of their place vntill all the ceremonies were dispatched, and that his highnesse was gone into the citie. Besides these, there was an infinit number of people in the citie, whereof manie were strangers, who maruelled greatlie at these sights, and especiallie the French|men,The French|men maruell at the mon|sieurs strange habiliments, &c. who woondered to see their master in that appa|rell, and spake diuerslie of it, as is woont to be doone in matters that are new and erst vnséene. But when they vnderstood how it was the dukelie apparell, and that he wore it as a representation of antiquitie the like whereof is worne yet still by the electors of the sacred empire in their great ceremonies; they were astonished, and thought him to be a prince of more statelie countenance and maiestie than afore: in so|much that it was said alowd among them, that sée|ing it was the mantell of the duchie, it should cost the liues of fiftie thousand Frenchmen, before it should be plucked from him againe.

As soone as the ceremonies were ended his high|nesse came downe from the theater, and mounted vpon a white courser of Naples, couered with a co|perison of veluet richlie imbrodered with gold. And so he began to take his waie towards the right re|nowmed and rich citie of Antwerpe, and was con|ueied along by the counterscarfe, vnto the sumptu|ous and statelie gate, called Keisers gate or S. Ge|orges gate, whereat he entered into the good citie of Antwerpe in this sort.The order of the monsieurs entering into Antwerpe. First marched the two serge|ants maiors or marshals of the citie, accompanied of two purseuants with the armes of the citie, af|ter whome followed the trumpets with the armes of Brabant. The first companie was of Almane mer|chants commonlie called Easterlings, well moun|ted and well apparelled after the maner of Almane. Next them followed the English merchants in excel|lent good order, all apparelled in cassockes of blacke veluet all of one fashion. Then came the coronels and capteins of the citie: after whome followed a great number of gentlemen, as well of the same countrie as of other nations. Behind them went the bodie of the citie, that is to wit, the wickema|sters, the wardens, the ancient magistrate, the ma|sters of the wardes, the boroughmasters, deputies, and wardens of the halles, the vshers, the secreta|ries, the registers, the receiuers and treasurers, the schepons, the amptman, & the two boroughmasters, all apparelled in clokes of blacke veluet, and all of one fashion. After them came the trumpets of the states of Brabant, Lembourgh, and Lothier, & after them the states themselues in this order. First went the deputies of the vnder cities. The deputies of the citie of Antwerpe. The deputies of Brussels. Then succéeded the noblemen of Brabant, as the chancel|lor of Brabant, and aboue him Lamorall Egmond brother to the countie of Egmond, baron of Gase|becke. A great number of lords of the same coun|trie, of France,Lords of England and France well horssed. and of England well horssed and richlie apparelled. The Swissers with their drums and fiffes. The monsieurs owne houshold, among whome were intermingled certeine lords of Eng|land. Next this came the countie de Lauall, hauing on either hand an English lord. The prince of Espi|noie, hauing on his right hand the lord of Hunsdon, & on his left the lord Howard: the prince Dolphin,The earle of Leicester on the right hand of prince Dolphin. hauing on his right hand the earle of Leicester, & on his left the prince of Orange: the markegraue of Antwerpe bareheaded, bearing the mace of iustice: the lord Peterson baron of Merode, taking vpon him that daie as marshall of Brabant, and bearing the naked sword before the dukes highnesse: then came the duke himselfe, mounted and apparelled as you haue heard afore. Next behind the duke follow|ed countie Morice of Nassau sonne to the prince of Orange, hauing on his right hand countie Philip of Nassau nephue to the said prince, and sonne to coun|tie Iohn of Nassau, and on his left hand the lord She|field. His highnes was garded by the companies of the guilds, that is to saie,The compa|nies of the guilds. by the ancient brotherhoods of the archers, crossebowes, and harquebussers in so goodlie armour, as fairer could not be found: these went afore him and about him on a cluster without order, like flowre deluces vpon a roiall robe.

After them followed the gard of Frenchmen on a like heape, and after them the prince of Oranges gard on foot. Then lastlie in verie good order came the twentie ensignes of citizens, which had stood in order of battell without the towne. Ouer the gate where his highnes entered, there was a compartement of Doricke worke, wherein was written this title . To Francis the sonne of Henrie the second, An inscriptiõ congratula [...]o|rie to the mõ|sieur. and onelie brother of Henrie the third king of France, called by Gods singular prouidence to the souereigne princi|palitie of the low countries, and to the dukedome of Brabant, and the marqueship of the sacred empire, which God grant to be most happie and luckie vnto him, as to their inuested prince whom they haue most earnestlie wished for, and who as now is happilie come into this his most seruiceable citie, his most hartie fauourers: The senate & people of Antwerpe.

The chariot of the maiden of Antwerpe could not go out of the citie for want of roome to turne in:The chariot of the maiden of Antwerpe described. and therefore it tarried for his highnes at the gate with|in the citie. This chariot was called the chariot of aliance: wherein sat a damosell apparelled in satin red and white, which are the colours of Antwerpe: who had in hir left hand a branch of baietrée, & on hir head a garland of laurell, in token of victorie a|gainst the tyrannies of the king of Spaine, and in token of the deliuerance which the people hoped for by means of their new prince, through his gratious EEBO page image 1338 goodnesse, faithfulnesse, victoriousnesse, and defense: to whom with hir other hand the p [...]rsented the k [...]ies of the towne, [...]. according to the verses written ouer h [...]r [...]ead, which shall be let downe hereafter. Before h [...]r were the armes of the marqueship of the holie empire. On hir right hand was Religion apparelled like one of the Sybils h [...]lding in hir one hand an open booke, named the Law and the Gospell: and in hir other hand a sword: named Gods word: and on hir left hand was Iustice holding a balance and a sword in hir hand, and ouer the balance was writ|ten, [...]. Yea and Naie.

Before the damosell sa [...]e Concord, clothed in white, yellow, and orange taw [...]ie, bearing a tar|get vpon hir arme, wherein was painted a crowned scepter, with two little snakes; and vnder them, two doo [...]es, all closed in with a garland of [...]life, betoke|ning commendable gouernement with prouidence. Upon hir head shée had a helmet,W [...]sedome. be tokening Wise|dome. In hir hand shée caried a lance, with a penon vpon it, on the one side whereof were the armes of Aniou crowned with olife, and on the other side a lambe with a woolfe,Emblems of peace & [...] and a lion with an or, to beto|ken the great peacefulnesse that is looked for vnder this prince, as well in religion as in matters of state. At Concordes right hand sat Wisedome, and at hir left hand Force. In the middest of the chariot was a piller richlie made of Corinthian worke, vpon the top whereof was a Hart held betwéene two ar|med hands, which hart had two wings, betokening Union, Faith, and Force: and a sword with two serpents writhing about it, and holding their tailes to their [...]ares; signifieng Discréet gouernement, and [...]ares stopped against flatterers.Discréet go|uernement. At the foot of the pil|ler was a compartement with the armes of Aniou and Brabant. On the brest of the lion of Brabant, were the armes of the marqueship of the sacred em|pire,Attonement. and of the citie of Antwerpe. Upon the armes was written Attonement. Upon the corners of the chariot were two armed images with morians on their heads, attired in orange white and blew. The one of them was named Faithfulnes,Faithfulnes Watchfulnes. and the other Watchfulnes. In their hands they had ech of them a shield, wherein were painted two swords acrosse, and two doo [...]es with a sheafe of arrowes, betoke|ning Union.Union. Upon one of the shields was written, Defense:Defense. Offense. and vpon the other, Offense; each of the images had a penon of azure silke: in one of the which there was a pellican killing hirselfe for hir yoong birds: and in the other a hen a brooding hir chic|kens. Ouer the maidens head were these verses set:

My rulers outrage, wickednesse,
and furious tyrannie,
Haue cast me backe these keies, which I
had giuen obedientlie,
Vpon conditions neuer kept,
ô prince of noble fame,
With better bead of lucke and lot,
receiue thou now the same.
Thy godlines and prowesse haue
of right deserued it.
O treble happie prince to whom
these countries doo submit
Their state! ô happie Belgike, ô
most happie like to bee,
Which vnderneath so great a prince,
maist now liue safe and free.

Sir gentlemen of the citie waited at the gate with a canopie of cloth of gold frized,A canopie carried ouer the monsieurs [...]ead. which they af|terward vnfolded & carried it ouer the dukes head, who went vnder it into the towne in the foremen|tioned order. All the stréets from the gate to his lod|ging were set on either side with armed men vnder their ensignes with their fiffes & drums. The officers cari [...]d gilt targets and swords in their [...]: and all the rest were armed after the best and goodl [...]est maner that could be seene. His highnesse proceeded fo [...]rth on to the corner of the street called Gastbo [...]e street, that is to sa [...]e, the S [...]ttlehouse street, neere vnto saint Georges [...] where was a shew made in the likenesse of a [...]able, verie great and high, [...] which was made by one of the companies of their tragi|call and comicall poets, commonlie called amongst them rhetoricians. The companie was called Care, or as some others terme it, the Followsun, after the name of a floure which followeth the sun, & the speech of the deuise was, Growing vp in vertue. The shew or table had thrée compartements or partitions. The first was the first booke of Samuell the fifteenth chapter, where Samuell chargeth Saule with his disobedience, & hath a péece of his garment rent off by him, in token that the kingdome should be pluc|ked from Saules house & giuen to a better. Whereby was meantThe signifi|cation of the sh [...]w [...]s con|cerning the K. of Spaine and the mon|sieur. that the souereigntie of those low coun|tries was taken from the king of Spaine for his abhommable perturies, tyrannies, & extortions. In the second compartement was set foorth, how Sa|muell commanded Ishaie the father of Dauid to bring foorth his sonnes: of whome God would make one the prince of his people, that is to wit, the yoong|est, which was Dauid. In the third was shewed how Dauid bring annointed fought with Golias, and o|uercame him. The title or superscription was a [...]y|gian worke, wherein were written these verses:

As God bereauing Saule of crowne and mace,
Did dispossesse him of his kingdome quight,
And after set vp Dauid in his place:
So now likewise dispatching from our sight,
The tyrans which oppressed vs by might,
He giueth thee (ô noble duke) the reine
Of these our countries, ouer vs to reine.

The front and crest being garnished with baners, scutchions of armes, cresse [...]s and torches, caried the dukes deuise, Cherisheth and Chaseth. And at the foot of the table laie Discord closed vp in a prison of lat|tisworke, where she was tormented with belhounds and serpents; and there were these verses following:

Alanson whom God Cherish aie,
Dooth Chase all ire and wrath awaie.

His highnesse passing foorth still beyond the place called the Thréewaieleet, came to the street named Hwiuetter street, that is to say, the chandellors stréet, where was an other statelie pageant with armes,A statelie pa|geant impor|tant to the present pur|pose. torches, and cr [...]ssets, made by an other companie of the rhetoricians, called painters or violers, who had for their deuise, [...]nit togither by singlenesse. In this pageant was painted the néere aliance of Dauid and Ionathas: to betoken the firmenesse of the oth mutuallie made by his highnes & the states of Bra|bant; and the magistrats, members, colonels, and capteins of the citie of Antwerpe. In this table was written in a compartement of Phrygian worke:

Like as the faithfull Ionathas
did promise to defend,
Good Dauid from the harmes which Saule
against him did intend:
So keepe thou vs (ò gratious prince)
which loue to liue in rest,
Against the tyrans by whose force
we haue beene sore opprest.

Then went he further to the end of the stréet, where the vpholsters shops are, which part was full of bur|ning torches & barrels of burning pitch, and so came to the Meerebridge. At the entering thereof stood an oliphant bearing a castell of stone with souldiers and artillerie.An oliphant bearing a ca|stell of stone with soldio [...]s and artillerie. Before the oliphant were painted the armes of the marquesdome and of the citie, and be|hind, a speare with a banner of taffetie, with the EEBO page image 1339 armes of Aniou in a wreath of laurell, and foure o|ther bannerets of crimsin taffeta, pulled out, wherin were painted the hands of Antwerpe, with this poe|sie: Cherisheth and Chaseth. And vpon his side of his bellie were these verses manifestlie written:

Whome light of Phebee heretofore did lead,
I now am drawne awaie,
Her brothers beames to follow in hir stead,
A farre more certeine staie.
I thinke my change right gainefull, sith I see,
These lower countries vnder him to bee.

From the Merebridge he went along the Mere|stréet, vntill he came to the ward, where were foure companies ranged in order of battell. From thense he passed to the corner of Clare street, where was a stage made by a companie of rhetoricians called the Olife branch, who had for their posie, Behold grace. Upon this stage sat a damsell named Antwerpe,A damsell re|presenting Antwerpe holding a cof|fer of priuile|ges, &c. bearing in hir bosome a pretie daughter called the Knowledge of God: who held a coffer wherin were priuileges, lawes, franchises and truth: which were kept by the Grace of God, and by Prouidence, Wis|dome, Faithfulnesse, Diligence, Loialtie, Per|seuerance, Unitie, Good heed, and Order. And aloft was a compartement of Phrygian worke (verie artificiallie handled) wherein were these verses:

O prince, our father, hope of helpe and staie:
Dame grace, Gods impe, whom here thou seest to stand,
From top to toe faire clad in white araie,
With branch of olife in hir heauenlie hand:
Hath willed thee to harbor here within
The statelie walles of ladie Antwerpe, and
The loue of hir with endlesse fame to win,
By curing of hir griefes with law and right,
And eeke by putting of hir foes to flight.

Somewhat lower towards the midst, was Nep|tune with his threetimed mace, riding ouer waues vpon a dolphin, & on his left hand were these verses:

Gods heauenlie grace, and soothfull skill,
reuiuing Antwerpe new,
Through chare defense of faithfull league
haue kept hir safe, as dew
To thee hir duke innobled both
by father and by brother,
Both kings of France, tone gone to God
long since, still reigning tother.
And therefore bend thou now thy wits,
by rightfull force to wreake
Hir cruell foes, which did so oft
their leagues through falshood breake.

He passed from Clare stréet thorough long New stréet to saint Katharins bridge, right ouer against Crosse stréet, where was a triumphall arch cunning|lie painted and builded of white stone,A triumphall arch diuerslie garnished. which was garnished with his highnesses armes, and with tor|ches and cressets, and with musike of holboies and clarions. And on the top of it was written: To the happie comming hither of Francis, onelie brother to Henrie the third, sonne to Henrie the second, grandchild to Francis the first, now inuested duke of Brabant, the prince that hath most déepelie deser|ued of this their countrie, as a father of the same: The senat and people of Antwerpe. Underneath this in an other compartement of Phrygian worke, was written this: At length yet hinder not this impe to bring the wrooping world againe vnto some re|dresse. In passing thorough the short New stréet, & by the marketstéed, he turned toward the Coopers stréet in the stréet called Chéeselane to the great market place, which was full of torches of war, and of barels of pitch vpon long poles vp to the highest win|dowes, which commonlie are fiue stories high. In this market place were imbattelled six ensignes, with the ensigne of the youth which was vnder a gréene standard,Six ensignes with the en|signe of the youth vnder a greene stan|dard. all in the best armor that was to be séene in anie place of the world. In the middest of the citizens was the great giant the founder of the citie of Antwerpe, whose curace was azure, and his ap|parell tawnie white and graie. He bore banners of azure with the armes of Aniou, & had these giantlike spéeches cõteined in these verses, written before him:

Feerce furie, moodie rage, vnbridled ire,
Stout force, hot violence, cruell tyrannie,
Nought booted me, ne furthered my desire:
In keeping of my wished souereigntie.
The surest waie for kings to gouerne by,
Is mildnesse matched with a prudent mind,
To vice seuere, to vertue meeke and kind.
For oft the calme and quiet gouernance,
Brings things to passe which violence could not win:
Feercenesse that case will nought at all aduance,
By mildnesse shalt thou better hold folke in:
Outragious storming is not worth a pin,
By mine example therefore haue a care,
All cruell dealings vtterlie to spare.

Behind the giant were written these verses:

See you this orped giant here,
so huge of limme and bone?
Fame saies that Antwerpe was sometime
a thrall to such a one.

This giant was made by cunning to turne his face towards the duke as he passed by,A cunning deuise of a giant turning his head. and to let fall the armes of Spaine which he held in his hand, & to put vp the armes of Aniou. Also there was a stage in the same market place before the towne house, full of nymphs & vertues. But forsomuch as it serued chief|lie for the daie of his taking of his oth in the citie of Antwerpe, which was the 22 daie of that moneth: it shall be spoken of more at large hereafter. His high|nes departing out of the market place, tooke his waie towards the stréet called the High stréet, and when he came to the stréet called the old Cornemarket; there was a whale carieng Neptune naked with his thrée|forked mace in his hand,A whale car|rieng Nep|tune & what [...] betokened. which betokened the great commodities which the citie of Antwerpe receiued by the sea and by the riuer Schelt. Before this mon|ster was an other naked man, and by him two other portraitures, the one of nauigation, and the other of merchandize, with a booke of accounts, and a pursse, such as the factors doo carie with them when they go to receiue monie. Before this Neptune, in a com|partement, were written these verses following:

The lordship of the seas to thee
the destinies behight:
In signe whereof I Neptune yeeld
this mace as thine of right.
That Antwerpe hauing rid all lets
by thee on sea and land,
Maie once inioie hir wished fruit,
and safe from perill stand.

His highnesse kept on his waie through the High stréet, to a place where sometime was the gate called S. Iohns gate, which was beaten downe the yeare before: in steed whereof there was a triumphall arch of Ionian worke.An arch who|lie applied to the monsieurs owne posie. This arch was wholie applied vnto his hignesse owne posie Cherisheth and Chaseth. On high ouer it was strained a couering after the maner of a round vaut, wherein was painted the sun: & vnder the sun was painted the sea with ships, and the earth clad with hir verdure. Also there ap|peared a cloud on both sides, so as the light of the sun did shine forth and yéeld out his force to the earth. On the outside of the bowing of the arch were pain|ted thrée goddesses: namelie Flora, who held hir floures in hir hand: Ceres, who had hir corne: and Pomona, who held a horne stored with abundance of all things. Likewise the earth was clad with gréene trées, fruits, and fields, replenished with all fruitfulmesse: which thing came to passe by the heat and operation of the sun, which was betokened by this word Cherisheth.Cherisheth. On the other side being the left EEBO page image 1340 hand, were drierie and barren fields, the aire euerie where lowring and cloudie, and the trees and plants withered: which thing was doone by the thrée hel|hounds, Discord, Uiolence, & Tyrannie, who fled a|waie at the sight of his highnes, according to the sig|nification of his other word, Chaseth. On an other side stood the same posie againe,Chaseth. Cherisheth and Cha|seth, by an other meane.

At the right hand ouer the word Cherisheth was a great field well tilled, with a husbandmans house vpon it. The husbandman himselfe being apparelled after the French fashion was sowing of corne,The mon|sieurs posie interpreted in a shew. and an other by him was spreading of mu [...]ke. At the left hand was written the word Chaseth, on which side also was painted a French capteine in armor following his alies, confederats, and souldiors: to doo men to vnderstand, that by the treaties, leagues, and agreements made with the dukes highnesse, all tyrannie, violence, and discord should be chased a|waie; and that by the beames of that sun, the coun|trie should receiue all peace, prosperitie, and abun|dance. Upon the forfront were these verses painted:

Like as the rising of the sun
dooth chase the night awaie,
And with his kindlie heat
the ground well cherish aie:
Euen so thy comming (noble prince)
dooth chase all tempests quite,
And folke with cheerefull hope
of freedome much delite.

This arch was impossed aloft with scutchions of the armes of Aniou,The orna|ments of the arch aloft. compassed about with branches of oliue, all vpon azure. Also there were diuerse o|ther scutchions, whose field was gules bordered with argent, and a great number of burning torches. And the said arch was furnished with diuerse instru|ments of musicke, and the musicians themselues were clad in the colours of the citie. His highnesse passing vnder this triumphall arch, came to a place called the Owure, that is to saie, the banke, where were two companies imbattelled, armed like all the residue.A monstrous sea horsse of twentie foot high, & what it signified. And so passing by the ward there, he went to the place that is right ouer against the mint: be|fore the which there was a huge and monstrous sea|horsse of twentie foot high, vpon whom sat a nymph called Concord, bearing a shield wherein was pain|ted a booke and a rod, which was named, the Rule of truth. In hir hand she bare a flag, wherein was writ|ten, Faithfull aliance. This monster of the sea was named Tyrannie, and he had a bridle in his mouth with double reines of iron chained called Law and Reason. Whereby the dukes highnesse was doone to vnderstand, that he as a true Perseus was to deli|uer that countrie from all tyrannie, and afterward to gouerne it by iustice and reason. Ouer against the mint gate, where the stréet is narrowest, were two obeliskes or round spires, and betwéene them a triumphall arch with his pillers of Corinthian worke, gilded and inriched with his releefe vnder him. Upon the forefront were his highnesses arms, and likewise on the sides were other armes, with banners, torches, and cressets. Under the armes of his highnesse were written these verses following:

Full mightie is that common weale,
and in a happie case,
And blest with all commodities
through Gods most heauenlie grace,
Where prince behaues himselfe as head,
and commons him obeie
As members, either carefullie
regarding others staie.

From this triumphall arch vnto the palace, that is to wit, all along saint Michaels stréet, which is a mile in length, stood on either side thrée score and ten pillers,Three score and ten pil|lers, with a space of two and twentie foot betweene each. with a space of two and twentie foot betweene piller and piller. Euerie piller was twelue foot high, and vpon the pillers was a continuall tarras, & on euerie ech other piller was a cresset: and on the pil|lers betwéene were the armes of Brabant, Aniou, and Antwerpe, diuided according to the spaces be|twéene the said pillers. And the pillers were crested about with garlands of iuie. On the side of the street towards the palace was a pageant with banners, torches, and pyramides; vpon the vppermost part of one of the sides whereof was a crane, and vpon the o|ther side a cocke:Proper em|blems and their mean|ings. giuing knowledge as well to the heads as to the members, that watchfulnesse is needfull. A little spaniell betokening faithfulnesse, & a little lambe betokening peace, were painted ac|companied with the Sybils; which represented wise|dome, loue, faithfulnesse, obedience, vertue and ho|nor, without the which no true peace can continue. And all these were guided by the light of the holie ghost, which was resembled by a certeine brightnesse that discouered the chiefe instruments of discord, namelie Enuie and Slander, who péered out behind,Enuie and Slander. Enuie gnawing hir owne heart, and Slander ha|uing double heart, double toong, and double face, howbeit with small effect. For on the two sides of this pageant were two counterfets, on the one side Hercules, & on the other Dauid, as it were in copper, hauing gotten the vpper hand of Goliah, betokening strength and stowtnesse:Concord hol|ding Discord in a chaine, &c. and vnderneath was Con|cord, who held Discord in a chaine with collars about his necke: which Discord offering with his one hand an apple of gold, and with his other hand threatning men with his force and tyrannie, was yet neuerthe|lesse driuen into the dungeon of sorrow, where he is kept prisoner by Concord, who kéepeth the doore fast shut: betokening the same thing which the countrie looketh for at his highnesse hand according to his po|sie Cherisheth and Chaseth. Upon the forefront of the compartement made of Phrygian worke were these verses following painted out in most liuelie forme:

O let the earth the kissings sweet
of peace and iustice see,
And let hir powre hir riches foorth
in all mens bosoms free:
Let godlines and faithfulnes
go matched arme in arme,
And let the bond of endles loue
keepe all things knit from harme.

Before the duke came at saint Michaels, where the palace was prepared for his highnesse,Light with torches and cressets as cléere as the noone daie. the daie was so farre spent, that they were faine to light vp their cressets & torches, which cast so great and cléere a light through the whole towne, that the dukes high|nesse, and the princes and lords which accompanied him, and likewise the souldiors with their glistering armors, were séene more cleerelie than at anie time of the daie. And as the multitude of people was ve|rie great in the citie, so the néerer that his highnesse drew to his palace, the greater still did the number grow. So at length the duke of Brabant and An|iou entred into his palace in the order afore mentio|ned, hauing moreouer a two or thrée hundred as well of offendors as of banished folke which followed him bareheaded and fettered, crauing mercie. The he|ralds did cast péeces of gold and siluer abrode, as they had doone at the méetings of all the stréets as they passed through them. At the entrie of the pa|lace was an arch of twentie foot high,Thrée graces Uertue, Glo|rie, and Honor in a compar|tement. resting vpon thrée pillers of Phrygian worke; and vpon the top thereof was a compartement wherein were the thrée graces, that is to wit, Uertue, Glorie, and Honor, who offered vnto his highnesse an olife branch, in to|ken of peace, a laurell bough in token of victorie, and a crowne which was sent him from heauen. And EEBO page image 1341 vnder the compartement were written these verses:

O prince whose merits passe his praise,
whose vertues haue no peeres,
Whose mind surmounts his fortune far,
whose thews exceed his yeeres:
Take gentlie heere this oliue branch,
this laurell bough and crowne,
Three presents giuen thee by three nymphs,
and sent from heauen downe.

24.2.2. ¶The oth made by Francis duke of Brabant to the members of the right renowmed citie of Ant|werpe, and the oth made by them againe vnto his highnesse.

¶The oth made by Francis duke of Brabant to the members of the right renowmed citie of Ant|werpe, and the oth made by them againe vnto his highnesse.

Twentie or thirtie thou|sand harque|busses shot off.The duke of Brabant being come into his pa|lace, caused a peale of a twentie or thirtie thousand harquebusses to be shot off, and then all the compa|nies (sauing those which were to watch that night) began to withdraw themselues appase. Which thing was doone in such order and with such silence, that in lesse than halfe an houre all the citie was disar|med; after which maner they had also armed them|selues in lesse than an houre without anie noise in the morning. The princes also and the lords withdrew themselues to their lodgings, and then was all the great ordinance of the towne shot off twise, as it had béene at the dukes first comming to the citie, that all the towne séemed to be on fire.The night resembled the daie. Cressets were lighted and fires made for ioie through all the stréets and méetings, waies, and vpon the stéeples, in so great number and so continuallie, that all the night resem|bled the daie: in so much that when they that were without the towne looked vp into the skie, they thought the element was all on fire. These bonefires continued euerie night vntill the next thursdaie; on which daie his highnesse tooke his peculiar oth to the towne of Antwerpe, in dooing whereof these solem|nities insuing were obserued.Solemnities vsed whiles the monsieur was taking his peculiar oth to Ant|werpe. The amptman, bo|roughmaisters, and skepons of Antwerpe came to the said palace of S. Michaell the next thursdaie be|ing the two and twentith daie of the same moneth: at which place they made humble sute vnto his high|nesse, that as he had vouchsafed to giue his oth to the states of Brabant and the marquesdome of the sacred empire, and likewise to receiue theirs; so it might please him to giue his oth that daie peculiar|lie to the citie of Antwerpe, and likewise to take theirs at the place of old time accustomed. Where|vnto when the duke had assented, they tooke their waie in the same order that had beene obserued at his entring into the towne; sauing that the lord Ed|ward de Clastro ambassador for Don Antonio king of Portugall, was that daie in the latter companie of the princes and lords. And so they marched along the said stréet of saint Michaell to the great market|sted, where the sumptuous common house of the ci|tie is. And bicause that on the daie of his entrance in, it was not possible for him to take a perfect view of all the shews, by reason that the night ouertooke them, they were presented vnto his highnes againe, as well in the place before the mint, as in other pla|ces.Two page|ants, one of mount Par|nassus, and the other a mossie rocke. Also there were two pageants more prepared, which were deuised both in one daie; the one was mount Parnassus wheron sat Apollo apparelled like the sun, and accompanied with the nine muses plai|eng vpon diuerse kinds of instruments, and with sweet voice singing a certeine ditie togither written in commendation of his highnesse. This pageant was in the stréet called the High stréet, ouer against the stréet named Reiner stréet. Right ouer against this pageant was an other on the side of the stréet called the Flax market, which was a mossie rocke o|uergrowen with drie and withered trées, wherin ap|peared a caue verie hideous, darke, and drierie to be|hold, & in the same laie lurking the three helhounds, Discord, Uiolence, and Tyrannie: who féeling Apol|los beames, and hearing the sweetnesse and harmo|nie of the voices and instruments, shroonke awaie and hid themselues in the déepest of the dungeon, and afterward péered out againe to harken whether that melodie and harmonie continued still or no, mind|ing to haue come foorth againe, and to haue troubled the common wealth, if the same had ceassed.

His highnesse passed on, and with verie much adoo came to the great market place, by reason of the in|finit multitude of people, which could not be put a|sunder without great paine.A scaffold hõg with scarlet and richlie adorned. As soone as he was a|lighted from his horsse, he went vp a scaffold which had béene set vp for the same purpose, in the middest of the market place hard by the towne house; before whome went the magistrate of the citie, and a great number of princes, lords, and gentlemen. This scaf|fold being great and large of the heigth of fortie foot, was hanged with scarlet. Upon it was a cloth of estate, the backe whereof was cloth of gold frized,A chaire of estate of cloth of gold frized. vnder the which was a chaire of the same. The daie of his first comming thither, there had béene presented vnto him on the right side, Wisedome offering him a golden scepter: on his left side, Iustice offering him the sword of iustice from aboue the chaire: and behind him Clemencie offering him the cap of the dukedome. Before the chaire as it were at the foot of it, were Obedience, Faithfulnes, Loue of God, & Reuerence. And by the chaire sides there were with them, Concord, Sagenesse, Ualiantnes, Good will, Truth, Pitifulnesse, Perseuerance, and Reason, of whome two on either side held ech of them a torch of virgin war, & they were all appareled like nymphes. But on this daie when his highnesse went vp to this stage, the nymphes were awaie; and in stéed of them, the chaire was garnished on both sides with pillers. On the right side betwéene the pillers was a lion holding a naked sword,Beautifull emblems a|bout the chaire of e|state, & what they signified. to betoken the authoritie of the magistrate. Aboue the lion was an egle féeding hir yoong, and turning hir selfe towards the shining of the sunne, as taking hir force of the prince. On the left side was an ox with a yoke on his necke, and aboue him a hen brooding hir chickens, and by hir a cocke. The ox with his yoke signified obedience: and the cocke and the hen betokened the watchfulnesse, care, and defense of the superior. The said scaffold was garnished with banners of azure beaten with the armes of Aniou, and with banners of gewles beaten with the armes of Antwerpe, and with cres|sets and torches. And aboue among the armes were writte [...] these verses in verie faire & legible letters:

At length thou art come,
and ioifull we bee,
Thy presence long lookt for
here present to see.
1
Of triumphs, though statelie,1 A little vnder, at the right hand vnder the armes of Brabant were these verses.
kings boast but in vaine,
Vnlesse they by iustice
vprightlie doo raine.
2
Nought booteth law, authoritie, or sage forecast of wit,2 On the left hand vnder the armes of Antwerpe was writ|ten thus.
Vnlesse to lawfull gouernement
folke doo their force submit.
3
God, God is he the harts of kings
which holdeth in his hand,
He,3 This was written som|what lower. He it is that highest things
dooth make too fall or stand.
When he with gratious looke beholds
a people: they inioy
A goodlie ruler, vnder whom
no troubles them annoy.
EEBO page image 1342But if misliking make him frowne,
then makes he them a preie
To tyrants, vnder whom they tast
of sorrow euerie daie.

From this scaffold he might behold before him an infinit number of people, readie to be sworne vn|to him: and also thrée companies of banished and condemned men in fetters,Banished and condemned men in fetters crauing mer|cie pardoned. and bareheaded, cra|uing mercie at his hand, which was granted vnto them. Moreouer all the houses about the market stead had cressets burning on high before them. Now then, after that roome and silence was made, their councellor and recorder Uanderwerke propounded the matter as followeth. Right gratious lord and prince, the markegraue, the amptman, the borough|masters, the skepons, the treasurors, the receiuers, the old deputies, the chiefe burgesses, the quarterma|sters, the wardens, the ancients of the handicrafts, the coronels, the wardens of the guilds, and the cap|teines of the citie, your highnesses most humble and obedient subiects, are excéeding glad to see that you, whome they haue alreadie receiued for duke of Bra|bant, and for their souereigne lord and prince, are readie to make your oth vnto this citie, and to re|ceiue it at the hand of the magistrats, burgesses and citizens thereof, in respect of the citie it selfe, and of the marquesdome of the sacred empire: assuring themselues that your highnesse will be vnto them a good,All promises kept on the monsieurs part, they could doo no lesse. righteous, and lawfull prince, to gouerne them according to their franchises, lawes, and customes: and promising mutuallie on their behalfe to your highnesse, to be good, loiall, and faithfull subiects vn|to you, to spend all their goods, yea and their liues in your seruice, and in the maintenance of your dignities, rights and preheminences. And like as God hath put into your highnes mind, to take vpon you, first the protection and defense, and secondlie the whole souereingtie of the low countries and prouin|ces, which haue entered into league with you, vpon hope that the same God will of his gratious good|nesse and mercie so blesse and prosper your dealings and enterprises: as that they shall out of hand sée the effect of that communication in the hiest degrée, to the accomplishment of your roiall and heroicall de|sires, both in the generall, and also in the particular deliuerance of the countrie from the calamities and miseries of war: whereby they shall haue the better cause to acknowlege the great good turnes and be|nefits receiued at your highnesse hand, and to honor, loue, and serue you, as the verie protector of the land and father of their countrie.

When Uanderwerke had made an end, and the dukes highnesse had answered him conformablie to that which he had spoken without the towne,The mon|sieur is readie to take his oth of the magi|strate & people of Antwerpe. the said Uanderwerke told the people alowd, that the duke was readie to take and receiue his oth, at the hand of the magistrate, and of all the people and inhabiters of the citie of Antwerpe: and that God had vouchsa|fed to send them a prince of so rare and heroicall ver|tues, of so great puissance, and the onelie brother of so great a king; that they might well hope, that the same God would inable him to rid these countries within a while from the great number of calamities and miseries wherwith they were oppressed. And for|somuch as his highnesse had béene receiued with so|lemne deliberation of the states confederate, yea and with solemne resolution of all the members of that citie, and God had commanded men to loue, ho|nour and obeie their princes: he exhorted the people to yéeld him all humble obedience according to Gods commandement. To which intent, the oth as well which his highnesse should make to the people,Good successe wished to the mutuall oth| [...]akers. as which the people should make to his highnesse, should be read vnto them; praieng God to giue such grace vnto his highnes, as he following the same, might well rule and gouerne; and vnto the burgesses and citizens of Antwerpe, as they might performe their obedience, like good, loiall, and faithfull sub|iects: that Gods name might be sanctified, to the be|nefit, prosperitie, and safegard of the citie, and to the great increase of the dukes puissance, honour, and glorie. Then the same Uanderwerke read the oth which was to be made by the duke,The mon|sieurs oth red in French. with the stile of the duke of Brabant, and all his other titles. Which oth was read to his highnes in French, and recei|ued by sir Philip Schonehouen, lord of Waneroe, boroughmaster without the citie.

Which being doone, the said Uanderwerke read the oth which the magistrate and people were to make, which was repeated word for word by the magistrats and a great number of people which were within the hearing of it. And this oth was exacted of the ma|gistrate and people of Antwerpe by the amptman in the name and by the commandement of the duke. Upon the finishing of these solemnities, the duke himselfe did cast two or thrée handfuls of gold and sil|uer among them,The mon|sieur casteth largesse of gold & siluer among the people. & then the heralds cried A larges, and the trumpets and drums were sounded euerie where, and manie instruments of musike were plai|ed vpon, as had béene doone afore at his first arriuall. When he was come downe from the scaffold, he went to the townehouse with all the princes, lords, and gentlemen, which were verie manie: where he was receiued by the worshipfull of the citie, and di| [...]ed openlie at a verie sumptuous and roiall feast pre|pared for him: and so that daie passed in great ioy, contentation and admiration, as well of his high|nes & his companie, as of all the rest of the people. Towards night were shot off two peales of great ordinance againe,Two peales of great ordi|nance with o|ther signes of ioy. and the fires of ioy were conti|nued much greater, and more in number than afore.

Thus ended the ioifull and roiall interteinement of the right noble prince Francis, sonne and brother to the king of France, by the grace of God duke of Brabant, The rest of the weeke and the daies follow|ing, the lords of the priuie councell,What was doone by the waie of courteous du|tie when all the triumphs were ended. the officers of the aides, of the exchekers, of the chambers of the ac|counts, and of the other corporations, colleges, and communalties came to visit his highnes, and to offer him their humble seruice, promising all faithfulnes and obedience: all whome he receiued verie grati|ouslie to their contentation, answering them so ad|uisedlie, with so good grace & fitnesse, without omit|ting anie point of that which he had purposed: that all men not onelie woondered at him, but also were inforced to honour and loue him, and to set foorth his praises among the people. Finallie the deputies of the reformed churches of both the languages, being presented vnto him by the prince of Orange, were gentlie heard, and they spake to him as followeth.

Sir, we be sent vnto your highnes by the refor|med churches of this citie, as well of the language of low Dutchland, as of the French, to shew vnto you with all humilitie, reuerence and subiection, that we haue thanked and still doo thanke God with all our hart, for vouch [...]afing to bring your highnesse so happilie hither. And this our ioie is matched with the ioie of all other folks, as we hope your highnesse hath vnderstood by the glad and ioifull receiuing and interteining of you. Also sir we hope, that as the great honour and felicitie which these countries haue atteined vnto (wherein few countries are able to match them) haue béene purchased vnder the soue|reigntie and gouernement of the right renowmed princes, the dukes of Burgognie,Dukes of Burgognie issued out of the house of France. which issued out of the most noble house of France: so vnder your gui|ding and gouernement being of the same house, the ancient renowme of the same dignitie shall be reco|uered EEBO page image 1343 by your prowesse, and mainteined by your wisdome. It is little more than thrée hundred yeeres ago,Under whom the state hath beene a [...]uan|ced. that these countries being gouerned by sundrie dukes, earles, and lords, had not atteined the re|nowne which other nations haue since that time so much woondered at. The first that began to giue in|crease to it was Philip duke of Burgognie, surna|med the hardie,Philip duke of Burgognie surnamed the hardie. who was brother to king Charles the fift, the sonne of king Iohn, and grand sonne of king Philip of Ualois: of which kings your highnes is lineallie descended from the father to the sonne. For the first duke of Orleance, of whome your high|nesse is lineallie descended from the father to the sonne, was the sonne of king Charles the fift; and as now there be no more heires males of the said duke of Orleance, but onelie your highnes and the king your brother. Whereby it falleth out, that the dukes of Burgognie are great vncles to your highnes by the fathers side. And therefore we doubt not but you will follow the footsteps of their vertues, in restoring the state of the countrie to hir ancient renowme and dignitie: and also mainteine and increase the ho|nour wherevnto it hath beene aduanced, by those no|ble princes your vncles.

Duke Iohn the second, and Philip the second, aduancers of the state.The second duke vnder whom this state hath béene greatlie aduanced, was Iohn the second: neuerthe|lesse it came not to full perfection, vntill the time of Philip the second. In which perfection it was main|teined by Charls the last duke of Burgognie so long as he liued. The said Philip the second, to whom the honour of stablishing that state most peculiarlie be|longeth, was one of the most knightlie and valiant princes of his time. He wan the victorie in nine foughten fields, in most of the which he was put to the triall and hazard of his person, by fighting with his owne hands. He was a verie sage prince, and such a one as had to deale with the greatest princes in christendome: of whome some were his aduersa|ries, and yet he behaued himselfe so wiselie, that he atchiued all things to his honour whatsoeuer he tooke in hand. Also he was verie rich: insomuch that for all his warres which lasted aboue thirtie yeares,Philip the se|cond a verie rich prince, surnamed Philip the good. he left behind him more substance and readie monie, than anie other prince of his time, as the writers of the histories of that age doo witnes vnto vs. And yet notwithstanding, for all these great vertues & quali|ties of his, he was not named Philip the sage, nor Philip the valiant, nor Philip the rich, but Philip the good. So well doo all folke by generall consent vn|derstand, which is the vertue that best beséemeth and becommeth a great prince, & is best liked of his peo|ple: namelie, that a prince be good and louing to his subiects. Surelie sir, all men hope that your highnes will follow the example of that good prince,He directeth his spéech to the monsieur. the first bringer of the state of this countrie to perfection, a right noble and renowmed prince of the house of France. And we praise God, for that as manie as haue had the honour to come into your highnes pre|sence, yeeld record that you haue verie great likeli|hoods of these vertues, which we praie God so to ac|complish and make perfect in you, as all his people may to your great honor receiue the perfect and ripe fruits of them. And this doo all the rest of the people desire as well as we.

Howbeit, we haue a most humble sute to make peculiarlie to your highnes,A su [...]e mooued to ye monsieur. which we most humblie beséech you to grant. The thing that induceth vs to doo it, is that you beare the name of Francis. For as of [...] as we heare that name named: the remem|brance of that great king Francis your highnesse grandfather commeth to our mind. He was a right valiant,Francis the monsieurs grandfather commended. couragious, noble and godlie prince: and yet notwithstanding all the nations of the earth did by one common consent surname him the father of learning. For of a truth, since that emperour and great king of France, called Charles the great, there was neuer anie king of France that so highlie fa|uoured learning, as this great king Francis. And as the said king Charles was the founder of the fa|mous vniuersitie of Paris, so was king Francis the restorer therof againe: and both of them to their great costs & charges called men of excellent know|ledge thither out of strange countries, to teach the languages & all kinds of arts & sciences. The house of this great king Francis was as an vniuersitie, and his table was a place of conference concerning all maner of learning.A good sute to the mõsieur, & the like of all princes and great men to be preferred and granted. And like as other great prin|ces of his time following his example, inriched their dominions and kingdomes with learned men and learning: so we most humblie beséech your highnes to follow the example of this great king your grand|father in dooing the like, and to make singular ac|count of learning, and to take the professours there|of vnder your protection. True it is sir, that through the malice of men, warre is commonlie the ouer|thrower of learning. But if a great prince set him|selfe against the mischiefe, he may easilie stop it. Our desire is not that your highnesse should neglect the exercise of chiualrie, for to giue your selfe to studie: but to follow so the one, as the other be not left off and forgotten. For as we haue seene manie com|monweales florish so long as they professed chiualrie and learning togither: and yet haue fallen into the hands of their enimies, euen in the chiefe flowre of their skill in sciences, by reason of their discontinu|ing of their former trade of armes, after which ma|ner it fell to the Atheniens to come into subiection to the kings of Macedonie: so the people which haue professed armes alone without learning,Learning and chiualrie must go togither. haue al|waies become barbarous, cruell, and vtterlie desti|tute of all humanitie, as we see at this daie by the Tartars and Moscouits. And therefore to our sée|ming, a man may well saie, that chiualrie is the fun|dation and sinewes of a commonweale: and that learning garnisheth and beautifieth the bodie there|of with liuelie and fresh colours, seruing it for in|richments and ornaments. In respect wherof, as we meant not to desire your highnesse to forget those which make profession of chiualrie, whome you ought to embrace as your strength: so we most humblie beséech you to vouchsafe to succour learning, and to mainteine learned men with your gratious fa|uour.

Sir,Causes that mooued the making of this sute. verie néedfull causes mooue vs to make this humble petition to your highnesse: for that we be|ing professors of learning, ought to haue learning in singular estimation, and to procure (if it be possi|ble for vs) that the frute of the things which we haue inioied for a time, may be conueied to our posteri|tie: and secondlie for the oths sake which we haue ta|ken at the time of our procéeding in our degrées, which is, to mainteine and further the schooles and learning of the vniuersitie, in what degrée soeuer we come vnto. And therefore we hope that your highnesse will doo vs the honour to take this most humble request of ours in good part. As touching our owne persons,He speaketh in the behalfe of all the rest of like profes|sion and fa|cultie. we promise your highnesse all o|bedience, faithfulnesse, and subiection: and that ac|cording to our small abilitie, we will doo our indeuor towards such as we may haue accesse vnto, that they also may yeeld obedience to your highnesse, and to the magistrates whome it shall please you to set ouer the people. And here to make an end, we harti|lie praie God to preserue your highnes a long time in happie estate among this people, and to giue you the grace to rule and gouerne them iustlie and vp|rightlie, to rid them out of the hands of their eni|mies, to mainteine them long in most happie peace, EEBO page image 1344 and to restore this state againe to the ancient digni|tie, greatnesse, renowme, and felicitie: that after your deceasse you maie leaue a most blessed and fa|mous remembrance among all nations. And for the bringing hereof to passe, we yet againe beséech the king of kings and great prince of princes, to make you as valiant as Dauid, as wise as Salomon, and as zelous of his glorie as Ezechias.

The mon|sieur speaketh well whatsoe|uer his mea|ning was.Herevnto the duke answered, that he was verie glad to sée such a consent of all the people in the re|ceiuing of him: and that he hoped so to rule and go|uerne them, as they should not be disappointed of the hope which they had conceiued of his gouernement, which he would fashion out after the paterne of his predecessors and great vncles, who had gouerned these countries so happilie. And he thanked them for their good will & loue, praieng them to continue the same, and promising to take them into his protection togither with the rest of the people in generall: & that as he had heretofore a singular regard of learned men, so would he be willing to continue the same hereafter.

A good begin|ning in prince and people. After this maner began this great prince to go|uerne that people with great authoritie and mode|stie; and the people to yéeld vnto him verie willing and honorable obedience: and all men hope both ge|nerallie and particularlie, that God will giue him the grace so to hold on in that so holie and commen|dable gouernement, as that by his example he shall shew to all princes and to all others that come after him, how greatlie the iust and lawfull gouernement auaileth: and that the people on their side shall shew what maner of obedience, loue, and constancie is due to good princes: in which vertues there was neuer yet anie people that could skill to surmount them, neither shall anie hereafter, by the helpe of the great God, and euerlasting father of our sauiour Iesus Christ, to whome with the vnitie of the holie spirit be all glorie for euer and euer, Amen.]

Iohn Paine executed at Chelmsford.Iohn Paine priest being indicted of high treason for words by him spoken, was arreigned and con|demned at Chelmsford on the last daie of March, and was there executed on the second daie of Aprill, ac|cording to the qualitie of his offense, and as law had awarded. In the moneth of Maie, namelie, on the fifteenth daie at night,A blasing [...]tarre. about ten of the clocke, a blasing starre appeared, descending in the north|west, the beard whereof streamed into the southeast.

On mondaie being the eight & twentith of Maie, Thomas Foord,Execution of Thomas Foord, Iohn Shert, and Robert Iohn|son priests of the popes order. Iohn Shert, and Robert Iohnson priests, hauing beene before indicted, arreigned, and as well by their owne testimonie, as also sufficient witnesses produced to their faces, found giltie, and condemned for high treason intended, practised, and appointed against hir maiesties most roiall person, as also for the vtter ruine, ouerthrow, and subuersion of hir peaceable and well gouerned realme, them|selues being sent as instruments, to deale for and in the behalfe of the pope, in this disloiall and traito|rous cause; according as iustice had before deter|mined, were drawne vpon hurdles from the Tower of London to the place appointed for execution; ha|uing béen so long time spared,To perseuere in wickednes is no constan|cie but obsti|nacie. by hir maiesties most roiall and princelie regard of mercie, to trie if either the feare of God would take place in them, conside|ration and respect of their owne duties mooue them, or the meere loue and accustomed clemencie of hir maiestie might win them, to acknowledge hir to be their lawfull souereigne, and themselues hir subiects bound to serue hir, notwithstanding any pretense or authoritie to the contrarie, & not for matter of their popish superstition. All this notwithstanding they remained giuen ouer to their owne wickednes, and swallowed vp in the gulfe of their vndutifull affecti|on, which caused iustice to step before mercie, com|mitting them to the reward of their lewd and vnna|turall dealing.

All the waie as they were drawne,Consolation ministred to them as they went to their [...]eaths. they were ac|companied with diuers zealous and godlie men, who in mild & louing spéeches made knowne vnto them, how iustlie God repaieth the reprobat, how fatherlie againe he receiueth the obedient, how he ouerthro|weth the vngodlie in their owne deuises, and protec|teth his chosen in all stormes and afflictions. In re|membrance of all these, to bethinke themselues of their wickednesses passed, and to shew such hartie and zealous repentance for the same, that albeit they had so gréeuouslie trespassed, yet in contrite and humble sorrowing they might be gratiouslie recei|ued into his heauenlie fauour, whome they had moo|ued and stirred by their vnreuerent regard, to smite and chasten with the rod of his furie.The shiriffe himselfe trieth what he can doo to conuert them. Among which godlie persuasions, maister shiriffe himselfe, both learnedlie and ernestlie labored vnto them, moouing all good occasions he might deuise to change the ob|stinacie he perceiued in them, into a christianlike hu|militie and repentance; but these good indeuors tooke no wished effect, their owne euill disposition so blin|ded them, that there was no waie for grace to en|ter.

When they were come beyond saint Giles in the field, there approched vnto the hurdle one of their owne sect, and a priest (as himselfe had confessed) who in this maner spake vnto the prisoners: O gen|tlemen be ioifull in the bloud of Iesus Christ, for this is the daie of your triumph and ioie. Being asked whie he vsed such words, he said vnto the prisoners a|gaine; I pronounce vnto you; yea, I pronounce a full remission and pardon vnto your soules. Using these and other traitorous spéeches, hold was laid on him.He was the eccho of a false and antichri|stian voice. When as maister shiriffe demanded what he was, he answered; He was the voice of a crier in the wildernesse, and that he was sent to prepare the Lords waie. And notwithstanding such meanes of resistance as himselfe vsed, he was deliuered vnto Thomas Norris purseuant, who brought him vnto Newgate, where he confessed vnto him that he was a priest, and that he had so long dissem|bled, as he would now leaue off and doo so no more.

Being come to the place of execution Thomas Foord was first brought vp into the cart, when as he began in this maner.Thomas Foord his words touch|ing his inno|cencie. Whereas I am come hither to die, for matters laid vnto my charge of treason, which should be conspired against the queene, within these two yeares or somewhat more: I giue you to vnderstand, that of anie such matter I am innocent & frée, for that I can prooue my comming into En|gland to be fiue yeares since. Wherevpon maister shiriffe spake vnto him and said; Foord, haue mind on God, and aske him and hir maiestie heartilie for|giuenesse, whome thou hast so highlie offended; thou doost but delude the people, for it is manifestlie kno|wen how thou art guiltie of the matters laid to thy charge, here be thine owne answers to shew, affir|med vnder thine owne hand, and other witnesses to reprooue thee. Wherevpon The writer of this pam|phlet, who sée|med to be ac|quainted with all their dea|lings. I my selfe was called foorth, who iustified the causes to his face, that at his arreignement was laid to his charge, and he eui|dentlie and plainelie found guiltie thereof. Then were his answers whereto he had subscribed read vn|to him, which is in the booke latelie set foorth by autho|ritie. Wherevpon he tooke occasion to tell a long cir|cumstance of a certeine question mooued at Oxford, as concerning taking armes against hir maiestie, which horrible treason he séemed to approoue thereby.

Then maister shiriffe willed him to aske hir ma|iestie forgiuenesse, offering him to stand his friend EEBO page image 1345 in atteining hir graces mercie, if he would change his former traitorous mind, to become a true and faithfull subiect, acknowledging hir to be his lawfull souereigne ladie, notwithstanding anie thing that a|nie pope could saie or doo to the contrarie.A shamelesse negatiue voice to a ma|nifest charge of offense, and euident con|uiction. Where to he answered; I haue not offended hir maiestie, but if I haue, I aske hir forgiuenesse and all the world; and in no other treson haue I offended than my reli|gion, which is the catholike faith, wherein I will liue and die. And as for the queenes maiestie, I doo ac|knowledge hir supremasie in all things temporall, but as concerning ecclesiasticall causes, I denie hir; that onelie belongeth to the vicar of Christ, the pope. In briefe, he granted to nothing, but shewed him|selfe an impious and obstinat traitor, and so he re|mained to the death, refusing to praie in the English toong, mumbling a few Latine praiers, desiring those that were Ex domo Dei to praie with him, & so he died. In the meane time that hehanged, which was till he was dead, so great is the mercie of our grati|ous princesse, Iohn Shert was brought from off the hurdle to the gallowes, where seeing Foord hanging, he began with holding vp his hands, as the papists are woont to doo before their images; O sweet Tom, O happie Tom,Iohn Shert his vaine spée|ches at the sight of Tom Foords dead bodie dismem|bred. O blessed Tom. Then being staied, Foord was cut downe & caried to the place where his bodie should be quartered. In which time Shert was brought vp into the cart, where looking towards the dead bodie of Foord, he fell downe on his knées, and held vp his hands vnto it, saieng againe: O happie Tom, O blessed Tom, thy swéet soule praie for me; O deare Tom, thy blessed soule praie for me. For which words being rebuked, the executioner lifted him vp on his féet, when as he prepared him to his confession, saieng; I am brought hither to this place, to die a death which is both shamefull & ignominious,Sherts ora|tion to the people iustifi|eng the forme of a go [...]lie martyres death. for which I thanke thée my Lord God, who framing me to thine owne similitude and likenesse, hast bles|sed me to this good end. There being staied, because he seemed to prolong the time to small purpose, the shiriffe willed him to remember himselfe, for what cause he was come thither, how he had offended the queenes maiestie, and that he was now to aske hir forgiuenesse. Besides, he might receiue hir prince|lie mercie; whereto with an hypocriticall outward boldnesse, but an inward fainting feare (as after|ward euerie one plainelie beheld) he gaue this an|swer: What (maister shiriffe) shall I saue this fraile and vile carcasse,Note Sherts obstinacie. and damne mine owne soule? No, no, I am a catholike, in that faith I was borne, in that faith will I die, and here shall my bloud seale it.

Then maister shiriffe spake vnto him, saieng; By the waie as we came you swore an oth, for which you willed me to beare witnesse that you were heartilie sorie: now I praie you let me be a witnesse, that you are heartilie sorie for offending the quéens maiestie. Whie sir (quoth he) I haue not offended hir, without it be in my religion; and if I haue offended hir, then I aske hir forgiuenesse. Maister shiriffe vpon this said vnto him; Is this the fruit of your religion, to kneele to the dead bodie of thy fellow, and to desire his soule to praie for thée? Alas, what can it either profit or hinder thée? Praie thou to God, and he will helpe thée. Maister shiriffe (quoth Shert) this is the true catholike religion, and whosoeuer is not of it is damned. I desire his soule to praie for me, the most glorious virgin Marie to praie for me,Sh [...]rt is per|emptorie in his spéech to iustifie his re|ligion. and all the holie companie of heauen to praie for me. At which words the people cried; Awaie with the traitor, hang h [...]m, hang him. O Shert (quoth maister shiriffe) for|sake that whoore of Rome, that wicked Antichrist, with all his abhominable blasphemies and treache|ries, and put thy whole confidence in Iesus Christ. Whereto he answered; O maister shiriffe, you little remember the daie when as you & I shall stand both at one barre, and I come as witnesse against you, that you called that holie and blessed vicar of Christ the whoore of Rome. At which words the people cried againe; Hang him, hang him, awaie with him. Then he beganne his Pater noster in Latine, and before he had fullie ended two petitions of it he fell into the Créed, and then to the Pater noster againe,Hudling vp of praiers man|gled and [...]ee|ced togither after the po|pish maner. afterward he said the Aue Maria, which doone, knocking him|selfe on the breast, saieng, Iesus esto mihi Iesus, the cart was drawen awaie, and he committed to the mercie of God. But then, to manifest that his former bold|nesse was but méere dissembling and hypocrisie, he lifted vp his hands, and caught hold on the halter: so that euerie one perceiued his faire outward shew, and his foule inward disfigured nature, also how loth he was and vnwilling to die. Whereby he shewed that he was not indued with the audacitie and stout resolution of the heathen, who for morall vertues sake cast themselues into dangers, manie times deadlie; holding opinion, that he beareth but a coun|terfeit shew of vertue that shrinketh at anie tor|ment, at anie hazard, at anie death, & therefore said:

—virtus
Per scopulos durum fortis anhelat iter.

Robert Iohnson being brought vp into the cart, maister shiriffe, according as he had before, both de|clared vnto him hir maiesties mercie if he would re|pent; and also willed him to be sorie for his offenses against hir: whereof he séemed to make small esti|mation, denieng the treasons according as the o|thers had doone, and appealing likewise vpon his re|ligion. Then was the Who séemed acquainted with all their practises. writer hereof called foorth, who gaue him to vnderstand, how notablie he was approoued guiltie at his arreignment, & euerie mat|ter sufficientlie handled, how according as the rest were, he was confounded to his face. Wherevnto he would make no other answer, but said; Well well, (quoth he) calling the partie by his name, God for|giue the. Then were his answers read vnto him, as they had béen before to the other two, he not yéeld|ing deniall, but said he spake them & would doo it a|gaine. Then was Athanasius Creed mooued to him, which he granted to be the catholike faith, where|of the pope was vicar, and that there was no o|ther catholike faith, but onelie his. Whie (quoth the preacher) the pope is not named in it. I know not that (quoth he againe) I haue not read it. Then mai|ster shiriffe desired him to saie his praiers in Eng|lish, and he with all the companie would praie with him: which he refusing to doo, in his Latine praiers the cart was drawne awaie, and he committed to Gods mercie. And thus was iustice ministred, and that execution to Gods glorie, & the ease of the com|mon wealths gréefe dispatched.

On the wednesdaie following,Execution of Luke Kirbie, William Fil|bie, Thomas Coteham, and Laurence Richardson préests of the popes order which was the thir|tith daie of Maie, in the same maner as I haue be|fore expressed, Luke Kirbie, William Filbie, Tho|mas Coteham, & Laurence Richardson, were com|mitted from the tower of London, to the place of execution; and as the other were on the mondaie be|fore associated and accompanied with diuerse lear|ned and godlie preachers; euen so were these, as to saie, master Charke, master Herne, and diuerse o|thers, who all the waie applied such godlie and christi|an persuasions vnto them (as had not the child of perdition so maruellouslie blinded them) were of force to haue woone them into grace and mercie. The spéeches they vsed to them by the waie were néed|lesse here to set downe, for that they did especiallie concerne causes to root out that wicked opinion in them, and to establish a sound and perfect faith in place thereof; but euen as it was in the other, so it did agrée in them. But Luke Kirbie séemed to cha|lenge EEBO page image 1346 the Who was an obseruer (as he pretended) of all their dooings. writer hereof as sufficient to prooue no|thing against him, which he did bicause it was suppo|sed he was not there present: but what passed be|twéene him & the said writer, you shall heare hereaf|ter. They being come to the place of execution, Wil|liam Filbie was brought vp into the cart, where conforming himselfe vnto the death, his wicked tre|sons were mooued vnto him, which obstinatelie and impudentlie he denied. Then was he demanded if he would acknowledge the quéenes maiestie his so|uereigne princesse, and supreme head vnder Christ of the church of England? No (quoth he) I will acknow|ledge no other head of the church than the pope onlie. Whervpon his answers were read vnto him, and he not denieng them in anie point, euen as they were wicked and impious, euen so he remained in them, still appealing that it was for his religion that he di|ed, and not for anie treason. But the contrarie was prooued vnto his face, as well by sufficient proofes, as also by the traitorous answers, whereto he had sub|scribed with his owne hand. At last, as he was desi|red, Most mani|fest and vn|doubted to| [...]ens of a reso|lute votarie to the pope his [...]. he praied for the queenes maiestie, that God might blesse hir, and incline hir heart to mercie to|ward the catholikes, of which societie he was one. Then they opening his bosome, found there two crosses, which being taken from him were held vp, and shewed to all the people, beside his crowne was shauen. So after a few silent Latine praiers to him|selfe, the cart was drawne awaie.

The next was Luke Kirbie, who being brought vp into the cart, offered long circumstance of spéech, as concerning that he was come thither to die, hoping to be saued in the bloud of Christ: and much matter, which were néedlesse here to rehearse. Afterward, he began to saie, that there were none could approoue him to be a traitor: neither had he at anie time at|tempted anie thing preiudiciall to hir maiestie, and that his aduersaries, naming them by speciall name, could not vpbraid him with anie thing. Wher|vpon master shiriffe told him that one of them was there, and asked him if he would haue him called to him. I sée him (quoth he) yonder, and let him saie what he can against me. Then he was the Th [...]obseruer [...]nd writer of [...] their plots and deuises [...]s he preten|ded. partie bid|den come somewhat néere him, to whom he began in vehement sort to saie, Consider with thy selfe how vntrulie thou hast charged me, with that which I ne|uer said nor thought. Besides, thou knowest that when thou camest to the Tower to me, before master lieutenant, & an other who was there present then, thou wast demanded what thou thoughtest of me, and what thou couldest saie against me? When as thou madest answer, thou knewest no harme by me, neither couldest thou at anie time saie otherwise of me than well: wherevpon thou wast asked, where|fore thou reportedst otherwise at my arreignement? Then the shiriffe said vnto him; Who can beare thée witnes of this? Quoth he againe; He spake it before master lieutenant, and an other was by then. Then was he demanded what other he was that was pre|sent? Which (after long trifling) he said was a kéeper, & named him. Whereto the said writer made answer as followeth.One of these two must néeds be in a fowle errour: for both hol|ding contra|ries could not speake truth. Master Kirbie, I with and desire you, in the feare of God, to remember your selfe: for this is not a place to report an vntruth, neither to slan|der anie man otherwise than you are able to prooue, Wh [...]n as I came vnto the Tower, & made knowne to master lieutenant for what cause I was sent to speake with you you were brought into a chamber by your kéeper: and what I then mooued, your selfe verie well knoweth, as concerning my allowance being the popes scholer: where what answer you made, I haue trulie, and according as you answe|red, alreadie set downe in print. Master lieutenant neither mooued anie such words to me, as here you reported, and I call God to my witnesse, that not a motion of anie such matter was once offered to me by master lieutenant, or by your kéeper. Your selfe then vttered, that at sundrie times in the seminarie there were diuerse lewd words spoken, which might better haue beene spared; and denied that you were not in my chamber, when as I lieng sicke in my bed, the traitorous speeches were mooued by them, which were then present, whereof your selfe was one; with diuerse other matters which you spake vnto me, which master lieutenant himselfe heard, and your kéeper being present. But if this be true which you saie, that it may be prooued there were either such words mooued vnto me, or anie such answer made by me, I offer to susteine what punishment the law shall affoord me. Then falling to an other matter, Repetitio bene|ficij est expre|bratio. for that this redounded to his owne confusion (as master lieutenant can well witnesse) he began to talke of my being at Rome, what fréendship he had shewed vnto me, and had doone the like vnto a num|ber of Englishmen, whome he well knew not to be of that religion, both by his owne purse, as also by fréending them to some of the popes chamber, he made conueiance for th [...]m thense sometime going fortie miles with them: when (quoth he) had my dea|lings bin knowne, I should hardlie haue bin well thought of: and I knew well inough that you were neuer bent to that religion, albeit they thought the contrarie. Yea I knew well inough when you de|parted thense, that your disposition was contrarie to ours, and concealed it to my selfe.

O Kirbie (quoth master shiriffe) this is verie vn|like, that you could affoord such fauour to anie,Master shi|riffes words vttered by the waie of inter|ception. who were contrarie to that religion that you professed. No, no, if you knew anie such there, you would ra|ther helpe to persecute them than pitie them, as it is the nature of you all. M. Kirbie (quoth this writer) it is verie vnlike that you had anie such secret know|ledge of me, either of my religion, or how I was se|cretlie bent as you séeme here to professe: for had I béene such a one as you would persuade these here you knew me to be, would you haue deliuered me those silken pictures hallowed by the pope which you did: and moreouer, make knowen vnto me sundrie of your friends here in England, to whome I should conueie them?This was great & verie mercifull for|bearance to let all this talke passe to and fro at the place of exe|cution. O sir (quoth he) I confesse indéed I deliuered to thée such pictures, but thou knowest I gaue thee two Iulies to go buy them with, I did it bi|cause I knew thée to be such a one, and therfore I did misdoubt thee, for I would not credit thée with my hallowed pictures. M. Kirbie (quoth the other) to [...]e|nie your owne dooings is maruellous impudencie: did not you in your chamber deliuer me certeine silken pictures, which you told me at Stukleis being there, were hallowed by the pope, and what indul|gences were alowed them? One of them, which was a crucifix, you gaue me; the other you willed me de|liuer to your freends at Rheimes and in England. And bicause they were too few (as in déed I thinke they were no more but fiue) you gaue me two Iu|lies, to go into the citie to buie more, which I did: and hauing brought them to you, thrée or foure of the fai|rest you tooke from me, promising to get them hal|lowed at the next benediction: the other in déed you gaue me, and I tooke them with me. How saie you now Kirbie (quoth master shiriffe) would you haue credited him with such matters,Men indéed vse to repose their trust in such, whom they suppose to be like themselues. had you not suppo|sed him to be one of your owne sect? Master shiriffe (quoth he) what I haue said, I know verie well And after he was gone from Rome I sent fiftéene shil|lings to Rheimes to be deliuered to him, but he was departed thense towards England, before it came.

Then master shiriffe said to him againe; You stand vpon these points verie much, which there is none EEBO page image 1347 that are here, but will iudge to be vntrue: thou hea|rest what he hath said vnto thée, and we haue heard that thou deniedst euerie thing. What saiest thou to thy treasons,Mercie offe|red to Kirbie notwithstan|ding his con|uiction of treason. wherefore thou art come hither to die? Wilt thou be sorie for them? aske God and hir maie|stie forgiuenesse, for she is mercifull, and we will car|rie thee backe againe if we shall perceiue in thée a|nie such motion, that thou wilt forsake thy former wickednesse, and become a good and faithfull subiect. At these words the people among themselues almost generallie said: O excéeding mercie and fauour! what a gratious princesse haue we, who affoordeth such mercie vnto those that haue so ill deserued? Can there be a princesse of greater pitie, of more clemen|cie or tendernesse to be found in all the world? No.

Principe nil ista mitius orbis habet.

Then Field the preacher in the booke read his an|swers to him, whereto he had subscribed with his owne hand: Whether the pope might lawfullie de|pose hir maiestie, or had anie authoritie to take the title of hir crowne and dignitie awaie from hir?To such as are prodito|riouslie min|ded it is a matter dispu|table: but to a good subiect a matter deter|minable. Wherto Kirbie answered: This is a matter disputa|ble in schooles, and therefore I may not iudge of it. I thinke this with my selfe, that if anie prince fall by infidelitie into turcisme, atheisme, paganisme, or anie such like, that the pope hath authoritie to depose such a prince. And being asked, if hir maiestie were in anie such? He said, he knew his owne conscience. An other preacher being by said vnto him, that the prince receiued his authoritie from God, and that he was to be suppressed by none, but onelie by God. A|gaine, that Salomon said: By me (meaning by God) kings reigne,Prou. 8.15, 16. and princes decrée iustice. By me princes rule, and the nobles and all the iudges of the earth.Rom. 13.1, 2, 3, 4. Againe, S. Paule saith: Let euerie soule be subiect to the higher powers, for there is no power but of God, and the powers that be, are ordeined of God. Whosoeuer therefore resisteth the power, resi|steth the ordinance of God, & they that resist, shall re|ceiue to themselues iudgement. For princes are not to be feared for good works but for euill. Wilt thou then be without feare of the power? doo well, so shalt thou purchase praise of the same. For he is the mini|ster of God for thy wealth;This counsell of the apostle they had not the grace to follow. but if thou doo euill, feare, for he beareth a sword not for naught, for he is the minister of God to take vengeance on him that dooth euill. If then the pope be a soule, he is to be obe|dient to the higher powers. And being a subiect vnto God, as all other princes be, he must not take vpon him what belongeth to God. As for the authoritie that hir maiestie hath, she hath receiued it from God; neither is the pope, or anie earthlie prince to depriue hir thereof, but onelie God. Againe, when Iesus was brought before Pilat, Pilat said vnto him; Knowest thou not that I haue power to crucifie thée,Iohn. 19.10, 11. and haue power to loose thée? To the which Iesus answered: Thou couldest haue no power at all a|gainst me, except it were giuen thée from aboue. Thus maie you sée, that what prince soeuer ruleth vpon earth, hath his power and authoritie onelie from God: and not that anie mortall man can vse the authoritie of a prince at his pleasure. How saie you to this? Wherto he would make no answer, but séemed to demand of them,This demand implieth a kind of suspi|cion or secret charge that hir maiestie is such a one. if they would denie, that if a prince were in paganisme, atheisme, or gouer|ned by infidelitie: that such a prince might not law|fullie be deposed? Which the learned preachers an|swered in learned sort, approouing that as the power was of God, so princes were not to be deposed by a|nie, but onelie by God.

No (quoth Kirbie againe) hath it not béene dispu|ted in schooles for these fiue hundred yeares, and will you denie it? O maister Crowleie, maister Crow|leie; and there paused: as if that maister Crow|leie had agreed with him in such a monstruous error. But maister Crowleie himselfe gaue one to vnder|stand, that at such time as he conferred with the said Kirbie in the tower, about the same argument, that his answer was vnto him: If anie prince fell into anie such kind of error, that prince were corrigible, but of whome? Not of anie earthlie prince, but of that heauenlie prince, who gaue him his authoritie,Not of the pope then, be|like, who is not to [...]oore into o [...]her princes pro|uinces, &c. and seeing him abuse it anie waie, correcteth him in his iustice. For by his attributing to the pope this authoritie, he witnessed him to be antichrist, in that he will depose princes at his pleasure, and exalt him selfe aboue all that is called God, and forgiue men their sinnes at his pleasure likewise. All this was not sufficient to mollifie the obstinate mind of Kir|bie, but he would persist still in this diuelish imagi|nation. Maister shiriffe and the preachers, séeing him wauering, and not able to yéeld anie reason for his arrogant opinion, laboured as much as in them laie to change it: when all would not serue, they de|sired him in hartie and humble maner to praie vnto God, to aske hir maiestie forgiuenesse, for the trea|sons wherein he had offended hir. Wherevnto he an|swered, that he had not offended in anie treason, to his knowledge. Wherevpon they shewed him his treasons, which were adiudged by the people woor|thie of greater punishment, Vox popili Dei, vox fertur esse Dei. than he was at that time to suffer; yet would not he acknowledge them, but praied to God for hir maiestie, that she might long rule in hir authoritie, to confound all hir eni|mies: and that his hart was free from anie treason to hir maiestie. Then preparing himselfe vnto his praiers, the preachers desired him to praie in Eng|lish with them, and to saie a praier after them; where|in, if he could find anie fault, he should be resolued thereof. O (quoth he againe) you and I were not one in faith, therefore I thinke I should offend God, if I should praie with you: at which words, the people began to crie, Awaie with him: so he saieng his Pater noster in Latine, ended his life.

Then was Laurence Richardson brought vp into the cart,Laurence Richardson and Thomas Coteham their gestures and spéeches of their deaths. & to him Thomas Coteham to be executed togither. But Coteham séemed to vtter such words as though there had béene hope he would haue forsa|ken his wickednesse, so that the halter was vntied, and he brought downe out of the cart again [...]. In which time Laurence Richardson prepared him to death, confessing himselfe a catholike, and that he would beléeue in all things as the catholike church of Rome did, vnto the pope he allowed the onelie supre|masie. In which traitorous opinion, after certeine Latine praiers, he was committed to God. Then was Coteham brought vp to the cart againe, & the good opinion had of him before changed into that ob|stinat nature that was in them all, saieng to master shiriffe, that before he came into England, he was armed for India, and thither if he might be suffered he would passe with as much conuenient spéed as might be.For he was not so furni|shed for Eng|land as to [...] seules so easi|lie to papi|strie. Then looking to the bodie of Laurence Ri|chardson, whereon the executioner was vsing his of|fice, he lifted vp his hands and said; O blessed Lau|rence praie for me, thy blessed soule Laurence praie for me: for which words both t [...]e preachers and the people rebuked him, telling him that he ought to praie to none, but to God onelie; all helpe of man was but in vaine. Whereto he answered, he was assured that he could praie for him. In bréefe, his treasons being mooued to him, he denied all, albeit his owne handwriting was there to affirme it. He praied for hir maiestie, and said his Pater noster & Aue Maria: and as the cart was drawing away he said; In marius tuas He should haue said Daemon. Domine commendo spiritum meum, and then he died. Thus did the broome of iustice swéepe awaie these noisome cobwebs, noisome both to church and EEBO page image 1348 commonwealth, as being of the diuels h [...]tching, but nurssed and fostered of poperie, to insnare and trap seelie soules, as the spider dooth the flie: from whome the Lord God deliuer euerie member of his church.

On the second daie of Iune, Philip Prise was hanged in Fléetstréet for killing one of the shiriffes sergeants that had arrested him.Philip Price hanged in Fleetstreet for killing of a sergeant. This man at his death, as inwardlie touched with sorrow for the of|fense which he had committed and died, gaue such ap|parant tokens and notes of a repentant mind; that partlie with his spéeches which were patheticall, and partlie with his teares which were plentifull, as also with his vehement sighs and greeuous grones, ioined with diuerse other gestures (great signes of inward grace) he so mooued the beholders, that ma|nie which beheld him, pitied his wofull end, most yea in maner all (whereof some were such as a man would haue thought had neuer a teare to shed at such a sight, hauing viewed diuerse the like and more lamentable spectacles) with wet eies beheld him, and yet in heart reioised that he died reconciled to God. On the eight and twentith of Iune, Pere|grine Bartie lord Willoughbie of Grobie appoin|ted ambassador to Frederike the second king of Denmarke with the garter,Lord Wil|loughbie am|bassador sent into Den|marke. wherevnto he had béene elected & chosen a long time before, tooke his leaue of the quéenes maiestie at Gréenewich; with whome sir Gilbert Dethicke aliàs Garter principall king of armes was ioined in commission, for the inuesting of the said king into the order; and Robert Glouer aliàs Summerset herald was also present, and gaue his attendance in the same voiage, as likewise did a competent number of gentlemen and yeomen, in all to the number of six and fiftie persons, besides mariners, &c. The said lord ambassador prepared him|selfe towards Kingstone vpon Hull, where he im|barked with his whole traine on the fourtéenth daie of Iulie, and prosperouslie arriued at Elsemore in Denmarke on the one and twentith daie of the same moneth, where he was honorablie interteined.

On the thirtéenth daie of August he presented him|selfe before the king in his castell of Croneborough, and made his first spéech vnto him in Latine; which spéech being ended,The lord am|bassadors ora|tion in Latine to the king of Denmarke, &c the lord Willoughbie deliuered vnto the king hir maiesties letters, and withall the commission for the kings inuesture into that hono|rable order of the garter. Which letters the king o|pened, and deliuered them to Henrie Ramelis his chancellor for Germanie to read, whom he comman|ded to answer my lords former oration. From the king my lord was conueied to the quéenes presence, vnto whome also he deliuered hir maiesties letters with salutations. The next daie being thursdaie the fouretéenth of August, the king roiallie prepared, receiued the robes of the order with his owne hands,The king of Denmarke inuested into the right ho|norable order of the garter. and with great contentment accepted and ware the garter, the collar, and the George, when as my lord concluded the whole dedication with sundrie wel|wishings. In the end whereof he put the king in mind of the oth and thankefull acceptation of the order to be testified by a publike instrument, as was before promised, where vnto the king answered by his chan|cellor Nicholas Kaas with manie effectuall words: and immediatlie in signe of ioie, a great volee was discharged of all the great shot in his castell, and the lord ambassador with all his traine was roiallie fea|sted & rewarded. On thursdaie the sixtéenth daie of August, the king tooke my lord ambassador foorth on hunting two leagues from Elsemore, and there in the dinner time vttered manie louing spéeches. And after, to wit, on the one and twentith of September the lord ambassador with all his traine imbarked at Emden, and arriued at Bromeholme in Norffolke on thursdaie the seauen and twentith daie of Sep|tember.

On the nineteenth daie of Iulie certeine ferkins of gunpowder to the number of seauen,Misfortune by gunpow|der. and as ma|nie or more ferkins of sturgeon laden in a car vpon Galleie keie néere vnto the Tower of London, some small portion of the same powder being shed on the ground, the horsse in the said carre stroke fire with his foot, and fired all togither, where-through the stur|geon was blowen awaie, some into the Thames, some elsewhere: one ferkin was driuen through a lome wall that was boorded ouer, but all was spoi|led and lost, the cra [...]e on the wharffe with the houses neere adioining shattered, manie men and horsses sore blasted; the thrée men and seauen horsses died thereof.Strange tempest in Norffolke. On the twelfe daie of August there arose a great tempest of lightening, thunder, whirlewind, and raine, with hailestones fashioned like to the ro|wels of spurs two or thrée inches about in the coun|tie of Norffolke, betweene the market townes of north Walsham and Worsted (the towne wherein the making of woorsteds commmonlie called Nor|wich woorsted was first practised and tooke their be|ginning) which tempest beat the corne flat vnto the ground, rent vp manie great trees, and shiuered them in peeces, or woond them like withies. At Hening more than a mile from Worsted, the west doore of the church, weieng more than thrée hundred pound weight, was lifted off the hookes, and throwne ouer the font, within one yard of the chancell doore; the top of the church was riuen vp, and the lead as it were blowen awaie; fiue webs of lead were ruffled vp togither, like as they had béene clouts of linnen cloth, and blowen into the field without the church|yard. Also at east Russen were manie barnes blow|en downe, and houses vncouered.

This yeare Michaelmasse terme was reiourned from the vtas thereof, Anno reg. 2 [...]. vntill the fourth returne of the same called Mense Michaelis,Terme kept at Hertford. and from the said re|turne vntill the returne commonlie called Crastino animarum next insuing, & then reiorned from West|minster to the castell of Hertford in Hertfordshire, there to begin in the said Crastino animarum, and to be continued till the end of the same terme, which was doone accordinglie, where was plentie of good viands to be had for monie, but lodging hard and scant; be|sides the long and plashie waie that manie had vnto their hosts, and then peraduenture sléepe in the chim|neie corner, or vpon the hard boords with a pillow vnder their heads. Was not this a good amends?

This yeare Peter Moris frée denison,Thames wa|ter conueied ouer saint Magnus stéeple. hauing made an engine for that purpose, conueied Thames water in pipes of lead ouer the stéeple of saint Mag|nus church, at the north end of London bridge, and so into diuerse mens houses in Thames stréet, new Fish stréet, and Grasse street, vp vnto the northwest corner of Leaden hall (the highest ground of the citie of Lond [...]n) where the waste of the first maine pipe ran first this yeare one thousand fiue hundred eigh|tie and two on Christmasse éeuen: which maine pipe being since at the charges of the citie brought vp in|to a standard there made for that purpose, and diui|ded into foure seuerall spouts ran foure waies, plen|tifullie seruing to the vse of the inhabitants néere adioining that will fetch the same into their houses, and also clensed the chanels of the stréets, north to|wards Bishopsgate, east towards Aldgate, south towards the Bridge, and west towards the Stocks market. No doubt a great commoditie to that part of the citie, and would be farre greater, if the said water were mainteined to run continuallie, or at the least, at euerie tide some reasonable quantitie, as at the first it did; but since is much aslaked, tho|rough whose default I know not, sith the engine is EEBO page image 1349 sufficient to conueie water plentifullie: which being well considered by Barnard Randolph esquier,Iustice Ran|dolph h [...]s cha|ritie. com|mon sergeant of the citie of London: he being a|liue, gaue and deliuered to the companie of the fish|mongers in London a round sum to be imploied to|ward the conducting of Thames water for the good seruice of the commonwealth in conuenient order. Other legacies verie liberallie and bountifullie he gaue by his testament to be laid out in works of cha|ritie, as I haue noted more at large hereafter in due place, vpon occasion of recording the daie of his death. The publication of whose acts, as also of di|uerse others, if they may mooue the rich of this world to part with some small portion of their store to the like christian vses, I shall be glad, and thinke my paines worth the printing: otherwise I saie with one that persuading this age to walke worthie of their calling, and doubting his words should be but wind, concluded with this interrogatiue distichon:

Sed quid verba miser non proficientia per do?
Quid iuuat in vacuos missa loquela notos?

Publike lec|ture of sur|gerie founded in London, & presentlie red (as also in the life of the founder) by doctor For|ster, to his high praise & credit.This yeare 1582 was there instituted and first founded a publike lecture or lesson in surgerie, to begin to be read in the college of physicians in Lon|don, in Anno 1584, the sixt daie of Maie, against that time new reedified in a part of the house that do|ctor Linacre gaue by testament to them, by Iohn Lumleie lord Lumleie, and Richard Caldwell do|ctor in physicke, to the honour of God, the common profit of hir maiesties subiects, and good same, with increase of estimation and credit of all the surgians of this realme. The reader whereof to be a doctor of physicke, and of good practise and knowledge, and to haue an honest stipend, no lesse than those of the vni|uersities erected by king Henrie the eight, namelie of law, diuinitie, and physicke, and lands assured to the said college for the maintenance of the publike lesson; wherevnto such statutes be annexed as be for the great commoditie of those which shall giue and incline themselues to be diligent hearers for the ob|teining of knowledge in surgerie, as whether he be learned or vnlearned that shall become an auditor or hearer of the lecture, he may find himselfe not to repent the time so imploied. First twise a wéeke tho|rough out the yeare; to wit, on wednesdaies and fri|daies, at ten of the clocke till eleuen, shall the reader read thrée quarters of an houre in Latine, and the o|ther quarter in English, wherein that shall be plain|lie declared for those that vnderstand not Latine, what was said in Latine.What exerci|ses are to be followed in the said col|lege by the will of the founder. The first yeares exer|cises. And the first yeare to read Horatius Morus tables, an epitome or briefe hand|ling of all the whole art of surgerie, that is, of swel|lings or apostems, wounds, vlcers, bonesetting, and healing of bones broken, termed commonlie fractions, and to read Oribasius of knots and Ga|len of bands, such workes as haue beene long hid, and are scarselie now a daies among the learned knowen, and yet are (as the anatomies) to the first enterers in surgerie and nouices in physicke; but a|mongst the ancient writers and Grecians well knowne. At the end of the yeare in winter to dis|se [...]t openlie in the reading place all the bodie of man especiallie the inward parts for fiue daies togither, as well before as after dinner; if the bodies may so last without annoie.

The second years exer|cises.The second yeare to read Tagaultius institutions of surgerie, and onelie of swellings or apostems, and in the winter to dissect the trunke onelie of the bodie, namelie from the head to the lowest part where the members are, and to handle the muscles especiallie. The third yeare to read of wounds one|lie of Tagaultius,The third yeares, and fourth yeares exercises. and in winter to make publike dis|section of the head onelie. The fourth yeare to read of vlcers onlie the same author, and to anatomize or dissect a leg and an arme for the knowledge of mus|cles, sinewes, arteries, veines, gristles, ligaments, and tendons.The fift and sixt yeares ex|ercises, and so to continue with Re [...]e [...]n [...]i [...] princip [...] . The fift yeare to read the sixt booke of Paulus Aegineta, and in winter to make anatomie of a skeleton, & therwithall to shew & declare the vse of certeine instruments; as Scamnum Hippocratis, and other instruments for setting in of bones. The sixt yeare to read Holerius of the matter of surge|rie, as of medicines for surgians to vse. And the seuenth yeare to begin againe, and continue still. A godlie and charitable erection doubtlesse, such as was the more néedfull, as hitherto hath beene the want and lacke so hurtfull: sith that onelie in ech vniuersities by the foundation of the ordinarie and publike lessons, there is one of physicke, but none of surgerie, and this onelie of surgerie and not of physicke, I meane so as physicke is now taken sepa|ratelie from surgerie, and that part which onelie v|seth the hand as it is sorted from the apothecarie. So that now England may reioise for those happie bene|factors & singular welwillers to their countrie, who furnish hir so in all respects, that now she may as compare for the knowledge of physicke so by means to come to it, with France, Italie, and Spaine, and in no case behind them but for a lecture in simples, which God at his pleasure may procure, in moouing some hereafter in like motion and instinct to be as carefull and beneficiall as these were to the helpe and furtherance of their countrie. Ab. Fl. Specta|tor & auditor. ¶At the publication of this foundation, which was celebrated with a good|lie assemblie of doctors collegiats and licentiats, as also some masters of surgerie, with other students, some whereof had beene academicall; doctor Cald|well so aged that his number of yéeres with his white head adding double reuerence to his person (whereof I may well saie no lesse than is left written of a doc|tor of the same facultie verie famous while he liued,

Conspicienda aetas, sed & ars prouectior annis,
Famáque Paeonio non renuenda choro)
euen he, notwithstanding his age and impotencie, made an oration in Latine to the auditorie, the same by occasion of his manifold debilities vnfinished at the direction speciallie of the president,Doctor Gil|sord president of the college of physicians. who (after a few words, shortlie and swéetlie vttered) gaue occasi|on and opportunitie to D. Forster, then and yet the appointed lecturer, to deliuer his matter, which he dis|charged in such methodicall maner, that ech one pre|sent indued with iudgement, conceiued such hope of the doctor, touching the performance of all actions incident vnto him by that place, as some of them continued his auditors in all weathers, and still hold out; whose diligence he requiteth with the imparting of further knowledge than the said publike lecture dooth affoord. When the assemblie was dissolued, and the founder accompanied home, diligent care was taken for the due preferring of this established exer|cise: insomuch that D. Caldwell, and D. Forster, to furnish the auditors with such bookes as he was to read, caused to be printed the epitome of Horatius Morus first in Latine: then in English, which was translated by the said doctor Caldwell. But before it was halfe perfected, the good old doctor fell sicke, and as a candle goeth out of it selfe, or a ripe apple falling from the trée, so departed he out of this world at the doctors commons, where his vsuall lodging was; & was verie worshipfullie buried. But of his death hereafter, in the yeare 1584: where the daie of his decease being mentioned, matter worth the reading shall be remembred.]

Francis of Ualois, the kings onlie brother,Francis of Ualois at|tempteth di|uerse exploits, the issue whereof fell out to his misfortune. duke of Louthier, Brabant, Limbourgh, Gelders, An|iou, Alanson, &c: earle of Flanders, Holland, Ze|land, &c: marquesse of the sacred empire, lord of Friseland, &c: hauing now indifferentlie well (with EEBO page image 1350 his good successes h [...]d in the vittelling, and remoouing the séeges of Cambreie and Lothem, and winning the townes of Alaft and Endonan) gotten the harts of the people, and by that meanes placed his French|men in Dunkirke, Winexburgh, Dixmide, Dex|mond, Uilno [...]d, and other places, thought now (v|sing yoong & euill counsell) to make himselfe a more absolute prince,The monsi| [...]urs ambition spreading like [...] canker. as though it were too base a thing for his highnesse to rule with the aduise of the estates of the countries. Wherfore hauing come to him out of France the marshall Biron, with great troops of Swissers and Frenchmen, he now causeth them all at one time; to wit, on the seuenth of Ianuarie, to inuade so manie townes as they could make them|selues maisters of; which with them tooke effect in the aboue named townes, but at Bridges they were put out. And at Antwerpe on the said seuenth daie, vn|der the pretense to muster his armie without the towne, vpon the verie noone time of the daie, when the citizens were at dinner, he causeth two gates (as vncerteine by which he would go) to be opened for him, and the chaines ouerthwart the stréets to be vn|chained, which (for some suspicion had of the French|men without) were locked: then he issued out with all his court and a great number of gentlemen, verie braue, mounted on great horsses aboue two hun|dred, manie of them being secretlie armed vnder their garments,The French gentlemen ware armor vnder their garments: with good meaning no doubt. and comming to saint Iames gate. At the bridge without met him certeine of his com|panies of horssemen and footmen, who staied them|selues on both sides the waie, making as it were a lane for the duke to passe by with a few of his: who being past them, made a token to them with his cap, to inuade the citie: wherevpon his men killed the watch, with the coronell Uierendell, that stood bare headed to sée their prince passe. Then entred the gate seuenteene ensignes of footmen, and foure coronels of horssemen, the Swissers following, & the duke cri|eng to them, March, march, La ville est gagnee, mais me pillon point. Being thus stronglie entred they cried,The monsi|eur was glad to retire not|withstanding this confident clamor. Ville gagnee viue la messe, and tooke in on both sides the bulworks, turned the ordinance towards the citie, & came by diuers stréets almost to the midst of the citie. The citizens at dinner hearing the a|larum, verie furiouslie issued out, with such weapons as first came to their hands, and set vpon them, first, by the bylanes, other some chained vp the streets, and so barred them from going anie further. They turne all against the soldiors that were entred the ci|tie with most violent shot. In the meane space the citizens néere and about the gate with their harque|bussers bestow their small shot as thicke as haile out of windowes vpon the gate, where first they killed a horsse, and then diuers men entring, which troubled the other following, that a great number was euen in the verie gate killed, and so heaped one vpon ano|ther that the gate was stopped; wherby all that were entred within the citie, in lesse than in one houres space were killed or taken prisoners. Wherein the citizens behaued themselues so valiantlie, & so man|lie, that manie for lacke of leaden pellets, tooke their monie out of their purses, bowed it with their teeth, and put it in stead of pellets in their harquebussers:

Sic sese & sobolem charam, cum vxore mariti
Defendunt, Gallis ne praeda voracibus essent.

In this skirmish of so litle space were slaine aboue 1530 Frenchmen horssemen and footmen,Noblemen & oth [...]r French [...] priso|n [...]s. told at the burieng, and more than two thousand prisoners ta|ken, amongst the which were the earle Fernaugus, the bishop of Constance, and manie other notable personages. And amongst the dead were the earle of saint Agnau and his sonne, the earle of Chasteau|rousse, the sonne of the marshall of France Biron: monsieur de Saisonall gouernor of Uilnord,Noblemen of France slaine the sonne of the lord Miranbeau, and others. A mar|uellous act of citizens in their defense without anie soldiors, against old soldiors and tried men of armes, and number of so great nobilitie. A maruellous con|tinencie & clemencie of rough citizens against their enimies, in kéeping their hands from the killing of prisoners whome they had in their power, and surelie a woonderfull worke of God.

The prince of Orange with others had refused to go foorth, and his danger was not small; with other gentlemen more, and lords of the religion. The prince Dolphin, the earle Lamall and others were with the duke lookers on, and intercessors for their friends whom they reckoned dead. After that fact, the duke with his campe was forced for lacke of vittels and necessaries,Francis duke of Aniou and Alanson re|tireth. to retire him with his armie toward Machlin, and from thense with great difficultie passing great waters, with losse of manie a man got to Dermond, where he was kept in by the generall Norris, with three and twentie ensignes English|men and Scots, so that he lacked vittels and neces|saries, whereby he was forced,Generall Norris with 23. ensignes. as also to haue his prisoners restored, to enter into a treatie with the e|states, to surrender all the townes by his men pos|sessed, and to retire him to Dunkirke: where further with the estates, by intercession of princes was ho|ped a reconcilement to be made. But he séeing the countrie vnwilling, and finding himselfe sicke (as it was thought) of melancholie, he retired from Dun|kirke toward France. And so as he was retired, the prince of Parma for king Philip,Francis duke of Alanson and of Aniou sickeneth. caused Dunkirke to be besieged, few Frenchmen left within it. And as the states Generall and the prince of Orange would haue sent thither to rescue the towne, the marshall Biron with his Frenchmen and Swissers, the Fle|mings chéeflie they of Gaunt, partlie for hatred of the French, and partlie that manie now were be|come Spanish, would not suffer him to come ouer into Flanders, whereby Dunkirke was forced to surrender: and this losse being imputed to the duke, increased his sickenesse, so that he died at Chasteau Thierie the tenth of Iulie 1583, & was roiallie buri|ed at saint Diones by Paris.

¶ But before we passe the absolute cõmemoration of the monsieur, Abr. Fl. ex lib. cui tit. Regret funebre, contenant le dis|cours de la mor [...] de Monseigneu [...] fils de France, frere vnicque, du roy. sith in some remembrances we haue atteined to a perfection, it shall not be amisse héere to annex the manner of his sicknesse, as also the ve|rie speeches which he vttered, as they are reported by Iames Berson Parisien, preacher to the French king, and to the said monsieur, in a discourse by him published, vnder the title of A funerall complaint, &c. Wherein whatsoeuer is spoken, deserueth the grea|ter credit, for that the said Berson was vpon his owne certeine knowledge able to giue out the truth, and therfore intimateth to the readers of his treatise, that they are not to looke for either flatteries, or hau|tie, proud, and lieng arguments: he being the man who assuredlie was able to answer and beare witnes of the pietie, religion, and departure of monsieur, a sonne of France, and the kings onelie brother in the fauor of God, as the same vpon whome he reposed himselfe concerning his conscience, soule and salua|tion; and hauing from the beginning of his sickenes administred vnto him the holie sacrament, and did assist him to the end. You are therfore to vnderstand, that afterMeaning Berson the monsieurs preacher and the writer of this discourse. my said lords crosse haps and danger of life in the low countries, and his returne into his du|chie of Castle Thierie, his naturall & brotherlie reso|lution taken to go alone to Paris, there to yéeld him selfe to his maiesties armes, a déed to be accounted and taken as a strong bulworke against whatsoeuer the popular and enuious slanders: after his returne home he conceiued an extreame contentation in dailie hearing of sermons, yea not satisfied with the EEBO page image 1351 onelie hearing of them, he greatlie delited to talke of the same, also to haue the same repeated vnto him. Thus did our Lord in conuenient time dispose his soule,The maner of the monsieurs sickenesse. which he purposed shortlie to visit in his next sickenesse, and that was an ague that continu|ed without equalitie vntill the thirtéenth of March, and then he fell into so strange a iudgement, that all euen the physicians began to doubt of him. For a flux of bloud issued so continuallie out of his nose and mouth, that they were still forced to hold him a basen, whereinto he voided the pure and cléere bloud. When all men were as it were astonied ther|at, himselfe began with a perfect mind and vnder|standing to saie; My friends, helpe me, will you suf|fer a christian prince thus to die? Now is the time come that God will call me to account: cause mon|sieur Berson to come hither.

When I came, ha monsieur Berson (said this good prince) I am dead, I must acknowledge my God; my frend flatter me not, I will reconcile my selfe. Alas I am a great sinner, will not God haue mer|cie on me? Will not he forgiue me? I answered, There is no dout my lord but vpon humbling your selfe before his holie maiestie with contrition, you shall obteine remission of your sinnes. My lord, you are verie sicke,Bersons words of comfort to the monsieur, whether his disease were naturall, or procéeding [...]rom God. I will not flatter with you, but your whole life and your selfe resteth in the hands of God. Sickenes is naturall, or sent by God for a warning; if your disease be naturall there is hope: we will vse all means for remedie. On the one side the physici|ans are here readie, who shall imploie themselues. On the other side, all the world is in praier & deuoti|on for your health. If it procéedeth from God, it is a warning to you for the rest of your life, to the end to draw you neerer to him, either else to aduertise you of your naturall condition: that is, that you are mortall & must once paie this debt, and restore your soule to God who lent it to you, at whatsoeuer time he shall call for it. Now my lord, sith we can not cer|teinlie discerne the one from the other, is it not best for you to conforme your will to Gods will. Also in case God granteth you to ouerliue this sickenesse, are you not resolued to better your life, and to liue more in his feare than before? Againe, if he be deter|mined to call you out of this world, are not you con|tent to go into Abrahams bosome, and there to rest vnder the protection of his mercie? Resolue your selfe my lord, you haue a goodlie soule.

The mon|si [...]urs reso|lu [...]e to die.I am (said this good prince) fullie resolued in the will of my God, let him doo with me whatsoeuer shall please him: onelie that he will vouchsafe to haue mercie on me. I wold reconcile me but I shall hardlie speake: and in truth the bloud still belched out into the basen which Namelie Berson. I held with one hand, whilest with a handkercher in the ot [...]er I wiped from his face and brest a great cold sweat that euen smelt of death: as also I perceiued his nostrils to be closed vp, his eies sunke, and heard the ratling and bloud that stopped him vp. Euerie bodie being gone forth I said vnto him, My lord straine not your selfe to speake much, onelie begin with the chiefest mat|ters, and those that most trouble your conscience, and for the rest I will instruct you. Then ioining his hands and lifting vp his eies vnto heauen, he began to sigh, mourne, and sob with extreame contrition and griefe, which when I perceiued, I still indeuou|red to assure him in talking to him of God and of the merits of the bloud of Iesus Christ, wherein the greater delight that he conceiued, the more did he detest himselfe as a most miserable sinner: then might you haue séene among much sweat which as pearles ran downe his haire and heard, the great teares trickeling downe his eies, whiles with great paine he accused himselfe.

After this, diuerse spéeches passed with certeine a|ctions betweene the monsieur and Berson, which to omit is lesse offensiue than to publish. To procéed then, the monsieur lieng in his agonie, be thought him (amongest other things) of his familie, and said; Alas I mone none but my poore seruants, & withall, that I shall die without celebration of mine East|er: will not the Lord grant me that grace? Then Berson who was then bu|sie about cer|teine ceremo|nies incident to the time and his office. I promised him that God would heare so iust a petiti|on, and therefore willed him a while to haue patience, it should not be the first miracle that euer our Lord had wrought. Hauing thus spoken, certeine cere|monies were solemnlie commensed and finished, not without manie speeches interchanged betwéene the monsieur and Berson; insomuch that (saith he) I can not rehearse all that he said vnto me; but this I dare assure you, that if his health had continued, I was thereby in hope of most profitable effects to all christendome,Great hope conceiued of the monsieur if he had not beene preuen|ted with d [...]ath. and to the estate and quietnesse of our France. But we were not worthie, our sinnes crieng for vengeance to God, who as he punisheth nations by giuing them wicked princes, so dooth he also chastise them by taking from them the good, euen at such time as they are readie to reléeue vs, and af|terward we haue cause to lament and moorne.

His health after this first fit continued a while, but by reason of a crum of bread that stucke in the v|uula, and thereby procured a violent cough with spit|ting of bloud, he fell into it againe, and from thense|foorth kept his bed, sometimes well and sometimes ill, yet eating his meat reasonablie well, howbeit gathering no force to the substance of his bodie. Fi|nallie, the same daie that the physicians (after the view of the operation of a medicine) had conceiued a better opinion of him than before; being saturdaie the ninth of Iune about eight of the clocke at night, he was taken with a maruellous shortnesse of wind,The monsieur falleth into an extremitie of his maladie, and past hope of recouerie. and a paine in one of his sides: and séeing himselfe so taken before anie man spake to him, he sent for me, saieng; Now is the time that I must die, you haue greatlie abused me; howbeit they vsed all diligence. But about midnight, when there was no further hope, they sent for me. When I was come I found the good prince laid in his estate, of whome trulie I had no other opinion but that death was at hand, and therefore was verie importunat to speake vnto him, fearing least he should haue died without the sacrament, which so greatlie he had longed for.

One commendable matter I noted in the nobi|litie there present, which was; that there was not one but did importunatlie vrge to speake vnto him of God: for mine owne part I was verie vnpatient, & euerie one was in feare to speake first. One there was that willed me to change mine apparell, & to put on a blacke garment, least he should conceiue anie mistrust. How (said I) can I so doo? He hath sent for me, and knoweth my clothing: if by my spéech he should know me, and then find my clothing chan|ged, he will enter a greater apprehension of death than before: therefore consider of it, if anie thing fall out amisse, it will be a perpetuall reproch to vs all. In the end monsieur Fougier his steward a ve|rie wise man so ordered the matter, and with such discretion, that he brake with him of it. At that time was he ouercome with a drowsie sléepe, and still hol|den with a short wind, accompanied with continuall sweats, and sometime would aske;Doo men [...]te thus? saith the monsie [...]r drawing t [...] his end. Doo men die thus? On the tenth daie of Iune which was sundaie, after diuers ceremoniall actions dispatched, and spée|ches to and fro vttered, with pitifull sighs on all sides of inward setled sorow; the monsieur desired that he might sléepe a while: but his sleepe was not long yer he awaked, when betwixt him and Berson (all the rest being gone) something was said and doone, EEBO page image 1352 which (belike) was not for euerie eare & eie to heare or see. In the end, Berson perceiuing by manifest indications, that death preased vpon him, vsed these words to the monsieur, some (of likeliehood) being then within the hearing. My lord, in the beginning of your sickenesse,Bersons words to the monsieur in the hearing of diuerse gen|tlemen pre|sent. you & I made a ioint promise vnto God, wherwith I am burdened: now therefore I doo vnburden my selfe thereof, vnlesse you will helpe to burden me againe. We are witnesses that you haue loued God: now is the time that you must acknow|ledge him, you are verie sicke, but your soule is sound in your bodie. If it please our good God to grant you life, he granteth it to the end you should amend; so should your selfe be happie, and we content that you should liue. If he vouchsafe [...]o call you in|to paradise, how blessed shall you be, or where may you be better? So that whatsoeuer happen, be it life, be it death, still shall you be content and happie. Re|solue your selfe therefore wholie in the will of God. All we here are your faithfull seruants, and those who euermore haue desired to be so fortunate as to be ho|nored with your commandements; whose eies and eares haue alwaies beene open to heare and obeie you, and to fulfill your will; neuer did you command anie thing, but you were immediatlie obeied. Now know you, that your selfe are Gods seruant; him you must obeie, and to his will must you wholie re|solue your selfe: whether it be his will you should liue, or is his pleasure you should die still saie: His will be doone.

His will (meaning Gods) be doone, saith the monsieur with a forced spéech on his death bed.Then with a forced speech this good prince said: His will be doone. Take no care my lord said I, for anie worldlie matters. Greatnesse, riches, and re|nowme doo perish. Paradise is to be found and pos|sessed. It is a great matter to be a kings sonne, but it is much greater to be the child of God. You are now as a child new borne, you want nothing but the food of the children of God: you haue no more to doo, but to communicat in the pretious bodie of our Lord: it is here readie, would you not gladlie haue it? I will cause you easilie to vse it. He answered yes. Then taking the holie sacrament I began to saie vnto him: My Lord Iesus the heauenlie word and euerlasting sonne of God, in old time inuisible, did in the end visiblie manifest himselfe to the world in humane flesh, by taking vpon him our visible and passible nature: but because he was not perpetuallie to remaine in this humane vale, reuiuing and as|cending into heauen, we had him no longer to touch and handle carnallie and visiblie. And therefore to the end not to faile of his promise,The institu|tion and vse of the sacrament of the bodie and bloud of Christ. that he would be still with vs vntill the consummation of the world; he hath giuen vs inuisiblie his pretious bodie & bloud vnder these holie signes and sacraments, that by the communion in such and so pretious a gift, we might be strengthened in his loue, & through his grace be de|fended against all temptations & stumbling blocks of our saluation: like as Elias, who in the strength of the food for him miraculouslie ordeined, after his sléepe trauelled long iournies, euen vntill he did sée God. Receiue therefore this signe and testimonie of the remission of your sinnes, and when you shall be presented before the maiestie of God, it shall be vnto you a badge and token that you belong vnto him.

Then lifting vp his eies and looking all about him, this good prince opened his mouth, which presentlie I moistened with his drinke, & so gaue him the holie sacrament, and againe powred in some of his drinke to swallow it withall, which he did both deuoutlie and couragiouslie; insomuch that afterward he did eat & speake better than he had doone all the night & morning before, to the great contentation of all the [...]ompanie: in whose presence I did againe exhort him saieng: Now my lord, behold you are armed with the cheefe of all your desire, I beséech you com|fort your selfe in the Lord.Bersons ex|hor [...]atorie speeches to the monsieur, preparing and setling him|selfe to Cod|ward. It is a great fauour that he hath shewed you, in making you (as it appea|reth) inheritor vnto the faith, pietie, and christianitie of the kings of France, whose faith and descent you doo hold.

Let your soule now re [...]oise, yea although you should now die. Thinke what a contentation vn|to you it shall be; to be discharged from so manie worldlie affaires, what a pleasure to exchange this mortall life for an immortall, glorious and perdura|ble life; feare no lets: the waie is alreadie beaten, alreadie are they passed the same, whose greatnesse & faith you do [...] insue. The patriarchs doo tarie for you, the prophets doo call you: the apostles doo stretch foorth their armes vnto you: the martyrs doo inuite you: the confessors doo solicit you: the virgins doo giue you place: all the saincts doo looke for you. We haue discharged all the duties of faithfull seruants, and such as loue you hartilie. And hauing thus spo|ken, with a demand or two made, and their answers added: Berson, being the mouth of the residue, said of the monsieur drawing on; that they (meaning himselfe and the companie present) waited but for the houre of his death: yet had he one houre and a halfe to liue. So soone as we were goone, he desired to haue his head laid lower: his chamberleine im|mediatlie called to vs for helpe, & suddenlie he gaue vp the ghost: my selfe Iames Berson, at the dissolu|tion of his sweet soule from his louelie bodie, vsing these words: Go and passe on christian soule, and re|turne to him that hath created thée, &c.

He went awaie so swéetlie that it could hardlie be perceiued,The mon|sieur depar|ture out of this world like a lamp, whose light [...] for want o [...] oile. insomuch that some who could not be persuaded that he was dead (for his eies were open and cléere, and his countenance no whit changed) held a looking glasse to his mouth, but there was no signe of life: others féeling his pulses, imagined they did beat, but that was bicause they were strai|ned euen to the nailes ends. At this word, He is gone, oh what pitie! oh God what tears! what sighes! what sobs! all was dissolued into howling and cries: those that in armor were forwardest, were now rea|diest in teares, sundrie swooned in the chamber, at the sound hereof the towne quaked, the castell soun|ded most lamentable voices: yea my selfe hauing lost all courage was forced to open the poole of my head, and to vnstop the gate of my hart, to the end with teares and lamentations to discharge that af|fection which I bare vnto him.

About foure of the clocke,Maruellous [...] of in|ward loue & [...] affectiõ [...] the mon [...]eur de|parted. when all were departed I tooke the linnen wherein he was lapped from about the bodie of this good prince, then did I laie and order it honestlie and with reuerence handled it, some of vs also had so good hap as to kisse his hands & head. Oh my good lord and master, neuer durst I haue béene so bold, had it not beene for the confidence you reposed in me: alas whie was it so late befo [...]e I did know you, to serue you so small a time? Infinitlie am I forced to print you in my remembrance, in|graue you in my soule, and to burie you in my hart, for that you vouchsafed to make mine eares gardi|ans of that which rested in your conscience. Mourne,The [...]e be ve|rie [...] & [...] [...]eed. mourne with me my masters, and all ye the officers of his house: we haue l [...]st the best master in the world for euer shall the tenth daie of Iune beare witnesse of our mishap: hereafter shall we neuer vpon that daie haue occasion to hold merie feast be|twéene twelue and one of the clocke, the houre of the decease of so desired a prince The yeare 1584 is in|déed a yeare of reuolu [...]on. France, France, quar|ter thine armes & in [...] of lions sow in teares: for the Lord taketh from vs all our noble & honorable, EEBO page image 1353 and taketh the good to depriue vs of them, for my part I will beare thee companie. Moreouer for his trespasses I doo giue him flowres, and for his bodie in ashes the lamentations of Flanders, at the least I inherit in his right an example of vertue, accoun|ting my selfe infinitlie bounden vnto their maie|sties, who gaue me to doo the seruice apperteining to my ministerie,For he was preacher, &c: to the moun|sieur and lost dimidium ani|mae suae vp his death. vnto a prince that loued me so much, and in whose house all men honored me, whose ora|tor I doo most deuoutlie rest, desiring them to haue patience, though for recompense they haue no more but my selfe. Requiescat in pace. This is all that we purposed to saie touching the monsieur, hauing o|mitted much that is not communicable, & now will we turne our pen vpon passage to England, noting occurrents of our owne.]

Ground re|moued.The thirtéenth daie of Ianuarie, in the parish of Ermitage in a place called Blacke more in Dorset|shire, a peece of ground conteining thrée acres re|mooued from the place where it was first planted, and was caried cleane ouer an other close, where al|der and willow trées grew, the space of fortie goad (euerie goad conteining fiftéene foot) and hath stop|ped vp an high waie that directed towards the mar|ket towne of Cerne; and yet notwithstanding the hedges wherewith it was inclosed, inuiron it still, and the trées stand thereon bolt vpright, sauing one oke trée, that is well nigh twentie goads remooued: the place whereas the ground had his being at the first is left like vnto a great hollow pit.Eight persons killed by the fall of a scaffold at the bea [...] garden, a warning to prophaners of the sabboth daie. The same thirteenth daie of Ianuarie, being sundaie, about foure of the clocke in the afternoone, the old and vn|derpropped scaffolds round about the beare garden, commonlie called Paris garden, on the southside the Thames, ouer against the citie of London, ouer|charged with people fell suddenlie downe, whereby to the number of eight persons men and women were slaine, and manie other sore hurt and brused. A fréend|lie warning to all such as more delight themselues in the crueltie of beasts, to sée them rent one an o|ther; than in the works of mercie, which are the fruits of a true professed faith, and ought to be the sabboth daies exercise: and not onelie a warning to works of mercie, but a watchword to put vs in mind how we violate the sabboth daie, the Lords owne daie, which he sanctified himselfe, that we by his example might sanctifie the same, and not prophane it with such gentilisme as we doo, as though God would not call vs to a r [...]ckoning for abusing his holie ordinan|ces, and falsifieng the glorious title of christians in our odious actions: for the which God will seuerelie expostulat with vs, and with indignation demand of vs why we take his lawes in our mouths, & renounce them in our minds; why we let them swim in our lips, and slip from our liues, as the vaine Iewes did, vnto whome God said in displeasure as followeth:

Quid de lege mea declamas ore profano?
Eob. H [...]ss. in Psal. 50.Non hoc officij debuit esse tui:
Cùm tamen & mores & leges oderis aequas,
Et verbi officium negligis omne mei.

On the third of Februarie being sundaie, Wil|liam Bruistar habardasher (a man of more than threescore yeares old) being lodged ouer the south|west porch of saint Brides church in Fleetstréet,Williã Brui|star and Ma|rie Breame smothered to death. with a woman named Marie Breame (whome the same Bruistar had bailed out of Bridewell) were both found smothered to death, in maner following. On the same sundaie in the morning, a marriage being solemnized in that church, a strong fauour was felt, which was thought to haue béene the burning of old shooes or such like, in some gentlemans chamber there about, thereby to suppresse the infection of the plague. But in the afternoone before euening prai|er, the parishioners espied a smoke to issue out of Bruistars chamber, and therevpon made hast to the dore, which they found fast locked, and were forced to breake it open, but could not enter, till they had rip|ped vp the lead and roofe of the chamber to let out the smothering stench: which being doone, they found Bruistar dead, sitting on a settle by his beds side (in his apparell, and close trussed) his right thigh & right arme vp to the elbow burnt or scorched with the fire of a small pan of coales that stood before him, but now being cleane quenched with the dampe or lacke of aire. The woman also laie dead ouer the pan, so that hir armes were likewise burnt, with the nether part of hir bodie before to hir brest, and behind to the shoulders, and nothing else in the chamber burnt, but the bottome of the settle wheron Bruistar sat. Of this lamentable accident people talked diuerslie, and pamphlets were published to make the same more knowne: howbeit, to leaue the certeine meanes of the euent to his knowledge that vnderstandeth and séeth all things, let it be a warning to all ages so to liue, as that an honest report may attend their death, & shame flie from them as a cloud before the wind:

Sic sapient, sic non insipientes erunt.

On the sixteenth of Aprill about six of the clocke in the morning, Thomas Worth & Alice Shepheard, A man and a woman han|ged at Shoo|lane end. were hanged on a gibbet at Shoolane end in Fléet|street, for killing of a prentice in the same Shoolane. Also on the same daie about eight of the clocke in the morning, a gunpowder house,The gun|powder house in Fetterlane blowne vp. called the signe of the gun in Fetterlane néere vnto Fléetstréet, and di|uerse other houses néere adioining, were blowne vp, with the spoire of fiftie hundred weight of pow|der: two men and one woman were slaine, & diuerse other persons, as well men as women and children were sore hurt; some blasted with the flame, some brused with the fall of timber vpon them, &c.

Albertus Alasco, frée baron of Lasco, Uaiuode,Palatine of Siradia in Poland came into England. or palatine of Siradia in Poland, arriued at Har|wich in Essex, and on the last of Aprill came by wa|ter to Winchester house in Southworke, where he remained for the most part of his abode heere: of whome more hereafter at his returne into his owne countrie. Elias Thackar tailor was hanged at saint Edmunds burie in Suffolke on the fourth of Iune,Elias Thac|kar, and Iohn Coping han|ged at Berrie and Iohn Coping shoomaker on the sixt of the same moneth, for spreading and mainteining certeine bookes seditiouslie penned by one Robert Browne against the receiued booke of English common praier, established by the lawes of this realme their bookes (so manie as could be found) were burned be|fore them. This yeare on the ninth of Iune decea|sed Thomas Ratclife earle of Sussex,Thomas Ratclife earle of Sussex de|ceased. lord chamber|leine to hir maiestie, and knight of the garter, at Barmundseie in the borough of Southworke be|sides London, and was on the eight of Iulie next following conueied through the same citie of Lon|don toward Newhall in Essex, there to be buried in forme folowing. First went on foot before him fortie and fiue poore men in blacke gownes, then on horsse|backe one hundred and twentie seruingmen in blacke coats, then ninetie and fiue gentlemen in blacke gownes or clokes, besides the heralds at armes and other, which bare his helme, creast, sword, coat of armes, and banners of armes, &c. Then the deceased earle, couered with a pall of blacke vel|uet, in a chariot likewise couered with blacke veluet, drawne with foure goodlie geldings; next after was led the earles stéed couered with blacke veluet, then sir Henrie Ratclife the succéeding erle chiefe mour|ner, and eight other lords all in blacke, then the lord maior and his brethren the aldermen of London ri|ding in murraie gownes, then on foot the gentle|men of Greis in, and last of all the worshipfull com|panie of the merchant tailors of London in their li|ueries, EEBO page image 1354 for that the said earle was a brother of their companie, as manie noble men, and famous prin|ces, kings of this realme before him had béene; as more at large is declared in I. Stow. the summarie of the chronicles of England, in the eightéenth yeare of king Henrie the seuenth. The maior and aldermen, the gentlemen of Greis in, and the merchant tailors accompanied the corps to the barres without Ald|gate, and returned. This was the end of that noble|man, who (whiles he liued) aduentured lim and life against the enimies of the English commonwelth, and therefore in respect of his excellent seruices, de|serued no lesse remembrance than is alreadie extant of him in print, whereof this following is a parcell:

—satrapas praeclarus, fortis & audax,
Elisabetha tui speciosi corporis acer
Et fidus custos, discrimen adire paratus
Quodlibet, inuicto Mauortis pectore campo:
Cui virtus persaepè herbam porrexit Hibernus,
Quem pugnis fulg [...]ns ornat victoria parta
Sanguineis, sed laus huic maxima iudicis aequi.

Edmund Grindall doctor of diuinitie archbishop of Canturburie deceassed at Croidon in Surrie on the sixt daie of Iulie,Edmund Grindall archbishop of Cantur|burie deceas|sed. & was there buried. This good man in his life time was so studious, that his booke was his bride, and his studie his bridechamber, wher|vpon he spent both his eiesight, his strength, and his health, and therefore might verie well not actiue|lie but passiuelie be named as (he was) Grindall: for he groond himselfe euen to his graue by mortifi|cation. Of whome much might be spoken for others imitation (si [...]h the vse of the historie, is to instruct succéeding ages) but this shall suffice, that as his learning & vertue were inseparable companions; so the reward of both is the good name which he hath left behind him as a monument perpetuall, bicause vertue was the founder of the same: according to the true saieng of the late poet importing no lesse:

Virtutis merces eadem & labor, illa tropheum est,
Abr. Hart. in R.L. Soláque dat nigrae vincere mortis iter:
Nam nisi virtutis quaeratur gloria factis,
Omnis in extremos est abitura rogos.

Iustice Ran|dolfe his cha|ritie of one thousand nine hundred pounds.Barnard Randolfe esquier, common sargeant to the citie of London, deceassed on the seauenth of August. This man in his life time, somewhat before his death, gaue and deliuered to the companie of the Fishmongers in London the summe of nine hun|dred pounds, of good and lawfull monie of England to be imploied towards the conducting of Thames water, cesterning the same in lead, and castelling with stone in the parishes of saint Marie Magda|lene, and saint Nicholas cold abbeie, néere vnto old Fishstréet, seauen hundred pounds. The other two hundred pounds, to paie for euer yearelie the summe of ten pounds, that is, towards the maintenance of a poore scholar in the vniuersitie of Oxenford yeare|lie foure pounds. Towards the mending of the high waies in the parish of Tisehurst, in the countie of Sussex, where the said Barnard was borne, euerie yeare foure pounds. And to the poore people of the parishes of saint Nicholas Oliue in Bredstréet and saint Marie Magdalene néere to old Fishstreet for|tie shillings, to wit, twentie shillings to either pa|rish for euer. More he willed and bequeathed by his last will and testament to be bestowed in land or an|nuities, to the reléefe of the poore inhabiting in the wards of Quéenehiue, and castell Bainard in the citie of London, and in the aforesaid parish of Tise|hurst in the countie of Sussex, the summe of one thousand pounds.

This yeare in the moneth of Iune, were sent to the seas, [...]roners apprehended and executed. a ship called the barke Talbot, and a small barke, both manned with a hundred men, vnder the charge of William Borough esquier, clerke of hir maiesties nauie, for the apprehending of certeine outragious searouers, who for that they were manie in number, and well appointed (contemning the small strength that was set out against them) so boldlie behaued themselues, as that shortlie after it was confidentlie bruted, that they had vanquished in fight the said ship and barke. But within few daies after, beyond all expectation, they were by the said William Borough and his companie discomfi|ted and taken, to the number of ten saile (whereof three were prises) & some of the chiefe pirats, namelie Thomas Walton aliàs Purser, Clinton Atkinson, William Ellis, William Ualentine aliàs Bagh, Thomas Beuen and foure more, on the thirtith of August were hanged at Wapping in the ooze besides London. Walton as he went to the gallowes rent his venecian breeches of crimsin taffata, and distri|buted the same péecemeale, to such his old acquain|tance as stood néere about him: but Atkinson had be|fore giuen his murrie veluet dublet with great gold buttons, and the like coloured veluet venecians laid with great gold lace (apparell too sumptuous for sea|rouers) which he had worne at the seas, & wherein he was brought vp prisoner from Corse castell in the Ile of Porbeke to London, vnto such his fréends as pleased him, before he went to Wapping.

¶ This Clinton Atkinson (a personable fellow,A briefe de|scription of Clinton At|ki [...]son and his paren|tage tall of stature and well proportioned, of acceptable beha|uiour when he kept shop for himselfe, being a free man of London, and like enough to doo well if he had taken good waies) had his name of the late earle of Lincolne now deceassed, who christened him being an infant, & by whose speciall meanes (being growne a proper man) he was not long before saued from the like death, and yet thorough want of grace making relapse, fell within danger of law. He descended of honest parents, his father speciallie being a man of verie honest name, one that loued the truth, for the testimonie wherof he forsooke his owne natiue coun|trie, leading a hard life with his familie beyond the seas in queene Maries daies: & returning to Eng|land at the inthronization of our gratious queene Elisabeth in the seat roiall, was made minister, in which vocation he died in Gods fauour, and the good opinion of his neighbors, leuing behind him (among other sonnes) this his eldest, sorted (as you sée) to the shame, which malefactors of that qualitie, and so con|uinced, can not auoid. This auoweth he that knew the man as well as the right hand from the left. Where (to conclude) we are to marke that it is not al|waies true, that good parents haue good children: for here is an example of degeneration, procured not by euill education (for this Clinton wanted no good bringing vp) but by bad companie and libertie,Companie & libertie bring manie to mise|rie. the verie spoile of many a one that otherwise might liue & thriue. Wherin by the way we are to woonder at the counsels of God, who suffreth children so much to va|rie from their parents in qualitie, as if they had not receiued their birthright, but were bastards & chang|lings: but to end with the prophet Dauids saieng:

Intima consilij non penetranda Dei.

On the eighteenth daie of September,An heretike Iohn Lewes burned at Norwich. Sée pag. 1299. Iohn Lewes, who named himselfe Abdoit, an obstinate heretike, denieng the godhead of Christ, and holding diuers other detestable heresies (much like to his pre|decessor Matthew Hamont) was burned at Nor|wich. On the two and twentith of September Alber|tus de Lasco, palatine of Siradia in Poland,Palatine of Siradia in Poland re|turned. before spoken of, now when he had well viewed the order of our English court and nobilitie; with other places of this realme, especiallie the vniuersitie of Oxenford, &c: taking leaue of hir maiestie, and of the nobilitie, he departed towards Poland. But before we make entrance into further occurrents, it shall not be EEBO page image 1355 amisse to touch some necessarie circumstances of re|membrance.

A description of Albertus his person, ap|parell, &c.This Albertus in the eies of the most, whereof some knew him, that might hardlie commend him, estéemed him a man for making well proportioned, of an indifferent tall stature, of countenance amia|ble, and complexion English like, hauing a white beard of such length and bredth, as that lieng in his bed, and parting it with his hands, the same ouer|spred all his brest and shoulders, himselfe greatlie deliting therein, and reputing it an ornament: as for his qualities (apparant vnto the world) they were generous, his vtterance swéet, his wit plausi|ble, in the knowledge of toongs well seene: his ordi|narie attire scarlet, but when he presented himselfe to hir maiestie, a robe or gowne of purple veluet, with other habiliments and furniture agréeable; his shooes of a strange fashion, supposed of some not al|togither vnlike Chaucers. Finallie, a gallant fel|low he was, & (as might be gathered by some words spoken by him in

At Oxen|ford, where he termed the Latine that he spake Militare Lati|num, that is, souldiers La|tine.

The lord Norris his daughter ma|ried to sir A. Paulet his eldest sonne.

open audience) more Martiall than Mercuriall; verie actiue in respect of his age, and also studious in diuerse faculties, &c.

Touching the interteinement which he had at Oxenford, and how the vniuersitie did congratulate his comming, it is somewhat worth the noting. In the moneth of Iune, the said Albertus de Lasco, comming from the marriage of the lord Norris his daughter, with sir A. Paulets eldest sonne at Ricot, he put himselfe on the waie to Oxenford wherof the vniuersitie (doctor Houenden then vicechancellor, & maister Le [...]son with maister Edes proctors) hauing intelligence, prouided for his conuenient receiuing: insomuch that in the waie to Oxenford, there met him doctor Westfailing, who greeted him with a pithie salutation. In like sort did the maior and his bréethren, in whose behalfe for the whole citie, the towne clerke a worshipfull maister of art, pronoun|ced his short and sententious spéech in Latine, not without some gratulatorie gift from that corporati|on. On the east gate wherat he entered, stood a con|sort of musicians, who for a long space made verie sweet harmonie, which could not but mooue & delight:

Inscia plebs populísque arrectis auribus astat,
Dulciferúmque rudi suscipit aure melos.

All vp the high stréet vnto saint Maries church, on either side the waie, were decentlie marshalled scholers in their gownes & caps, batchelors and mai|sters in their habits and hoods. At saint Maries the orator of the vniuersitie (notable in his facultie) pre|sented him a booke,The welcom|ming of Al|bertus to the vniuersitie of Oxenford, with a partile description of his intertein|ment. in which were closelie couched ve|rie rich and gorgeous gloues. From thense he mar|ched to Christs church, where he was whilest he abode in the vniuersitie most honourablie interteined. And the first night being vacant, as in which he sought ra|ther rest in his lodging than recreation in anie aca|demicall pastimes, strange fire works were she|wed, in the great quadrangle, besides rockets and a number such maner of deuises. On the second daie, his first dinner was made him at Alsoules college, where (besides dutifull receiuing of him) he was so|lemnelie satisfied with scholerlie exercises and court|lie fare. This night & the night insuing, after sump|tuous suppers in his lodging, he personaly was pre|sent with his traine in the hall, first at the plaieng of a pleasant comedie intituled Riuales; then at the set|ting out of a verie statelie tragedie named Dido, wherein the quéenes banket (with Eneas narration of the destruction of Troie) was liuelie described in a marchpaine patterne, there was also a goodlie sight of hunters with full crie of a kennell of hounds, Mercurie and Iris descending and ascending from and to an high place,Raine of rose|water, and haile of sugar confects, &c. the tempest wherein it hailed small confects, rained rosewater, and snew an arti|ficiall kind of snew, all strange, maruellous, & abun|dant.

Most of the actors were of the same house, six or seauen of them were of saint Iohns, & thrée or foure of other colleges & hals. His second dinner the third daie was at Magdalen college, with oratorie wel|comming & bountifull feasting. His third dinner the fourth daie at New college. The eloquent spéech in Gréeke Latine and Dutch with his owne vnstudied answer thervnto, & all other before rehersed, are not to be omitted; nor the publike philosophie, physike, and diuinitie disputations, in all which those learned opponents, respondents, & moderators, quited them|selues like themselues, sharplie and soundlie, besides all other solemne sermons & lectures. At afternoone the fourth & last daie, he went towards Woodstocke manour, and without the north gate by the waie he was inuited vnto a banket at saint Iohns college, where the gates & outward wals ouercouered with thousands of verses, & other emblematicall poetries then offered him, argued their hartie goodwils: but his hasting to his iournies end caused him not to ta|rie the delicat banket; yet onelie staieng the deliue|rie of a swéet oration and his owne quicke wittie re|plie therevnto, he departed immediatlie, accompa|nied for a mile or two with the most of those reue|rend doctors and heads of houses all on horssebacke, where the orator againe gaue him an orators fare|well. And this is the summe of his interteinement, not deliuered in such sort as the dignitie of the same requireth; howbeit sufficient for a sudden remem|brance.

On the thrée & twentith daie of September, Iohn Whitegift doctor of diuinitie,Doctor Whitegift archbishop of Canturburie. sometimes maister of Trinitie colledge in Cambridge, and afterwards bishop of Worcester, was at Lambhith translated to the archbishoprike of Canturburie, where he at his comming to Lambehith (as also elsewhere he al|waies did) gaue euident testimonies both of mind|fulnesse and thankefulnesse for his aduancements: as by the thrée tables hanging at the vpper end of his great chamber appeareth: their position in this sort. In the midst hir maiesties armes roiall artificiallie wrought, with as much cunning as the painter by his pencill could describe them: and vnder them this distichon of thankesgiuing, and welwishing:

Nestoreos foelix regat Elisabetha per annos,
Quae mihi munificè Allusio, ad D. archiep. nomen. Candida dona dedit.

On the right side, the armes of the sée of Cantur|burie of azure, a pall siluer garnished with crosses forme fiche sable ouer a crosse portatile gold: to the lower end whereof this distichon is fairelie fixed:

En leue multiplici premeretur cuspide corpus,Ab. Hart. quon|dam Cant. & Trinitarius.
Nibaculus Christi grande leuaret onus.

On the left side are placed the ancient armes of the sée of Worcester, from the which he was transla|ted, which are of siluer, ten torteaux, foure, three, two, one: with this distichon therevnto annexed:

Qui crucis aerumnas patitur, post fata triumphat,
Lilia sic spondent fuluis coniuncta talentis.]

Ouer & aboue the arms of both the said sées is his graces posie, Vincit qui patitur: a deserued posie, and iustified by his actions.A monstrous fish taken in Norffolke. The tenth of October at Ea|ster, a towne in Norffolke neere the sea coast, about two miles from Yarmouth, there was a fish of woonderfull length, by force of the wind (being then easterlie) driuen a shore, the length whereof was from the necke vnto the taile seuenteene yards and one foote, hauing a big head; for the chap of the saw was thrée yards and a quarter in length, with téeth of three quarters of a yard compas, great eies, and two great holes ouer them to spout out water, hir taile was fourteene foot broad, &c: she laie in the sands, and was soonken therein a yard and a halfe EEBO page image 1356 déepe, and yet was she aboue the sands so high, that a lather of fourtéene staues would but reach to the top of hir backe; so that in thicknesse from the backe to the bellie, she was foure yards and a halfe. Iohn Slade,Slade and Bodie execu|ted. sometime a schoolemaister, and Iohn Bodie a maister of art of Oxford, being both indicted and condemned of high treason, were drawne, hanged, and quartered: Slade at Winchester on the thirtith daie of October, and Bodie at Andouar on the se|cond daie of Nouember.

An Reg. 26. Horssestealers hanged, ten at once in Smithfield.About this time, one named Ditch a notable horssestealer, was apprehended at the sessions hol|den for the goale deliuerie at Newgat, on the fourth of December, ninetéene times indicted, whereof he confessed eightéene: who also betwéene the time of his apprehension and the said sessions, appeached ma|nie for stealing of horsses, whereof (diuerse being ap|prehended) ten of them were condemned, and han|ged in Smithfield on the sixt daie of December, be|ing Fridaie, and horsse market there. He also holpe diuerse more to their horsses againe which had béene stolne from them, taking of euerie one of them ten shillings the péece or more that so recouered their horsses: wherby he made fiftéene pounds of currant monie towards his charges.Desmonds head set on London bridge. Iames earle of Des|mond in Ireland, secretlie wandering without anie succour as a miserable begger, being taken in his cabbin by one of the Irishrie, his head was cut off, and sent into England, where the same (as the head of an archrebell) was set vpon London bridge on the thirteenth daie of December. Looke for the man|ner of his rebellion and his death more at large set downe in the historie of Ireland.

The tenth daie of December, through negligence of vndiscréet persons,Nantwich in Cheshire burnt. brewing in the towne of Nantwich, in a place called Waterlode; the fire be|ing careleslie left, tooke hold (as should séeme) vpon some straw, or such light matter, & so burst foorth to the roofes of the house, and in short time so increased, that from the west end of the towne (the wind at southwest) the flame was dispersed so furiouslie in|to the towne on the southside, that in short space a great part of the said southside and some of the east|side was burned downe to the ground. Which fire beginning at six of the clocke in the euening, and continuing till six of the clocke in the morning fol|lowing, neuer ceased burning, till it had consum [...]d aboue the number of two hundred houses, besides brew houses, barnes, stables, &c: in all about six hundred houses, so that by estimation of manie, the losse of houses and goods amounted to aboue thir|tie thousand pounds, as more at large appeared by a particular booke printed of that matter. About this time,Someruile, Arden, and o|thers arreig|ned. Iohn Someruile a furious yoong man of El|stow in Warwikeshire, of late discouered and ta|ken in his waie comming with full intent to kill the quéenes maiestie (whom God long prosper to reigne ouer vs) confessed the treason, and that he was mo|ued therevnto in his wicked spirit, by certeine trai|torous persons his kinsmen and alies, and also by often reading of certeine seditious bookes latelie published, for the which the said Someruile, Edward Arden a squire of Parkehall in Warwikeshire, Marie Arden his wife (father and mother in law to the said Someruile) and Hugh Hall priest, being with other before indicted at Warwike, were on the sixtéenth of December arreigned in the Guildhall of London, where they were found guiltie and con|demned of high treason. On the nintéenth of De|cember,Arden [...] Iohn Someruile, and Edward Arden, be|ing brought from the tower of London to New|gate of the same citie, and there shut vp in seuerall places: within two hours after, Someruile was found (desperatlie) to haue strangled himselfe. And on the morrow being the tw [...]ntith of December, Edward Arden was drawne from Newgate into Smithfield, and there hanged, bowelled, and quar|tered: whose head with Someruiles was set on Lon|don bridge, and his quarters on the gates of the ci|tie; but the bodie of Someruile was buried in the Morefields, néere vnto the windmils without More|gate. A dreadfull example of Gods heauie iudge|ment vpon those two offendors; but speciallie a|gainst the last, whome God deliuered to a reprobat mind, in somuch that his owne hands became his hangman, preuenting the office of the common exe|cutioner, who should haue performed that last action vpon him: whereof the iustice of God in vengeance made himselfe the finisher and fulfiller. Thus much by the waie of terror, that the remembrance hereof, by the reading & reporting of the same, maie make men euill minded, amazed at the rigorous reuenge|ment which God taketh (when he séeth his due time) vpon the wicked: after his long sufferance and pa|tience most wickedlie abused; wherof the poet saith:

Vltio procedit (fateor) diuina gradatim,
Nec quoties peccant fulmina vibrat eis:
Supplicij verò iusta grauitate rependit
Turpia, quae longo tempore facta tulit.

In this yeare 1583 (which should haue béene no|ted in the fore part of the yeare) by the meanes of a certeine astrologicall discourse,This booke for the time that it was in request, set people toongs on woorke and filled their minds with strange conceipts. vpon the great and notable coniunction of the two superior planets, Sa|turne and Iupiter, prognosticated to be the eight and twentith of Aprill; the common sort of people, yea and no small multitude of such as thinke scorne to be called fooles, or counted beggers, whilest they were in expectation of this coniunction, were in no small imaginations, supposing that no lesse would haue béene effectuated, than by the said discourse was prophesied. Into these fansies not void of feare and mistrust they were drawne with the more facilitie, for that they had read, and heard, & pondered, and sus|pected, and in part beléeued the predictions of such euents as should insue by influence of that coniunc|tion. For it was termed the great and notable con|iunction, which should be manifested to the ignorant sort,Why it was called the great coniun|ction. by manie fierce and boisterous winds then sud|denlie breaking out. It was called the greatest and most souereigne coniunction among the seuen pla|nets: why so? Because lawes, and empires, and re|gions are ruled by the same: which foretelleth the comming of a prophet, & the destruction of certeine climats and parts of the earth, and new found he|resies, and a new founded kingdome, and dama|ges through the pestilence, and abundant showers: which dooth prognosticat the destinie of a great and mightie king, much sorrow & heauinesse to men, los|ses to rich and noble men, yea and those too which are accounted and reputed like to prophets, and a mul|titude of locusts: which dooth foreshew that weightie and woonderfull things shall come into the world: which dooth threten continuall ouerflowes of waters, and particular deluges in some countries: finallie, which menaceth much mischiefe. The publication, off reading, and talking of this coniunction, with the re|membrance of the instant wherin it should be, made manie (when the daie foretold was come) to looke for some strange apparition or vision in the aire; and withall, put them in mind of an old and common pro|phesie, touching the yeare 1588,Touching the yeare of woonders, gath [...]red to be 1588. which is now so ri [...]e in euerie mans mouth. That yeare was manie hundred yeares ago foretold and much spoken of a|mongst astrologers, who haue as it were, Vnanimi consensu, prognosticated, that either a maruellous fearfull & horrible alteration of empires, kingdoms, segniories and estates, togither likewise with o|ther most woonderfull, and verie extraordinarie acci|dents, EEBO page image 1372 as extreame hunger and pestilence, desperat treasons and commotions shall then fall out, to the miserable affliction and oppression of huge multi|tudes: or else, that an vtter and finall ouerthrowe and destruction of the whole world shall insue: which prophesie is conteined in these verses following:

Post mille expletos à partu Virginis annos,
[...]ouitius Re|giomontanus. Et post quingentos rursus ab orbe datos:
Octogesimus octauus mirabilis annus
Ingruet, is secum tristia fata feret.
Si non hoc anno totus malus occidet orbis,
Si non in nihilum terra, fretúmque ruet:
Cuncta tamen mundi sursum ibunt atque retrorsum,
Imperia, & luctus vndique grandis erit.

So that by this prophesie, either a finall dissoluti|on, or a woonderfull horrible alteration of the world is then to be expected. All these considerations laid togither, as well the prediction of the coniunction in expectation,The great yeare of 1588 is more talked of than feared. as also the dreadfull euents, which were to insue therevpon: and vpon the necke of these, the great yeare of 1588 in euerie mans mouth, the more frequent and common by occasion of a booke extant vnder the title of the end of the world, and the second comming of Christ, made diuerse diuerslie affected; insomuch that some conuersing and confer|ring, looked for no lesse than was prophesied; and talking verie religiouslie, séemed as though they would become sanctified people: howbeit, the day of the coniunction being past,When people saw nothing in the aire (as they looked for) they fell to derision. with a certeine counter|checke against the said astrologicall discourse in some points defectiue, and no such euents palpablie perceiued as were prognosticated; people fell to their former securitie, and condemned the discourser of extreame madnesse and follie: whereof no more but this, Scientia nullum habet sibi inimicum praeter ignoran|tem.

On the tenth of Ianuarie in the yeare 1584 at a sessions holden in the iustice hall in the old bailie of London for goale deliuerie of Newgate,Cartar execu|ted for prin|ting a trai|torous booke. William Cartar of the citie of London was there indicted, ar|reigned, and condemned of high treason, for printing a seditious and traitorous booke in English, intitu|led A treatise of schisme: and was for the same (ac|cording to sentence pronounced against him) on the next morrow, which was the eleuenth of Ianuarie, drawne from Newgate to Tiborne, and there han|ged, bowelled, and quartered. And foorthwith against slanderous reports,A declaration of the fauora|ble dealing of hir maiesties commissio|ners, for the examining of trait [...]rs. spread abroad in seditious books, letters and libels, thereby to inflame the hearts of our countriemen, and hir maiesties subiects: a booke was published, intituled, A declaration of the fauo|rable dealing of hir maiesties commissioners, &c. Which booke I haue thought good in this place to set downe (for the better instruction of the reader) euen as the same was printed and published, and thus it followeth.

24.2.3. A declaration of the fauourable dea|ling of hir maiesties commissioners appointed for the examination of certeine traitors, and of tor|tures vniustlie reported to be done vpon them for matters of religion.

A declaration of the fauourable dea|ling of hir maiesties commissioners appointed for the examination of certeine traitors, and of tor|tures vniustlie reported to be done vpon them for matters of religion.

To the rea|der._GOod reader, although hir maiesties most mild and gratious gouernement be suf|ficient to defend it selfe against those most slanderous reports of heathenish and vnnaturall tyrannie and cruell tortures, preten|ded to haue béene executed vpon certeine traitors, who latelie suffered for their treason, and others, as|well spread abroad by rungates, Iesuits, and semi|narie men in their seditious bookes, letters, and li|bels, in forren countries and princes courts, as al|so insinuated into the hearts of some of our owne countriemen and hir maiesties subiects: yet for thy better satisfaction I haue conferred with a verie ho|nest gentleman, whom I knew to haue good and suf|ficient meanes to deliuer the truth against such for|gers of lies and shamelesse slanders in that behalfe, which he and other that doo know and haue affirmed the same will at all times iustifie. And for thy fur|ther assurance and satisfaction herein, he hath set downe to the vew of all men these necessarie notes following.

Touching the racke and torments vsed to such traitors as pretended themselues to be catholikes, vpon whom the same haue beene exercised, it is affir|med for truth, and is offered vpon due examination so to be prooued, to be as followeth. First,The slande|rous report concerning the extreame vse of y^ [...] racke conuinced. that the formes of torture in their seueritie or rigour of exe|cution, haue not beene such and in such maner perfor|med, as the slanderers and seditious libellers haue slanderouslie & maliciouslie published. And that euen the principall offendor Campion himselfe, who was sent & came from Rome, and continued here in sun|drie corners of the realme, hauing secretlie wande|red in the greatest part of the shires of England in a disguised sort, to the intent to make speciall prepa|ration of treasons; and to that end and for furthe|rance of those his labours, sent ouer for more helpe and assistance, and cunninglie and traitorouslie at Rome before he came from thense, procured tolera|tion for such prepared rebels to kéepe themselues co|uert vnder pretense of temporarie and permissiue o|bedience to hir maiestie the state standing as it doth; but so soone as there were sufficient force whereby the bull of hir maiesties depriuation might be pub|likelie executed, they should then ioine all togither with that force vpon paine of cursse and damnation: that verie Campion, I saie,Campion and Briant were too fauoura|blie vsed: and far vnder the proportion of their treason|able offenses. before the conference had with him by learned men in the Tower, wherin he was charitablie vsed, was neuer so racked, but that he was presentlie able to walke, and to write, and did presentlie write and subscribe all his confes|sions, as by the originals thereof may euidentlie appeare.

A horrible matter is also made of the staruing of one Alexander Briant, how he should eat claie out of the wals, gathered water to drinke from the drop|pings of houses, with such other false ostentations of immanitie: where the truth is this, that what soeuer Briant suffered in want of food, he suffered the same wilfullie & of extreame impudent obstinacie, against the mind and liking of those that dealt with him. For certeine traitorous writings being found a|bout him, it was thought conuenient by conference of hands to vnderstand whose writing they were, and thervpon he being in hir maiesties name comman|ded to write, which he could verie well doo, and being permitted to him to write what he would himselfe, in these termes, that if he liked not to write one thing, he might write another, or what he listed (which to doo being charged in hir maiesties name was his dutie, and to refuse was disloiall and vndutifull) yet the man would by no meanes be induced to write a|nie thing at all. Then was it commanded to his kee|per to giue vnto him such meat, drinke, and other conuenient necessaries as he would write for, and to forbeare to giue him anie thing for which he would not write.

But Briant being thereof aduertised and off mooued to write,The curst & stubborne hart of Bri|ant. persisting so in his curst heart by almost two daies and two nights, made choise ra|ther to lacke food, than to write for the sustenance which he might readilie haue had for writing, & which he had indeed readilie and plentifullie so soone as he wrote. And as it is said of these two, so is it to be said of other; with this, that there was a perpetuall EEBO page image 1358 care had, & the quéenes seruants the warders, whose office and act it is to handle the racke, were euer by those that attended the examinations speciallie char|ged, to vse it in as charitable maner as such a thing might be.

Secondlie it is said, and likewise offered to be iu|stified, that neuer anie of these seminaries, or such o|ther pretended catholikes, which at anie time in hir maiesties reigne haue béene put to the racke, were vpon the racke or in other torture demanded anie question of their supposed conscience; as what they beleeued in anie point of doctrine or faith, as the masse,Ergo it is false which the infamous libeller hath [...]ast abrode, Relligio [...] mala vita [...]. transubstantiation, or such like: but onelie with what persons at home, or abroad, and touching what plats, practises and conferences they had dealt about attempts against hir maiesties estate or per|son, or to alter the lawes of the realme for matters of religion, by treason or by force, and how they were persuaded themselues, and did persuade other touch|ing the popes bull and pretense of authoritie, to de|pose kings and princes; and namelie, for depriuati|on of hir maiestie, and to discharge subiects from their allegiance, expressing herein alwaie the kinglie powers and estates, and the subiects allegiance ciui|lie, without mentioning or meaning therein anie right that the quéene as in right of the crowne hath ouer persons ecclesiasticall being hir subiects. In all which cases, Campion and the rest neuer answered plainelie, but sophisticallie, deceiptfullie and traito|rouslie, restraining their confession of allegiance onelie to the permissiue forme of the popes tolera|tion. As for example, if they were asked, whether they did acknowledge themselues the queenes subiects and would obeie hir, they would saie, Yea: for so they had leaue for a time to doo.This is con|sonant to the report set downe before in the discoue|rie of Campi|on, pag. 1325. But adding more to the question, and they being asked, if they would so acknowledge & obeie hir anie longer than the pope would so permit them; or notwithstanding such com|mandement as the pope would or might giue to the contrarie: then they either refused so to obeie, or de|nied to answer; or said, that they could not answer to those questions without danger. Which verie an|swer without more saieng, was a plaine answer to all reasonable vnderstanding, that they would no longer be subiects, nor persuade other to be subiects, than the pope gaue licence. And at their verie ar|reignement, when they labored to leaue in the minds of the people and standers by, an opinion that they were to die, not for treason, but for matter of faith and conscience in doctrine, touching the seruice of God, without anie attempt or purpose against hir maiestie, they cried out that they were true subiects, and did and would obeie and serue hir maiestie. Im|mediatlie, to prooue whether that hypocriticall and sophisticall speach extended to a perpetuitie of their obedience, or to so long time as the pope so permit|ted, or no; they were openlie in place of iudgement asked by the queenes learned councell,What allegi|gi [...]nce these fellows meant to her maiestie may appéere by these words of Campion, be|ing the mouth o [...] the [...]est. whether they would so obeie and be true subiects, if the pope com|manded the contrarie? They plainlie disclosed them|selues in answer, saieng by the mouth of Campion: This place (meaning the court of hir maiesties Bench) hath no power to inquire or iudge of the ho|lie fathers authoritie: and other answer they would not make.

Thirdlie, that none of them haue béene put to the racke or torture, no not for the matters of treason, or partnership of treason or such like, but where it was first knowen and euidentlie probable by former de|tections, confessions, and otherwise, that the partie so racked, or tortured, was giltie, and did know, and could deliuer truth of the things wherewith he was charged: so as it was first assured, that no innocent was at anie time tormented, and the racke was ne|uer vsed to wring out confessions at aduenture vp|on vncertenties, in which dooing it might be possible that an innocent in that case might haue bin racked.

Fourthlie, that none of them hath beene racked or tortured, vnlesse he had first said expreslie, or amoun|ting to asmuch, that he will not tell the truth,As namelie Campion, of whom an in|famous libel|ler reporteth (in commen|dation for|sooth of his constancie) Non secreta mee iorius lic [...]tor [...] fatebor. though the queene command him. And if anie of them be|ing examined did saie he could not tell, or did not re|member, if he would so affirme in such maner as christians among christians are beléeued; such his an|swer was accepted, if there were not apparant eui|dence to prooue that he wilfullie said vntrulie. But if he said that his answer in deliuering truth, should hurt a catholike, & so be an offense against the chari|tie, which they said to be sinne, & that the quéene could not command them to sin, & therfore how soeuer the quéene commanded, they would not tell the truth, which they were knowen to know, or to such effect: they were then put to the torture, or else not.

Fiftlie, that the procéeding to torture was alwaie so slowlie, so vnwillinglie, & with so manie preparati|ons of persuasions to spare themselues, and so ma|nie meanes to let them know that the truth was by them to be vttered, both in dutie to hir maiestie, and in wisedome for themselues, as whosoeuer was pre|sent at those actions, must néedes acknowledge in hir maiesties ministers, a full purpose to follow the example of hir owne most gratious disposition: whome God long preserue.

Thus it appéereth, that albeit by the more gene|rall lawes of nations, torture hath béene, and is law|fullie iudged to be vsed in lesser cases, and in sharper maner for inquisition of truth in crimes not so néere extending to publike danger, as these vngratious persons haue committed, whose conspiracies and the particularities thereof it did so much import and be|hooue to haue disclosed: yet euen in that necessarie vse of such procéeding, inforced by the offendors no|torious obstinacie, is neuerthelesse to be acknowled|ged the swéet temperature of hir maiesties mild and gratious clemencie, and their slanderous lewdnesse to be the more condemned, that haue in fauour of hainous malefactors, and stubborne traitors, spred vntrue rumors and slanders, to make hir mercifull gouernement disliked, vnder false pretense and ru|mors of sharpenesse and crueltie to those, against whom nothing can be cruell, and yet vpon whom no|thing hath béene doone but gentle and mercifull.

24.2.4. The execution of iustice in England for maintenance of publike and christian peace, against certeine stirrers of sedition, and adherents to the traitors and enimies of the realme, without anie per|secution of them for questions of religion, as is falslie reported and published by the fautors and fosterers of their treasons.

The execution of iustice in England for maintenance of publike and christian peace, against certeine stirrers of sedition, and adherents to the traitors and enimies of the realme, without anie per|secution of them for questions of religion, as is falslie reported and published by the fautors and fosterers of their treasons.

_IT hath béene in all ages and in all coun|tries a common vsage of all offendors,All offendors couer their faults with contrarie causes. for the most part, both great and small, to make defense of their lewd and vnlaw|full facts by vntruths, and by colouring and couering their déeds (were they neuer so vile) with pretenses of some other causes of contrarie operations or effects: to the intent not onelie to auoid punishment or shame, but to continue, vphold, and prosecute their wicked attempts, to the full satisfaction of their dis|ordered and malicious appetites. And though such hath beene the vse of all offendors,Rebels doo most dange|rouslie couer their faults. yet of none with more danger than of rebels and traitors to their law|full princes, kings, and countries. Of which sort of late yeares are speciallie to be noted certeine per|sons naturallie borne subiects in the realme of Eng|land and Ireland, who hauing for some good time EEBO page image 1359 professed outwardlie their obedience to their soue|reigne ladie quéene Elisabeth, haue neuerthelesse af|terward beene stirred vp and seduced by wicked spi|rite,Rebellion in England and Ireland. first in England sundrie yeares past, and se|condlie and of later time in Ireland, to enter into open rebellion, taking armes and comming into the field against hir maiestie and hir lieutenants, with their forces vnder banners displaied, inducing by notable vntruths manie simple people to follow and assist them in their traitorous actions.

And though it is verie well knowen, that both their intentions and manifest actions were bent to haue deposed the quéenes maiestie from hir crowne, and to haue traitorouslie set in hir place some other whome they liked,The rebels vanquished by the quéens power. whereby if they had not béene spée|dilie resisted, they would haue committed great bloudsheds and slaughters of hir maiesties faith|full subiects, and ruined their natiue countrie: yet by Gods power giuen vnto hir maiestie, they were so spéedilie vanquished,Some of the rebels fled in|to forreine countries. as some few of them suffered by order of law according to their deserts, manie & the greatest part vpon confession of their faults were pardoned, the rest (but they not manie) of the principall, escaped into forren countries, & there, bicause in none or few places rebels and traitors to their naturall princes and countries dare for their treasons chalenge at their first muster open comfort or succour, these notable traitors and rebels haue falselie informed manie kings, princes and states, and speciallie the bishop of Rome, commonlie called the pope (from whom they all had secretlie their first comfort to rebell) that the cause of their flieng from their countries was for the religion of Rome,Rebels pre|tend religion for their de|fense. and for maintenance of the said popes authoritie: whereas diuerse of them before their rebellion li|ued so notoriouslie, the most part of their liues, out of all good rule, either for honest maners, or for anie sense in religion, as they might haue béene rather fa|miliar with Catiline, or fauourers to Sardanapa|lus, than accounted good subiects vnder anie christi|an princes. As for some examples of the heads of these rebellions, out of England fled Charles Ne|uill earle of Westmerland, a person vtterlie wasted by loosenesse of life, and by Gods punishment euen in the time of his rebellion bereaued of his children that should haue succéeded him in the earledome, and his bodie now eaten with vlcers of lewd causes (as his companions doo saie) that no enimie he hath can wish him a viler punishment: a pitifull losse to the realme of so noble a house, neuer before in anie age atteinted for disloialtie.Kingleaders of rebels, Charles Ne|uill earle of Westmerland, and Thomas Stukeleie. And out of Ireland ran awaie one Thomas Stukeleie, a defamed person al|most thorough all christendome, and a faithlesse beast rather than a man, fléeing first out of England for notable pirasies, and out of Ireland for trecheries not pardonable, which two were the first ringleaders of the rest of the rebels, the one for England, the o|ther for Ireland.

But notwithstanding the notorious euill and wic|ked liues of these & others their confederats, void of all christian religion, it liked the bishop of Rome, as in fauour of their treasons, not to colour their offen|ses, as themselues openlie pretend to doo, for auoi|ding of common shame of the world: but flatlie to animate them to continue their former wicked pur|poses, that is, to take armes against their lawfull quéene, to inuade hir realme with forren forces, to pursue all hir good subiects & their natiue countries with fire and sword: for maintenance whereof there had some yeares before, at sundrie times, procéeded in a thundering sort,The effect of the popes bull against the queene of England. buls, excommunications, and other publike writings, denouncing hir maiestie be|ing the lawfull quéene, and Gods annointed seruant not to be the queene of the realme, charging and vp|on paines of excommunication comm [...]ing all hir subiects to depart from their naturall allegiances, whereto by birth and by oth they were bound: prouo|king also and authorising all persons of all degrees within both the realmes to rebell. And vpon this an|tichristian warrant, being contrarie to all the lawes of God and man, & nothing agréeable to a pastorall officer, not onelie all the rable of the foresaid trai|tors that were before fled; but also all other persons that had forsaken their natiue countries, being of di|uerse conditions and qualities, some not able to liue at home but in beggerie, some discontented for lacke of preferments, which they gaped for vnworthilie in vniuersities and other places, some bankerupt mer|chants, some in a sort learned to contentions,The practises of the traitors rebels, and fu|gitiues to exe|cute the [...]. being not contented to learne to obeie the laws of the land, haue manie yeares running vp and downe, from countrie to countrie, practised some in one corner, some in an other, some with séeking to gather forces and monie for forces, some with instigation of prin|ces by vntruths, to make warre vpon their naturall countrie, some with inward practises to murther the greatest, some with seditious writings, and verie manie of late with publike infamous libels, full of despitefull vile termes and poisoned lies, altogither to vphold the foresaid antichristian and tyrannous warrant of the popes bull.

And yet also by some other meanes, to further these inuentions, bicause they could not readilie pre|uaile by waie of force,Seminaries erected to nursse sedi|tious fugi|tiues. finding forren princes of bet|ter consideration & not readilie inclined to their wic|ked purposes, it was deuised to erect by certeine schooles which they called seminaries, to nourish and bring vp persons disposed naturallie to sedition, to continue their race & trade, and to become seedmen in their tillage of sedition, and them to send secretlie into these the quéenes maiesties realmes of Eng|land & Ireland vnder secret maskes, some of priest|hood, some of other inferiour orders, with titles of se|minaries for some of the meaner sort, and of Iesuits for the stagers and ranker sort and such like, but yet so warilie they crept into the land, as none brought the markes of their priesthood with them.The semina|rie fugitiues come secretlie into the relme to induce the people to obeie the popes bull. But in di|uers corners of hir maiesties dominions these semi|naries or séedmen and Iesuits, bringing with them certeine Romish trash, as of their hallowed war, their Agnus Dei, their graines, and manie kind of beads, and such like, haue as tillagemen laboured secretlie to persuade the people to allow of the popes foresaid buls and warrants, & of his absolute autho|ritie ouer all princes and countries, and striking manie with pricks of conscience to obeie the same; whereby in processe of small time, if this wicked and dangerous, traitorous, & craftie course had not béene by Gods goodnesse espied and stated, there had fol|lowed imminent danger of horrible vprores in the realmes, and a manifest bloudie destruction of great multitudes of christians.

For it can not be denied but that so manie as should haue béene induced & thoroughlie persuaded to haue obeied that wicked warrant of the popes, and the contents thereof, should haue béene forth|with in their harts and consciences secret traitors, and for to be in déed errant and open traitors: there should haue wanted nothing but opportunitie to féele their strength & to assemble themselues in such numbers with armour and weapons, as they might haue presumed to haue beene the greater part, and so by open ciuill warre to haue come to their wicked purposes. But Gods goodnesse, by whome kings doo rule, and by whose blast traitors are commonlie wa|sted and confounded, hath otherwise giuen to hir ma|iestie as to his handmaid and deare seruant, ruling vnder him, the spirit of wisedome and power, where|by EEBO page image 1360 she hath caused some of these seditious séedmen and sowers of rebellion,Sowers of s [...]dition ta|ken, co [...]en|ted, & executed [...] tr [...]ason. to be discouered for all their secret lurkings, and to be taken and charged with these former points of high treason, not being dealt withall vpon questions of religion, but iustlie by or|der of lawes, openlie condemned as traitors.

At which times, notwithstanding all maner gen|tle waies of persuasions vsed, to mooue them to de|sist from such manifest traitorous courses and opini|ons with offer of mercie; yet was the canker of their rebellious humors so déepelie entered and grauen in|to the harts of manie of them, as they would not be remooued from their traitorous determinations. And therefore as manifest traitors in mainteining and adhering to the capitall enimie of hir maiestie & hir crowne (who hath not onelie béene the cause of two rebellions alreadie passed in England and Ire|land, but in that of Ireland did manifestlie wage and mainteine his owne people, capteins, and soul|diers vnder the banner of Rome, against hir maie|stie, so as no enimie could doo more) these I saie haue iustlie suffered death not by force or forme of a|nie new lawes established,The seditious treitors con|demned by the ancient lawes of the realme, made two hundred yeres past. either for religion or a|gainst the popes supremasie, as the slanderous libel|lers would haue it séeme to be; but by the ancient temporall lawes of the realme, and namelie by the laws of parlement made in king Edward the third his time, about the yeare of our Lord 1330, which is aboue two hundred yeares and more past, when the bishops of Rome and popes were suffered to haue their authoritie ecclesiasticall in this realme, as they had in manie other countries. But yet of this kind of offendors,Persons con|demned, spa|red [...]rom exe|cution, vpon refusall of their treaso|nable opini|ons. as manie of them, as after their con|demnations were contented to renounce their for|mer traitorous assertions; so manie were spared from execution, & doo liue still at this daie: such was the vnwillingnes in hir maiestie to haue anie bloud spilt, without this verie vrgent, iust, and necessarie cause procéeding from themselues.

And yet neuerthelesse, such of the rest of the trai|tors as remaine in forren parts, continuing still their rebellious minds, and craftilie kéeping them|selues aloofe off from dangers, ceasse not to prouoke sundrie other inferiour seditious persons,The forren traitors con|tinue sending of persons to mooue sedition in the realme. newlie to steale secretlie into the realme, to reuiue the former seditious practises, to the execution of the popes fore|said bull against hir maiestie and the realme, preten|ding when they are apprehended, that they came one|lie into the realme by the commandement of their superiors, the heads of the Iesuits, to whome they are bound (as they saie) by oth against either king or countrie, and here to informe or reforme mens consciences from errors in some points of religi|on, as they thinke meet. But yet in verie truth, the whole scope of their secret labours is manifestlie prooued, to be secretlie to win all people, with whom they dare deale; so to allow of the popes said buls, and of his authoritie without exception, as in obei|eng thereof, they take themselues f