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Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Quid. 1. de art. But now to speake somewhat of the dooings in England in the meane time. Whilest the men of war were thus occupied in martiall feates, and dailie skirmishes, within the realme of France: ye shall vnderstand, that after the cardinall of Winchester, and the duke of Glocester, were (as it séemed) re|conciled either to other, yet the cardinall, and the archbishop of Yorke ceassed not to doo manie things without the consent of the king or of the duke,A new breach betwéene the duke of Glo|cester, and the bishop of Win|chester. being (during the minoritie of the king) gouernor and pro|tector of the realme, whereas the duke (as good cause he had) greatlie offended, therevpon in writing de|clared to the king, wherein the cardinall and the arch|bishop had offended both his maiestie, and the lawes of the realme. This complaint of the duke of Gloce|ster was conteined in foure and twentie articles, which chieflie rested, in that the cardinall had from time to time, through his ambitious desire to sur|mount all others in high degrées of honor and digni|tie, sought to inrich himselfe, to the great and notori|ous hinderance of the king, as in defrauding him not onelie of his treasure, but also in dooing and prac|tising things greatlie preiudiciall to his affaires in France, and namelie by setting at libertie the king of Scots, vpon so easie conditions, as the kings ma|iestie greatlie lost thereby, as in particularities thus followeth.

15.1. A complaint made to king Henrie the sixt, by the duke of Glocester, vpon the cardinall of Winchester.

A complaint made to king Henrie the sixt, by the duke of Glocester, vpon the cardinall of Winchester.

_THese be in part, the points and articles, which I Humfrie duke of Glocester, Ex Ed. Hall. 143, 144, 145, 146. for my truth & acquitall, said late, I would giue in writing (my right redoubted lord) vnto your highnesse, aduertising your excellencie, of such things in part, as haue béene doone in your ten|der age, in derogation of your noble estate, and hurt of both your realmes, and yet be doone and vsed dailie.

2 First, the cardinall then being bishop of Win|chester, tooke vpon him the state of cardinall, which was naied and denaied him, by the king of most noble memorie, my lord your father (whome God assoile) saieng that he had as leefe set his crowne be|side him, as sée him weare a cardinals hat, he being a cardinall. For he knew full well, the pride and am|bition that was in his person, then being but a bi|shop, should haue so greatlie extolled him into more intollerable pride, when that he were a cardinall: and also he thought it against his fréedome, of the chéefe church of this realme, which, that he worshipped, as dulie as euer did prince, that blessed be his soule. And howbeit, that my said lord your father (whome God assoile) would haue agreed him to haue had certeine clearks of this land cardinals, and to haue no bishop|rikes in England; yet his intent was neuer to [...]oo so great derogation to the church of Canturburie, to make them that were his suffragans, to sit aboue their ordinarie and metropolitan. But the cause was that in generall, and in all matters which might con|cerne the weale of him, and of his realme, he should haue proctors of his nation, as other kings Christen had, in the court of Rome, and not to abide in this land, nor to be in anie part of his councels, as béene all the spirituall and temporall, at parlements and o|ther great councels, when you list to call them. And therefore, though it please you to doo him that wor|shop, to set him in your priuie councell after your pleasure: yet in your parlement, where euerie lord both spirituall and temporall, hath his place, he ought to occupie but his place as a bishop.

3 Item, the said bishop, now being cardinall, was assoiled of his bishoprike of Winchester, where|vpon he sued vnto our holie father, to haue a bull de|claratorie, notwithstanding he was assumpt to the state of cardinall, that the sée was not void, where in déed it stood void by a certeine time, yer the said bull were granted; and so he was exempt from his or|dinarie, by the taking on him the state of cardi|nall, and the church bishoprike of Winchester, so standing void, he tooke againe of the pope (you not learned thereof ne knowing whereby he was fallen into the case of prouision) so that all his good was lawfullie & cléerelie forfeited to you my right doub|ted lord, with more; as the statute declareth plainelie for your aduantage.

4 Item, it is not vnknowen to you (doubted lord) how thorough your lands it is noised, that the said cardinall and the archbishop of Yorke had and haue the gouernance of you, and all your land, the which none of your true liege men ought to vsurpe nor take vpon them. And haue also estranged me your sole vncle, my coosine of Yorke, my coosine of Hun|tington, and manie other lords of your kin, to haue anie knowledge of anie great matter, that might touch your high estate, or either of your realmes. And of lords spirituall, of right, the archbishop of Canturburie should be your chéefe councellor, the which is also estranged and set aside. And so be manie other right sad lords, and well aduised, as well spiri|tuall as temporall, to the great hurt of you my right doubted lord, and of your realmes, like as the expe|rience and workes shewen cléerelie and euidentlie, more harme it is.

5 Item, in the tender age of you, my right doub|ted lord, for the necessitie of an armie, the said car|dinall lent you foure thousand pounds vpon cer|teine iewels, prised at two and twentie thousand markes, with a letter of sale, that and they were not quited at a certeine daie, you should léese them. The said cardinall séeing your monie readie to haue qui|ted your iewels, caused your treasuror of England, at that daie being, to paie the same monie, in part of an other armie, in defrauding you my right doubted lord of your said iewels, kéeping them yet alwaie to his owne vse, to your right great losse, and his sin|gular profit and auaile.

6 Item, the said cardinall, then being bishop of Winchester, and chancellour of England, deliuered the king of Scots, vpon certeine appointments (as maie be shewed) presumptuouslie, and of his owne authoritie, contrarie to the act of parlement. I haue heard notable men of law say, that they neuer heard the like thing doone among them: which was too great a defamation to your highnesse, and also to wed his neece to the said king, whom that my lord of EEBO page image 621 notable memorie, your father, whome God assoile, would neuer haue so deliuered. And there as he should haue paid for his costs fortie thousand pounds, the said cardinall, chancellour of England, caused you to pardon him thereof ten thousand marks, whereof the greater summe he paied you, right a lit|tle, what, I report me to your highnesse.

7 Item, where the said cardinall lent you, my re|doubted lord, great and notable summes, he hath had and his assignes, the rule and profit of the port of Hampton, where the customers béene his seruants, where (by likelihood and as it is to be supposed) stan|ding the chéefe merchant of the wools of your land, that you be greatlie defrauded, and vnder that rule, what wools and other merchandizes haue béene ship|ped, and maie be from time to time, hard is to e|stéeme, to the great hurt and preiudice of you my right doubted lord, and of all your people.

8 Item, howbeit that the said cardinall hath di|uerse times lent you great summes of monie, since the time of your reigne, yet his loane hath béene so deferred and delaied, that for the most part, the con|uenable season of the imploieng of the good lent was passed. So that litle fruit or none came thereof, as by experience both your realmes haue sufficientlie in knowledge.

9 Item, where there was iewels and plate pri|sed at eleuen thousand pounds in weight, of the said cardinall, forfeited to you my right redoubted lord, he gat him a restorement thereof for a loane of a lit|tle parcell of the same: and so defrauded you wholie of them, to your great hurt, and his auaile, the which good might greatlie haue eased your highnesse, in sparing as much of the poore commons.

10 Item, the cardinall being feoff of my said lord your father (whome God assoile) against his in|tent, gaue Elizabeth Beauchampe, three hundred markes liuelihood, where that his will was, that and she were wedded within a yeare, then to haue it, or else not, where in déed it was two or thrée years after, to your great hurt, and diminishing of your inheritance.

11 Item, notwithstanding that the said cardi|nall hath no maner of authoritie nor interest in the crowne, nor none maie haue by anie possibilitie; yet he presumeth and taketh vpon him in partie, your e|state roiall, in calling before him, into great abu|sion of all your land, and derogation of your high|nesse, which hath not beene seene nor vsed in no daies heretofore, in greater estate than he is, without your expresse ordinance and commandement.

12 Item, the said cardinall, nothing considering the necessitie of you my right doubted lord, hath sued a pardon of dismes, that he should paie for the church of Winchester, for terme of his life, giuing thereby occasion to all other lords spirituall, to draw their good will for anie necessitie, to grant anie disme: and so to laie all the charge vpon the temporaltie, and the poore people.

13 Item, by the gouernance and labour of the said cardinall, and archbishop of Yorke, there hath béene lost and dispended much notable and great good, by diuerse ambassadors sent out of this realme. First to Arras, for a feigned colourable peace, where|as by likelinesse it was thought and supposed, that it should neuer turne to the effectuall auaile of you my right doubted lord, nor to your said realmes: but vn|der colour thereof, was made the peace of your ad|uersarie, and the duke of Burgognie. For else your partie aduerse, & the said duke, might not well haue found meanes nor waies to haue communed togi|ther, nor to haue concluded with other their confede|rations and conspirations made and wrought there, then, at that time, against your highnesse, whereby you might haue (right doubted lord) the greater par|tie of your obeisance, as well in your realme of France, as in your duchie of Normandie, and much other thing gone greatlie, as through the said colou|rable treatie, & otherwise, since the death of my bro|ther of Bedford (whome God assoile.)

14 Item, now of late was sent an other am|bassadour to Calis, by the labour and counsell of the said cardinall, and archbishop of Yorke, the cause why of the beginning, is to me your sole vncle, and other lords of your kin and councell vnknowen, to your great charge, and against the publike good of your realm [...]; as it openlie appeareth. The which good if it be imploied for the defense of your lands, the mer|chandizes of the same might haue had other course, and your said lands not to haue stand in so great mis|chéefe as they doo.

15 Item, after that, to your great charge, and hurt of both your realmes, the said cardinall & arch|bishop of Yorke went to your said towne of Calis, and diuerse lords of your kin, and of your councell in their fellowship, and there, as there was naturall warre betwéene the duke of Orleance, and the duke of Burgognie, for murther of their fathers, a capi|tall enimitie like to haue indured for euer: the said cardinall and archbishop of Yorke licenced and suf|fered the said duke of Orleance, to intreat and com|mon apart with the councell of your said aduersa|ries, as well as with the duchies of Burgognie: by which meane the peace and aliance was made be|twéene the two dukes, to the greatest fortifieng of your said capitall aduersaries that could be thought, and consequentlie (my deere redoubted lord) to your greatest charge, and hurt to both your realmes. Un|der colour of which treatie, your said aduersaries in meane time wan your citie of Meaux, and the coun|trie thereabout, and manie diuerse roades made in|to your duchie of Normandie, to the great noisance and destruction of your people, as it sheweth openlie.

16 Item, the said archbishop of Yorke, sent with other into this your realme from the said cardinall, after commmunication had with your aduerse par|tie, at your said towne of Calis, made at his com|ming into your notable presence at Windesor, all the suasions and colour, all motions in the most ap|parant wise that he could, to induce your highnesse to your agréement, to the desires of your capitall ad|uersaries, as I saw there in your noble presence of his writing, at which time (as I vnderstood) it was his singular opinion, that is to saie: that you should leaue your right, your title, and your honour of your crowne, and nomination of you king of France, du|ring certeine yeares, & that you should vtterlie ab|steine you and be content onelie in writing, with Rex Angliae, &c: to the great note of infamie that euer fell to you or anie of your noble progenitours, since the taking of them first, the said title and right of your realme and crowne of France. To which matter in your presence there, after that it had liked your said highnesse, to aske mine aduise therevpon, with other of your blood and councell; I answerd and said, that I would neuer agrée me thereto to die ther|fore, and of the same disposition I am yet, and will be while I liue in conseruation of your honour, and of your oth made vnto your said crowne, in time of your coronation there.

17 Item, the said cardinall and archbishop of Yorke, haue so laboured vnto your highnesse, that you should intend to a new daie of conuention, in March or Aprill next comming, where it is noised to be more against your worship than with it. And where it was euident to all the world, that the rup|ture and breaking of the said peace, should haue fal|len heretofore, of your aduerse partie; because of EEBO page image 622 the great vntruths. Now by that meanes it is like peraduenture to be laid vnto the verie great slan|der of you my doubted lord, like to come to none o|ther purpose no [...] effect, than other conuentions haue doone afore time: and so by subtilties and counsell of your said enimies, your land (they in hope and trust of the said treatie, [...] mightilie nor puissantlie pur|ueied for) shall be like vnder the colour of the same treatie to be burnt vp and destroied, lost, and vtter|lie turned from your ob [...]sance.

18 Item it is said, that the deliuerance of the said duke of Orleance, is vtterlie appointed by the media|tion, counsell, and stirring of the said cardinall and archbishop of Yorke; and for that cause diuerse per|sons beene come from your aduersaries, into this your realme, and the said duke also brought to your citie of London, where as my lord your father (whom God assoile) peising so greatlie the inconueniences, and harme that might fall, onlie by his deliuerance, concluded, ordeined, and determined in his last will, vtterlie in his wise [...]me, his conquest in his realme of France. And yet then it is to de doone, by as great deliberation, solemnitie and suertie, as may be deui|sed or thought. And séeing now the disposition of your realme of France, the puissance and might of your enimies, and what aid they haue gotten against you there, aswell vnder the colour of the said treatie, as otherwise; what may or ought to be thought or said, for that laboring the said duke (all things considered) by such particular persons, the lords of your bloud not called therevnto, I report me vnto your noble grace and excellencie, and vnto the said wise true men of this your realme.

19 Item, where that euerie true councellor, spe|ciallie vnto anie king or prince, ought of truth and of dutie, to counsell, promote, increase, prefer, and ad|uance the weale and prosperitie of his lord: the said cardinall, being of your councell (my right doubted lord) hath late purchased of your highnesse, certeine great lands and liuelode: as the castell and lordship of Chirke in Wales, and other lands in this your realme; vnto which I was called suddenlie, and so in eschewing the breaking and losse of your armies then againe, séeing none other remedie, gaue there|vnto mine assent, thinking that who that euer labou|red moued or stirred the matter first vnto your lord|ship, counselled you neither for your worship nor profit.

20 More, the said cardinall hath you bound a|part, to make him a sure estate of all the said lands, by Easter-next comming, as could be deuised by anie learned counsell; or else that suertie not made, the said cardinall to haue and reioy to him, and his heirs for euermore, the lands of the duchie of Lancaster, in Norffolke, to the value of seuen or eight hundred marks by yeare. Which thing séemeth right strange and vnseene, and vnhard waies of anie liege man, to seeke vpon his souereigne lord, both in his inheri|tance and in his iewels and goods. For it is thought, but if right and extreame necessitie caused it, there should, nor ought no such things to be doone: from which necessitie God (for his mercie) euer preserue your noble person. Wherfore my redoubted lord, see|ing that ye should be so counselled, or stirred to leaue your crowne and inheritance in England; and also by fraud and subtill meanes, as is afore rehearsed, so to lose your iewels: in my truth and in mine ac|quit [...]ll (as me séemeth) I may not nor ought not counsell so great an hurt to you and to all your land.

21 Item, it is not vnknowen to you my right doubted lord how oftentimes I haue offered my ser|uice, to and for the defen [...]e of your realme of France, and duchie of Normandie, where I haue béene put therefro by the labour of the said cardinall, in prefer|ring other after his singular affection. Which hath caused a great part of the said d [...]ch [...]e of Normandie, aswell as of your realme of France to be lost, as i [...] is well knowen. And what good (my right doubted lord) was lost on that armie that [...]as last sent thi|ther, which the earle of Mortaigne, your councell of France, hath well & cleerelie declared to your high|nesse here before?

22 Item, my right doubted lord, it is not vn|knowen, that it had not beene possible to the said car|dinall, to haue come to his great riches, but by such meanes, for of his church it might not rise, and inheri|tance he had none. Wherfore my right doubted lord, sith there is great good behouefull at this time, for the weale and safegard of your realmes, the pouertie, necessitie, & indigence of your liege people; in high|nesse vnderstand, like it vnto your noble grace, to consider the said lucre of the said cardinall, and the great deceipts that you be receiued in by the labour of him & of the archbishop, aswell in this your realme as in your realme of France and duchie of Norman|die, where neither office, liuelode, nor capteine may be had, without too great good giuen vnto him, wherby a great part of all the losse that is lost, they haue béene the causers of; for who that would giue most, his was the price, not considering the merits, seruice, nor suf|ficiance of persons. Furthermore, it is greatlie to be considered, how, when the said cardinall had forfeited all his goods, bicause of prouision, as the statute there|vpon more plainelie declareth; by hauing the rule of you my right doubted lord, purchased himselfe in great defraudation of your highnesse, a charter of pardon, the which good and it had be well gouerned, might manie yeares haue susteined your warres, without anie tallage of your poore people.

23 Item, my redoubted lord, whereas I write much thing for the weale of you and of your realms, peraduenture some will saie and vnderstand, that I would or haue written by waie of accusement of all your councell, which God knoweth, I doo not: for your highnesse may well sée, that I name them that be causers of the said inordinate rule. Wherfore, con|sidering that the said cardinall and archbishop of Yorke beene they, that pretend the gouernance of you, and of your realmes and lordships: please it vn|to your highnesse, of your rightwisenesse to estrange them of your councell, to that intent, that men may be at their freedome, to say what they thinke of truth.

24 For truth, I dare speake of my truth, the poore dare not doo so. And if the cardinall and the archbishop of Yorke, may afterward declare themselues, of that is, and shalbe said of them; you my right doubted lord may then restore them againe to your councell, at your noble pleasure.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 When the king had heard the accusations thus laid by the duke of Glocester against the cardinall, he committed the examination thereof to his coun|cell, whereof the more part were spirituall persons; so that what for feare, and what for fauour, the matter was winked at, and nothing said to it: onelie faire countenance was made to the duke, as though no malice had béene conceiued agai [...]st him. But venem will breake out, & inward grudge will soone appeare, which was this yeare to all men apparant: for diuers secret attempts were aduanced forward this season against this noble man Humfrei [...] duke of Glocester a far off, which in conclusion came so néere, that they beereft him both of life and land; as shall hereafter more plainelie appéere.

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