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3.11. The kings speech to the estates, con|cerning a league in religion with England.

The kings speech to the estates, con|cerning a league in religion with England.

_TWo causesmy lordisand ze all of the e|statis haue mooued me to send for zow at this time to craue zour aduises towardis them, quharof, sith the one is generall & the vther particular, I will begin at the generall as the matter of greatest weight. Amongst all the be|nefeits that God dooth bestow vpoun his elect and church, the triall and sifting of the gud chosin from the bad hipocreitis, is ane of the mast speciall, quhich he hath vsed in all ages for the separatioun of thame, alswell for that to lang companie of the vicked dooth corrupt the godlie, as also that their separatioun is a taken in this earth, of Godis l [...]e towardis them, quhich triall he dooth now chéeflie vse, for that the number of the vicked doth abound in these letter daeis, quherin God dooth permit the deuill most to rage. For quhat greater triall of the faithfull can there be, than the confederating togidder of all the bastard christians, I meane the papistis, in a league quhich they terme holie albeit most vnholie in varie truth, for the subuersioun of the trew religioun in all realmes throuchout the quhole world. This is a matter so manifest and notorious to zou all, euen by the report of the smallest merchantis that trauill, as it dooth dilat the selfe, thought I were silent.

This leagues whome of I speake, are composed of Frenchmen, and Hispaingnols, assisted with the king of Spaines and the papes monie, solemlie sworne to performe the forsaid enterprise before they leaue armes: the performance quhereof we aught to resist for thrée causes (to wit) for conscience, ho|nor, and loue of selffis. For gif they may atteine to their purpose (as God forbid) either will they de|stroie or root out ws, our vitis, and childrein, & quhat|soeuer we possesse, gif we remaine constant; either else must we render Christ Iesus, and suffer our saulis which is the mast nabiest part of man to be bund with the bundis of idolatrie, and our bodies to be vsed at their inordinat plesuris. But sith the loue of our selffis and our honour cannot per|mit the ane, and that our consciencis and the reue|rence we ow to God, cannot suffer the vther: I craue my lords zour best and soundist opinionis and aduisis quhat ze thinke meitest to be vsed for the re|medie hereof. But gif ze desire to haue first my opinioun, it is this in few woardis; that as sondrie christian princis haue alreadie counselled me, our contralcague salbe maid, not anelie in termes, but in effect holie, for the ioining togidder all true christi|an princis to defend themselfis, in case of vtheris inuasioun. A thing hurtfull to none, profitable for selfis, acceptable to God, and vise in the sight of the varld. By this meanes fall our consciencis, ho|nors, and lifis be preseruid, and God and his reli|gioun glorified and aduancid.

And sith the quéene of England is not anlie a true christian, but also nerest ioinit to vs in nigh|bourhed, consanguinitie and gudwill, I thinke it meitest in mine opinioun, that it be our league first & maist adstrictlie maid with hir; for quhich cause I haue maid & set downe a forme of act to be subscri|bit by zou all, quherein ze promes to ratifie and ap|proue in parliament, quhatsoeuer articles I, or anie in my name fall conclude with the quéene of Eng|land, or anie in hir name, for the making and the ef|fectualing of the foresaid league. But for that the act it selfe vill mare ample informe zou, it salbe presentilie read in all zour audiencis.

Upon this spéech, the lords being of diuerse opini|ons, some willing to imbrace the league with Eng|land, and some destrous to leaue it, and to ioine in a|mitie with France according to the most ancientest leagues, which haue béene established betwéene them and the Scots (by most of their former kings, whereof the first was Achaius, who entering league with Charles the great, had a token of confirmati|on thereof, which was the floure delices added to the armes of Scotland) there was nothing doone in that conuention. After which, the banished lords of Scot|land remaining in England, entered their countrie: the manner and time of the entrance of which nobili|tie was in this sort.

Towards the latter end of September, the earls of Angus and Mar, with such others of their faction as were in England, did (after that they had long before this, sent thither the maister of Glames out of England to prepare their waie, which he did verie effectuallie) returne into Scotland; at whose com|ming EEBO page image 446 into that their natiue countrie, there met with them about the borders, manie others of the nobilitie to ioine in one action, for the redresse of such gouernment as was vsed by persons about the king, suspected to nuzzell him in the Romane religi|on. After this their first méeting, they did by ap|pointment disperse themselues, euerie one to the place of his most strength, and where he could make most friends and followers, appointing a daie to méete againe at Fawkirke, a méete place fensed by nature for the assemblie of an armie. Wherevpon, some departed to Lowthian, some to Domefreis, and others to other places. But in short time fol|lowing, they reassembled in O [...]ober at Fawkirke with such power as they could make, which amoun|ted to the number of ten or eleuen thousand per|sons. The report wherof was brought vnto the king, then remaining at a noble mans house (not far from Sterling) whereas a contract of mariage was so|lemnized. Upon which, the king supposing it to stand most for his suretie (iudging these noblemen so as|sembled to be his enimies) conueied himselfe, and such nobilitie as were with him to Sterling, rai|sing power (such as the present state of the time would permit) intending with them to haue subdu|ed the earle of Angus and his companie: for which cause also, the earle of Arrane came from his house to Sterling, and the maister of Greie with commis|sion rode to saint Iohns towne to assemble the kings subiects.

After that the earle of Arrane was come to Ster|ling to the king, the earles of Angus, Mar, Both|well, Atholl, Marshall, the lords Hamilton, Hume, Heres, Cambuskeneth, Dribourgh, Paislaie, & Coldingham; the lairds of Sefford, Drumlarige, Codentnewes, Wedderburne, with other earles, barons, gentlemen & commons, with their friends & complices, marching all night from Fawkirke, did in the next morning come to saint Ninians chappell within a mile of Sterling, and presented themselues before the towne of Sterling, before anie suspicion was had of their approch so néere. At what time, be|ing the first of Nouember, they pitched their tents, placed there as it had béene a new towne, to the great terror of their enimies within Sterling: de|liuering for the cause of their comming this pro|clamation following.

3.12. The proclamation published by the nobilitie of Scotland, conteining the causes of their repairing towards the towne of Sterling to the kings maiestie, the se|cond day of Nouember.

The proclamation published by the nobilitie of Scotland, conteining the causes of their repairing towards the towne of Sterling to the kings maiestie, the se|cond day of Nouember.

_WHeras the kings maiestieour souereignes good, naturall, and vertuous education is now plainelie vnderstood to haue béene abused, and his roiall qualities giuen to him by the almightie God (which caused his fame far aboue the capacitie of his yeares to be magni|fied, and worthilie praised, to the great comfort of all his subiects) hath béene these yeares past obscu|red by the craft & subtiltie of some lewd and wicked persons of no desert or woorthinesse, and for the most part of base linage, not borne to one foot breadth of land, yet of maruelous aspiring wrongs and cruell inclination; who vnder colour of friendship and bloud créeping in about his maiestie, and séeking onelie theirowne particuliar profit and promotion: shaking off (as it were) not onelie all christian and charitable nature: but euen the generall points and offices of humanitie vsed amongst most barbarous people, without feare of God or man, as subtill fores and bloudie woolues, by wresting of lawes and other deceitfull practises hath so wasted, torne in pée|ces, and deuoured the whole bodie of this afflicted commonwealth, that of the whole ancient forme of iustice and policie receiued of our ancestors, remai|neth nothing, neither in spirituall or temporall e|state; but the naked shadow & counterfeited maske thereof to our souereignes high dishonor, our oppro|brie (who are a part of his nobilitie) and heauie griefe of all good men throughout the realme. It is eui|dentlie knowne what iustice and quietnesse was in the realme, what heartie loue betwixt his maiestie and his subiects, what beautifull countenance the church of God had, what dailie hope of increase, what expectation was of his highnesse in forren na|tions, before the arriuall of Obigneie, afterwards called the duke of Leneux; and the entring in credit of Iames Stéward, and coronell Steward with their vnhappie companies. But what hath succée|ded since no true Scotish heart can remember with|out extreame dolor: for there is no part or corner within the land at this time peaceable or quiet, but all replenished with particular enimities, and cruell reuenges without punishment.

It is also well knowne, that whereas the wisest of his maiesties most noble progenitors labored by clemencie, not by crueltie to possesse the hearts of their subiects, & to kéepe the strengths of their relms in their owne hands (thereby meaning the better to preserue themselues against such inconuenien|ces, as manie princes of that land misgouerned, and lead by peruerse counsell haue béene subiect vnto) that the foresaid abusors had depriued his maiestie both of the one and the other so far as in them laie. For the chéefe strength of the realme are in Arrane his hands, who bragging of his pedegrée by descent from duke Mordacke (one that was beheaded for histreason against his souereigne) was not ashamed to saie (meaning of himselfe) Here stands the person of king Iames the seuenth. And to the end that the hearts of the people might be alienated from, his highnesse, and so (as appeareth) his maiestie made vnable to punish them, if at anie time hereafter he should perceiue their false and treasonable dooings, what can be added more than these said seditious hath alreadie doone in that behalfe, séeing vnder his maiesties name and authoritie, such parcialitie is v|sed in all matters such extortion with crueltie, and incredible dissimulation throughout the whole land, that were it not of his good subiects (vpon the experi|ence of his mild & [...]alme gouernement before these lewd men about him) cleerelie vnderstood that the causes of all these misorders ought to be imputed vnto them, & not to himselfe, they had long agone by vniuersall male-contentment of the people (procée|ding from the causes aforesaid) procured a great di|straction of the kings lééges hearts, and had cast his maiesties honor, crowne, and estate in maruellous danger, whereas now (blessed be God) all his true subiects are certeinelie persuaded, that if the said lewd persons could be separated from his maiestie, he would returne againe to exercise his former cle|mencie and towardnesse in euerie respect, which hath béene these yeares past maruellouslie eclipsed by the craft of those treasonable persons aforesaid, who not onelie haue sought & séeke for their particular com|moditie, the destruction of certeine seuerall persons, but euen (as it appeareth) haue conspired against the whole bodie of the realme, in so much as there is no estate of the land frée from their persecutions.

The worthiest and most ancient of the barons and nobilitie (namelie such as haue giuen best proofe of their forwardnesse in true religion, and fidelitie to their souereigne) are by parcialitie, and wresting of lawes, without mercie either executed, coosoned, im|prisoned, EEBO page image 447 banished, or at the least debarred his maie|sties presence, against the ministerie, schooles, and clergie, acts and proclamations published, inhibi|ting their presbyteries, assemblies, and other exerci|ses, priuileges, and immunities ratified by parle|ments, proceedings, or at the least by laudable cu|stome permitted euer since the first reformation of religion within this land; and without the which the puritie of doctrine, and right forme of the ec|clesiasticall discipline cannot long continue: as being the onelie meanes to trie and examine the liues, maners, and knowledge of euerie person, and to reforme the same if need require. With this the most fearned, and of most vnspotted liues of that number, are either compelled for safetie of their liues and consciences to abandon their countrie, or else inhibited to preach, or depriued of their stipends, Iesuits, seminarie préests, and such as be knowne practisers in diuers nations for the execution of the bloudie councell of Trent are interteined, and in great estimation; yea some indurated papists in ses|sion, to occupie the places from the which the most godlie and faithfull senators haue béene by them de|tected. An euident presage of the ouerthrow of true religion. And concerning the estate of burowes, by intrusion of such magistrates to rule aboue them, as neither are comburgesses, nor apt to discharge them|selues of such offices, but men elected to applause and to consent to the appetite of the seditious afore|said, their priuileges and ancient liberties are so pre|iudiced, that without timelie remedie, that estate (sometime a great ornament of the land) must néeds suddenlie decaie. So as these thrée pillers (whereby the king and common wealth should be preserued, and vpholden) being wasted and vndermined in ma|ner aboue written, what can be expected but vniuer|sall ruine and ouerthrow of the whole bodie of the e|state; except God of his mercie preuent the same. Besides all these, the foresaid abusors not resting content with the enormities aboue expressed, haue practised, and dailie doo practise to turne the happie a|mitie and loue, which now a good space hath stood be|twéene the inhabitants of the whole Ile in open ho|stilitie and hatred, without respect of neighborhood or kindred, standing betwéene the two princes, or re|gard had to the benefits that hir maiestie of Eng|land hath bestowed vpon the king our souereigne, and his whole countrie, first by planting of true re|ligion within this realme, and next by preseruing his maiestie, when as in his minoritie he could not take in hand or enterprise for himselfe.

To this effect they openlie delt with such persons, as by all meanes sought hir maiesties destruction, as by the confession of sundrie hir maiesties rebels latelie executed in England is made manifest. But how soone they perceiued open danger to arise, by o|pen dealing with hir enimies, then fraudfullie to il|lude hir maiestie, they haue pretended these months past, in great freendship and kindnesse, promising largelie in that behalfe, and offering to capitulate a band offensiue and defensiue to stand perpetuallie. But in the end, notwithstanding all these liberall promises, the effects by experience declare nothing to haue béene in their minds but falshood & crueltie, as by the late murder of the lord Russell is manifest to the whole world, who being a yoong nobleman, for his birth and qualities verie honorable and vertu|ous, and of great expectation, & for his earnest zeale to religion, and good affection to the king our soue|reigne, and to all Scotishmen in generall, one that merited great praise, loue and commendation: yet he was murdered in most odious and treasonable maner, euen when as greatest kindnesse and fréend|ship was pretended; which cannot but produce mar|uellous suspicion and slander, aswell against the king our souereigne, as against the whole countrie, to his maiesties great dishonor, and discredit of his innocent subiects, if condigne iustice be not mini|stred vpon the authors and the executors of the hor|rible crime aforesaid.

Last, which is most of all, and necessarilie craueth present reformation, the foresaid abusors couer all these enormities with his maiesties name and au|thoritie, thereby thinking to excuse themselues, and to laie the burden on him. And therefore, as it can|not be but verie slanderous and dangerous to his maiestie, if suchlicentious persons (who hathalreadie made shipwracke of all honestie) be suffered to re|maine in his companie, so is it shamefull to be re|ported in other nations, that such a few number of beggerlie fellowes replenished with all vice, should extinguish the beautie of the nobilitie, haue empire ouer the whole countrie, & keepe his maiestie thrall to authorise by his roiall power their abhominable and execrable facts. For the causes aforesaid and manie others that might be iustlie alleged, we of his maiesties nobilitie here present, in the feare of God and our souereignes obedience, being through Gods frée mercie called to be professors of the blessed euan|gell, and borne councellors to his highnesse our souereigne, bound in duetie not onelie to hazzard, render and renounce our liues, lands, and goods (if néed be) for the same euangell and true religion, but also in conscience charged to be carefull of his maie|sties welfare, honor, and reputation, and to procure to our abilitie, peace and quietnesse to him and his realme, hauing our lands and heritages for that ef|fect, holden of his maiesties most noble progenitors of woorthie memorie.

In consideration of which great enormities and tyrannies, hauing conuened our selues togither for redresse and reformation of the same, séeing the suf|fering thereof hath alreadie wounded the estate of true religion, dishonored his maiestie, disturbed the whole realme, and had almost disioined aswell the hearts of the princes as of the subiects of the two nations, we thinke it therefore high time, and we are in dutie and conscience (all doubt and perill set apart) to procure the separation and thrusting awaie of the said desperate and enorme persons from about his maiestie, that his highnesse being restored to his former libertie, maie fréelie, peaceablie, and wiselie gouerne his subiects and realme, by aduise of graue, modest, and indifferent councellors; onelie respe|cting his maiesties suertie and preseruation, to the end that the afflicted church within this land maie be comforted, and all acts latelie made in preiudice of the same, maie be solemnelie cancelled, and for euer adnulled, his maiestie restored to his former liber|tie, the bodie of his commonwealth (by punishing of vice chéeflie vpon the authors of these late misor|ders, and mainteinance of vertue) maie be once dis|burdened of the heauie oppressions and iniuries that they haue with no small gréefe so long susteined, and the happie amitie with England réestablished and conserued, to the high glorie of God, honor of the king our souereigne, and vniuersall contentment of all good men euerie where. In prosecution where|of, we protest before God and his holie angels, we shall neither spare our liues, lands, nor goods, but frankelie hazzard and expend the same as néed cra|ueth, vntill the said abusors be either apprehended or presented to iustice, to suffer for their demerits, or else (if they cannot be found out) till they be debar|red from his maiesties companie, and expelled the realme.

Wherefore we command and charge (in our soue|reigne lords name) all and sundrie his subiects, as EEBO page image 448 well to burrow as to land, to fortifie and assist this godlie enterprise, and to concurre with vs to that effect, as they will giue testimonie of their affection to the aduancement of true religion, his maiesties suertie and welfare, and the publike quietnesse of the whole realme, certifieng all and sundrie that d [...]oth attempt anie thing to the contrarie, or will not take one fold and plaine part with vs, we will repute them as partakers of all vice and iniquitie, assisters of the treasonable conspirators aforesaid, and eni|mies of true religion, to his maiestie and his autho|ritie, and to the publike quietnesse betwixt the two realmes, and will vse them in bodies and goods ac|cordinglie. And that all iustices as well lords of sessions as shiriffes, commissioners, and other inferi|our iudges sit and administer iustice to the furthe|rance thereof, according to the lawes of the realme, as they will answer vpon their allegiance and vt|termost perill, with certification of the disobeior as is aforesaid.

This assemblie of the nobilitie, and the proclama|tion thus knowne; the earle of Arrane and others which were in Sterling with the king, placed foure hundred men vpon the wals of the towne to defend The earle of Arrane flieth. the assault. But the earle of Arrane chancellor, kno|wing that he was the principall person, against whome they directed their force, did secretlie without anie other companie flie from thense to Dunbri|taine, escaping the hands of the lords of the religion, The earle of Angus en|treth Ster|ling. wherevpon small resistance b [...]ing made by such as were within Sterling against the assailants, vsing their force by the space of two houres, the earle of Angus and the rest did quietlie enter Sterling and all parts; which being perceiued by such of the nobili|tie as were within the towne, they (as the earle of Montrosse, Crawford, Rothosse, Glencarne, Arroll and the Colonell) fled to the castell whither the other faction did chase them Now when the lords of the re|ligion (for so they of the presbyterie terme them) had fullie gotten possession of the towne of Sterling, they placed their ensignes before the foreblockhouse of the castell, and so ordered the matter, that there was no waie for anie in the castell to escape their The castell of Sterling be|sieged. hands, for they had by strength inuironed the same, and by siege brought it as some said to that extremi|tie, that they within were in great default of vittels. Wherevpon the king (after agréement made, that persons on each part might passe betwéene to com|pound the matter) sent foorth of the castell vnto the The king sen|deth to the lords of the re|ligion. lords of the religion, the maister of Greie his secre|tarie and sir Lewes Ballentine, iustice Clarke (de|putie to the earle of Argile chéefe iustice of Scotland by inheritance) and colonell Steward, desiring thrée petitions of his nobilitie; the first whereof was, that his life honor and estate might be preserued; that the liues of Crawford, Montro [...]se and the Colonell, might be preserued; thirdlie, that all things might be transacted peaceablie: on which conditions he would hereafter be ruled by their aduise and coun|sell. Wherevnto the noble men answered, first that The answer of the lords of the religion to the kings demands. the lord knew that they neuer had anie other inten|tion but to preserue his noble person, his honor and estate, and to deliuer his maiestie out of their hands, who vnder his name had so gréeuouslie oppressed the church and commonwealth, and therein hazarded as well his life and crowne, as the danger of other of the nobilitie. Wherefore they were onelie there as|sembled in the feare of God, and loue to his person and their countrie, wholie to endeuour themselues to shew the performance of their obedience and du|tie vnto him, and so to shew themselues faithfull and good subiects.

To the second point they answered, that where the liues of such were desired to be preserued, which had disturbed the whole kingdome, and béene instru|ments of the great confusion in the church & com|monwealth, they could doo no lesse in respect of the loue and dutie which they bare to the king and their countrie, but vse all meanes possible to bring them to the triall of iustice, thereby to receiue the reward of their demerite. And for the third they would most humblie craue of his maiestie, that these things might be doone in most peacefull maner in due time required therefore, wherby all his good subiects might be satisfied, towards the execution whereof they offe|red their assistance, with the vttermost of their ende|uour, because they were assembled and come thither for the dooing thereof.

Besides which at the returne of these commissi|oners, The lords of the religion exhibit three petitions to the king. the nobilitie exhibited other thrée petitions vnto the king, whereof the first was, that the kings maiestle would allow of their intention, subscribe their proclamation (conteining the declaration of their cause) vntill further order were established by the estates, and so agrée vnto the reformation of the premisses, & that all the common holds & strengths might be rendred into their hands to be kept as the councell of the ancient nobilitie should appoint, who were there in good number assembled. Secondlie, that the said disquieters of the common-wealth might be deliuered into their custodie, vntill they had receiued their due triall by the law. Thirdlie, that the old gard might be remooued and an other placed of modest, wise, and godlie men. Which pe|titions being so to the king exhibited, the first was vpon diuers considerations granted, and the castels The king granteth the requests of the lords. Dunbarton & Kineile were assigned to the custodie of Iohn lord Hamilton; the castell of Edenburgh was committed to sir Iames Hume of Coden|knolles; the castell of Sterling was restored to the earle of Marre, to whome the custodie thereof did belong by descent of inheritance; the castell of Blacknesse to the lard of Dalketh; Tantallan and Dowglasse were deliuered to the earle of Angus. Noble men committed to custodie. Touching the satisfaction of the second request of the lords, the said earles of Crawford, Montrosse, Clenkarne, Rothosse, Arroll, and colonell Stew|ard, the lords Seton, Leuingstone, Greie, Sum|merwell, sir William Steward brother to the earle of Arrane, and William Steward capteine of Dunbarton (who had béene taken in the towne of Sterling, when the lords of the religion entered thereinto) were committed to the safe custodie of manie noble men. For the performance of the lords third petition, the old gard was immediatlie remooued, & the maister of Glames was appointed The kings gard remooued and a new pla|ced. by the consent of the whole nobilitie capteine of the gard, with such gentlemen as the nobilitie and he should choose of those which are alreadie entred into their places and offices.

In the meane time, as is before touched, Iames Steward earle of Arrane did at the entring of the lords of the religion into the towne of Sterling, flie to the castell of Dunbarton, where he was inclosed, as well by sea as by land, without anie great store of vittels. The bishop of saint Andrews was taken The bishop of S. Andrews taken. by the scholers of the vniuersitie, and yoong men of the towne aforesaid (as was said) to be presented to iustice into the hands of the lords of the religion; The mini|sters called home. and so all capteins were set at libertie, the banished ministers called home (though manie of them still remained in England) and restored to their former offices, dignities, and liuings, and the Iesuits and seminarie priests woonderfullie amazed, who were willinglie minded to flie disguised in mariners at|tire The Iesuits readie to flie Scotland. into the parts beyond the seas. Thus the king granting the requests of the nobilitie, and yéelding EEBO page image 449 to the state of the present time, committed himselfe to the protection of these lords of the religion remai|ning The king in the custodie of the lords of the religion. in their custodie, after that they had once en|tred the castell of Sterling.

Wherevpon much congratulation being made for this returne of those banished lords into Scot|land, the quéene of England hauing intelligence William Knolles sent ambassador in|to Scotland. thereof, did send hir ambassador William Knolles esquire marshall of hir bench into the parts of Scot|land, to vnderstand the parts thereof, and of the ma|ner of the procéeding of these noble men with the king: which ambassador after his abode and hono|rable interteinment in that countrie, returned home in December following. In which moneth there was a parlement called at Lithgo, for the full ratifieng and confirming of the restitution of these lords of the religion: at what time the earle of Ar|rane was displaced both from his earledome of Ar|rane, and office of chancellorship: and the earle of Bothwell was admitted to that office of lord chan|cellor. The earle Bothwell made chan|cellor. Besides which also the custodie of the luna|tike earle of Arrane, sonne of the duke of Chatele|rault was taken from the same Iames Steward earle of Arrane, and committed to Iohn lord Ha|milton lord of Arbroth, and brother to the lunatike earle, sometime remaining in the wardship of the said Iohn Hamilton, before that the said Iames Steward had gotten the possession of that lunatike earle into his owne hands, out of the custodie of the same Iohn Hamilton.

But somewhat to leaue the lunatike earle in Iames Ste|ward earle of Arrane mar|ried to the widow of the [...]le of March. safe kéeping, we will speake a litle of this Iames Steward earle of Arrane, and of his wife; who being a woman of delight of change in marri|age, was (after the second shipwracke) marri|ed to this earle of Arrane; for she being one of the daughters of the earle of Atholl, was first married to the lord Louet. After which, iudging it better to marrie than to burne (although by the sequele of the same she felt small contentment therein) she bound hir selfe with the knot of matrimonie vnto Robert Steward earle of March and bishop of Cathnesse; but after finding occasion of diuorce, the contenti|on and sute whereof continued verie long, from the said earle, she was in the end separated; and then the third time bestowed hir selfe in marriage vpon this Iames Steward earle of Arrane, by whome she had issue diuerse sonnes and daughters, the el|dest whereof the king tooke from the font and christe|ned.

Thus leauing this erle of Arrane for this time, I thinke it not amisse in this place to step aside from the matters of these present times; and herein at the aduancement of this earle Bothwell to be lord chancellor of Scotland, to record some things touch|ing some such persons as haue (to my knowledge by reading of Scotish histories) possessed that office of chancellorship before time, as in an other place before at the mention of an other chancellor I haue discoursed of the originall and deriuation of the name of that office. In which this my discourse of the succession of chancellors, although I shall set downe but few persons in number, & can not make a full continuance of their orderlie succession, from their first institution vnto this daie: yet I suppose it better to mention those which haue come vnto my hands, thereby to occasion others hereafter to treat more liberallie of such honorable officers, than vt|terlie to drowne them in the pit of forgetfulnesse. Which treatise of the chancellors I am the willing|er to deliuer, because I haue doone the like (but more amplie) for England, as being better acquainted with our owne than their histories.

3.13. The names and times of certeine chancellors of Scotland, gathered out of the histories of that nation.

The names and times of certeine chancellors of Scotland, gathered out of the histories of that nation.

_WIlliam Wood bishop of Dunblaine William Wood. was chancellor to William king of Scots, which began his reigne in the yeare of Christ one thousand one hun|dred eightie and fiue, as some haue (but Lesleus lib. 6. pag. 226 giueth it to the yeare of our Lord God one thousand one hundred and thrée score, whose account herein is false) and continued in that office at the time of the death of the said William, which fell in the yéere of our redemption one thousand two hundred and fouretéene. After whose death he was by Alexander the second confirmed in the same place of chancellor.

Iohn Lion chancellor of Scotland (in the time Iohn Lion. of Robert the second of that name, and the first of the house of the Stewards which ware the crowne) was chancellor of Scotland, who being in great fa|uor with the said Robert the second, maried the ladie Elisabeth daughter vnto the said king, with whome he had in franke mariage diuerse possessions called Glames, whereby he was called lord of Glames; of which Lion is that surname descended, who in me|morie of that marriage beare in their armes the li|ons and lillies with the tresse in such forme as the king of Scotland beareth the same, except that their lions be placed in a blacke field, as Holinshed hath noted. Which Lion being chancellor was slaine in the yeare of our Lord one thousand thrée hundred and eightie, being about the tenth yeare of the same Robert the second, who after banished the earle of Crawford.

Gilbert Grenlaw bishop of Aberden, being Gilbert Gren|law. chancellor about the yeare that the word became flesh, one thousand foure hundred and eleuen in the vacancie of the kingdome, vnder duke Mordacke, betwéene the death of Robert the second (which fell in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred and six, and the beginning of the reigne of Iames the first, in the yeare of our Lord God one thousand foure hundred twentie and six) was sent ambassa|dor into France with other noblemen of Scotland, touching which, thus writeth Lesleus lib. 7. pag. 270. Mortuo interea Roberto Scotiae gubernatore, filius eius Mordacus regni procurator designatur. A quo Carolus septimus Francorum rex (in patris quoque locum suffectus) per legatos auxilium contra Anglos postulat. Assensus ille est, & eosdẽ duces (quos paulò ante in Franciam in copijs traiecisse commemora|uimus) cum valido militum manu Gallo subsidio re|misit. Cum eis quoque Gilbertus Grenlau episco|pus Aberdonensis, vir magnae inter regni primo|res singularem ob prudentiam auctoritatis, qui cancellariatus magistratum magna gessit dexteri|rate, in Galliam mittitur legatus, qui regem Caro|lum consolaretur, & certiorem faceret eos, qui Galliam aduenerãt, & totius Scotiae incolas, adeò in eius fide & amore perstare, vt se atque bona omnia, pro illius Francorúmque salute tribuere ex animo, sunt parati: idque rei exitus probabit. After which ambassage in France this Gilbert liued not verie long, for Henrie Lichton, who came shortlie in his place of the bishoprike, was with other sent ambas|sador into England, to fetch home Iames the first, and to inuest him in the crowne of Scotland.

William Creichton knight, whom Lesleus termeth william Creichton the wisest man that euer Scotland saw, being chan|cellor to Iames the first, was (in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred thirtie and thrée, about the ninth yeare of the same king Iames) with the earle of Angus, and Adam Hepborne of Hales, EEBO page image 450 sent to the castle of Dunbar, with letters signed with the kings hand, directed to the kéepers of the castle to deliuer the same to the bringers thereof: which the kéepers of that castle durst not disobeie, but permitted them to enter accordinglie. After this, in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred thirtie and fiue, and the eleuenth of the same king, he was sent ambassador into Denmarke, where he conclu|ded a sound peace betwéene the nations of Den|marke and Scotland; which good seruice being well weied, he was after the death of Iames the first, and in the entrance of Iames the second into the go|uernment of Scotland, in the yeare of Christ 1436, confirmed in his office of chancellorship, be|side which he had the gouernment of the kings per|son, and of the castle of Edenburgh committed to his charge. Then by reason of contention which fell betwéene sir Alexander Leuingston the gouer|nour of the realme and this chancellor, they fell to parts taking in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred thirtie and seuen, whereby insued much mischéefe and bloudshed in the realme (as al|waies by my obseruation I haue found to happen during the minoritieand the insufficiencie of kings) at what time the quéene taking part with the gouer|nor against the chancellor, found means by subtiltie to get the king into hir possession out of the hands of the chancellor, after that she had handsomlie trussed vp the king in a troonke like a fardell full of apparell, wherevpon the gouernor besieged the chancellor in the castle of Edenburgh, but in the end they agréed that Creichton should still kéepe the castle of Eden|burgh and of his office of chancellor.

That doone, in the yeare one thousand foure hun|dred thirtie and nine, and the third yeare of Iames the second, the chancellor obteined to haue the quéene Dowager, and hir husband Iames Steward lord of Lorne released out of the prison of Sterling, whi|ther they were committed by the gouernor. Which doone the chancellor kéeping in mind the deceit of the quéene, in ouerreaching him, by getting the king out of his possession, and séeing the gouernor to take the whole authoritie on him at his pleasure, did so worke that he found meanes, that he onlie accompanied with foure and twentie persons, did againe get the king (as he was one morning hunting in Sterling parke) into his possession, whom he carried with him into the castle of Edenburgh, wherewith the gouer|nor was gréeuoustie displeased, but not able to re|medie the same, there was an agréement made be|twéene the chancellor and him, that the king should remaine in the custodie of the chancellor, and the go|uernor continue his office in administrating the af|faires of the realme. Wherevpon in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred and fortie, and the fourth yeare of Iames the second, the gouernor and the chancellor assemble a councell of the nobilitie at Edenburgh. In the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred fortie and foure, being the eight of the same Iames the second, both the gouernor and the chancellor (at the persuasion of William earle Dowglas) were remooued from their offices by the king, who being now about fourtéene yeres old, had taken the absolute gouernment of the kingdome vpon him: besides which they were also put from the councell, their friends were banished the court, and they were summoned to appeare before the king, which they refused, not as giltie in conscience, but as fearing the crueltie of their enimies, wherevpon they were proclamed rebels and put to the horne, which occasioned William Dowglasse the chancel|lors great enimie to gather a power and spoile the lands of this William Creichton, for requitall wher|of, Creichton gathered a like-power, entred the land of Dowglasse, and spoiled the same all that he could, which thing adding further heat to the Dowglasse, caused him to procure the king in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred fortie and fiue, being the ninth yeare of the kings reigne, to demand of Creichton the deliuerie of the castles of Edenburgh and of Creichton, which he denieng to doo vntill the king came to full age, had all his goods confiscat, ha|uing therein no iniurie doone vnto him, for as saith Lesleus: Primus omnium sanciuerat Creichtonus, Lesleus lib. 8. pag. 297. vt qui regi castrum aliquod postulanti restiterit, vio|latae maiestatis arcessatur, cuius ille legis poenam pri|mus subijt, as did he which deuised Phalaris bull. But after when the king had besieged Edenburgh castle nine moneths, Creichton being therein, the same was deliuered with condition, that Creich|ton should still remaine chancellor, which obteined, he neuer after delt in the affairs of the common welth, whereby growing againe into the kings fauour, he was with others in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred fortie & six, being the tenth of Iames the second, sent ambassador to the duke of Gelder|land to obteine Marie the dukes daughter to wife for the king, which he brought to passe. All which not|withstanding in the yeare following he fell againe into the princes disgrace, and was by parlement holden in the yere of Christ one thousand foure hun|dred fortie and seuen, forfalted, for that his seruants would not deliuer Creichtons house or castle to the king, as before you haue heard. But after as it sée|meth, such is the mutabilitie of fortune, he returned into the kings grace, for which in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred and fiftie, he was by the earle Dowglasse (supposing him to be the cause that the king misliked the earle) assaulted one mor|ning as he was comming out of the castle of Eden|burgh, from which although wounded, he escaped vnto his castle of Creichton, where in short space af|ter he assembled a power, recouered Edenburgh from the Dowglasse, and had destroied the earle at that present, if he had not shifted awaie more spéedi|lie: who being thus dishonorablie chased from Eden|burgh, drew the erle of Crawford and Rosse to ioine with him against Creichton, but he little estéeming thereof and requiting good for euill, did in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred fiftie and thrée, or a thousand foure hundred fiftie and foure as some haue, procure a pardon for the earle of Crawford, gréeuouslie fallen into the kings displeasure. In which yeare also the king calling a parlement at E|denburgh, the earldome of Murreie was giuen to sir Iames Creichton, or rather restored to him, from whom it had béene wrongfullie taken by the iniust sentence of William earle of Dowglasse, who had procured it to be assigned to his brother Archibald Dowglasse, although the right remained in the same sir Iames Creichton. But yet when the same sir Iames could not kéepe that earledome without the enuie of diuers persons, he surrendred the same into the kings hands. Beside all which at this parlement was George Creichton created earle of Cathnesse, which I thought good to note in this place, because it touched the name of Creichton, whereof I doo now intreat by reason of this chancellor.

Andrew Steward lord of Anandale was chan Andrew Ste|ward. cellor of Scotland in the yere of Christ one thousand foure hundred three score and eight, being about the eight yeare of the reigne of king Iames the third, & was sent with others into Norweie to conclude a mariage with the king of Denmarke, betwéene his daughter Margaret & the king of Scots, which ladie he brought with him into Scotland in Iulie, at what time they were married accordinglie. Some yeares after which, that is about the yeare of Christ EEBO page image 451 one thousand foure hundred foure score and two, and the two and twentith of Iames the third, when Alex|ander Steward Duke of Albanie with the duke of Glocester were come vnto Rastalrig with the English power, this man amongst others, was sent to the English campe to treat with the two dukes, with whom in the end an agréement was made. By which the duke of Albanie, before fled out of Scot|land, was restored home, and had both honors and offices bestowed on him; who with this chancellor & other noble men had the gouernment of the king|dome for a certeine space: during which time, this duke the chancellor and others, going to visit the queene at Sterling, the duke by the queenes persua|sion without knowledge of the other, went to Eden|burgh, and by force restored the king to libertie, be|fore taken and kept in hold by some of the nobilitie, which being knowne to the chancellor and the other lords at Sterling, they fled to their owne countries.

Iames Beton archbishop of Glascow was chan|cellor in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hun|dred & thirteene, being the first yeare of king Iames Iames Be|t [...]n. the fift. This man being of great wisdome, was ap|pointed amongst others to assist the quéene in the gouernment of the realme, wherevnto she was for a time aduanced: but the woman not induring to be directed by others, taking quarell against the bishop, did immediatlie after the mariage, performed the sixt of August, in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred and fouretéene, betwéene hir and Archi|bald Dowglasse earle of Angus (which this bishop incountred as much as he could) take the great seale from the said bishop of Glascow, at saint Iohns towne, whervpon the bishop got him to Edenburgh, and assisted with manie lords, kept the quéene and hir husband out of that towne, whereby great dissen|tion and part taking was raised amongst the nobili|tie of the realme. But as I gather, peace being made betwéene them, he was againe made chancellor. Af|ter this, in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hun|dred and fiftéene, he commeth with the earle of Ar|rane, who submitteth himselfe to the gouernor. Short|lie following, the gouernor gaue to this archbishop of Glascow the abbeie of Arbroth, assigning to the earle of Murreie a large pension out of the same, which bishop being thus in fauor with the gouernor, was (in the yere of Christ one thousand fiue hundred and seuenteene in Maie, when the gouernor went in|to France) appointed, amongst others, to haue the rule of the realme vntill his returne. Two yeares after which, the nobilitie being diuided about the quarell of the earle of Angus & Arrane, this bishop in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred and ninetéene, being then also chancellor, with other no|ble men of the realme, kept the towne of Glascow; but after that, this chancellor who would not come to Edenburgh, the king of England and of France their ambassadors came to Sterling, where a peace was proclamed amongst the nobilitie.

But what can long continue in one staie, or what peace will be long imbraced amongst ambiti|ous minds? sith in the yeare following, being the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred and twen|tie, the noble men fell againe to factions: for when di|uerse of the péeres were come to Edenburgh to aid the earle of Angus against the earle of Arrane (this chancellor remaining then in the towne) they pur|sued the earle and chancellor so hotlie, that they were both constreined to forsake the towne, and to flie through the north Loch, about the thirtith daie of A|prill. But as the euents of quarels be doubtfull, now vp now downe, so this archbishop not long af|ter this disgrace, recouered breath, and in Nouem|ber following, did accompanie the regent come out of France to Edenburgh, where was a parlement holden, to summon the earle of Angus to appeare; but he refusing, it was agréed that the earle should passe into England there to remaine.

The bishop thus hauing the better of his eni|mies, Andrew Forman bishop of S. Andrews died, in the yeare one thousand fiue hundred twentie and two, being about the ninth yeare of Iames the first, by occasion whereof, this chancellor Iames Beton bishop of Glascow was aduanced to that sée, and further made abbat of Dumfermling. Upon which new honor, in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred twentie and foure, he was appointed one of the gouernors of the realme by parlement: but he not possessing this honor anie long time, the earle of Angus (who had gotten the king into his vsurped gouernment, and denied the deliuerie of the king, being sent for by this bishop and the other nobilitie) sent to the chancellor for the great seale, which was deliuered to the messengers: vpon which, this bi|shop not forgetting the same, hastened the sentence of diuorce sued before him, betwéene the quéene and the earle of Angus. Whereof the earle, to reuenge the same, did with the king, in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred twentie and six, séeke for the quéene and the bishop of saint Andrews: but because they were kept secretlie in their friends hou|ses (so that they could not be heard of) he spoiled the abbeie of Dumfermling, and the castell of saint An|drews, taking awaie all that the archbishop had. Notwithstanding which, the archbishop kéeping in fauor with the old quéene and the yoong king, did in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred twen|tie and nine, and the sixtéenth yeare of Iames the fift, christen Iames the kings sonne borne at saint Andrews, and not long after, surrendered his soule to God in the said yeare one thousand fiue hundred thirtie and nine: of whome it shall not gréeue me to set downe what Lesleus hath written, which though it be somewhat long, yet because it is necessarie, I had rather set downe the plaine words of the author, than by abridging of them into our our toong, to depriue the author of his due by his owne stile: thus therefore he writeth.

Iacobus Betonius archiepiscopus Santandrea|politanus, qui maximis reipublicae honoribus sum|máque Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 450. gloria apud nos quàm diutissimè floruerat, aetate iam grandior, naturae concedebat, ac in aede sancti Andreae tumulo honorificè tegebatur. Hic an|tistes quosdam, quos egregiè charos habuit, viuus constituebat, vt in beneficia sibi mortuo sufficerétur. In episcopatum autem Santandreapolitanum, ac in abbathiam Arbrothensem, vir summa prudentia, & animi magnitudine praestans Dauid Betonius cardi|nalis, eius ex fratre nepos, in abbathiam verò Dum|firmlingensem Georgius Dureus, in alia denique a|lij: quam illius voluntatem rex non impediuit, quo minùs illi, quos archiepiscopus ante obitum consti|tuerat, beneficijs liberè fruerentur: ne cuius viui mentem semper laudaret, eius mortui voluntatem malitiosè videretur rescidisse. Hic archiepiscopus praecipuum illius collegij quod nouum Santandre|apoli dicitur, partim suo sumptu excitauit, ac maxi|mam pecuniae vim qua reliqua pars inchoata perpo|liretur, testato reliquit: verùm pecunia illa in alios vsus postea traducta, collegij ius (ne quid acriùs di|cam) perierat. Thus much Lesle, and thus much I, touching this chancellor, spoken of also in my trea|tise of the archbishops of sant Andrews.

Gawen Dunbar archbishop of Glascow, and the kings schoolemaister, was chancellor as appeareth by Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 399. who in in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred twentie and two, writeth: Non multò post Andreas Formannus epis|copus EEBO page image 452 Santandreapolitanus vità cessit, huius quam primũ honore ac titulo insigniebatur Iacobus Beto|nus archiepiscopus Glascuensis, qui quidem archi|episcopatus omniũ summa voluntate cessit praestãtis|simo cuidam viro Gawino Dunbarro [...]; cui quòd recõditae eruditionis, sincerae vitae consilij que graui|ssimi laudibus praestiterit, regis tenella aetas moribus doctriná que informanda credebatur, quem intimis sensibus ita dilexit rex, vt sui intimi concilij socium, regnique cancellarium postea illum coaptauerat.

Dauid Beton (the brothers sonne of Iames Be|ton deceased archbishop of saint Andrews) was chancellor of Scotland, who being abbat of Arbroth, was with others sent ambassador into France in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred thir|tie and foure, being the one and twentith yeare of the gouernment of Iames the fift, for to procure the earle of Uandosmes sister in mariage for the king; but the same tooke not effect, because the king going in person into France liked hir not. About thrée yeares after, which was in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred thirtie and seuen, and the foure and twentith yeare of Iames the fift, this Da|uid was aduanced to the honor of a cardinall, of which title I doo not at this time remember, that e|uer I haue read anie other to haue inioied but Wal|ter Wardlaw, of whome Onuphrius thus writeth: Walterus episcopus Glascuensis presbyter cardina|lis Two cardi|nals onelie in Scotland. creatus, anno Domini 1383, 10 kalend. Ianua. 6 pontificatus Clemẽtis 7, obijt inter annum 1400, & 1409, whome the Scotish histories make cardi|nall somewhat before in the yeare one thousand three hundred fourscore and two, about the eleuenth yeare of Robert the second (at what time with others he was sent to Charles king of France as ambassa|dor to renew the league betweene France & Scot|land) by Paul the third, then pope of Rome, to whom also the king of France gaue in commendam the bishoprike of Miropen: of the making of which Be|ton cardinall, thus the same Onuphrius writeth: Da|uid de sancto Andrea Scotus episcopus Miropiensis presbyter cardinalis tituli sancti Stephani in Caelio monte creatus, anno Domini, 1538, 13 kalend. Ianuar. per Paulum tertiũ, anno pontificatus 13. In which words Onuphrius, and Lesleus following him, refer the creation of this cardinall vnto the yeare one thousand fiue hundred thirtie and eight, though others attribute it to the yeare one thousand fiue hundred thirtie and seuen. In which yeare one thousand fiue hundred thirtie and eight, he was with others sent ambassador into France after the death of the quéene, to procure Marie of Lorreine widow duchesse of Longuile, and daughter to the duke of Guise, to be giuen to king Iames in mari|age; which matter he brought to his desired effect.

The next yeare after, being the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred thirtie and nine, as you haue heard before, he was by his vncle Iames Beton archbishop of sainct Andrews, & abbat of Ar|broth, appointed to succéed in the same bishops sée and abbeie, which he inioied accordinglie: who ad|uanced with these dignities, did after the death of Iames the fift, falling in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred fortie and two, labor by po|licies and other extraordinarie deuises to be gouer|nor of the realme, during the minoritie of the yoong queene; but he was disappointed thereof by the no|bilitie, who chose the earle of Arrane to that functi|on; by meanes whereof, there fell continuall dissen|tions betwéene the nobilitie, which ended not vntill this cardinall was slaine as after it shall appeare. For shortlie after in the said yeare one thousand fiue hundred fortie and two, being committed to ward (in the castle of Dalketh vnder the custodie of the lord Seton, smallie fauoring the French faction) be|cause he would haue persuaded the nobilitie to for|sake the motion of the K. of England, determining to marie his son prince Edward to the yoong quéene of Scots. But the cardinall did not long remaine there; for by the gouernors appointment he was remoued to his owne castell of S. Andrews, hauing watch and ward about him, to see him safelie kept, in which place also he did not long continue: for cor|rupting his keepers he found meanes to escape; which doone, in the yeare one thousand fiue hundred fortie and thrée, he came to the coronation of the yoong queene, and shortlie after persuaded the earle of Ar|rane the gouernor to leaue the part of the king of England, and wholie to become French.

Now at the coronation, the cardinall ordered all things, appointing euerie officer, and growing into great credit, did in like sort at other times dispose of the common-wealth as séemed best liking vnto him. Wherevpon, the earle of Leneux taking part with the English, opposed himselfe against the go|uernor and the cardinall, whereby followed sharpe warres, the cardinall still supporting and counsel|ling the gouernor: which troubles being somewhat abated, by reason the earle of Leneux was gone in|to England, the cardinall in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred fortie and foure, receiued the patriarch of Ierusalem arriued in Scotland. In which meane time, there was great contention betwéene the cardinall and the archbishop of Glas|cow, for bearing their crosses in the others iurisdic|tion: wherevpon they fell from words to swords, which the gouernor appeased: that doone, the patri|arch the popes legat comming to Rome, procured the legantine power to be granted to this cardinall, which he long inioied not. For being greatlie en|uied by reason of these honors & some gréeuous facts, certeine persons in the yeare one thousand fiue hun|dred fortie and six (after that he had burned George Wischart a learned man, condemned at saint An|drews by an assemblie of bishops) did the thirtéenth daie of Maie (when they had secretlie in the morning entered the castell of saint Andrews where the car|dinall was) expell the porters of the foresaid castell, the cardinals seruants, and flue the cardinall naked as he came to méete them, whose death sir Iames Liermount prouost of saint Andrews thought to haue staied by assembling a power therefore: but after that he saw the cardinals dead bodie hanged out ouer the wals, he made no further attempt. The death of which cardinall comming to the gouernors eares, he banished the author thereof, as writeth Les|leus in these words: Gubernator, quòd nec cognato Lesleus lib. 19. pag. 482. suo sanguinis coniunctio, nec cardinali dignitas, nec cancellario maiestas ac domus propria, ad impio|rum insidias effugendas quicquam profuerit, aeger|rimè ferre. Consilio itaque Huntlei ac Argadij suasu indicto, in caedis auctores capitis proscriptionisque sententia data est.

George Gordon earle of Huntleie, sonne of Iohn Georg Gordon. Gordon, being chancellor of Scotland, in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred fortie and sea|uen, falling about the fift yeare of the reigne of Ma|rie quéen of Scots, was taken prisoner by the Eng|lish at Muskelborow field, who pitieng the miserie of diuerse of his countriemen, wounded and taken at the same battell, did vndertake for their ransome; wherevpon they were permitted to depart, and left to shift for themselues as well as they might. In the next yeare, which was the yeare of Christ (as hath Lesleus one thousand fiue hundred fortie and eight) the protector of Scotland sent Carnegie knight and senator to the protector of England, to ransome Huntleie, or at the least to obteine that his wife EEBO page image 453 wife might come vnto him. Wherevpon the earle was with his keepers permitted to come to Mor|phet, where expecting his wife, he thought vpon his escape, and from thense after supper, deceiuing his warders, he fled by night into Scotland, through the aid of one George Carre his déere friend, who prouided him speedie horsses therefore. The earle be|ing thus come into Scotland, was ioifullie inter|teined of the quéene, the gouernor, and the other no|bilitie; but chiefelie of his wife, whose earnest de|sire to sée him was the occasion of his escape. But as all ioie hath some hard hap for the most part at|tending vpon the same; so this earle did after féele the force of like misfortune. For about seuen yeares after, in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hun|dred fiftie and foure, he was againe committed to prison as after shall appeare. Before which, in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred and fiftie, he with other noble men goeth into France with the quéene mother of Scotland; but before that iournie, whilest he was preparing for the same, he comman|ded William Mackintosch chiefe of the Glenchat|tins to be executed at Stratbolgie, for a priuie con|spiracie made against him, being the kings lieute|nant in the north parts. Which thing raised a great commotion like to haue succéeded to great slaugh|ters (in that the earle of Cassels and manie others fauored Mackintosch) if the wisdome of the quéene mother had not appeased the same.

After that the queene mother had bin in France, she in the same yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred and fiftie, returned into Scotland through England: but the earle Huntleie warilie fearing to fall into the dangers of the English (whome he thought would not forget his escape from them, re|turned by sea into his owne countrie: after which, when he had beene about foure yeares in Scotland, the quéene mother regent in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred fiftie and foure, sent this earle Huntleie into Heitland to take Iohn Mudr [...]ad: but returning without him, he was committed to prison in Edenburgh the eleuenth of October: at what time the regent changed all the officers, tooke awaie the great seale from this earle Huntleie the chancellor, and gaue it to monsieur Rubie a French|man, which monsieur Rubie thus made kéeper of the Monsieur Rubie keper of the great seale. great seale in the said yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred fiftie and foure, and the twelfth yeare of Marie queene of Scots, had the vse of the same seale in the place of the earle Huntleie then chancel|lor in ward. But the earle of Huntleie after being set at libertie, it seemeth that he was still chancellor. For besides that Lesleus saith that he was restored to all his dignities (except the earldome of Murreie, whereof he had a gift of inheritance, the earldome of Marre, the farmes of Orkeneie & Heitland, and the queenes land at Straitsdie, all which he gaue for his libertie) he is also by the Scotish histories na|med still chancellor, in the yeare of Christ one thou|sand fiue hundred threescore and one, and the nine|téenth yeare of quéene Marie, being then by the no|bilitie amongst other, chosen to be of the priuie coun|cell. Of whome before this also Lesleus writeth, that in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred fif|tie and nine, the quéene hauing receiued a bill of sup|plication from the protestants: Illa hunc protinus libellum supplicem per Huntleum regni cancella|rium synodo exhibendum, vt de illis definiret, red|didit.

After this, in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred thrée score and two, in October being the twentith yeare of the same quéene, he was in the faction betwéene him and others (for diuerse mis|demeanors also, vpon his comming with an armie to Cornethie in Mar) slaine, and Iohn Gordon his sonne taken prisoner, brought to Aberdine the nine and twentith of October, and there beheaded. Now for the other chancellors which followed in succession of time, because they fall yet fresh in memorie, and some mention is made of them in this my continu|ation of these annals; I doo not intend to make anie double recitall of them in that place, being a thing superfluous so to doo; & therefore, & because Omne ni|mium vertitur in vitium (whereto the lawiers agrée saieng, that Frustra fit per plura quod fieri potest per pauciora) I will referre thée for the supplement of this title of the chancellors, to the same continua|tion of my annals, there at thy pleasure to collect and dispose them, as best shall serue thine owne memo|rie or knowledge.

Wherefore leauing them, and returning to the consideration of other things, which following time hath begotten and brought foorth in Scotland: we saie, that as the quéene of England had before time, after the taking of Sterling, sent maister Knolles into Scotland to vnderstand the estate of these times: so in like sort the Scots with like congra|tulation, dispatched a messenger vnto the quéene of England, by whome she might haue knowledge of such things as were after doone. For maister William Keith one of the chamber to the king, was William Keith sent into Eng|land. sent from the king of Scots to the quéene of Eng|land in the same moneth of December, a little be|fore Christmas with letters, who comming to the court then remaining at Gréenewich, did there make deliuerie of the same letters. During whose a|bode here in England, some of those which had be|fore assisted the earles of Angus and Marre, against such as séemed to nourish the king in the Romane religion, fell from their former opinion, & either for loue to the same Romane religion, or for malice to other of the nobilitie, or for a desire to be singular to themselues, imbraced the abolished doctrine of the pope, & set vp the ceremonie of Italie. Amongst The lord Maxwell hea|reth masse. whome, one, not of the meanest, the lord Maxwell, who had maried the earle of Angus his sister, did in Ianuarie aduance the same, and heard masse at Linclouden a mile from Dumfries, contrarie to the publike laws appointed in Scotland. Wherof in|telligence being brought vnto the king, he forthwith dispatched a messenger vnto him, commanding him to surcease the same. But the lord Maxwell persi|sting in that his former action, was (in the end ap|prehended, and vpon the refusall of an oth touching the same, according to the lawes of Scotland) com|mitted to prison in Edenburgh, where he long re|mained.

These things thus doone in Scotland, the afore|named Maister Randolph go|eth into Scot|land. maister Keith departed from London to|wards that countrie, about the foure and twen|tith of Ianuarie, with answer that hir maiestie of England would shortlie send an ambassador into Scotland, who should fullie satisfie the king in all things, and further deliuer vnto him the full of hir maiesties determination. Wherevpon Thomas Randolph esquier, a person who had manie times before executed that function in those countries, and was well acquainted both with the state & maners of the people, was by the quéene of England dis|patched into those parts; who being so authorised, tooke his iourneie from London towards Scotland on the eight daie of Februarie. After which, in Aprill 1586 following, maister Archibald Dowglasse (one that had beene sometime of the session or parlement of Edenburgh) hauing remained some yeares here in England, vpon displeasures which the king of Scots conceiued against him, did make his returne into his owne countrie, where he behaued himselfe so EEBO page image 445 wiselie, that he obteined great fauor after his re|turne home. In this yeare, the presbyterie (as they had manie times doone before, but especiallie in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred fourescore and three, which I thought to note in this place, be|cause I would not often vse repetition of one thing doone at seuerall times in so manie places) did ex|communicat their metropolitan the archbishop of S. Andrews, and the rest of the bishops also, because they would not in all their actions, support and con|firme the doctrine which the presbyterie had esta|blished. Which excommunication the presbyterie did the more boldlie, because they were supported by the assistance of the maister of Lindseie, a great eni|mie to this Patrike Adamson bishop of saint An|drews.

But the king in the beginning did assist him a|gainst them, and the archbishop did in like sort thun|der an excommunication against them. Which di|uision not being méete to be in the cleargie, who ought to be (as the apostles were) of one hart, and of one mind, will in the end as Christ saith, bring the same realme to confusion: for Omne regnum in se diuisum desolabitur: which must néedes be, where euerie man will be a lord, & that the inferior of the clergie will neither acknowledge nor obeie anie superiors. In which place, sith I haue menti|oned Patrike Adamson the archbishop of saint An|drews, because I shall not haue occasion to speake anie more of him, I will here set downe a collection of all the archbishops of that sée.

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