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1.3. The tenor of the said letter as it is written in the Scotish toong.

The tenor of the said letter as it is written in the Scotish toong.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _RObert king of Scots to Henrie king of England greeting. Thy great magnificence, humilitee, and iustice, are right patent to vs, by gouernance of thy last armie in Scotland; howbeit sike things had beene vncerteine to vs afore. For though thou seemed as enemie with most awfull incur|sions in our realme: zit we found mair hu|manities and plaisures than damage (by thy cumming) to our subdittes. Special|lie to yame that receiuit thy noble fader the duke of Longcastell the time of his exill in Scotland. We may not ceis yairfore, wuhile wee are on life, but aye luyf and loif thee as maist noble and woorthie prince, to ioys thy realme. For yocht realmes and nations contend amang themselfe for con|quests of glorie & launds, zit na occasioun is amang vs to inuade athir realmes or lieges with iniuries, bot erar to contend amang our selfe, quhay sall persew othir with maist humanitee and kindnesse. As to vs we will meis all occasion of battell, quare any occurres at thy pleasure. For|ther, bycause we haue na lesse sollicitude in preseruing our children fra certaine deidlie enimies, than had sometime thy no|ble fader, we are constreined to seeke sup|port at vncowth princes hands. Howbeit, the inuasioun of enimies is sa great, that small defense occurres against yame with|out they by preserued by amitie of nobill men. For the warld is sa full of peruersit malice, that na crueltie nor offense may be deuisit in erd, bot the samine may be wroucht be motion of gold or siluer. Heir|fore, because we knaw thy hynesse full of monie, noble vertues, with sike puissance and riches, that na prince in our daies may be compared thairto: we desire thy EEBO page image 256 humanitee and support at this time.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 We traist it is not vnknowen to thy maiestie, how our eldest sonne Dauid is slaine miserablie in prisoun be our brothir the duke of Albanie, quhome wee chesit to be gouernour (quan we were fallen in de|crepit age) to our subdittes and realme, beseekaund thy hienes thairfore to be sa fa|uorable, that this bearer. Iames our se|cond and allanerlie sonne may haue targe to liefe vnder thy faith, and iustice, to be some memorie of our posteritie, knawaund the vnstable conditioun of mans life sa so|danlie altered: now flurisaund, and su|denlie falling to vtter consumptioun. For|thir beliefe well, quhan kings and princes hes na other beild bot in their awin folks, thair empire is caduke and fragill. For the minds of common people ar euir flow|aund and ma [...] inconstant than wind. [...]it quen princes ar roborat be amitee of othir vncowth kings thair brethir and nighbou|ris, na aduersitie may occurre to eiect thaim fra thair dignitie riall. Forthir gif thy hienes thinke nocht expedient (as God forbeid) to obtemper to thir owr de|sires; zit we request ane thing quhilk was ratifist in our last trewes & conditioun of peace, that the supplicatioun made be ony of the two kings of Ingland and Scot|land sall staund in manner of saufeconduct to the bearer. And thus we desire to be ob|seruat to this our allanerlie sonne, and the gratious God conserue thee maist noble prince.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 After that king Henrie had caused these letters to be opened and read, he aduised himselfe thereon with great deliberation; but in the end, he determi|ned to staie this Iames prince of Scotland as his lawfull prisoner, for that he was thus taken in time Iames the prince of Scotland staied as pri|soner in Eng|land. His bring|ging vp. of warres, and that moreouer, there were diuers reliels of England succored within the bounds of his fathers dominion, to the high displeasure of the said king Henrie. But such was the fauour shewed in his bringing vp, that his captiultie turned more to his honor, profit, and commoditie, than anie other worldlie hap that might by anie means haue other|wise An happie captiuitie. His instruc|tors in the toongs. chanced vnto him. He had such perfect instruc|tors to teach him, aswell the vnderstanding of toongs as the sciences, that he became right expert and cun|ning in euerie of them. He was taught also to ride, to run at the tilt, and handle all kind of weapons His training in warlike ex|ercises. conuenientlie to be vsed of such a personage, where|vnto he was so apt and readie, that few in anie point of actiuitie might ouermatch him. He had good His know|ledge in mu|sike. knowledge in musike, and could plaie on sundrie instruments right perfectlie. To be briefe, it ap|peered in all his behauiour and maners, in what companie so euer he came, that his bringing vp had béene according to his nature, neither of them diffe|ring from his birth, and the qualitie of a noble and most vertuous prince.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 After it was signified vnto his father king Ro|bert, as he sat at supper, that his sonne was thus ar|rested The griefe of his father K. Robert. in England, he made full great and dolorous mone, fore lamenting that euer he matched himselfe in mariage with a woman of so meane degrée (to the disparagement of his bloud) as was quéene An|nabell, on whome he begat his sonnes, which (as he tooke it) was the onelie cause why aswell forraine princes as his owne subiects had him thus in con|tempt. He tooke this matter so sore to hart, that with|in The death of king Robert the third. thrée daies after the newes came vnto him, he de|parted this world through force of sicknesse, new increased by melancholie, which had vexed him a long time before. He died at Rothsaie in the sixtéenth yeere of his reigne complet, and from the in [...]arnation 1406, Buch. 1408. His buriell. 1408. His bodie was buried at Pa [...]eie, with his wife queene Annabell before rehearsed. He was a man of a mightie stature, verie liberall and gentle, His stature and qualities. so that if he had not béene maimed with a horsse, and thereby grew lame, that he might trauell about the affaires of the realme himselfe, it was thought the common-wealth should haue prospered vnder his gouernement, as much as euer it did vnder anie of his predecessors.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The gouernor Robert duke of Albanie, after the The duke of Albanie con|firmed gouer|nor of the realme. deceasse of his brother king Robert, was by new e|lection chosen, or rather confirmed in his office of gouernor, which he exercised more vprightlie, & with better iustice now after his brothers death, than be|fore. [For (as saith Buchanan) take away from him, Fr. Thin. that he was ouermuch blinded with desire to go|uerne (where vnto he cared not by anie means to as|pire) there were in him manie other good parts woor|thie to haue such gouernement: for he was valiant in battell, wise in counsell, he did decide matters of controuersie with great equitie, he wan the nobili|tie with his liberalitie, and did not sucke the com|mons drie by eractions.] In the meane time, the ca|stell Iedworth ca|stell taken. of Iedworth (which the Englishmen had held e|uer since the battell of Durham) was taken by Ti|uidalemen, and raced downe to the earth. Archem|bald earle of Dowglasse, as yet remaining captiue The earle of Dowglasse is released and returneth in|to Scotland. in England, after he had knowledge of king Ro|berts death, made shift to agrée for his ransome, and so being set at libertie, returned with all spéed now at length into Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Shortlie after, there was a councell called, where|in was a motion made for the restoring of George A motion made for the restoring of the earle of March to his countrie. earle of March to his countrie, lands, and bloud. Af|ter long debating of the matter, and hard hold to and fro both with him and against him, it was in the end concluded, that he should returne into Scotland, and be receiued as a true Scotishman; but vnder this condition, that he should forgo his lands of An|nerdale, The earle of March resto|red home. and Lochmaben, which should for euer re|maine to the Dowglasse, and to his heires. All his other lands and possessions, it was accorded, that he should inioy as in his former right & estate. And thus was the earle of March pardoned of all passed offen|ses committed against the crowne of Scotland, and returned home, to the great comfort of his friends.

Fr. Thin. Persie that before was fled into Scotland to the erle of March his old friend, was courteouslie recei|ued, interteined, & nourished according to his estate, Buchanan. 1409. by the said earle of March: during which time, he sol|licited his friends in England to find means for re|turne into his countrie. And amongst other of his friends, with whom he dealt by secret messengers; he directed letters concerning the same, to an old (and as he déemed a most faithfull) friend of his, cal|led Rafe Roksbie, declaring vnto him that he should not want friends, both Scotish & English (through whose helpe he did not despaire to recouer his patri|monie) if he might haue his aid also therein, for this Rafe was shiriffe of Yorkshire. This man, after he had intised Persie (vnder the assurance of false hope and trust in him) to come into England, he opened the conspiracie to the king, and secretlie laid wait to intercept the said earle, by which meanes, (getting him into his possession) he cut off his head, and sent it to the king to London. At which time also, there was an Englishman in Scotland, which called himselfe Richard the second: but falslie (as I suppose EEBO page image 256 suppose, saith Buchanan; for when the elder Persie did often and importunatlie require to talke with him, he could neuer be persuaded by anie mens words to come, or enter speech to, or with the said earle of Northumberland, fearing (belike) least his deceipt would be vnderstood by him, which knew his owne and true king verie well. This counterfeit king yet boasting him to be of the princelie bloud, was honoured accordinglie; after certeine yeares, and at length (feining himselfe to be far from all desire of gouernement, to the end he might woorke his effect the more safelie) he died and was buried in the church of the frier Dominicks in Sterling, with a title of the king of England grauen vpon him.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 About the same time, by the rebellion of Donald of the Iles, who claiming by right of his wife, a title to the earldome of Rosse, was defeated of the same, by the practise of the gouernor, hauing by subtill conueiance, assured the said earldome vnto his second son the earle of Buchquhane named Iohn. The foresaid Donald, by way of supplication, besought the gouernor to doo him reason; but he receiued nought, except it were froward speech, wherewith he tooke such displeasure, that raising all the power of the Iles he came into Rosse, and subdued the same at his pleasure. The which to make the matter more plaine, and to deduce his title out of Lesleus (which he forgetteth not to report for the honor of his owne house) I will set the same downe in this maner. Walter Lesle a noble man, after singular prowesse shewed by him (in externall battell) vnder the Romans, returned with honor into Scotland, where he maried the daughter of William earle of Rosse, (slaine at the battell of Halidon) and with hir obteined the earldome of that prouince, of which wife he raised one son called Alexander, after earle of Rosse; and one daughter giuen in mariage to Donald of the Iles. This Alexander ioined himselfe in mariage with Eufemie the daughter of Robert the gouernor, and had by hir one onelie daughter and heire christened after the name of hir mother, who (after the death of hir father, being yet a tender maid and vnpractised in the course of things) was partlie by the flatteries, and partlie by the threats of the gouernor, induced to giue the earldome of Rosse vnto him, by whose helpe, as it was reported, she shortlie after died. Wherevpon, Donald that had to wife the sister of Alexander Lesle (aunt to this Eufemie which sold hir inheritance (as is said) by his wife, entered Rosse, and brought it to his subiection.) But not being satisfied with this, he passed through Murrey, Boghtuall, and other bounds thereabouts, till he came vnto Garioch, purposing to burne Aberden.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 But Alexander Steward earle of Mar, hauing gathered a power with all diligence to resist this Donald, met with him at a village called Harlow, & incontinentlie not staieng for more aid that was comming towards him, set on the enimies more rashlie than orderlie, and more fiercelie than discreetlie, not passing for keeping anie accustomed arrais of battell, as had beene requisit. By reason whereof, great slaughter was made on either part, the victorie in the end being so doubtfull, that both parts were faine to withdraw out of the field, and flee to the next mounteins, as glad as to be seuered the one from the other. There was slaine on Donalds part nine hundred men, with Makelane, and Makinthos. On the earle of Marres side, there died Alexander Ogiluie shiriffe of Angus, with seuen knights of name, and diuers other gentlemen, with commons, to the number of six hundred. This battell was striken on saint James euen, in the yeare 1411. Donald of the Iles, after this bickering wholie granted the victorie to his enimies, in fleeing all the night long after the battell towards Rosse, and from thence with like speed he passed ouer into the Iles.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 In the yeere next following, the gouernor prepared to make a iournie into the Iles, to chastise the foresaid Donald; but he through feare of further damage, submitted himselfe, and was sworne neuer to procure anie trouble to the realme in time to come. Not long after the battell of Harlow, Patrike Dunbar, second sonne to the earle of March, with one hundred of hardie persons, came earlie one morning somewhat before the breake of day to Fast castell, and wan the same, taking the capteine prisoner, whose name was Thomas Holdon. At the same time was the bridge of Roxburgh broken downe, and the towne burnt by William Dowglasse of Dumlanerik, Gawan Dunbar another of the erle of Marches sonnes, and diuerse others. In the same yeere (or rather in the yeere before) the vniuersitie of saint Andrews was first founded, which afterwards was furnished with diuers notable learned men brought in and placed there by Iames the first, to the end that by their instructions his people might increase in learning, to the further aduancement of vertue, laudable maners, and all sorts of ciuill customes. Amongest sundrie other expert men in all sciences which he brought into Scotland, there were 18 doctors of diuinitie, & 8 doctors of the canon law.

From this time by the space of ten yeeres (saith Buchanan) there was almost nothing doone woorthie of memorie, betweene the Scots and the English, either bicause the truce occasioned it (which yet I find not mentioned of anie man) either for that Henrie the fourth, king of England, being dead, and his sonne Henrie the fift reigning in his place, and being all the time of his gouernement busied in the warres of France, the English ceassed to offer iniuries to the Scots: or for that the gouernor of the Scots durst not mooue anie thing against the English, fearing least the K. of England would then returne home the right and true heire of Scotland, who (he was most assured should find fauour against him) in the hearts of his owne people, that would tenderlie pitie the misfortune of his imprisonment, and seeke to establish him in the kingdome. Wherefore if there were anie thing doone in that meane time, they were but some few and small excursions within the realme, which more aptlie might be called robberies & spoiles, than anie right wars. For as Pennure in England was burned by Archembald Dowglas, so (to answer the same) Dunfreis in Scotland was in the like order destroied by the English. Besides which there was a certeine exchange of prisoners of the one nation with the other: for Mordac the sonne of the gouernor (taken at Halidon) was returned into Scotland, and Persie (who was brought out of England by his grandfather into Scotland, and left vnder the protection of the gouernor) was deliuered to the English, and after by the new king of England was restored to the title & lands of his ancestors earles of Northumberland.

This man (though by the lawes of armes he was no captiue) yet the uniust deteining of Iames the sonne of the king of Scots stopped the mouths of the English, that they could not complaine of anie iniurie doone in deteining him. The dooing whereof so litle offended this Persie, that while he liued, he did (with all kind of courtesie) giue witnes of the humanitie shewed vnto him by the Scots. Not much different from this time, came two ambassadors into Scotland, the one from the councell of Constance (wherof the EEBO page image 258 the chiefe was the abbat of Pontineac) and the other was from Peter de Luna, who did stiflie reteine and defend the papasie, whereof he had once gotten pos|session, which Peter by the trauell and persuasion of Henrie Hardine (an English man, and a Francis|cane frier) had drawne the gouernor of Scotland to follow his faction, which yet succéeded to none effect: bicause the vniuersall companie of the cleargie stiffelie labored against it, and did subscribe to the de|position of Peter, and to the councell of Constance for the election of Martine the fift to the papasie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Much what about the same time, Iohn Drum|mond slue Patrike Graham earle of Stratherne, The earle of Stratherne slaine. by traitorous meanes, and therevpon fled into Ire|land: but as he was about to haue passed from thence ouer into England, the vessell wherein he sai|led, was driuen on the coast of Scotland, where hée was taken, and afterwards lost his head for the said offense. Shortlie after also, there rose great warres betwixt England and France, as in the hi|stories Warres be|twixt Eng|land and France. Rebellion in Wales. of those realmes may more plainlie appeare. There was also a great rebellion raised in Wales, against Henrie the fift king of England, which was the son of Henrie the fourth latelie deceassed. ¶ We find in the Scotish chronicles, that this Henrie the fift, at his returning foorth of France, after his first iournie thither (hauing in the same woone the towne of Harfléet, & discomfited the whole power of France at Agincourt) was constreined to go against the Welshmen, and incountering with the prince of Wales, was discomfited, and lost ten thousand of Henrie the fift discomfited by the Welshmen He subdueth them. his men: but after this, he reinforced his power, and came againe into Wales, not ceassing till he had brought the Welshmen subiect at his pleasure: but the English writers make no mention of anie such matter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Whilest things passed thus in England, William Haliburton wan the castell of Warke, and slue all such as he found within it, howbeit small while indu|red The castell of Warke woone. the ioy of this fortunate successe to the Scots: for sundrie Englishmen that knew all the secrets of the house, found means to enter through a gutter, that serued in maner of a sinke, to auoid all the filth of the kitchen into the riuer of Twéed, breaking downe a pane of an old wall, and so made entrie for the residue of their fellowes; by reason whereof they easilie recouered the castell, and in reuenge of them It is againe recouered. that were slaine there when the Scots wan it, they likewise slue all those which were then within it, without anie respect of one or other. After this, in the yéere 1419, the third day of September, Robert 1419. duke of Albanie, that had béene gouernor of Scot|land for the space of fiftéene yéeres, after the death of king Robert the third, departed out of this life, ha|uing The deceasse of Robert duke of Al|banie. Fr. Thin. borne himselfe in all his time as a right vali|ant and noble prince. [This dooth Buchanan attri|bute to the yéere 1420, being the fiftéenth yeere after the death of Robert the third.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 A little before his deceasse, there came from Charles the French king, the earle of Uandosme, Ambassadors from the French king. and chancellor of France, both to renew the ancient league betwixt the two realmes of Scotland and France, & also to get some power of Scots to passe into France, to support the said Charles against the Englishmen, which as then sore inuaded his realme. Wherevpon shortlie after by decrée of councell, it An armie of Scots sent into France. was ordeined, that Iohn Steward earle of Buch|quhane, second sonne to duke Robert, and Archem|bald Dowglas earle of Wigton, should passe into France with seuen thousand armed men. The king of England informed hereof, to cause the Scots to kéepe their men at home, menaced to inuade Scot|land The king of England me|naceth the Scots. with a puissant armie, & that in all hast. Which rumor being spred ouer all the bounds of his realme, caused the Scots for doubt thereof to lie all the next summer on the borders: but in the meane time, king Henrie passed into Normandie, to pursue his wars against France with all diligence.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 At length, through the procurement of the duke of Burgognie, vnder certeine conditions and coue|nants The king of England marieth the daughter of ye French king. The articles of agreement. of agréement, king Henrie tooke to wife the ladie Katharine daughter to the French king. And among other articles of the same agréement, it was concluded, that after the deceasse of Charles the French king, the crowne of France should imme|diatlie descend vnto king Henrie, as lawfull inhe|ritor vnto that realme, without all contradiction, by reason whereof, Charles the Dolphin, and sonne to the said king Charles, was clearelie excluded from all claime to the same: but this notwithstanding, the Dolphin did not onelie refuse to surrender his title, but also sought to mainteine the war against king The Dolphin of France mainteineth warre against the English|men. Scotish sol|diers arriued in France. Henrie as his aduersarie, and open enimie to the realme. In the meane while also, the earles of Buch|quhane and Wigton, with Alexander Lindseie bro|ther to the earle of Crawford, and Thomas Swin|ton knights, accompanied with seuen thousand well armed men, arriued in France, to the great reioi|sing of the Dolphin, as he well declared in the thank|full receiuing, and most heartie welcomming of them. Finallie, the towne and castell of Chatelon Chatelon in Touraine de|liuered to the Scotishmen. in Touraine was deliuered to them, that they might haue a place at all times to resort vnto, at their owne will and pleasure.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Fr. Thin. Buchan. li. 10. 14 [...]0. Buc. Shortlie after they were imploied in the bat|tell of Bauge. For the duke of Clarence brother to the king of England (in whose place he was deputie and generall of the armies in France) after that he 14 [...]1. N. G. had spoiled and ouerrun the countrie of Aniou (which hitherto had remained most stedfast in the obedience of the French) was comming (as it was supposed) to the towne of Bauge, about two daies before The battell of Bauge. Easter: for which cause the Scots (thinking that the duke in that holie feast would, as the maner was, cease from all violence of warre, and attend the church ceremonies appointed for those times; or else as some write, by reason of the truce which was ta|ken for eight daies) did more negligentlie looke vn|to their estate than wisdome would they shuld haue doone. The which when Clarence vnderstood (either by Andrew Fregose an Italian, or by the Scotish forragers intercepted by his horssemen) he reioised that he had so good occasion offered woorthilie to per|forme something. Wherefore rising foorthwith from dinner, he commanded his horssemen to arme them|selues, with whome he went directlie towards his enimies, at what time he was (besides the beautie of his other furniture) richlie adorned with goodlie dia|dems of gold (set with manie pretious stones) and Nic. Gil. placed vpon a chaplet of iron. At whose sudden ap|proch, those few French which were néere vnto them in a village called little Bauge (amongst whom was Iohn de la Croix) being feared, made their de|fense in flight; and for safegard entered the stéeple of the next church adioining, in the which they were hardlie after besieged.

Whilest these were thus inuironed, the clamor and cries which was now come to the next armie (where|in the Scots were assembled) suddenlie caused them with great feare to flée to their weapons. At that time the erle of Buchquhane (whilest the others pre|pared themselues) sent thirtie archers to possesse the bridge, vnder which the next riuer had his course, and through which they might passe ouer, where (incoun|tering with the English enimie) Hugh Kennedie came vnto them out of the next church (in which he so|iorned) with a hundred of his companie halfe armed, as it often falleth out in such sudden exploits. These EEBO page image 259 with their arrowes so streictlie kept this streict, that the horssemen could not haue anie passage there, for which cause the duke of Clarence did first forsake horsse (as the rest of the companie did after him) be|gan the battell on foot, and with a strong assault made way for his men, beating from them the Scots, who were for the most part vnarmed, and the others not verie well armed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this, in the meane time whilest Clarence ta|keth his horsse againe, and some of the rest scatte|ringlie doo passe the bridge, the earle of Buchquhane commeth vpon them, & foorthwith (desirous to make triall of his people egerlie séeking after it) there was a bitter battell committed, with like minds of hatred the one against the other: for the Scots did reioise, that they had now obteined cause, time, and place, where they might (after their first arriuall in France) shew some token of their valure, and refute those tawnts which the Frenchmen laid vpon them, obiecting that the gréedinesse of wine & vittels had brought them ouer into that countrie. With which re|proch the Frenchmen are woont to vpbraid the Eng|lish, the Spaniard the French, and the Affrican the Spaniard. But as the Scots were eger in a strange countrie to win honor, so was the English no lesse desirous of conquest, greatlie disdeining both at home and abroad, to be so infested with that implaca|ble nature of the Scots. In which battell none did fight more valiantlie or egerlie than did the duke of Clarence himselfe. Against whome (so noted for the richnesse of his armor) came Iohn Swinton, which greeuouslie wounded him in the face, and whome the earle of Buchquhane (striking on the head with his mace) quite ouerthrew to the ground. Which doone, the English fled, and were greeuouslie slaine, because the same continued till the night ended the quarrell; which battell was fought on Easter eue, a little after the equinoctiall spring. In this battell were slaine of the English about 20000, amongst whome were 26 of noble calling, whereof were the duke before said, Hector Boet. the earle of Riddesdale, otherwise called the earle of Angus, & the lord Greie were part: but of the Scots and Frenchmen, there were few missing, and they of the meaner sort. All which, as we haue héere set it downe, is the common report of the death of the duke of Clarence. But the booke of Pluscart reporteth, that Buchan. lib. 10. the duke was slaine by Alexander Macelsell, a knight of Lenox, which tooke from him the coronet (whereof we spake before) and sold the same to Iohn Steward of Dernill, for a thousand angels, which he after laied to pawne to Robert Hustone, to whom he owght fiue thousand angels; & this saith that booke was the most common report at those daies. The chiefe praise of which victorie remained with the Scots, euen by the testimonie of the enuious aduer|saries, as the writer of this storie saith vpon his cre|dit.) At this battell also were a great companie of pri|soners Prisoners ta|ken. taken, amongest whome (as principall) were these, the earle of Huntington, & the earle of Sum|merset, with his brother, both of them being brethren to the ladie Iane, that was after maried to king Iames the first, king of Scotland. For the high vali|ancie of the Scotishmen shewed in this battell, the Dolphin created the earle of Buchquhane high con|stable The earle of Buchquhane is created con|stable of France. . of France, and gaue him sundrie townes, ca|stels, and lands, therewith the better to mainteine his estate.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 * King Henrie hearing of the death of his bro|ther the duke of Clarence, did substitute for his depu|tie his other brother the duke of Bedford, promising that he would shortlie after come thither himselfe with an armie of foure thousand horsse, and a thou|sand footmen (which he performed accordinglie.) For with all spéed he after came into France with a mightie host, and had with him Iames the Scotish The king of England te|keth the prince of Scotland ouer with him into France. king, or rather prince of Scotland, for all this while the Scots reputed him not as king, for that he was not as yet crowned: nor set at libertie out of the Englishmens hands, into the which (as before ye haue heard) he chanced to fall by his fathers life time.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The cause why king Henrie did take this Iames ouer with him at that present into France, was, for that he hoped by his meanes to procure all the Sco|tishmen that were in seruice with the Dolphin to for|sake him, and to returne home into their owne coun|trie: but when he had broken this matter vnto the said Iames, and promised, that if he could bring it to passe, he would not onelie remit his ransome, but al|so send him into Scotland highlie rewarded with great riches: Iames answered héerevnto, that he The answer of Iames the king, or rather prince of Scotland. maruelled much, why he did not consider how he had no authoritie ouer the Scots so long as he was hol|den in captiuitie, and as yet had not receiued the crowne,

but (saith he) if it were so that I might be set at libertie, and had receiued the crowne according to the accustomed manner, togither with the othes and homages of my subiects, I could then in this matter doo as should be thought to stand with reason; but in the meane time I shall desire your grace to hold me excused, and not to will me to doo that which I may in no wise performe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 King Henrie maruelling at the high wisedome King Henrie tooke it for a sufficient an|swer. which appeered to be planted in the head of that yoong prince, left off to trauell with him anie further in this matter. In the meane time, the warres continuing betwixt the king of England and the Dolphin of France, manie townes were beséeged, woone, and sacked, and sundrie light bickerings and skirmishes chanced betwixt the parties, as occasion serued. But the Englishmen shewed themselues to beare such The cruell dealing of the Englishmen towards the Scots. hatred toward the Scots, that so manie as fell into their hands neuer néeded to streine their friends for their ransomes, which crueltie they put not in prac|tise against their enimies, being of an other nation. [For King Henrie, when he had taken the towne of Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 10. Meldens, hanged twentie Scots which he found therein, laieng to their charge that they had fought against their owne king.] At length, king Henrie The death of Henrie king of England. fell into a gréeuons disease, which in short time made an end of his life, notwithstanding all the helpe that either by physicke or other waies might be ministred vnto him. The same yeere, that is to say, 1422, the French king Charles, the sixt of that name, deceas|sed; 1422. The death of Charles the French king. after whome succeeded his sonne Charles the se|uenth, before named the Dolphin, as the custome there is. By the death of these kings, the wars were not altogither so earnestlie followed as before, wher|vpon the earles of Buchquhane and Wigton re|turned into Scotland, and shortlie after was an ar|mie leuied, and siege laied both to Rocksburgh, and Rocksburgh and Berwike besieged. to Berwike, but for that they lay long abroad and did no good, returning home without gaine, this iournie in derision was called The durtie rode, or (as the Scots terme it) The dirtin raid. The dirtin raid.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But now to speake somewhat concerning the or|der of the common-wealth in Scotland, ye shall vn|derstand, that after the death of Robert duke of Al|banie, his sonne Mordo Steward earle of Fife and Mordo Ste|ward earle of Fife elected gouernour of Scotland. The repug|nant vices reigning in Mordo Ste|ward. Menteith was made gouernour, continuing in that office for the space of foure yéeres, though (to confesse the truth) he was farre vnméet thereto, differing much from the wisedome and manhood of his father, for in him remained sundrie vices, greatlie variable and contrarie one to another. In time of anie aduer|sitie, he shewed himselfe as a man despairing of all comfort or helpe: in prosperitie so lift vp in carelesse insolencie, that he had no staie of himselfe, by reason EEBO page image 260 whereof, sometimes he suffered heinous offendors through dread of their puissant friends (a thing not to be suffered in Scotland) to escape vnpunished; and at other times againe, he shewed himselfe more seuere & cruell in executing of iustice, than the mat|ter required.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus was he still in extremities, kéeping no tem|perance nor laudable meane in anie of his dooings. Héereto was he so negligent in chastising his sons Walter, Iames, & Alexander (whether through soft|nesse His negli|gence in cha|stising his sonnes. & lacke of wit, or by reason he bare such a fond & tender fatherlie loue toward them) that they hauing him in small regard, plaied manie outragious parts, to the sore offending of a number. At length, one of them taking displeasure with his father, for that he would not giue him a falcon, the which he had long before greatlie desired, stepped to him, and plucking hir beside his fist, wroong hir necke from hir bodie e|uen presentlie before his face. Wherevpon the father An insolent part of one of his sonnes. somewhat kindeled with this presumptuous déed of the sonne: Walter (said he, for so was his name that The woords of duke Mor|do to his son. had thus misused him) sith it is so that thou and thy brother will not be ruled by my soft and gentle go|uernement, I shall bring him home yer it be long, that shall chastise both you and me after an other manner. And after this, he rested not to trauell still for the redéeming of Iames the first out of captiuitie, Duke Mordo trauelleth for the redéeming of Iames the first. till at length he brought him home in déed, to the great wealth, ioy, and good hap of all the Scotish na|tion.* For calling togither a parlement (of the nobi|litie) at Perth, they consulted of receiuing home their Iames imprisoned in England, and at length willinglie agréed (either for fauour they bare to the lawfull heire, or being wearied with the lothsomnes of the present gouernement) to send an ambassage to the king of England, to demand the restitution of king Iames. Wherevpon they dispatched into Eng|land (to execute their deuise) Henrie Lichton bishop of Aberden, Archembald Dowglasse (the third earle of that name, and fift of that familie) the sonne of Archembald Dowglasse, duke of Touraine, Willi|am Lesleus lib. 7. pag. 272. Heie constable of Scotland, Richard Coruall archdeacon of Londane, and Alexander Iarraine a Drum, knight.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the meane time, the French king, Charles the seuenth, being sore vexed with wars by the Eng|lishmen, sent to the earle of Buchquhane his consta|ble, requiring him to returne againe with all speed in|to France, and to bring so manie Scotishmen with him, as he conuenientlie might. This earle therefore The earle of Buchquhane, returneth into France. found meanes to persuade Archembald earle of Dowglas, father to the foresaid earle of Wigton, to passe with him into France, which two earles with an armie of fiue thousand men, or (after some wri|ters) ten thousand, tooke the seas, and arriued with prosperous wind and weather at Rochell, and com|ming to the French king, were receiued of him with all ioy and gladnes. Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 7. pag. 270. With this companie also was sent ambassador, Gilbert Grenlaw bishop of Aber|den, a man of great authoritie amongest the nobili|tie of Scotland, for his singular wisedome, and such a person as with great dexteritie executed the office of the chancellorship of the realme. The effect of whose message was, to comfort Charles the seuenth, then king of France, and to asserteine him, that not one|lie they which were now allanded in France, but also all the inhabitants of Scotland would remaine so firme in his faith & friendship, that they would spend both liues and goods in the defense of the crowne of France, as the following experience should well trie. Wherevpon the earle of Dowglasse was by the king for his further aduancement, honored with the The earle of Dowglasse made duke of Touraine. title of the dukedome of Touraine. But that glorie of the Scots was soone diminished (as saith Lesleus) by the infortunat successe which they had through the Lesleus lib. 7. pag. 270. 1424. N. Gi. English at the battell of Uernoile. In which (besides all the hired or common souldiers which were also most slaine at that time) there perished of the nobili|tie, the two brethren of the gouernour, the earle of Buchquhane constable of France, Archembald Dowglas duke of Touraine, with Iames his sonne and heire, Alexander Lindseie, Thomas Swinton, Robert Steward, and manie other, as in the French and English histories more largelie may appéere.

And héere a little to step out of the way, because A digression against Bu|chanan. in this place Buchanan girdeth at the English (as he dooth in all the parts of his booke, with most bitter tawnts) I will a little shew that he hath forgotten himselfe in the same: as well against vs generallie (as appéereth in manie places) as against Grafton, Humfrie Lhoid, and Hall, especiallie in manie other places thereof. And therefore (readers) giue me leaue in milder sort to speake of him (being dead) than he dooth of others. For although (against all humanitie) he doo most bitterlie with woords of heat inflame his pen against Humfrie Lhoid, departed the world ma|nie yeeres (as it appéereth) before he tooke the later penne in hand (after the ouerseeing of his old frag|ments) as himselfe in his epistle confesseth, to write an historie: yet I will spare him in better sort. And therefore I much muse, that he a man so learned and graue, would now in his later age, when reason should most rule him, so dip his pen in gall, as forget|ting himselfe, he should be of these rough conditions (contrarie to all learning, which Emollit mores, nec sinit esse feros) he would call men impudent, immodest, vn|learned, liers, vnbrideled, malicious, backbiters, e|uill toonged; and that he can rather prooue the Bri|tains to be made of dogs and brute beasts, better than to be descended of Brutus. All which speeches are to be found in his booke: for (if there were a fault in Lhoid) as there was none, because it séemes he did not well conceiue his mind: could not he either re|prehend error, or disprooue men, but with such bitter tawnts, when they but onelie shew their opinion, dis|senting in orderlie sort from others, as it is lawfull for all learned men to doo? Where learned he that rhetorike, to reiect the opinion of men with dogs elo|quence, and sooner to deduce that creature (formed to the image of God, and lord of all beasts) to be rather made of dogs than of men, and for one or two priuat persons to inueie against a whole state?

But Humfrie Lhoid imputeth a note of infamie to his nation (as he supposed) in disproouing Hector Boetius, who arrogantlie (beside all truth) hath trans|ferred to his Scots, both places, persons, and déeds, which neuer belonged to them. And is this so great a fault in Lhoid, when himselfe and Lesleus bishop of Rosse (secretlie misliking Boetius) haue in silence passed ouer a great manie imperfections in the hi|storie of Boetius, and placed manie other things after an other sort, referring them to other times than Bo|etius dooth? And why should he maligne Lhoid for re|prehending him, whome himselfe condemneth, & of whome he saith that In descriptione Scotiae quaedam parùm verè prodidit, & alios in errorem induxit, and whome for manie faults (by Boetius escaped) he further saith in the later end of his second booke, that he will not de|fend him in such errors, as no reason there is why he should? But if from the abundance of the hart the toong and hand doo speake and write, I can not see but that by his distemperat spéeches, I must condemne him of secret grudge, not so much to the person of Lhoid, as to the whole nation, against which the chie|fest part of his booke séemeth to be a stomaching in|uectiue. And yet such as it is, they must of necessitie follow that intreat of the historie of his nation, or else he will exclame against them (as he dooth in this EEBO page image 261 place of the battell of Uernoile) that they maliciou|slie obscure the glorie of the Scots, following the au|thoritie of the aduersarie, and not the truth of the hi|storie written by him, or the French nation.

And in this place of his booke, rather than he will want occasion to [...]awnt and disgrace vs by his cho|lerike pen, he will séeke a knot in a rush, and make a mounteine of a molehill, in so vehement inuaieng a|gainst the English, that say that the Scots were not able to mainteine such titles of honor as were giuen them by the French: a simple matter to make such discourse vpon, and to step so much awrie out of the course of the storie. But thinke yeu Buchanan hath committed no such (nay gréater) faults against vs? Yes trulie, and that I suppose will be well prooued at an other time, in an other treatise vpon his booke now iustlie forbidden in England, and (as I heare) more iustlie in Scotland. And heere remember I praie thée gentle reader, that in one place of his booke he saith that he ment to haue obserued this cou [...]e from the beginning, that he would not séeke to di|gresse by bypaths out of the course of the historie. And hath he so soone forgotten that in the first fore|head of his booke, almost thrée leaues togither, & al|so in manie other parts of the same (as well as in this place of the battell of Uernoile) he hath lept manie miles out of the way, with bitter woords to tawnt Humfrie Lhoid, Grafton, Hall, & all the Eng|lish histories, and by manie whole pages (in manie parts of his woorke) with much spence of powder and shot, to batter the credit of the English writers. These trulie were not parts of such a person, as the place (which he had about the prince whilest he liued) required. But inough of this by me (who am not Honorarius arbiter, and will be no seuere cerisurer of o|ther mens writings at this time (wherevnto I was occasioned by Buchanans digression in this place) since the same will be more substantiallie touched by others in other woorks (wherevnto I reset my selfe) and so returne to the order of the historie.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 The Scotish chronicles declare, that the losse of this field chanced speciallie through enuie and discord, Enuie and discord. which reigned amongest the chiefteins. For the duke of Alanson enuieng that the Scots should dailie rise in honor within France, kept himselfe backe, till time the Scots were ouerthrowen and brought to vtter destruction. Againe, euen vpon the ioining, there rose great strife and contention betwixt the constable & the duke of Touraine, who should haue the supreme rule of the Scotish legher, the one disdai|ning to giue place to the other. Thus ye may per|ceiue, how the Scots with losse of manie of their liues, and much bloudshed, supported the side of Char|les king of France, against the Englishmen. And though there came dailie newes of diuerse great o|uerthrowes giuen by the Englishmen to such Sco|tishmen and other, as serued the said king Charles, yet did not the Scots therefore staie at home, but at sundrie times, and vnder sundrie capteins repaired into France: as amongest other, one Robert Pa|tillocke of Dundée with a new power of Scots went Robert Pa| [...]ke cap|taine of a pow|er of Scotish|men sent into France. ouer to king Charles the seuenth aforesaid, shewing such proofe of his singular manhood and valiancie in those wars, as in recouerie of the realme of France out of the Englishmens hands, his seruice stood king Charles in notable steed. Chieflie his diligence and prowesse well appéered, in reducing the parties of Gascoigne vnto the French subiection, which had re|mained a great number of yéeres vnder the domini|on of the English kings. And heere vpon was he cal|led by the inhabitants euer after, Le petit roy de Gas|coigne. Robert Pa| [...]ocke called Le petit roy de Gascoigne. Fr. Thin.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Lesleus. lib. 7. pag. 271. But to returne to the businesse of Scotland and of the Scots, as they passed in the meane time. We say, that the French reioising of this conquest of Gascoigne, would not séeme to be vnthankfull to the Scots therefore: for which cause they erected a sta|tue or image of this Patillocke, in the hall of the king of France, as a perpetuall memorie of this conquest, and as a singular testimonie of their good will towards the Scots, which they placed there to remaine a monument to all posteritie. Beside which, he confirmed and increased the number of the gard of Scotish archers (which they were woont to vse in peace and warre) first instituted by Charles the king of France, ouer all which he made this Patillocke chiefe capteine, which office the Scots did then and since so well discharge, that the same continueth yet in our memorie. Besides which (a little before this) Lesleus lib. 7. pag. 271. Charles the sixt appointed an other companie of Sco|tish horssemen to be in wages with him, being commonlie called the trope of the Scotishmen at ar|mes. Of whome the chiefe gouernour was Robert Steward (borne of the familie of the earle of Len|nox) who was honored by the king with the title of the lord de Aubignie, with other lands and great pos|sessions bestowed vpon him. All which (being of long time possessed of the Scots of the same surname, by continuall order of bloud & descent, that is, by Ber|nard the famous capteine of warre, then by Robert, and to conclude, by Iohn Steward, brother of the earle of Lennox) is at this day also in possession of the woorthie yoong gentleman (the sonne of the said Iohn) who giueth foorth a rare hope that he will not degenerat from the nobilitie of his ancestors. The ambassadors sent (as Pag. 260. col. 1. numb. 30, 40. before is shewed) into Eng|land for K. Iames, behaued themselues so sagelie therein, that in the end, they brought it to good con|clusion: as thus. First it was agréed, that king Iames should be set at libertie, and also pay for his ransome the sum of 100000 marks sterling, the one The ransome of K. Iames. halfe to be paid in hand, and for the other halfe to leaue sufficient pledges behind him, till it were paied. Albeit some writers alledge, that leauing pledges for the paiment of the one halfe, he was dis|charged of the other, in consideration that he tooke to Iane daugh|ter to the earle of Summer|set maried to king Iames the first. wife the ladie Iane, daughter to the earle of Sum|merset. The said earle and the cardinall of England his brother, conueied him with his quéene their néece, vnto the borders of both the realmes. And at their taking leaue each of other, there was presen|ted vnto king Iames and to the quéene his wife, be|sides a cupbord of massie plate, sundrie faire cloths Gifts giuen to K. Iames by his wiues friends. of rich and costlie arras by his wiues friends, with manie other iewels and things of great price & va|lure.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 King Iames then departed on this wife from his wiues brethren, and other such his déere friends, as his vertue and princelie behauiour had procured King Iames commeth to Edenburgh. him during his abode here by the space of sixtéene or eightéene yeares in England, entered into Scot|land, and came to Edenburgh on Care sundaie, o|therwise called Passion sunday in Lent, where he was receiued with all honor, ioy, and triumph that might be deuised. Fr. Thin. Buchanan. lib. 10. At what time as the nobles came to giue him their dutifull welcome into his na|tiue soile and inheritance, there began to be manie complaints by them, who since the death of their last king (partlie by negligence, and partlie by the de|fault of the gouernors) had béene molested with di|uers kinds of iniuries; wherevpon, Walter the son of Mordac, Malcolme Fleming, and Thomas Boid being gréeuouslie accused, were (to pacifie the ex|clamation of the common people) committed to di|uers prisons till the next parlement, which was ap|pointed the sixt kalends of Iune following, where is more intreated of this matter, as after shall ap|peare, Buchanan hauing thus placed it before the EEBO page image 264 kings coronation.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 ANd after that, as soone as the solemnitie of the Iames. feast of Easter was finished, he came to Perth, and shortlie after to Scone, where he was crowned He is crow|ned at Scone togither with his wife. king, and his wife quéene, by duke Mordo the go|uernor, and Henrie bishop of saint Andrewes, the one and twentith day of Maie, after the incarnation 1423, Buch. 1424, Lesl. 1424. There came foorth of England with this Iames the first, diuerse English gentlemen, which remaining euer after in seruice with him, were ad|uanced to certeine lands, possessions, and liuings in Scotland. Amongest whome (as one of the chiefest) Andrew Graie. was Andrew Graie, who afterwards by the kings aid and good furtherance, got in mariage the daugh|ter and heire of Henrie Mortimer of Foulis, na|med Helen, and by that means came the lordship of Foulis vnto the hands of the Graies, whose sur|name The surname of the Graies in Scotland. and posteritie continueth yet in Scotland, in|uested with great lands and dignities, both in Gow|rie and Angus.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 King Iames after his coronation returned from Scone to Edenburgh, where he called before him King Iames kéepeth an au|dit. all those that bare anie authoritie in the administra|tion of the common-wealth, during the time of the gouernors duke Robert and duke Mordo, namelie the chancellor, the treasuror, the clearks of the re|gister, the controller, the auditors, and receiuers, with all other that had borne offices, or had anie thing to doo concerning the kings rents. At length, when he perceiued by their accounts made, that the most part of all the lands, rents, and reuenues per|teining vnto the crowne, were wasted, bestowed, alienated, and transported by the two foresaid go|uernors, vnto their friends and fautors, contrarie to all right or good consideration (the customs of bur|rowes and good townes onlie excepted) he was not well content herewith, though for the time he passed ouer his displeasure, in shewing outwardlie no sem|blance, but as if he had liked all things well.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the meane time, he aduisedlie perused all eui|dences, rols, and charters perteining to the crowne, A parlement at Eden|burgh. and shortlie therevpon called a parlement at Eden|burgh, in the which, by aduise of the thrée estates, a generall tax was ordeined and granted, to be rai|sed A tax leuied. through the whole realme; as twelue pence of the pound to be paied of all lands within Scotland, both spirituall and temporall; and foure pence for euerie cow, oxe, and horsse, to be paied for the space of two yeares togither. This paiment was leuied the first yeare without anie trouble, but the second yeare there rose such murmur and grudging amongst the poore commons about the paiment thereof, that he The com|mons grudge at paiments. remitted the residue that was behind, & tooke neuer anie tax after of his subiects, vntill he maried his daughter with the Dolphin of France. Amongst other bils put vp in this parlement, there was di|uerse Bils of com|plaint exhibi|ted against the sonnes of duke Morde. complaints exhibited by the people, for sundrie oppressions vsed and doone by the sons of duke Mor|do, and other great peeres of the realme, before the kings returne into Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wherevpon Walter Steward, one of the sons of the said duke Mordo, was arrested, and sent to Walter Ste|ward put in prison. a castell situated vpon a rocke within the sea called the Basse, there to remaine in safe kéeping. Also Malcolme Fleming of Cumernald, and Thomas Boid of Kilmarnoke, were committed to ward in Dalkeith, but these two at the intercession of diuerse noble men were pardoned and forgiuen of all offen|ses for an easie fine, with condition, that they should satisfie all such persons as they had in anie wise wronged. In the foresaid parlement also, K. Iames The oth of K. Iames. tooke a solemne oth, to defend as well the liberties of his realme, as of the church, during the course of his naturall life. The like oth by his example did all the residue of the barons take at the same present time. Not long after, an other parlement was cal|led A parlement holden at Perth. Duke Mor|do with his sonne Alexan|der, and di|uerse other péeres of the realme arre|sted. and holden at Perth, in the which duke Mordo, with his sonne Alexander, were arrested and com|mitted to ward. So was also Archembald earle of Dowglasse, with his brother William earle of An|gus, George earle of March, Adam Hepborne of Hales, and manie other great barons of Scotland, euerie of them being put in sundrie castels and strengths, to remaine there in safe kéeping. Duke Mordo was sent to Carlaurocke, and his duchesse was put in Temptalloun.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the yeare following, on the Holie rood daie, 1425. called the Inuention of the crosse, Iames Steward the third sonne of duke Mordo mooued with great ire, for that his father and brethren were holden in prison, came with a great power to the towne of Dunbreton, and burnt it, after he had slaine Iohn Steward of Dondonald, and two and thirtie other The towne of Dunbreton burnt. persons, which were found in the same towne: but the king kindled in great displeasure for this at|tempt, pursued this Iames so fiercelie, that he was faine to flée into Ireland, where he afterwards de|ceassed. [And Finelaw (which was sometime one Fr. Thin. Buchanan. lib. 10. of the order of the frier Dominicks) which fled with him into Ireland, & was author that the said Iames committed all these outrages, died there also. Be|sides which, there fled into Ireland the wife of Wal|ter, hir two sonnes, Andrew and Alexander, with Arthure the bastard: who (in the end) returning home, was after by Iames the third aduanced to great honors.] In the next yeare insuing, K. Iames called a parlement at Sterling, in the which he sit|ting A parlement holden at Sterling. wich scepter, sword, and crowne in place of iudgement, Walter Steward with his brother Alex|ander 1426. Walter and Alexander the sonnes of duke Morde beheeded. Duke Mordo and Duncan Steward earle of Len|nox beheaded. Fr. Thin. were condemned, and incontinentlie were lead foorth to a place before the castell, and there be|headed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 On the morrow after, duke Mordo himselfe, and Duncan Steward earle of Lennox were conuicted of high treason, and beheaded before the castell in semblable manner. [It is a constant fame (saith Buchanan) though I find it not written in any place, that the king sent the heads of the father, husband, & children, to Isabell the wife of his coosine germane, to trie whether she being a fierce woman, would (as it iustlie happened) by distemperance of griefe dis|couer the secrets of hir mind. But she (notwithstan|ding all which grieuous and vnlooked for spectacles) did not inordinatlie burst out into anie bitter words, but onlie said; If the faults be true which are laid a|gainst them, the king hath doone but right and iu|stice vnto them.) Thus by the attaindor of duke Mordo and his sonnes, the earldome of Fife, Men|teith, and Lennox came into the kings hands. The residue of the lords and barons remaining as then in prison, and abiding the kings pleasure, were sore afraid, when they heard what rigorous iustice had béene executed on duke Mordo and his sonnes: not|withstanding, within 12 moneths after they were all set at libertie, and receiued into the kings fauor, on promise of their loiall demeanor & dutifull obe|dience euer after to be shewed, during their naturall liues.

Fr. Thin. Buchanan. lib. 10. The parlement being ended, Iohn Mountgo|merie, & Humfreie Cunningham were sent by the king to the castell of Louchleuine, which was kept against him by the runagat Iames Steward, whom in short time they forced to surrender the said castell. Not long after, Iohn Steward of Dernleie (who was maister of the Scotish garrison of horssemen in France, the rest of the former capteins being consumed) came into Scotland with the bishop of Reims, as ambassador in the name of Charls, to re|new EEBO page image 263 the old league betwéene the two nations, and to conclude matrimonie betwéene Lewes the sonne of the said Charles the seue [...], and Margaret the daughter of K. Iames, both being yet verie yoong. Which thing [...]o dispatched, in the next yeare being the 1426) he determined (hauing pacified all Scot|land 1426. betwéene the mounteins of Granzeben) to sub|due the further parts beyond it also. Wherefore to begin the same, he commanded the castell of In|uernesse (set in a conue [...]nt place in the furthest borders of Murrey) to be repared. Whishe [...] when he came two yeares after, to sit in iudgement vp|on misdemeanors of the inhabitants, and to sup|presse 1428. their robberies, he casted before him th [...] [...]ese of all the families of that countrie, especiallie such as being accompanied with great traines, were woont to fetch preies from their next borders, did set tribute on the quieter fort, and did compell the com|mon people to minister sustenance to those idle loi|terers; of which capteins, some had a thousand, some two thousand & some far manie more redie at their call to obeie their commandement with which they ceassed not to kéepe the good in danger vnto them for feare of hurt, and made the euill (amongest whome they were assured of refuge [...] defense) the bolder to commit all kind of wickednesse. Which persons when the king had gotten in, and drawen to come before him, partlie by flatteries, and partlie by threats: he committed about fortie of their leaders to seuerall prisons: whose euill being throughlie knowen, he hanged two notable fellows amongst them, called Alexander Macror and Iohn Macare|ture; at what time also he beheded Iames Campbell (for the [...]ther of Iohn of the Iles) a man déerelie beloued of his people. The rest which remained (being of the common sort) they likewise disper|sed into diuers prisons, whereof some were after executed, and some were permitted freelie to de|part to their owne. The capteins of the factions thus slaine (or for the most part restreined in prison) the inferior sort durst not attempt anie thing, being destitute of leaders. Wherevpon the king calling them before him, did giue them a louing admonition to embrace iustice, because there was no surer or certeine hope of safetie in anie thing, than in the in|nocencie of life, the which if they would determine to doo, they should alwaies find him readie to honor and reward them; if not, they might learne by the examples of others what they should hope to receiue themselues.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the yeere next following, which was after the incarnation 1427, Alexander lord of the Iles was 1427. Alexander lord of the Iles arrested. arrested by the king at Inuernes, for that he was ac|cused to be a succorer & mainteiner of théeues & rob|bers in the countrie: but forsomuch as he promised in time comming to reforme his former misdemea|nors, he was pardoned and set at libertie; wherof in|sued He is set at libertie. great trouble immediatlie after. For shortlie vpõ his deliuerance, he gathered a power of wicked scapethrifts, and with the same comming into In|uernes, He rebelleth. burnt the towne, and besieged the castell, in|forcing with all diligence to win the same, till he The towne of Inuernes burnt. was aduertised that the king was comming to|wards him with a great power, wherevpon he fled incontinentlie to the Iles. Finallie hauing know|ledge that a great number of people lay dailie in wait to take him, that they might present him to the kings hands, he came disguised in poore araie to Alexander of the Iles com|meth to the king and as|keth pardon. the Holie rood house, and there finding the king on Easter daie deuoutlie in the church at his praiers, he fell downe on his knees before him, and besought him of grace, for his sake that rose as that day from death vnto life.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 At request of the quéene, the king pardoned him of life; but he appointed William Dowglasse earle of Angus to haue the custodie of him, and that with|in the castell of Temptation, that no trouble should rise by his meanes thereafter. His mother Eufemie daughter to Walter sometime earle of Rosse, was also committed to ward in saint Colmes inch; bi|cause it was knowne that she sollicited hir sonne to rebell (in maner as is aforesaid) against the king. Not long after, Donald Ballocht, brother to the said Donald Bal|locht inuadeth Lochquhaber. lord Alexander of the Iles came with a great power of men into Lochquhaber. The earles of Mar and [...]nes came with such number of their people as they could raise, to defend the countrie against the inuasion of those Ilandmen, and fought with the said Donald at Inuerlochtie, where the erle of Cathnes was slaine, and the earle of Mar discomfited. Here|with The earle of Cathnes slain Donald Bal|locht retur|neth with vic|torie & spoile into the Iles. did Donald returne with victorie, and a great preie of goods and riches into the Iles. The king [...] mooued with the newes hereof, came with a great armie vnto Dunstafage, purposing with all speed to passe into the Iles. The clans and other chiefe men of the said Iles aduertised hereof, came to Dunsta|fage [...]nd submitted themselues vnto the king, excu|sing The clans of the Iles sub|mit thẽselues to the king. their offense, for that (as they alledged) the said Donald had constreined them against their willes, to passe with him in the last iournie. All those clans vpon this their excuse, were admitted to the kings fauour, and sworne to pursue the said Do|nald vnto death.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Shortlie herevpon, this Donald fled into Ireland, Donald flieth into Ireland. His head is sent as a pre|sent to the king. Thrée hun|dred of Do|nalds compli|ces hanged. where he was slaine, and his head sent by one Odo a great lord of Ireland (in whose countrie he lur|ked) as a present to the king that laie as then at Sterling. There were also thrée hundred of his ad|herents taken, and by the kings commandement hanged for their offenses within thrée weekes space, after his first flieng into Ireland. This trouble be|ing thus quieted, king Iames passed through all the bounds of his realme, to punish all offendors and misruled persons, which in anie wise wronged and oppressed the poore people. He allowed no pardon granted afore by the gouernor, alledging the same Pardons granted by the gouernor are void. to be expired by his death. For he thought indeed it stood neither with the pleasure of God, nor wealth of the realme, that so manie slaughters, reiffes, and op|pressions, as had beene done afore in the countrie, should remaine vnpunished through fault of iustice. It is said that within the first two yeeres of his Thrée thou|sand offendors put to death within two yéeres space. reigne, there were thrée thousand persons executed by death, for sundrie old crimes and offenses.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 And though such extreme iustice might haue bene thought sufficient to giue example to other to re|forme their naughtie vsages, yet one Angus Duffe Angus Duffe of Stratherne nothing afraid thereof, came with a companie of theeues and robbers, and tooke a great preie of goods out of the countrie of Murrey and Cathnes: for recouerie wherof, one Angus Murrey followed with a great power, and ouertaking the said Angus Duffe neere to Strachnauerne, fiercelie assailed him. Who with like manhood made stout re|sistance, by reason whereof there insued such a cruell fight betwixt the parties, that there remained in the A cruell fight. end but onelie twelue persons aliue, & those so woun|ded, that they were scarse able to returne home to their houses, and liued but a few daies after. About Makdonald Ros a notable robber. the same time, there was also another notable theefe named Makdonald Rosse, which grew with spoiles and robberies to great riches. This wicked oppressor He shod a widow. shod a woman with horsse shooes, bicause she said she would go to the king, and reueale his wicked doo|ings. As soone as she was whole, and recouered of hir wounds, she went vnto the king, and declared the cruelties doone vnto hir by that vngratious person Makdonald. Fr. Thin. The king (who before had heard the EEBO page image 264 same of others, and had gotten Makdonald in pri|son, Buchanan. determining to sée due punishment for that wic|ked fact) comforted the sillie woman, promising hir shortlie to behold a iust reuenge thereof. Wherevpon Makdonald being brought out of prison with twelue of his companions, the king commanded that they (by the talion law of Moses that yéeldeth an eie for an eie, and a tooth for a tooth, and by the ex|ample of Phalaris, who burnt him first in the bull Lesleus. that was the author thereof for others) should like|wise be shod with iron horsseshooes, in that sort as they before had serued the woman, and then to bee caried three daies togither about the citie for a spec|tacle to the people, to feare to attempt such extraor|dinarie wickednesse; making proclamation that e|uerie one might sée this new kind of punishment. After which, at length (doubting if he liued he would not ceasse to commit the like, or else reuenge the same) he chopped off Makdonalds head, & caused his twelue fellowes and partakers to be hanged in the high waies.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the third yeere after, which was from the in|carnation 1430, on the eleuenth daie of October, 1430. Iane the quéene of Scots was deliuered of two sonnes at one birth, Alexander and Iames. The first The quéene deliuered of two sonnes at one birth. deceassed in his infancie. The other succéeded after his fathers deceasse in the kingdome, & was named Iames the second. At the baptisme of these two in|fants, there were fiftie knights made. Amongst the Fiftie knights dubbed. which, and first of all other, was William the sonne of Archembald Dowglas, that succéeded his father in the earledome of Dowglas. His father the said Archembald Dowglas, somewhat before this time, or (as other authors say) in the yéere next insuing, was arrested by the kings commandement, and put Archembald earle of Dow|glas arrested and put in prison. in ward, remaining so a long time, till at length by supplication of the quéene, and other péeres of the realme, the king pardoned him [with Iohn Kenne|die] of all offenses, and set both them And Alexan|der earle of Rosse at libertie. King Iames in this Fr. Thin. sort did what in him lay to bring the realme of Scot|land King Iames desirous to purge his realme of vn|rulie persons. in such quiet tranquillitie, that (in purging the same of all offendors, and such as liued by reiffe and robbing) passengers by the high waies might trauell without dread of anie euill disposed persons to mo|lest them.

Fr. Thin. Buchan. li. 10. Hauing thus with diligence suppressed the rob|beries (practised through all parts of his realme) he forgot not to looke into small offenses which were se|cretlie doone, and of lesse danger; determining to take awaie all euill customes which had continued in the realme. For custome, being an other nature dooth bring to passe, that a common error (by manie ages continued) maketh a perfect law, and therefore (& bicause the inferior iudges would the better admi|nister iustice, if they had persons of high authoritie that might punish their false sentences) he chose forth speciall persons of the better sort (commended for their wisedome, grauitie, and holinesse of life) and made them iustices, whome he sent ouer all the realme giuing them full authoritie to heare and de|termine all quarels and sutes (if anie were brought vnto them) whereof the ordinarie iudges either (for feare) durst not or (for hatred or fauor) would not, or (for strength of others) could not giue anie perfect iudgement.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 He caused also the bailiffes and prouosts of good townes, to see that iust measures were vsed by all An ordinance for measures. manner of buiers and sellers, and none to be occu|pied, but such as were signed with the note & marke of the said bailiffes or prouosts. Moreouer, he repa|red and fortified the castels and fortresses of his realme, and stuffed them with such ordinance and Castels re|pared and inunited. munition as was thought expedient. He granted al|so sundrie priuileges and great liberties to the vni|uersitie Priuileges granted to the vniuersitie of S. Andrews. of saint Andrews, to the high aduancement thereof, and was oftentimes himselfe present at their disputations, taking great pleasure therein. Such as were knowne to be learned men, and were presented to him by the vniuersitie, he preferred to great benefices and other ecclesiasticall liuings, still as the same chanced to be vacant. [Hauing for that cause made a law in the said vniuersitie, that none Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 7. pag. 274. should inioy the roome of a canon in anie cathedrall church, vnles he were a batcheller of diuinitie, or at least of the canon law.] By which meanes all maner of vertue and good learning increased dailie through the realme during his time, and namelie musike was had in great price, which he appointed to be vsed Organs brought into Scotland. in churches with organs, the which before his time were not much knowne amongst the Scotishmen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Much what about the same time, there was a par|lement holden at Perth, in the which Henrie Ward|law A parlement at Perth. bishop of S. Andrews, in name of all the thrée estates there assembled, made a long and right pithie oration to this effect;

that Where by the high policie and prudent diligence of the kings maiestie there Bishop Ward|law inueieth against super|fluous fare. present, iustice, and all due administration of lawes and good ordinances were so reuiued, that nothing séemed to be ouerpassed, that might aduance to the profit and commoditie of the common-wealth; yet was there one wicked vsage crept in of late, increa|sing so fast, that if speedie remedie were not had in time, all those commodities brought into the realme by his comming, should be of small auaile, and that was, such superfluous riot in banketting chéere, and numbers of costlie dishes, as were then taken vp and vsed after the English fashion, both to the great hinderance of mans health, and also to the vnprofi|table wasting of their goods and substance. If the laudable temperance vsed amongest the Scotish|men in old time were well considered, nothing might appeare more contrarie and repugnant there|to, than that new kind of gluttonie then vsed, by re|ceiuing more excesse of meats and drinks than suffi|ceth to the nourishment of nature, through prouoca|tion of such deintie and delicate dishes, confectioned sawces, and deuised potions, as were now brought in amongst them. As for such gentlemen as the king had brought with him foorth of England, they were woorthie in déed to be cherished and had in high fa|uour; neither was this abuse to be so greatlie impu|ted vnto them, considering it was appropriate to their nation. But the Scotishmen themselues were chieflie to be blamed, that had so quicklie yéelded to so great an inconuenience, the enormitie whereof appeared by the sundrie vices that followed of the Uices follo|wing deli|cate fare. same, as excesse, sensuall lust, slouth, reiffe, and wa|sting of goods. For if temperance be the nourisher of all vertue, then must the contrarie, that is to say, intemperance, be the bringer foorth and prouoker of all vice. If it might therefore please the kings high|nesse, to shew his accustomed wisedome and proui|dence in repressing this abuse of costlie fare, so much damagable to his people, he should doo the thing that was meritorious before God, and no lesse profitable and necessarie for the publike weale of all his sub|iects.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 By these and manie other the like persuasions, bishop Wardlaw vsed to dissuade the king and his people from all superfluous courses of delicate di|shes and surfetting bankets. Insomuch that euen Order taken for suppressing of costlie fare. Use of baked meates in Scotland when it began then there was order taken, that fewer dishes and more spare diet should be vsed through the realme, licencing gentlemen onelie, and that on festiuall daies, to be serued with pies, the vse of them not be|ing knowne in Scotland till that season. Neuerthe|lesse, such intemperance is risen in processe of time EEBO page image 265 following, that the gréedie appetite of gluttons in The gréedie appetite of gluttons ne|uer satisfied. this age may be satisfied with no competent féeding, till their bellies be so stuffed with immoderate gor|mandise, that they maie scarse fetch breath, through which their notsome surfetting, they fall dailie into sundrie strange and lothsome kinds of diseases, be|ing oftentimes killed by the same in their flouri|shing youth, as by dailie experience plainlie ap|peareth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the same yéere the seuenteenth day of Iune, was a terrible eclipse of the sunne, at three of the [...] terrible eclipse. clocke at after noone, the day being darkened ouer head for the space of one halfe houre togither, as though it had béene night, and therevpon it was cal|led the blacke houre. At the next Lammas, the king raised an armie, & came with the same to Roxburgh, Roxburgh besieged. besieging the castell for the space of fiftéene daies to|gither. He had in this armie (as the report went) the In huge armie. number of two-hundred thousand men, accounting cariage men & all other such as followed the campe: yet notwithstanding all this huge multitude, hauing wasted his powder and other munition, before hée could doo anie great hurt to his enimies, he was con|streined to raise his field, and leaue the castell in the Men of occu|pation brought into Scotlãd to instruct the Scotishmen therein. Englishmens hands as he found it. After this king Iames perceiuing how the knowledge of handi|crafts and manuall occupations was decaied in Scotland, through continuall exercise of wars, since the daies of Alexander the third, to the further ad|uancement of the common-wealth, and that his sub|iects might haue occasion to auoid slouth and idle|nesse Idlenesse the root of all mischiefe. (the root of all mischiefe) he brought a great number of cunning craftesmen out of Germanie, France, and other parties, to instruct his people in their arts and faculties.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Not long after, one Paule Craw a Bohemian borne, was burnt at saint Andrews, for preaching Paule Craw burnt. and setting foorth the doctrine of Iohn Hus, & Iohn Wikeliffe. Iohn Fogo being one of them that hel|ped chieflie to condemne him, was made (for his Iohn Fogo. great and earnest diligence therein shewed) abbat of Melrosse. [After which, the said king Iames be|gan Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 7. pag. 275. to take vpon him the person of a priuate man, sundrie times associating himselfe to the companie of others (but especiallie of the merchants) in chan|ged apparell, according to the state of such persons with whom he would companie, to the end he might thereby learne what men did say and iudge of him, and so vnderstand what was to be corrected in the go|uernement The abbeie of Charturer moonks built besides Perth by K. Iames. of the common-wealth.] About the same time was the abbeie of Charturar moonks foun|ded besides Perth, by king Iames, with great cost and magnificence.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Also the lord Scroope and other associats with him, The lord Scroope am|bassador into Scotland. came in ambassage from Henrie the sixt, king of England. The effect of whose message was, to haue the ancient league betwixt the Scots and French|men dissolued, promising that if the councell of The offer of the English men to haue the Scots to ioine with them in leage. Scotland would consent thereto, and ioine in leage with the Englishmen; that both the towne and ca|stell of Berwike, with all the lands lieng betwixt Twéed and the Recrosse (as the Scots write) should be deliuered into the Scotishmens hands. King Iames hauing small credit in such faire promises, perceiued the same to tend onlie to this end, that the league betwixt the Frenchmen and Scots might be once clearelie broken, and then to vse the matter as occasion should serue their turne. This matter there|fore being proponed before the councell, it was con|cluded, that in no wise the said league betwixt the Frenchmen and Scots should be dissolued, and so therevpon the English ambassadors were dispat|ched without more talke concerning that matter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the same yéere, that is to say, 1433, the king 1433. caused George Dunbar erle of March, sonne to that George erle of March are|sted and put in ward. earle which rebelled against his father king Robert the third, to be arested and put in safe keeping within the castell of Edenburgh. He sent also the earle of Angus with his chancellor William Creichton, and Adam Hepborne of Hales to the castell of Dunbar, deliuering them letters signed with his hand, and di|rected to the kéepers of the said castell, that they shuld deliuer vp the house immediatlie vpon sight of those letters vnto the bringers of the same. The kéepers durst not disobeie his commandement, but suffered them to enter according to their commission. With|in twelue moneths after, a parlement was held at A parlement at Perth. Perth, where the foresaid George earle of March was disherited of all his lands and liuings for his The earle of March dis|herited. fathers offense committed against king Robert the third. Thus the house of the Dunbars lost the earle|dome of March, wherein the same had flourished so manie yéeres togither, to the great defense and safe|gard of the realme of Scotland on that side, against both ciuill and foreine enimies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The king yet mooued with some pitie toward so The earldome of Buch|quhan giuen to George Dunbar. noble a linage, within short time after gaue the earl|dome of Buchquhan to the said George; and after the kings deceasse, the lords of the councell thinking the same too little, assigned foorth to him and his son Patrike, the summe of foure hundred marks yéere|lie, to be receiued out of a parcell of his owne anci|ent inheritance of the earledome of March, to inioy the same till Iames the second came to full age. In the yéere 1435, Alexander Steward earle of Mar 1435. The death of Alexander Steward erle of Mar. departed out of this life. This Alexander was a ba|stard sonne of the earle of Buchquhan, that was one of the sonnes of king Robert the second. He was a man of right singular prowesse, and in his youth fol|lowing the warres, was with Philip duke of Bur|gognie at the siege of Liege, or Luike, where he bare Leodium. himselfe so manfullie, that few wan the like honor at that iournie. Not long after, to his high aduance|ment, he got in mariage the ladie Iacoba countesse of Holland: notwithstanding, he continued but a while with hir, being forced to forgo hir companie, either for that she had another husband, or else for that the inhabitants would not suffer a stranger to reigne ouer them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 After his returne into Scotland, he sent messen|gers warres be|twixt the earle of Mar & the Hollanders. into Holland, requiring to haue the issues and profits of such lands as were due vnto him in right of the said countesse his wife; but receiuing nought saue a froward answer, hée prouided him of ships, and made sore warres on the Hollanders by sea: first being put to the woorse; but at length he tooke a number of their ships laden with merchandize, as they were returning homewards from Dantzicke. The mariners were drowned, and the ships burnt. Through which losse the Hollanders being sore aba|shed, Truce twixt the Scots & Hollanders for tearme of 100 yéeres. fell to a composition with him, and tooke truce with the Scots for an hundred yéeres. This earle of Mar so long as he liued had the gouernance of the north parts of Scotland vnder king Iames the first, for he was a right prudent person, as well in war|like enterprises, as in ciuill administration. Hée brought foorth of Hungarie sundrie great horsses Good mares brought out of Hungarie into Scotland for brood. and mares for generation, that by such meanes the countrie might be prouided of great horsses of their owne race, where till that time there was none bred within Scotland, but small nags, more méet to serue for iournieng hacknies, than for anie seruice in the warres.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Not long before this time, there came an ambas|sage Ambassadors out of Den|marke. Their request from the king of Denmarke to king Iames, requiring him to make paiment of such yéerelie tri|bute as was due to the said king of Denmarke, be|ing also king of Norwaie for the westerne Iles, ac|cording EEBO page image 266 to the promise and agreement made by Aler|ander sometime king of Scotland, the third of that name, vnto his predecessor Magnus, at that time king of Norwaie. The ambassadors that came with this message were honorablie receiued, and in like sort interteined by king Iames, who at their depar|ture gaue to them sundrie rich gifts, and appointed sir William Creichton to go with them into Den|marlie, ambassador frõ him, to the king there, who v|sed Sir William Creichton sent into Den|marke. Peace and a|mitie betwixt Scotland and Denmarke. Ambassadors foorth of France. The old league renew|ed betwixt France and Scotland. The Dolphin marieth Mar|garet daugh|ter to king Iames. himselfe so sagelie in this businesse which he thus went about, that renewing the old league betwixt the two realmes of Denmarke and Scotland, sted|fast peace and assured amitie without anie more adoo therof insued. Much about the same time, there came ambassadors from the French king, Charles the se|uenth, not onelie desiring to haue the old league be|twixt France and Scotland to be ratified at that pre|sent by a new confirmation, but also to confirme the same with better assurance. Margaret eldest daugh|ter to king Iames, at request of the said king Char|les, was giuen in mariage vnto Lewes the Dol|phin, and eldest sonne to the said king Charles.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Manie great lords of Scotland were appointed to haue the conueiance of hir into France, and great prouision of ships made for that voiage, because the king was aduertised that the Englishmen had a fléet abroad on the seas, to take hir if they might méet Englishmen lie in wait for the Sco|tish fléet. with hir by the waie. But as the hap fell, it chanced the same time, as the Scotish ships should passe, there appéered on the coast of England, a great fleet of Spaniards, which the Englishmen supposing to be the Scots, they came vpon them with foure score ves|sels The English|men incounter a fleet of Spa|mards. of one and other, thinking verelie to haue had their wished preie, euen according to their expectati|on: but being receiued with as hot a storme as they brought, they quicklie vnderstood how they were in a wrong box, and so shrewdlie amazed (as Hector Boetius saith) they susteined great losse both in men and ships, and in the meane time the Scotish nauie passed by quietlie without damage, incountering The arriuall of the ladie Margaret of Scotland in France. not one ship by the waie that sought to impeach their passage. There went 140 ladies and gentlewomen foorth of Scotland, to attend this ladie Margaret in|to France, amongest which number there were fiue of hir owne sisters.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the meane time, whilest such things were a doo|ing, Henrie Persie of Northumberland inuaded Henrie Per|sie inuadeth Scotland. Scotland with foure thousand men, not being know en whether he had commission so to doo from the king of England, or that he made that enterprise of him|selfe. William Dowglasse earle of Angus, to resist this inuasion, gathered a power of chosen men, a|mongest whome were Adam Hepborne of Hales, Alexander Ramseie of Dalehouse, and Alexander Elphingston, with others. The earle of Angus being thus associat, met the Persie at Piperden, where a The battell of Piperden fought be|twixt Henrie Persie and the earle of Angus. The Scots get the victo|rie. The number of English|men slaine. Prisoners ta|ken. sore battell was foughten betwixt them, with great slaughter on both sides; but at length the victorie fell to the Scots, though there were slaine togither with Alexander Elphingston, two hundred gentlemen and commons of Scotland: and of the English part there died Henrie of Cliddesdale, Iohn Ogill, and Richard Persie, with fifteene hundred other of gentle men and commons, of the which gentlemen, fortie were knights. There were taken also and brought home by the Scots as prisoners, to the number of foure hundred.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Shortlie heerevpon, king Iames raised a mightie armie, and besieged the castell of Rocksburgh, but Rocksburgh besieged. when he had almost brought his purpose so néere to passe, that those within began to fall to communica|tion, for the rendering of the place, the quéene came to the campe in great haste vnto him, signifieng that there was a conspiracie begun against him, so that if he tooke not the better héed, he was in great dan|ger to fall into the hands of those that sought his life. The king doubting the matter, raised his siege and The king in|formed or a conspiracie made against him, raiseth his siege. The earle of Atholl heard of the conspi|racie. returned home to prouide the better for his owne su|ertie, but that preuailed little: for Walter Steward earle of Atholl, and head of the whole conspiracie, pretending euer a right to the crowne, by reason that he was procreat by king Robert the second on his first wise, procured his nephue Robert Steward, and his coosine Robert Graham, to flea the king by one meane or other, which finallie they accomplished in this wise. This Robert Graham, for diuerse wic|ked Robert Gra|ham. acts before committed, contrarie to the lawes and ordinances of the realme, was driuen to an out|lawrie, so that if he were taken, he looked for nothing but present death, and therefore hated the king most deadlie. And though by the quéenes diligence both his and other of the conspirators purposes were now disappointed, hauing contriued to dispatch the king at the siege of Rocksburgh; yet forsomuch as their names were not knowne, they hoped still to find oc|casion to atchiue their detestable intention, sith they were no more mistrusted than the others.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Héerevpon the said Steward and Graham came Robert Ste|ward and Ro|bert Graham murtherers of the king. one euening to the blacke friers of Perth, where the king as then was lodged, and by licence of the por|ters comming into the house, entered vp into the gallerie before the kings chamber doore, minding to haue staied there till one of the kings seruants that was priuie to their diuelish purpose should come, by whose helpe they were promised to haue entrie into the chamber. But before the comming of this Iudas|like traitor, an other of the kings seruants named Walter Straiton came foorth of the chamber doore Walter Strai ton is slaine. to haue fetched wine for the king: but being aduised of these two traitors standing there at the doore, ei|ther of them hauing a long swoord girded to him, he stept backe, and cried, Treason: but yer he could get within the doore to haue made it fast, they leapt vnto him, and slue him there outright.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Whilest this was a dooing, not without great noise & rumbling, a yoong virgin named Katharine Dow|glasse Katharine Dowglasse. (that was after maried to Alexander Louell of Bolu [...]ie) got to the doore, and shut it: but because the barre was awaie that should haue made it fast, the thrust hir arme in the place where the bar should haue passed: she was but yoong, and hir bones not strong, but rather tender as a gristle, and therefore hir arme was soone crasht in sunder, and the doore broken vp by force. Herewith entering the chamber, The murthe|rers enter the kings cham|ber, and flea the king. The quéene is hurt. Patrike Dun bar wounded and left for dead in the kings defense. Iames the first murthe|red. they slue such of the seruants as made defense, and then the king himselfe with manie cruell and deadlie wounds [at 28 seuerall blowes.] The quéene was also hurt as she was about to saue hir husband. Pa|trike Dunbar, brother to George sometime earle of March, was left for dead on the floore, by reason of such wounds as he receiued in the kings defense, doo|ing most manfullie his vttermost deuoire to haue preserued him from the murtherers hands. Thus was Iames the first murthered the 21 day of Fe|bruarie, the 44 yéere of his age, the 13 of his reigne, and from the incarnation of Christ 1436. His bodie 1437. Buch. 1447. l. Ma. 1336. Lesle. His stature and forme of bodie. was buried in the house of the Chartarars at Perth which he founded in his life time, but had not as yet throughlie finished.

* Of this Iames I find written in his singular commendation, that he was for proportion of bodie of the middle stature, with broad shoulders, hauing the other parts also answering therevnto, as they neither séemed monstruous big to be woondered at, nor extreme small to be scotted at; but caried the ma|iestie of a person, whome Aeneas Syluius (expressing the most excellent conformitie of members in this our king) dooth terme to be squared or of euen propor|tion, EEBO page image 267 as the parts of a quadrangle or iust square doo answer ech other, so that nature séemeth not to haue framed a creature more apt or excellent than he, ei|ther for shape of bodie, or for kinglie maiestie. He did manie times imbrace iustice more streictlie and seuerelie, than well became a king, which ought to be called (and so in truth to be) the father and nourisher of the common wealth. For he séemed so exactlie to measure all things by the rule of iustice, that he is said (within the space of thrée yeeres) to haue execu|ted thrée thousand persons for their committed offen|ses. Although this may rather séeme to be a slander (than otherwise) grounded vpon no foundation, since all things séemed to haue béene performed by him in respect of sincere zeale of iustice, whereof this may be a sufficient argument, that he was of so mild and swéet nature, that we read not of anie of our princes that did more reuerentlie imbrace peace at home a|mongst his subiects, or more willinglie conclude the same abroad with strangers. What shall I say of his wisedome, which in manie and the greatest affaires did so manifestlie appéere, that the kings of other na|tions did ioine in league and friendship with him? Of which wisedome, and of other his vertues (although he obteined part by the benefit of nature) he got the greatest summe by the learning & instruction which he purchased in England, when he was prisoner: at what time he was by the commandement of Henrie the king most diligentlie instructed. For he was there by the kings beneuolence so well trained in all sciences and gentlemanlie actiuitie, with the dili|gence of good schoolemaisters, that it is not easie to iudge what science he best vnderstood: for beside that he had skill in all kinds of musike (but most excel|lent in plaieng on the harpe) he was so good an ora|tor, that nothing might be more artificiall than that which he spake: againe, he was a rare poet, in which he séemed not so much cunning by art, as furthered by nature, which is sufficientlie prooued by verses of diuerse kinds (at this day remaining) composed by Buchan. also saith he wrote Latine verses with such good grace, as the rudenesse of that age per|mitted. him (in Scotish méeter) with that singular art, as he is thought fullie to equall the sharpenesse, grauitie, and wisedome of the ancient poets.

It is strange that I saie, and far beyond the dili|gence of the princes of our time, yea and almost be|yond the opinion of men: but yet most true and con|firmed by the testimonie of them which knew him well: and therefore to be written to his perpetuall praise. He did so exactlie in mind and memorie com|prehend the depth of diuinitie and law, that therein he excelled manie, & in his time gaue not place to a|nie: to conclude, there was nothing wherein the commendation of wit consisted, or wherein anie shew of the liberall arts appeared, that he would not with great diligence applie his indeuor for the know|ledge thereof, yea and that sometime to all mecha|nicall or handie-craft labors which were méet for a free man, which he is said most studiouslie to haue followed. But in the end, iudging it ouer base for kinglie maiestie to be exercised in these meane & in|ferior knowledges, he caused artificers of all sorts to be brought out of England, Flanders, and other nations, which should instruct our people therein; for by that means he persuaded himselfe he should in the end calme the rough maners of his nation, and that with these mild arts they would also receiue a mild and swéete condition of life & maners. Where|fore I may well say; O most happie common-wealth which was gouerned by so woorthie a prince: & may iustlie exclame; O you most fierce and wicked re|bels, that would by murther take away such an ho|nor, beautie, and piller of the common-wealth. Now, besides manie other things by him doone, I will here (being better late than neuer) set downe this (not touched before) which is, that he was not on|lie a beautie to his countrie, in prouiding for his peo|ple to liue at quiet within doores; but he also sought for the defense of his realme against his enimies without doores: by artillerie, and other necessaries required for the warres. For the inuention of guns hapning about his time, or not much before; he cau|sed certeine péeces of artillerie to be made beyond the seas in Flanders, of which, there was one most especiall and great peece called the Lion, on the cir|cumference whereof were these verses ingrauen, testifieng the antiquitie in like maner of the same: Iohn Maior lib. 6. cap. 13.

Illustri Iacobo Scotorum principi digno,
Regi magnifico, dumfulmine castra reduco,
Factus sum subitò, nuncupor ergo Leo.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The nobles and péeres of the realme right sorow|full for the death of this Iames, assembled togither, and made such earnest & diligent search for the trai|tors The search made for the traitors. before mentioned, that at the length they were apprehended and brought to Edenburgh, where they were executed on this maner. The earle of Atholl, which was not onelie principall in practise of this treason concerning the kings death, but also in times past was chiefe of counsell with Robert duke of Albanie, in making away of Dauid the kings eldest brother, and after the kings returne foorth of England did most earnestlie solicit him to put duke Mordo to death, with all other of his linage, tru|sting that when they were dispatched, he should find means to rid the king also, and his children out of the way, & so at length atteine to the crowne with|out anie obstacle. This earle (I say) was first strip|ped of all his clothes, saue onelie his shirt; and then was an instument of wood, made like to the drawer of a well, set fast in a cart with a frame: at the end of which instrument, was the earle fastened and The execu|tion of the erle of Atholl. bound, and so caried about the towne, sometime hoised on high, that the people might sée him aloft in the aire, and sometime let fall againe with a swaie downe vpon the pauement.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 After this, being brought to an open place, where most resort of people was, they crowned him with an hot iron, for that (as was said) a witch had told The prophesie of a witch. him, that before his death he should he crowned o|penlie in sight of the people. Through whose illusion being deceiued, he liued vnder vaine hope to atteine the crowne, directing all his imaginations to com|passe the means thereto. Thus was he serued on the first day. On the second day, he was drawen with his complices laid on hurdels, round about the towne at an horsse taile. The third day, his bellie was ript, and his bowels were taken foorth, and throwne into the fire flickering before his eies, & then was his heart pulled foorth of his bodie, and throwne likewise into the fire: and last of all, his head was cut off, and his bodie diuided into foure quarters.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 His nephue Robert Steward was not altogi|ther Robert Ste|ward executed so cruellie executed. But Robert Graham, for that it was knowne that he slue the king with his owne hands, was put into a cart, the hand that did The ordering of Robert Grahams execution. the déed being fastened to a paire of gallows, which were raised vp in the said cart; and then were three persons appointed to thrust him through in all parts of his bodie with hot irons, beginning first in those places where it was thought no hastie death would thereof insue, as in the legs, armes, thighes, & shoul|ders. And thus was he caried through euerie stréet of the towne, and tormented in most miserable wise, and at length had his bellie ript, and was bowelled and quartered as the other were before. Christo|pher Christopher Clawn. Clawn also, and other that were of counsell in the conspiracie, were put to most shamefull kinds of deaths, as they had iustlie deserued, few or none lamenting their case. [Touching whose death, and Fr. Thin. EEBO page image 268 the reuenge thereof, it is reported, that Aeneas Syl|uius Lesleus lib. 7. pag. 279. (being then ambassador in Scotland for pope Eugenius the fourth to the said king Iames, con|sidering the cruelnesse of such a wicked fact, with the spéedie reuenge therefore executed by the nobilitie) should say, that he much doubted, whether he ought with greater praise to commend them which reuen|ged the kings death, than by sharper sentence pu|nish those that had committed such parricide.] In the daies of king Iames the first, sundrie strange Strange sights. Pigs with heads like to Dogs, A calfe with a head like a colt. A blasing star. A great frost. Ale and wine sold by the pound weight A sword séene in the aire. and monstrous things chanced in Scotland. At Perth there was a sow that brought foorth a litter of pigs with heads like vnto dogs. A cow also brought foorth a calfe, hauing a head like a colt. In the haruest before the kings death, a blasing star was seene with long streaming beams. And in the winter following, the frost was so vehement, that ale and wine were sold by pound weight, and then melted against the fire. A sword was seene gliding vp and downe in the aire, to the no lesse dread than woonder of the people.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 IAmes the first made away through the traitorous practise of the earle of Atholl (as before is speci|fied) Iames the second. 1436 his eldest sonne Iames the second of that name being as then but six yeares of age succéeded to the crowne, as lawfull heire to the same, and by his mo|ther and the nobilitie of the realme was brought to Scone, where, by the vniuersall consent of the three estates he was crowned king of Scotland, being the 102 king of that realme from Ferguse the first. Buchan. 103. He was surnamed Iames with the fierie face, by reason of a broad red spot which he had in one of his cheekes. This Iames at his comming to mans state prooued a stout prince, and maried the daughter of The daugh|ter of the duke of Gelderland maried to Iames the second. the duke of Gelderland, as after shall appeare. In the beginning he had some trouble and businesse, by reason of the great authoritie and rule which the high barons of the realme sought to beare & mainteine, as the Dowglasse, and other, but in the end he sub|dued them all.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Shortlie after his coronation, because he was not of himselfe able to gouerne, by reason of his tender age; the nobles and estates of the realme chose sir Alexander Leuingston of Calender knight, gouer|nor of the king and realme, and sir William Creich|ton Sir Alexan|der Leuing|ston gouernor. Sir William Creichton L. chancellor. knight was confirmed in his office to inioy the same as he before had doone, the K. being committed to his kéeping, togither with the castell of Eden|burgh. Archembald earle of Dowglas remained in his countries of Dowglas & Annardale, and would neither obeie gouernor nor chancellor, wherby great Disobedience in the Dow|glasse. trouble was raised within the realme. Within a short time also, the gouernor and chancellor were di|uided. The gouernor with the queene remained at Striueling, but the chancellor had the king still with him in the castell of Edenburgh; and what the one commanded to be doone, the other forbad: whereby neither of them was obeied, nor anie execution of iustice put in practise, so that through all the countrie, reiffe, spoiles, and oppression were exercised with|out feare of punishment. The quéene perceiuing 1437. such mischiefe to reigne throughout all parts of the realme, deuised a meane to aduance the gouernors side, and herevpon with a small companie repai|red A policie wrought by the quéene. to Edenburgh, where she to bring hir purpose to passe, did so much by great dissimulation, that she persuaded the chancellor to suffer hir to enter the ca|stell, and to remaine with the king; but within thrée daies after, she feigned one morning to go on pil|grimage vnto the White kirke, and caused the king hir sonne to be handsomlie couched in a trunke, as if he had béene some fardell of his apparell, and so packed vp, sent him by one of hir trustie seruants laid vpon a sumpter horsse vnto Lieth, from whence he was conueied by bote vnto Striueling, where, of The king conuered vnto Striueling. the gouernor he was ioifullie receiued, commen|ding the quéene highlie for hir politike working, in deceiuing so wise a man as the chancellor was. Then raised he a great power of his friends and well-wil|lers, and besieged the chancellor in the castell of E|denburgh.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The bishop perceiuing in what danger he stood through the womans deceipt, sent to the earle of Dowglas, desiring his assistance against the quéene and gouernor. But the earle refusing either to helpe the one or the other, alledging that they were both ouer ambitious in seeking to haue the whole gouern|ment of the realme in their hands. The chancellor An agréement made. then perceiuing himselfe destitute of all helpe, made agreement with the gouernor, vnder certeine condi|tions, that he should reteine still the castell of Eden|burgh vnder his possession, and likewise continue The earle of Dowglasse departeth this life at Lestel|ricke. still in his office of chancellor. Shortlie after the earle of Dowglasse deceassed at Lestelricke, in the yeare 1439, against whome aswell the gouernor as chan|cellor had conceiued great hatred. He left behind 1439. him a sonne (begot of the earle of Crawfords daugh|ter) named William, a child of fourtéene yeares of age, who succeeded his father in the earldome of Dowglasse, appearing at the first to be well inclined of nature, but afterwards by euill companie he waxed wild and insolent.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 About this season, Iames Steward sonne to the lord of Lorne, maried the quéene Dowager, and fa|uored the earle Dowglasse in his vnrulie demea|nor: wherevpon, both the said Iames and his bro|ther The quéene imprisoned. William, with the quéene, were committed to prison in the castell of Striueling by the gouernors appointment; but shortlie after they were released by the sute of the lord chancellor, sir William Cre|ichton, and Alexander Seton of Gurdon, who be|came suerties for their good abearing, vnder great forfeiture of sufficient band. About the same time, or rather somewhat before, Alane Steward lord of Dernlie was slaine at Palmais thorne, by sir Tho|mas Alane Ste|ward is slain. Boid. And in the yeare following, the same sir Thomas was slaine by Alexander Steward of Bolmet and his sonnes; where through there rose great troubles in the west part of Scotland. Wil|liam earle of Dowglasse sent Malcolme Fleming of Cumernald, and Alane of Lowder, vnto Charles the seuenth, king of France, to obteine of him the duchie of Towraine, which was giuen to Archem|bald Dowglasse at the battell of Uernoill in Perth; and the last earle, father to this earle William, had inioied the same all his life time, wherevpon that sute was the sooner obteined: which made the yoong earle more insolent than before.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 He kept such a port, and vsed to haue such a traine attending vpon him, speciallie when he came to the The great port of the erle of Dowglasse. court, that it should séeme he had the king in small regard; for he thought himselfe safe inough in main|teining the like state and port, or rather greater than ouer his father at anie time had mainteined before him: insomuch as he would ride with two thousand horsse, of the which number there were diuerse errant théeues and robbers, that were borne out in their vnlawfull and wicked practises by the same earle. Certeine capteins of the Iles, as Lachlane, Make|laine, and Murdac Gipson, with a wicked number of the inhabitants of the same Iles, haried, spoiled, Lenox is ha|rted. Iohn Colqu|honen, or Coguhuin slaine. and burnt the countrie of Lenox, and slue Iohn Col|quhouen lord of Lute vnder assurance. They also slue women and children, without respect to age or sex. In this yeare chanced a great dearth in Scot|land, the like was neuer heard of before, and such a A dearth. death by pestilence, that few escaped that were ta|ken therewith, and so the realme was plaqued with Pestilence. EEBO page image 269 reiffe oppression, dearth, and death of people. This yeare also the gouernor tooke the whole administra|tion vpon him, wherewith the chancellor was displea|sed, and leauing the king and him in Striueling, re|paired to Edenburgh, where he deuised the way how to recouer the king from the gouernor, and so on a morning tooke foure and twentie men with him and rode to the parke of Striueling where the king was then bu [...]ng, and the gouernor absent at Perch.

Fr. Thin. [...]. [...]. [...]. At what [...] the chancellor with great courtesie drawing towards the king, did salute him, being in foure feare to see such companie come vnto him, ha|uing so few in his traine. Which when the chancellor perceiued, be praied the king to be of good comfort, and in few words fit for that time exhorted him that he should looke to himselfe and the kingdome, and de|liuer himselfe from the imprisonment of Alexander the gouernor, liuing fréelie from hencefoorth after a kinglie maner; that he should not accustome him|selfe to obeie the pleasure and couetousnes of others, that he should vse to command his subiects in all iust and lawfull causes; and that he should deliuer his people from these euils which increased vpon them, by the ambition and courtousnesse of the rulers, which he could not now well remedie or resist, except the king would take on him the gouernement, the which to doo, he had without all danger or trouble prouided a meane. For he had in a readinesse sufficient number therefore, which should attend vpon the king where so euer he would go, or to vse anie other matter as néed should require. Which the king taking with a pleasant countenance (either because the matter liked him well, or to dissemble the feare he had of the chancellor) did fullie approoue, and went with his small vnarmed companie and the chancellor toward Edenburgh.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The chancellor (as Hector Boetius saith) had cau|sed The king went with the chancellor to Eden|burgh. the number of foure thousand horssemen of his seruants, tenants, and friends, secretlie to be readie that morning about the town of Striueling, to resist his aduersaries if they should haue vsed anie force against him: and now vnderstanding of the kings going thus with the chancellor, they came to him on the way, and attending him, brought him safelie and without further trouble vnto Edenburgh, where he was ioifullie receiued. The gouernor when he was aduertised hereof, was grieuouslie displeased; but because he knew not how to remedie the mat|ter, he went to Edenburgh, and there got Iohn Iunes bishop of Murrey, and Henrie Lichton bi|shop of Aberdene, to labor some agreement betwixt The gouernor and chancel|lor are made friends. him and the chancellor: which they did in this wise: the king to remaine in the kéeping of the chancel|lor, and the gouernor to continue his office. And so by this accord they were made friends.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 8. pag. 194. [...]. lib. 11. During which turmoiles, William Dowglasse (that with a certeine pride of mind had highlie borne himselfe, disobeieng the rule of the gouernor, & dis|daining to ioine in societie of the chancellor) did vew the dedlie hatred of them both against him; for which cause they séeke by all means vtterlie to take him awaie. For the dooing whereof (to the end it might be performed without anie tumult) they appoint a parlement to be holden at Edenburgh; whither came not a few (as at other times in such assemblies it al|waies hapneth) but almost the whole countries came flocking thither, to complaine of the iniuries which they had receiued: of which sort, there was such a mi|serable shew, that men could not behold the same without great motion of a pitifull mind: when eue|rie one for himselfe, the father for the children, the children for the fathers, and the widows for their husbands, did complaine that they were by the rob|bers spoiled of all their substance. Wherevpon (as it happeneth alwaies through pietie of gentle harts, to rue the afflicted) there arose great enuie against the capteins and leaders of the wicked dooers of such spoile, whose euils were now growne to such excesse, as by no means they might be suffered; whose facti|ons were so largelie spread ouer the realme, that none could defend their life or liuehood: but such as did yéeld themselues to their actions, and whose ri|ches were so increased, as the weake could not well find anie helpe (in the authoritie of the magistrate) against their violence.

Wherevpon it liked the wiser sort (since their force séemed not almost able to be broken, or their parts to be seuered) to flie to policie and leaue strength, not daring openlie to call the earle Dowglasse by that name of capteine of them, although they well knew him to be the chiefe author and fautor of those people. Wherefore the gouernor and the chancellor (for a time dissembling the hatred which they harbou|red against Dowglasse) persuaded the whole parle|ment, that it were more conuenient with faire spéeches to pacifie Dowglasse, than with shew of suspicious and euill words to stirre him to further heat: especiallie considering that he was of that great wealth and power, that he alone, if he stood a|gainst them, might binder all the decrees of the par|lement: but if hée ioined with the nobilitie, there might be easie remedie found to salue all these pre|sent euils. Through which wise and subtill persuasi|on of Alexander the gouernour, it was decréed a|mongst them, that there should be honourable let|ters directed to him in the common & speciall name of all the nobilitie, which should admonish him, that being mindfull of the honorable place which he pos|sessed (and of his woorthie ancestors, by whome the common-wealth of Scotland had receiued manie singular benefits) hée should repaire to the parle|ment, which well could not, and willinglie would not, either kéepe or determine any thing in the same without his presence. In which assemblie, if hée would complaine of anie wrongs or griefes offe|red vnto him, hée should be satisfied so fullie as they might lawfullie.

And if he or anie of his friends or familie had committed anie disordered part, the nobilitie there met would fullie remit the same, as well for the no|bilitie of his, and the woorthie memorie of the déeds doone by his ancestors; as for that they rather attri|buted such actions to the iniurie of the times, and the frailtie of his age, and the persuasion of others, than vnto him, of whome there was conceiued a singular hope of great towardnesse, for the aduance|ment of his name and benefit of his countrie. Ther|fore if he would come and ioine with them, he should receiue in gouernement what part, place, and office of the common-wealth pleaseth him, to the end that as in times past, their countrie had béene ma|nie waies deliuered out of most heauie dangers by the hand of the Dowglasses, so at this present, the same might also by his presence and furtherance, be againe aduanced and strengthened from and against those intestine euils wherewithall it now fainted. The yoong man (by nature and age gréedie of glorie) being mooued with these flatteries, and the other persuasions of his friends (whereof euerie one was blinded with a certeine hope of good to happen to himselfe) they now déemed it best (forgetting all for|mer dangers) to thinke vpon their priuate commo|dities, and with that resolution tooke their iournie to come to the parlement.

The chancellor when he vnderstood they were on there way, rode foorth of Edenburgh manie miles to méet the Dowglasse, and courteouslie inuited the earle to his castell of Creichton, which laie in his EEBO page image 270 waie as he should ride, at which place he was most honourablie interteined by the chancellor. Where, when they had remained two daies, the chancellor (after hée had shewed manie tokens of a friendlie mind vnto him) bicause he would vtterlie banish from the earle all suspicion of him, that he had anie mislike in the said earle) began familiarlie to per|suade him, that (remembring the kings dignitie, and the office of him whome the lot of inheritance, their countrie lawes, and the consent of the parle|ment had aduanced to the gouernement and admi|nistration of all things) he should in all humilitie acknowledge him for his chiefe lord and king; that he would permit the large patrimonie obteined by the bloud of his ancestors to descend to posteritie by lineall inheritance as he himselfe receiued it; that he would clearelie deliuer the name and familie of the Dowglasses (no lesse famous for their dutie, than their déeds) not onelie from the filthie spot of trea|son, but also from all note of suspicion thereof; that he would refraine himselfe and his from offering iniuries to the weake and common people; that he would remooue from him all such as were giuen to robberie and spoile; that he would from hencefoorth applie himselfe to the defense of iustce, to the end that his former offenses (if there were anie) might rather be attributed to euill counsell of the wicked, than to the naturall disposition of himselfe: for so the re|pentance of his yoong yéeres might be taken for proofe of his innocencie in such euils. With these and such like spéeches, declaring the faith of a wel|willing mind, he allured the earle to come to Eden|burgh with Dauid his brother partaker of all his counsels and actions.

This faire tale of the chancellor, more than in times past or then beséemed the place which he pos|sessed, with the manie messengers sent to him from Alexander the gouernor (to meet him on the way) almost euerie houre, draue a déepe suspicion in the heads of the earles companie riding with him to Edenburgh, of some trecherie to be ment towards him. Wherevpon the same began to be blundered from one to another of the traine, and came so fast to the friends of Dowglasse, that some of them did boldlie and liberallie admonish him, that he should remaine in that purpose (which once he did) to state, to returne, and not to go forward with the chancellor: and at the least (if he would aduenture himselfe) to send home his brother Dauid, to the end that hée might not hazard the whole familie vnder the for|tune of one stroke, as his father had before admoni|shed him when he died. Whereat the vnaduised youth of this man, being mooued to anger against his friends, did by the voices of some of his men (as it were by one that should make proclamation ther|fore) pacifie the secret murmurings that were a|mongest the companie; and answered such of his friends as found fault therewith, that he sufficient|lie knew, that it was the common plague of all great families, alwaies to haue such men about them, as being impatient of quiet and ease, respect not the danger and miserie of their patrons, so it maie be commoditie vnto them: who bicause (they would not be restreined within the bounds of peace|full lawes) are authors of sedition, in which (when all things are in turmoile) they may the better wan|der abroad to satisfie their euill humor: whose spea|ches hée regarded not, since hee rather respected and trusted the approoued wisedome of the chancel|lor and the gouernor, than the slouthfull & rash minds of such seditious persons.

After which (to cut awaie occasion from the rest to answer) he set spurres to his horsse, and hastened his iourneie more than he did before, with his bro|ther and a few of his other friends, taking his right course into the castell, and (as it were by a certeine destinie) casting himselfe hedlong into the snares of his enimies. At such time as he came to the castell, the gouernor (according to his promise) was readie there to méet him, to the end the matter might séeme to be wrought by common consent, and the weight of so great enuie might not light vpon the head of one man. Dowglasse being honorablie and friend|lie by the gouernor receiued into the castell, was for dinner placed at the kings table. But in the middest of this sweet meat (sower sawce being prepared) there was a bulles head set before him, which in those daies was a signe of death. Wherewith the yoong man amazed (and greatlie troubled in his mind, in|wardlie repenting that he followed not the aduise of his followers) was about to rise from the table: but being apprehended by armed men (appointed to that function) he was caried into the court next to the ca|stell, and was there (in reuenge and punishment of his vnbrideled youth) beheaded, with his brother Da|uid, and Malcolme Fleming, who (next vnto his bro|ther) was in greatest credit with him. Whose death the king now entring into his adolescencie or yéers (as we tearme it) of discretion, is said heauilie with teares to lament, which the chancellor (grieuing to sée) did greatlie rebuke in the king such vntimelie and inordinate mourning, for the death of his and the common-wealths enimie, whose life (said hée) would haue taken awaie all peace and tranquillitie in the realme.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 After the death of the said earle, the state of the realme became more quiet: for his vncle Iames Dowglasse baron of Abircorne that succéeded him, being a man of great stature, and verie fat, gaue himselfe to quietnesse, and liued but thrée yeeres af|ter. The foresaid William had but one sister, that was called the faire maiden of Galloway, and was maried to one William Dowglasse, sonne to this earle Iames before his deceasse, that the heritage should not be diuided: bicause the earledome of Dowglasse was intailed vpon the heires male, and the lands of Wigton, Balwanie, Annardale; and Ormont remained to hir as heire generall. This earle William, after the deceasse of his father earle Iames, began to wax vnrulie, and to follow the vn|toward maners of the other William Dowglasse latelie beheaded (as before ye haue heard) so that by support manie disobedient persons would not obeie the gouernor and chancellor, whervpon sundrie great slaughters and oppressions were committed.

Fr. Thin Againe (by the mariage of this earle William with his rich kinswoman) he did (besides his vnrulie behauiour) aduance himselfe in pride, whereof grew secret enuie, and of that rose open malice: but he in|countering sufficientlie with them, partlie by force, & partlie by subtiltie, mainteined his people in those oppressions and robberies, in despite of the proudest: which occasioned the nobilitie to iudge, that the said earle was priuie of their misdemeanor. Amongest which euill disposed companie, there was one Iohn Gormacke of Atholl, who (when he had infected all the countrie about him with this miserable plague of robberie) did set vpon William Ruwene (shiriffe of Perth, and had almost killed him) because he had led a théefe of Atholl to execution. But at the length (true men being alwaies better than théeues) the shi|riffe Buchanan. lib. 11. recouered the battell, and killed the capteine Gormacke, with thirtie of his companie, and put the rest to flight into the mounteins.

In the yéere 1443, not manie daies after, the ca|stell of Dunbreton (which is not by strength to be sub|dued) 1443. was twise taken within a few daies: for Ro|bert Semplier that was capteine of the inferior ca|stell, EEBO page image 271 and Patrike Galbrith capteine of the higher ca|stell, did so diuide their gouernement of the said ca|stell (being a thing of great circuit) that euerie one had a peculiar and seuered entrance into his owne part without offense of the other. But yet these two (as most part of the realme of Scotland then was, and as it alwaies, or most commonlie happeneth in the minoritie of the prince, when euerie one will be a king) wanted not their factions, whome they did fol|low: for Patrike was secretlie thought to fauour Dowglasse, for which cause Semplier, or (as some haue Simplie) the other capteine perceiuing the part of the castell wherein Patrike ruled to be more negligentlie kept, than dutie or the state of the time required, found opportunitie to expell Patrike from thence, and to cause all his furniture to be caried out of the same, conuerting the said castell to his owne vse. In the end (the next day after) Patrike vnder|standing thereof, and comming with foure vnarmed persons (to fetch awaie his furniture and houshold|stuffe) entered into the castell; and first finding the porter alone, turned him awaie, then taking armor, expelled the others out of the higher castell: after which, calling aid out of the towne next adioining, he shut them also out of the inferior castell, and got pos|session of the whole castell to himselfe.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The king, after he came to the age of fouretéene yéeres, would not anie longer be vnder the gouerne|ment 1444. The king wil rule himselfe. of others, but tooke the rule vpon himselfe. The earle of Dowglasse informed thereof, came to him at Striueling, and put himselfe and all he had to re|maine at his pleasure: wherevpon the king receiued him, pardoned all his passed misdemeanors, and ad|mitted him to be one of his speciall friends and pri|uie councellors in all his affaires. By his persuasion shortlie after, sir Alexander Leuingston, & William Creichton being discharged of their offices, were al|so put off from the councell, and all their friends ba|nished the court, and they themselues were summo|ned to appéere before the king: which because they re|fused to doo, they were proclamed rebels, and put to the horne. The earle Dowglasse then for the old grudge he bare them, raised an armie, and harried their lands. In reuenge wherof, sir William Creich|ton spoiled the earle of Dowglasse his lands, so that great trouble was raised through the whole countrie, and the lands of Strabroke, Abircorne, & the towne of Blacknesh were burnt and destroied.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Dowglasse ruled wholie about the king, & made Archembald his brother earle of Mur|rey, 1445. Lesle. by ioining him in mariage with a ladie of the house of Dunbar inheretrix therof. Morouer, Hugh Dowglasse was made earle of Ormont. Thus the earle of Dowglasse aduanced his name, and ioined in friendship with the earle of Crawford, with Do|nald earle of the Iles, and with the earle of Rosse, to the end that ech of them should be assistant to others. In this meane time, the earle of Crawford at the re|quest of the earle of Dowglas, tooke a great preie of goods out of the bishop of S. Andrews lands in Fife, which bishop was called Iames Kenedie, sisters son to king Iames the first: where through the earle of Crawford on the one part, and the earle of Huntleie with the Ogiluies on the other, met at Arbroth in set battell, where the earle of Crawford was slaine, and diuerse barons on his side, although the victorie and field remained with his sonne, the maister of Craw|ford, who succeeded his father, and was called earle Beirdie. On the earle of Huntleies side were slaine, Iohn Forbes of Petslege, Alexander Berkleie of Gartulie, Robert Maxwell of Teline, William Gurdun of Burrowfield, sir Iohn Oliphant of Aber|dagie, and fiue hundred more on their side, and one hundred of the victorers were also slaine, as Hector Boetius saith.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The same writer reporteth that the occasion of this battell did chance, through the variance that fell out betwixt the earle of Crawfords eldest sonne Alexan|der Lindseie, and Alexander Ogilbie or Ogiluie (as some write him) about the office of the bailiffewike of Arbroth, the which the maister of Crawford inioi|eng, was displaced and put out by the said Ogiluie. Wherevpon the maister of Crawford, to recouer his right (as he tooke it) got a power togither with helpe of the Hamiltons, and with the same seized vpon the abbeie, and Ogiluie with helpe of the earle of Hunt|lie, came thither with an armie to recouer the place againe out of his aduersaries hands, and so vpon knowledge héereof giuen vnto the earle of Craw|ford, he himselfe comming from Dundee vnto Ar|broth, at the verie instant when the battels were rea|die to ioine, caused first his sonne to staie; and after calling foorth sir Alexander Ogiluie to talke with him, in purpose to haue made peace betwixt him and his sonne, was thrust into the mouth with a speare, by a common souldier that knew nothing what his demandment, so that he fell downe therewith, and presentlie died in the place: wherevpon togither the parties went incontinentlie without more protrac|ting of time, and so fought with such successe, as be|fore ye haue heard. The earle of Huntleie escaped by flight: but Alexander Ogiluie being taken and sore wounded, was led to the castell of Fineluin, where shortlie after he died of his hurts. This battell was fought the 24 of Ianuarie, in the yéere of our Lord 1445.

Fr. Thin. The king thus ruled by the troope of the Dow|glasses, the earle Dowglasse sent to sir William Creichton knight, to deliuer vp the castell of Eden|burgh. But Creichton (saieng that the castell was 1445. I. Ma. 1446, Lesl. Buchanan. lib. 11. Lesleus lib. 8. pag. 279. committed to his gouernement by the whole realme, and that the king had not anie thing to doo therewith vntill he came to his full age) had all his goods foorth|with confiscat to the kings vse, with his castell of Creichton, which the kings people entered into and possessed. But least they should séeme to offer anie manifest wrong to the said Creichton, they gaue out the same edict (as a veile of their malice and enuie) which Creichton had before caused to be established and proclamed. For he first of all others made a law, that whosoeuer did denie or resist the king, deman|ding the deliuerie of anie castell, should be in danger of treason; the breach and execution of which law did first come and fall by and vpon him, by whome that might be worthilie said (which is vsed to be spoken in common prouerbe) He is fallen into the snare which he prepared for others. Wherevpon the Dowglasse (since the castell would not otherwise be deliuered) sharpelie besieged the same by the space of nine mo|neths, which in the end Creichton surrendered into his hands, on certeine conditions to be performed. At which time also the said Creichton was reinue|sted 1446. Lesle. with the honor of the chancellorship, although he neuer after intangled himselfe with affaires of the kingdome, hoping that in time to come (when the darke clouds of the wicked men, which had now o|uerspread all things, were ouerblowen) a better forme of gouernement would be brought in, as a certeine light to giue shine to the common-wealth.

Iames Steward a woorthie knight (not he that was surnamed The blacke) was slaine at Kirkepa|trike, two miles from Dunbreton, by Alexander Li|lie, and Robert Boid, whose crueltie not being satis|fied Buchan. lib. 11. with his bloud, they laboured to bring his wife (great with child, & vpon point of deliuerance) with|in their danger. For the performance whereof, they sent a priest vnto hir, that (in haste and as it were troubled) should tell hir in what distresse she now re|sted, EEBO page image 272 and that there was no meanes to relieue hir|selfe by anie waie (since euerie place was beset with horsse and footmen) vnlesse she escaped by bote to Ro|bert Boid at Dunbreton, who further vpon oth pro|mised hir, that he would safelie bring hir backe to hir owne house.

The woman being credulous (and ignorant that Robert Boid was present at the death of hir hus|band) and caried out of Cardrosse, into the Dunbre|ton castell, might easilie perceiue hirselfe hardlie be|set on euerie side by the deceipt of hir [...]unnes, who (being so deceiued and ouercome with feare & griefe) was deliuered of child before hir time, and (togither with hir sonne) died there within few houres after. Almõst at the same time, Patrike Hepburne (go|uernour Buchan, lib. 11. of Halis) held the castell of Dunbar, where he had Iane Seimer the quéene with him, to whome she fled for succour in the times of these tumults. Ar|chembald Dunbar (supposing this to be a iust cause of anger) in the night did set vpon Halis the castell of Hepburne, which he tooke at the first assault, by slea|ing of the watch, who being stroken with a great feare for the same, did (in few daies after) restore the same to earle Dowglasse, with couenant that all they which were within, should depart in safetie without anie danger.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Sir Iames Steward surnamed the Blacke knight, husband to the quéene the kings mother, was bani|shed Iames Ste|ward is bani|shed the realme. the realme for speaking woords against the mis|gouernement of the king and realme, wherewith he offended the earle of Dowglasse. As he passed the seas towards Flanders, he was taken by the Fle|mings, & shortlie after departed this life. The quéene He died. his wife being aduertised of his death, died also with|in The quéene died. a while after, and was buried in the Charterhouse of Perth the fiftéenth of Iulie, in the yeere 1446. Hir 1446. name was Iane Summerset, daughter to the earle of Summerset. Iames the first maried hir (as before ye may read) in England. She had by him eight chil|dren, two sonnes, and six daughters, which were all honorablie maried: the first named Margaret, to the Dolphin of France: the second Eleanor, to the duke of Britaine: the third, to the lord of Terueer in Ze|land: the fourth, to the duke of Austrich: the fift, to the earle of Huntleie: and the sixt, to the earle of Mor|ton. And by Iames Steward hir second husband, she had thrée sonnes: Iohn earle of Atholl, Iames earle of Buchquhane, and Andrew bishop of Murrey.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Fr. Thin. After the death of the quéene, Hepburne deliuered the castell of Dunbar (to the king) being emptie, and without companie. ¶ In August, Alexander earle of Crawford did put to death at Toadune Iohn Leon|ton, as an ingratefull person to him, since by his fa|thers helpe he had béene aduanced to great riches, and to the kings affinitie and kinred. Soone after, sir William Creichton, with the bishop of Dunkeld, 1448. Lesle. and Nicholas Oterburne a canon of Glascow, were sent in ambassage vnto the duke of Gelder|land, for his daughter called Marie, to be ioined in mariage with king Iames. Their sute was obteined, King Iames maried a daughter of the duke of Gelderland. and the ladie sent into Scotland noblie accompani|ed with diuerse lords both spirituall and temporall. At hir arriuall she was receiued by the king with great triumph, and the mariage solemnized by the as|sistance of all the nobles of Scotland, with great banketting, ioifull mirth, and all pleasant intertein|ment of those strangers that might be.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the yeere 1447, there was a parlement holden at Edenburgh, in the which sir Alexander Leuing|ston 1447. 1448. Lesle. of Kalendar late gouernour, Iames Dundas and Robert Dundas knights, at the pursute of the earle of Dowglasse were forfalted and condemned to perpetuall prison in Dunbreton, and Iames Le|uingston his eldest sonne, Robert Leuingston trea|suror, and Dauid Leuingston knights, lost the [...] heads. Iames before his execution made a [...] Iames Le|uingsten made an [...]. wise declaration to the standers by, declaring the in|stabilitie of fortune, and change of court, exhorting all persons to beware thereof; sith enuie euer follow|ed high estate, and wicked malice neuer suffered good men to gouerne long. In the same parlement, sir William Creichton was also for falted for diuerse W. Creichton condemned. causes, but principallie for that his seruants would not deliuer the house of Creichton to the kings he|rald, who charged them so to doo. This for falture was concluded in parlement by vertue of an act which the said William (when he was chancellor) caused to be made, and so being the first inuentor, was also the first against whome it was practised.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The yéere next insuing were sundrie incursions Incursions made. made betwixt Scots and Englishmen on the bor|ders, Dunfreis was burnt, and likewise Anwike in 1448. England: but shortlie after a truce was concluded for seuen yéeres, great offers of friendship made by the Englishmen for to haue the wars ceasse on that side, because the warre betwixt them and France was verie hotlie pursued, and ciuill dissention disqui|eted the state of England, which was raised betwixt the two houses of Lancaster & Yorke. Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 8. pag. 300. This yeere there were manie méetings or parlements of the no|bilitie, in which were lawes established for brideling the wicked facts of such as applied themselues to spoi|ling of other men; wherevpon a long peace follow|ed in Scotland: beside which, there were other lawes made for auoiding of treasons, and chieflie of such as touched the kinglie maiestie. This lawe of treason was afterward executed first vpon Dowglasse, which was author thereof. In this parlement were manie earles and lords created, whereof the chiefe were A|lexander 1446. Seton baron of Gordon, who was made earle of Huntleie, and George Leslie baron was made earle of Rothsaie, both men singularlie famed for their wisedome and valure.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The English borderers of the west marches fet|ched Englishmen fetch booties out of Scot|land. a great bootie of cattell out of Scotland, not|withstanding the truce, in reuenge wherof the Scots inuading England, wasted the countrie, burnt 1450. townes and villages, siue the people, & with a great preie of prisoners, goods, and cattell, returned home into Scotland. Heerewith followed dailie rodes and The Scots inuade Eng|land. for raies made on both sides betwixt the Scots and Englishmen, and that with such rage and crueltie, that a great part of Cumberland was in manner laied wast: for on that side the Scots chieflie made their inuasions, because that from thence the first oc|casion of all this mischiefe might séeme to haue had the beginning. When such things were certified to the king of Englands councell, an armie was ap|pointed foorthwith to inuade Scotland, vnder the lea|ding of the earle of Northumberland, and of one A knight na|med Magnus Magnus surnamed Redberd, a capteine of great ex|perience, as he that had beene trained vp from his youth in the warres of France. The Scots, because of his long red berd, called him in scorne and derisi|on, Magnus with the red mane.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Scots hearing of the approch of this armie The earle of Ormont ge|nerall of the Scotish armie towards their borders, leuied a power: George, or rather Hugh Dowglasse earle of Ormont by the kings commission, hauing the conduction thereof, who vnderstanding that the enimies would enter in|to Annardale, drew thither with the said armie to re|sist their attempts. The Englishmen passing ouer The English armie inua|deth Scot|land. the riuer of Sulweie and Annand, came to another riuer called Sarc, & there pitched downe their tents. And on the next day they began to rob and spoile the countrie on ech side: but aduertised that the Scots were at hand with an armie, they that were thus gone foorth, were with all spéed called backe to the EEBO page image 273 campe by sound of trumpet, and foorthwith their ar|mie was brought into order of battell. Magnus with the red mane was appointed to lead the right wing, and sir Iohn Penneinton a verie skilfull warriour gouerned the left wing, in the which the Welshmen Sir Iohn Penneinton. were placed. The battell or middle ward the earle of Northumberland himselfe ruled.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Ormont on the other side ordered his battels in this wise. He appointed a verie vali|ant knight called Wallase of Craggie, with an bar|die number of souldiers to incounter with Magnus. wallase of Craggie. And against the Welshmen he placed the lord Mar|well, and lord Iohnston, with a chosen companie of lustie Scotishmen, and commanding himselfe in the battell or middle ward, had scarse set his people in a|raie, when the trumpets in the English armie began to sound to the battell. He therefore erhorting his men to doo valiantlie, put them in remembrance that The earle of Ormont ex|horteth his armie. they had put on armor, being thereto prouoked by iniurie which their enimies had first offered them, wherevpon they might conceiue good hope of victo|rie by the fauour of the righteous God, who giueth the vpper hand (for the most part) to that side that hath iust cause to make warre. He willed them then to put all feare out of their harts; and as they had force inough to vanquish their enimies that came thus to brag and threaten them with vtter destructi|on: so he besought them to shew no lesse manlike sto|machs to deliuer their countrie by hardie fight from iniurie of the same enimies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 He had no sooner made an end of his speech, but that the arrowes came so thicke from the English ar|chers, The batteil is begun. that the Scots began to looke about them, as it were to see which waie they might best escape by flight. But Wallase perceiuing their faintnesse of courage, with lowd voice reprooued their cowardise, and with most pithie words exhorted them to remem|ber their duties, and to follow the example of him their leader, whome they should perceiue to haue ful|lie vowed to spend his life in defense of his countrie. The Scots heerwith seemed to be so incouraged, that they rushed forward with great egernesse vpon the right wing of the Englishmen where Magnus stood, and so laied about them with speares, axes, and such like hand weapons, that with great slaughter they draue the Englishmen to breake [...]raie and to flee: Magnus heerewith being more chafed than afraid, as should appéere, preassed forward vpon Wallase with great violence, and séeking to approch vnto him that he might haue wroken his griefe vpon him, was inclosed among the Scotish troopes, and slaine with a few other of his friends and seruants that fol|lowed Magnus is slaine. him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The slaughter of this man, in whome consisted no small hope of victorie on the English part, put the re|sidue of their armie in such feare, that they were not able longer to resist the Scotishmens violent im|pression, but turning their backs fled amaine, whom The English men put to [...]ight. the Scots pursued in chase verie fiercelie, so that ma|nie of the Englishmen died in the battell, but more now in the chase: for the tide being come in, staied manie of them that made their course to haue esca|ped thorough the riuer, whereby diuerse that ventu|red into the water were drowned: & other that durst not take the water, were oppressed by the [...] that followed them. There died in this batteil of English men, to the number néere hand of three thousand, and The number [...]. amongest other, Magnus (as before ye haue heard) with eleuen other knights of no small account and estimation. Of Scots were [...]ost somewhat aboue six hundred. There were taken prisoners of English|men Prisoners ta|ken. sir Iohn Penneinton, and sir Robert Haring|ton knights, and the lord Persie, sonne to the earle of Northumberland, who holpe his father to horshacke, whereby he escaped by flight: & beside these, a great The earle of Northumber|land escapeth by flight. number of other were by the Scots taken prisoners, whome the sword and water had spared.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The earle of Ormont hauing got this honorable victorie, conueied the chiefest of the prisoners to the castle of Lochmaben, and after repaired to the court, where he was of the king ioifullie receiued, honora|blie feasted, and highlie rewarded. After this, the Scots that dwelled vpon the borders, liued for a season in better quiet: for though the Englishmen wished to haue beene reuenged for this losse and o|uerthrow of their people, yet by reson of ciuill wars that shortlie after followed, they were constreined to forbeare to make anie further wars against the Scots, till better occasion might serue. And for the 1448. Buch. 1450. Lesl. A truce for three yeares betweene England and Scotland. auoiding of danger that might insue in time of this intestine trouble by forren enimies, they sued to haue a truce with the Scots, which for the terme of thrée yeares was granted. In this yeare, William earle of Dowglasse, with a great companie of no|bles and gentlemen, as the lords Hamilton, Graie, Salton, S [...]ton, and Oliphant; also, Calder, Urqu|hart, The earle of Dowglasse goeth into Italie. Cambell, Frasier, and Lauder, knights, went into Italie, and was at Rome in time of the Iubi|le which was kept there that yeare. He left behind him to gouerne his lands in Scotland, Pugh earle of Ormont that was his brother: but in his absence (by counsell of such as were about him) the king summoned the erle to appeare before him within 40 daies; & because he came not within that set time, he was put to the horne, & his lands inuaded & spoiled.

Fr. Thin. Wherevpon the king sent William Sentelare earle of Orcades at that time chancellor first into Galloway, and then into Dowglasse, where he ap|pointed collectors to take vp (to the kings vse) the re|uenues Buchan. of the Dowglasse. But when Sentelare was not of sufficient strength to performe what he would, because some & the most part reiected (though others imbraced) him, he returned home without dooing anie thing. Wherewith the king greatlie mo|ued (because he saw his authoritie contemned called all the Dowglasses into law, and declared them publike enimies and detractors of his gouernement. And therevpon (prouiding an armie against them) he goeth into Galloway: where, at their first com|ming (since their capteins were all in prison) a small part of the armie (séeing the enimies dispersed in|to rougher parts of the countrie to hide themselues) turned backe to the king without anie thing doone. Whereat the king highlie offended (in that such wandering théeues should so lightlie dare to con|temne his power) followed them into their starting holes and caues, and with no great labor tooke the castell of Lochmaben, reducing the countrie of Dowglasse (with extreame labor of his soldiors) to his subiection, at what time he leuelled the castell thereof equall with the ground.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle aduertised hereof, with all spéed retur|ned home through England, and sent his brother Iames vnto the king, to know his pleasure: who commanding the earle to sée his countries (namelie Annandale) purged of theeues and robbers, pardo|ned him of all offenses, and receiued him into fauor againe, so that he was also estsoones proclamed the kings lieutenant; but shortlie after going into Eng|land The earle of Dowglasse goeth into England without li|cence of the king of Scots without the kings licence, to common with the king of England about the recouerie of losses sustei|ned by the Englishmen by certeine inrodes (as he alleged) the king tooke the matter in verie euill part, for that he should séeme so to be had in contempt of the earle: and withall he mistrusted also, least there were some secret practises in hand to the preiudice of him and his realme: so that he stormed not a little towards the earle. Who being thereof aduertised, EEBO page image 274 came in humble wise to the king, & besought him of The earle of Dowglasse sueth for par|don. pardon, if he had in anie wise offended him, assu|ring him that from thencefoorth, he would neuer commit anie act that might tend to his maiesties displeasure.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Herewith the quéene also and other noble men made sute to the king for the earles pardon, so that in the end he was receiued againe into fauor, but yet discharged of bearing anie publike office, which pinched him so sore (namelie for that his aduersaries William Chreichton lord chancellor, and the earle of Orkneie séemed to beare all the rule about the king) He enuieth those that bare rule a|bout the king. that he sought to dispatch the chancellor, procuring certeine of his seruants and friends to assault him on a morning as he was comming foorth of Eden|burgh, but yet he escaped to his castell of Chreich|ton, He séeketh to destroie the L. chancellor. although wounded in déed right sore, and with|in few daies after, gathering a power of his kins|men, friends, & alies, he returned againe to Eden|burgh, and had destroied (as was thought) the earle of Dowglasse at that present, if he had not shifted away the more spéedilie, who being thus to his great The Dow|glasse con|strained to flée out of E|denburgh. He maketh a part. gréefe, and no small dishonor chased out of Eden|burgh, deuised which way he might best be reuenged; and for the more easie accomplishment of his pur|pose, he procured the earles of Crawford and Rosse to ioine with him in that quarell against Chreichton and other his complices, by force of which confedera|cie they couenanted to assist one another against the malice of the said Chreichton, and all other their aduersaries.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Dowglas hauing concluded this bond of confederacie, bare himselfe verie high, in presu|ming The earle of Dowglasse presumeth of assistance at the hands of his friends. The Lord Herres his lands spoiled further thereof than stood with reason: and this was one great cause of the kings displeasure now passinglie increased against the said earle. An other cause was this: a sort of théeues and robbers brake into the lands of the lord Iohn Herres, a noble man, and one that had continued euer faithfull to the king, taking with them out of the same lands a great boo|tie of cattell. And whereas the said lord Herres com|plained vnto the earle of Dowglasse of that wrong, because the offendors were inhabiting within his roome, and yet could haue no redresse; he attemp|ted to fetch out of Annardale some preie, wherewith to satisfie in part the wrong which had béene offered him by those limmers and robbers. But such was his euill hap, that taken he was with his retinue, and committed to prison, and shortlie after by com|mandement of the earle of Dowglasse he was han|god as a fellon, notwithstanding that the king by an The Lord Herres han|ged. herald commanded the contrarie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The king being fore offended herewith (as he had no lesse cause) passed ouer his displeasure with si|lence, till he saw time and opportunitie to reuenge the same: but in the meane season manie an honest man bought the bargaine right déerelie, being spoi|led of that he had, and otherwise euill intreated, and yet durst not the meaner sort once complaine for feare of further mischiefe: where the higher powers also sore lamented the great disorders dailie increa|sing, and yet were not able in anie wise to reforme the same, insomuch as it was greatlie doubted, least The confede|racie mistru|sted. the earles of Dowglasse, Crawford, Rosse, Mur|rey, and other of that faction ment to put the king beside his seat. Which dout being put into the kings head, brought him into no small perplexitie, where|vpon by courteous messages he sent for the earle of The king sen|deth for the earle of Dow|glasse. Dowglasse, willing him to repaire to his presence, soiourning then in Striueling castell, which he refu|sed to doo, till he had assurance vnder the kings great seale for his safe comming and going (as some haue said.) And then about Shrouetide in the yeare 1451, he came to the court at Striueling, where the king 1451. tooke him aside, & in secret talke moued and reque|sted him to forsake the league and bond of friendship betwixt him and the earle of Crawford, and other such his confederats.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 There was a secret murmuring amongst a num|ber, that this earle of Dowglasse purposed to make a proofe on a day to get the garland beside the kings head. In déed by reason of his kinsmen and alies, he was of more puissance in the realme, than (as it was thought) stood with the suertie of the kings e|state, vnlesse he were the more faithfull. He had at the same time two brethren that were also earles, as Earles of the surname of the Dowglasses. Archembald earle of Murrey, and Hugh, or (as o|ther haue) George earle of Ormont, beside the earle of Angus, and the earle of Mortoune, that were of The linage and great ali|ance of the Dowglasses. his surname and bloud, with a great number of o|ther lords, knights, and men of great possessions and liuings, all of the same surname, and lincked in friendship and aliance with other the chiefest lina|ges of all the realme. Hereto (by reason there had béene so manie valiant men and woorthie capteins of the Dowglasses one after another, as it had béene by succession) the people and commons of Scotland The loue that the people bare toward the name of the Dow|glasses. bare such good will and fauour towards that name, that they were readie to ride and go with them, they cared not whither, nor against whome. It is said, that the earles of Dowglasses might haue raised thirtie or fortie thousand warlike persons readie at their commandement, whensoeuer it had pleased them to call. In déed the Dowglasses had euer the gouerne|ment of all matters perteining vnto the defense of the realme, so that the men of war had them still in all the estimation and honor that might be.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 But now to the purpose, touching the conference had betwixt king Iames the second, and the earle of The earle of Dowglas an|swereth the king ouer|thwartlie, and is slaine. Dowglasse: it chanced in the end (vpon what occa|sion I know not) that the earle answered the king somewhat ouerthwartlie, wherewith the king tooke such indignation, that the earle herevpon was slaine by him, and such other as were there about him, on Shroue éeuen. Then after the earle was thus made 1442. Buch. His brethren make warre against the king. awaie, his brethren made open warre against the king, and slue all such of his friends and seruants, as they might incounter with: insomuch that those which trauelled by the high waies, were in doubt to confesse whether they belonged to the king, or to the Dowglasses. The Lord of Cadzow being in the towne of Sriueling, with a great companie of the earle of Dowglasses friends, in reuenge of his Striueling is burnt. death incontinentlie burnt that towne, and did ma|nie other great displeasures to the king and his sub|iects, setting foorth proclamations against the king and his councell, for the violating of the assurance granted (as before is said) to the earle of Dowglas.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Fr. Thin. Buchan. li. 11. And that with such despite, as in the 6 kalends of Aprill, binding a woodden trunchion to an horsse taile, they fa [...]en ther to the safe conduct of the king and the nobles, which they forbeare not to traile vp and downe the stréets (not sparing to reuile the king) with bitter and heauie words of contumelie and ex|clamation. With which not satisfied, when they were come into the market place, they did with the noise of fiue hundred hornes, and by the mouth of a crier, proclame the king and all such as were about him, faithbreakers, periured, and such persons as were to be denounced enimies of all goodnesse and good men. And yet supposing this not a sufficient reuenge to quench the furie of their rebellious minds, they run with like rage, and with like order doo spoile the countries & possessions of all such as tooke part with the king, and stedfastlie remained in the execution of their obedient [...]tte. For they besieged the castell of Dalketh, binding themselues (as coniured and per|iured enimies of all vertue) not to depart from EEBO page image 275 thence before they had taken and spoiled the same being grieuouslie offended with Iohn the lord of that place, bicause that he with the earle of Angus had seuered themselues from the opinion & faction of the Dowglasses, whose furie (growing still to extre|mitie) fo [...]nd such support (by the inclining multituds) that the king was put to his shifts) that he was de|termined to haue left the realme, and to haue fled by sea into France, had not Iames Kenedie the bishop The king would haue [...]d. of saint Andrews caused him to staie, on the hope he had of assistance onelie by the earle of Huntleie, which earle hearing that the Dowglasses had gathe|red an armie in the south against the king, raised an other armie in the north to aid the king.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 On the other side the earle of Crawford, hauing assembled a great power, incountered him at Brei|thu [...], in purpose to stop the earle of Huntleies pas|sage, where betwixt them was fought a sore battell, and the earle of Crawford chased into Finwin, so that manie noble [...]; gentlemen, and commons were slaine, and amongest other the earle of Craw|fords brother was one: Hector Boetius writeth, that Iohn Cullace of Bannamwin, whome the earle of Cullace of Bannamwin betraieth the [...]le of Craw|ford. Crawford had appointed to lead thei [...] that bare the battell ares, or (as I maie terme them) the bilmen, in the left wing of his armie, fled of purpose in the hotest of the fight, & so left the midle ward naked on the one side of the chiefest aid that the said earle had, and so the victorie by that meanes onelie inclined to The earle of Huntleie victor [...]r. the kings standard, which the earle of Huntleie had there with him. But howsoeuer it was, the said erle of Huntleie had the honor of the field, who neuerthe|lesse lost diuerse of his men also, though nothing so manie as his aduersaries did. This battell was fought the eightéenth of Maie, being the Ascension day, 1452.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Huntleie the same day before the 1452. battels ioined, gaue lands to the principall men of those surnames that were with him, as to the For|besses, Leslies, Iouings, Ogiluies, Grants, and di|uerse other. Which bountifulnesse of the earle made them to fight more valiantlie. In recompense wher|of Lands giuen to the earle of Huntleie. the king gaue to the said earle the lands of Bad|zenot & Lochquhaber. In the meane time, Archem|bald Dowglas earle of Murrey burnt the peill of The earle of Murrey. Straboggie, perteining to the erle of Huntleie, and haried the lands thereabouts. In reuenge wherof, the erle of Huntleie at his returning backe, burnt & ha|ried all the lands of the earledome of Murrey. In the meane time, at a parlement holden at Edenburgh, The earle of Crawford [...]orfeited. the earle of Crawford was denounced a traitor, and all his lands and goods deemed to be forfeited into the kings hands. Iames earle of Dowglas, Iames Lords cited to appeare. Lord Hammilton, the earles of Murrey, and Or|mont, the lord of Baluay, and manie other of that faction, were by publike proclamation made by an herald, commanded to appeare by a day to vnderlie the law. But in the next night that followed the day of this proclamation, certeine of the Dowglasses seruants that were sent priuilie to Edenburgh, to vnderstand what was doone there, fastened writings Writings set by in cotempt o [...] the king. vpon the church doores, sealed with the Dowglasses seale in this forme. The earle from hencefoorth will neither obeie citation, nor other commandement. Beside this, in the same writings, they charged the king with manie heinous crimes, calling him a murtherer, periured, false, and a bloudsucker.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The king therefore assembled an armie, and went foorth against them: but bicause the time of the yéere was contrarie to his purpose, he could doo no great hurt to his enimies, although he burnt vp their corne, and droue awaie their cattell. But the Dow|glas séemed to passe little for the kings malice, and the erle himselfe maried his brothers wife the coun|tesse Beatrice, & sent to Rome for a licence to haue The earle of Dowglas [...]|rieth his bro|thers wife. that mariage made lawfull: but by the kings agents in that court, the earles sute might not be obteined. Neuerthelesse, he kept hir still in place of his wife, and continuing in rebellion against the king, the next spring, and for the more part of the tearm [...] of two yéeres next insuing, he ha [...] and spoiled [...] kings possessions; and the king on the other part wa|sted [...], and all other the lands and possessi|ons that belonged to the said earle of Dowglas or his friends but shortlie after, as the king passed through Angus, to go into the north parts of the rea [...]ie, the earl [...] of Crawford came and submitted The earle of Crawford sub mitteth him|selfe to the king, and is pardoned. He departed this [...]fe. 1455. Buch. himselfe vnto him, crauing [...] in most humble and lamentable wise, and obteined the kings par|don thorough mediation of Iames Kenedie bishop of saint Andrews, and sir William Creichton; but the said earle liued not past six moneths after, de|parting this life by force of an hot ague in the yeere 1454.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The same yeere, the king called a parlement at 1454. Edenburgh, in the which Iames earle of Dowglas, A parlement. and his brothers wife the countesse Beatrice (whome he had taken to him by waie of a pretensed & fe [...] mariage) Archembald Dowglas earle of Murrey, The Dow|glasses forfal|ted, or (as I may say) at|teinted. George Dowglas earle of Ormont, and Iohn Dowglas baron of Baluay, were forfalted & con|demned of treason. The earledome of Murrey was giuen to sir Iames Creichton, or rather restored to him from whome it had béene wrongfullie taken by the vniust sentence of William earle of Dowglas, who had procured it to be assigned vnto his brother the forsaid Archembald, though the right remained in the said sir Iames Creichton. But yet when the said sir Iames Creichton could not kéepe that earldome without enuie of diuerse and sundrie persons, hée handled the matter so, that shortlie after it returned againe to the kings hands. Moreouer at this parle|ment, Creations of noble men. George Creichton was created erle of Cath|nesse, & William Haie constable of Scotland was made earle of Erroll. There were also diuerse crea|ted lords of the parlement, whose titles were as fol|low; Darlie, Halis, Boid, Lile, and Lorne. After the breaking vp of the parlement, the king made a iour|nie against his aduersaries into Galloway, and with small adoo brought all the castels of that coun|trie into his possession, and then turning into Dow|glasdale, Dowglasdale giuen in spoile to the men of warre. bicause the inhabitants thereof would not obeie him, he abandoned the spoile thereof vnto his souldiors, who practised no small crueltie against the inhabitants.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Here vpon the Dowglasses being driuen to their shifts, the lord Iames Hammilton of Cadzow was sent from them into England to sue for aid, but in vaine, for none there would be granted: wherevpon returning to his friends, he counselled the earle of Dowglas to trust to his owne forces; and sith the same were farre superior in number of men to the kings power, he gaue likewise counsell without de|laie, The counsell of the lord Hammilton. to set vpon the king, that the matter might bée tried by chance of battell, the onelie meane to assure them of their liues and estates, for otherwise he saw not how anie vnfeined agreement might be con|cluded, the matter being now passed so farre foorth to an extremitie. But the earle of Dowglas vtterlie (as some write) refused to fight against his soue|reigne Io. Maior. and true liege lord, if any other meane might be found. Wherevpon diuerse great lords which were with him there on his side, being men of great wit, and no lesse experience, aduised him yet to keepe to|gither his host, till by their trauell and assistance a peace were concluded, and pardon obteined for all parts: for if the armie were once broken vp, all hope was then past (as they alledged) for anie indifferent EEBO page image 276 conditions of peace to be obteined.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Herewith also, the lord Hammilton being wiser The lord Hammilton departeth from the Dowglas. than the residue, bad the Dowglas farewell, and so departed, concluding that he should neuer sée so faire a day againe, wherein he might haue cast the dice for the whole kingdome. And being thus depar|ted from the Dowglas, he repaired to the king as then lieng at the siege of Abircorne, who sent him to the castell of Rosleine, there to remaine vnder safe kéeping with the earle of Orkenie, to whom the said castell belonged: but at length, the king did not on|lie pardon the lord Hãmilton of all passed offenses, but also receiued him into such fauor, that he gaue him his eldest daughter in mariage, as after shall appeare. But now vpon the withdrawing thus of the said lord Hammilton from the Dowglas, bi|cause The earle of Dowglas his companie shrinketh from him. the king had set foorth an open proclamation of pardon to all those that would forsake the earle of Dowglas, the most part of the same earles compa|nie departed from him, by reason whereof he fled into England, togither with his brethren. The king He withdraw|eth into Eng|land. lieng at the siege of Abircorne, lost diuerse of his men, besides manie that were wounded; but yet ta|king first a strong tower, being one of the chiefest limmes of that fortresse, shortlie after hee wan the rest.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The earle of Dowglas being withdrawue (as yée haue heard) into England, within a while after got togither certeine companies of men, and with the same returned againe into Scotland by the west He inuadeth Scotland. borders, in hope to find friends in those parties: but such as the king had appointed there to defend the countrie, assembling themselues togither, and set|ting vpon him, discomfited his people, slue his bro|ther The earle of Dowglas dis|comfited. Archembald Dowglas earle of Mur|rey slaine. Earle of Or|mont taken. Donald earle of Rosse. Archembald, and tooke the erle of Ormont priso|ner, being first sore wounded. The baron of Baluay escaped into a wood, and so got away. The earle him|selfe also (as Hector Boetius saith) escaped by flight, and got vnto Dunstafage, where finding Donald earle of Rosse and lord of the Iles, he procured him (being of nature inclined and readie inough to fol|low such counsell) to make warre in his fauour a|gainst the king. And after he had once set him on worke, he got him backe againe into England. Do|nald wasted not onelie the kings possessions that lay néere to Dunstafage, but also passing through Argile, did much hurt in all places where he came. He inua|ded also the Ile of Arrane, and chased the bishop of Lismore, constreining him to take sanctuarie. This doone, he entered into Lochquhabir, & so into Mur|rey land, where he burnt the towne of Inuer nes, and wan the castell by a guilefull traine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the meane time, the earle of Ormont after he was recouered of his hurts (as the said Boetius wri|teth) was presented to the king, and after he had re|mained in prison a certeine time, he was at length The earle of Ormont be|headed. beheaded. Moreouer the countesse Beatrice, after she saw no hope left that the earle of Dowglas should recouer his former estate, came to the king, and submitted hirselfe, laieng all the blame in the The countes of Dowglas Beatrice sub|mitteth hir selfe to the K. The countes of Ros. earle, who had procured hir vnto such vnlawfull ma|riage with him, being hir former husbands brother. The king receiued hir right courteouslie, and gaue to hir the baronie of Baluay, to mainteine therwith hir estate. Shortlie after also the countesse of Rosse fled from hir husband, & came to the king for feare of hir husbands crueltie, wherof partlie she had alreadie tasted. The king because he had made the mariage betwixt hir and hir husband, assigned hir foorth suffi|cient reuenues also for the maintenance of hir estate. About the same time Patrike Thornton one Patricke Thornton. of the kings seruants, but a fauourer of the Dow|glasse, slue Iohn Sandlands of Calder the kings cousine, and Alane Steward at Dunbreton, for that they fauored the contrarie faction: but the king get|ting the offendor into his hands, caused him and his complices to die for their wicked offense commit|ted. The vniuersitie of Glascow was founded a|bout The vniuersi|tie of Glascow founded. this time by one Turnbull, bishop of that see. In the yeere following, died William Haie earle of Erroll, and constable of Scotland: also George 1455. Death of no|ble men. Creichton earle of Catnes, and William Creich|ton chiefe of that familie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In this meane while, the earle of Dowglas re|maining in England, procured the Englishmen di|uers times to make rodes into Scotland, wherby he lost (as the Scotish writers affirme) the loue of his owne countrimen, when they saw him thus ioine with the Englishmen, to the damage of his natiue land. At one time, Henrie earle of Northumber|land, and the said earle of Dowglas inuaded the Mers, but taking little héed to themselues, and suffe|ring their people to ride abrode to harie the countrie without order; Dowglas earle of Angus with a mightie armie of Scotishmen set vpon them, and put them to flight, sleaing diuers, and taking to the number of seuen hundred prisoners. Thus (as should appeare) the earle of Dowglas in vaine sought to dis|quiet his countrie, for all his friends in Scotland continued faithfull to the king, who had granted peace to all other of the Dowglasses and their com|plices: for it was Gods will the matter should be taken vp without more bloudshed, that the right line of the Scotish kings might be preserued. [For (as Fr. Thin. it appeareth) he was amongst the English inuading 1454. Lesleus. lib. 8. pag. 305. Scotland, subdued and taken by the barons Iohn|ston and Cokpull, who presented him vnto the king, wherevpon the king after a sort banished him into the monasterie of Lendore, where he was bounti|fullie and honorablie receiued (according to his no|bilitie) of the religious persons, in which place he li|ued manie yreres, and then died.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 And though the almightie God might haue brought that to passe by other meanes, according as it should haue pleased his good will and omnipotent power; yet he chose this way, whereby the effusion of much bloud might be auoided, which by ciuill battell had béene spilled, if the parties hauing their harts fil|led with rancor & ire, had buckled togither in battell. But the K. vsing the aduise of his kinsman Iames Iames Kene|die archbish. of S. Andrews, chéefe chan|cellor to the king. Kenedie archbishop of S. Andrews, compassed his purpose in the end, dispatching out of the way such as he anie waies foorth mistrusted, of which number namelie were the Dowglasses, whose puissance and authoritie not without cause he euermore suspected. Many haue reported (as before is said) that in the be|ginning king Iames the second, through feare of the great power of these Dowglasses, was in mind to haue fled the realme, but being recomforted by the counsell and authoritie of the said bishop Iames Ke|nedie, he aduanced his studie to matters of greater importance.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The said Kenedie turned the earle of Angus, be|ing of the surname of the Dowglasses, and brother to him by his mother, to take part with the king. He The practise of bishop Kenedie. procured also diuers other of the same bloud and sur|name, to reuolt from the other confederats, and to submit themselues vpon promise of pardon vnto the kings mercie; and so infeebling the forces of such as were aduersaries to the king, in the end he had them all at his pleasure. It was thought, that forso|much as the Dowglasses had their lands lieng so vpon the west and middle marches of the realme, (that no man might beare anie rule in those parts, Great power cause of suspi|cion. but onelie they themselues) if they had happilie ioi|ned with the Englishmen, considering the great in|telligence beside, which they had in all other parts of the realme, what by kinred and aliance, the realme EEBO page image 277 might haue fallen into great perill: for trulie it is a dangerous thing (as Io. Maior saith) for the estate of a realme to haue men of great power and authoritie inhabiting on the borders and vttermost parts ther|of. For if they chance (vpon anie occasion giuen) to renounce their obedience to their naturall prince & supreme gouernor, the preiudice may be great and irrecouerable, that oftentimes thereof insueth; as well appeareth in the earles of March, and other be|fore mentioned in this historie: and likewise in France by the duke of Burgognie, Britaine, and Normandie: for till those countries were incorpo|rated and annexed vnto the crowne of France, the kings of that realme were oftentimes put to great hinderance through rebellion by them, whome they accounted for their subiects.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 But now to returne where I left. After the Dow|glasses were once dispatched, and things quieted, King Iames the second began then to reigne and rule reallie, not doubting the controlment of anie other person. For then he ordeined lawes for his Lawes or| [...]ned. people as seemed best to his liking, commanding the same to be kept vnder great penalties and forfei|tures. And being counselled chieflie by the bishop of saint Andrews, Iames Kenedie that was his vncle, and the earle of Orkenie, he passed through all the A generall pardon granted. parts of his realme, granting a generall pardon of all offenses passed. And so he ruled and gouerned his subiects in great quietnesse, and caused iustice so du|lie to be ministred on all sides, that it was said in his daies, how he caused the rash bush to kéepe the cow. In the yéere 1455, the king held a parlement, in 1455 A parlement holden. which were manie good lawes made and established for the weale of all the realme, as in the bookes of the acts of parlement is conteined. He vsed the matter also in such wise with the principall capteins of the The Iles & high land quietlie go|uerned. Iles, and of the hie lands, that the same were as qui|etlie gouerned, as anie part of the low lands, shew|ing all obedience as well in paieng such duties as they owed to the king for their lands, as also in rea|dinesse to serue in the warres with great compa|nies of men, as became them to doo: speciallie Do|nald Donald earle [...] Rosse, and lord of the Iles. lord of the Iles and earle of Rosse, who had be|fore ioined himselfe in confederacie with the earles of Dowglas and Crawford against the king, and had taken into his hands the kings house, and castell of Inuernesse (as before ye haue head) naming him|selfe king of the Iles.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Neuerthelesse, he was now at length reconciled to the king, and gaue pledges for his good demeanor, and afterwards brought to the king three thousand men in aid at the siege of Roxburgh Fr. Thin. Buchanan. lib. 11. whose recon|ciliation was after this maner. When this Do|nald perceiued aduerse fortune to besiege him on euerie side, he sent messengers to the king, crauing peace and pardon for himselfe and for his offenses. Who comming before the king (and with manie humble spéeches, remembring the manie parts of clemencie which the king had vsed to the earle of Crawford, and such as followed his faction) they did so purge the fault of Donald (by transferring the same to the fatall rage and iniurie of the present times, and by promising in his behalfe that hereafter he should line most quietlie in dutifull obedience) that they mooued the kings mind to haue compas|sion vpon him.

But yet the king answered in a meane sort betwéene both, not vtterlie pardoning, nor flat|lie reiecting him:

for (saith he) there be yet manie [...]hewes extant of his wickednesse, and he hath not giuen foorth anie one token of a changed mind. Wherefore, to the end that we may beléeue the same to be true (which you haue promised in his be|halfe) heereafter to become a dutifull subiect and lo|uing neighbour to vs, and to those which are about him, he must with repentance (procéeding from an vnfeined toong) craue pardon from vs whome he hath greeuouslie offended, and (with sufficient restitution) recompense those whome (by spoiling) he had iniu|red: besides which also, he must with some woorthie exploit wipe awaie the memorie and blot of all his former committed wickednes. And although I well know that no dertue dooth more beséemes kinglie maiestie than clemencie, yet we ought so to prouide, that (measuring all things by the line of reason) the wicked wax not so proud and rebellious (by ouer|much lenitie and loose gouernement) as she good may be excited to the honest performance of their dutie by fauour and iustice. Wherefore I will inioine a time to Donald, and the rest of his associats, wherein they may openlie shew some deeds of an altered dispositi|on, and from hence foorth we will so account of him, as his woorks and not his woords shall iustifie him to be. But in the meane time, I will him to rest in qui|et, leauing it in the power of him and his, whether I, he, and they, will héereafter be accounted (by due deserts) happie or miserable. Which said, the messen|gers departed, and Donald rested satisfied.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the meane while great dissention rose in Eng|land betwéene the two houses of Lancaster & Yorke; the king being principall of the house of Lancaster, was taken himselfe at the battell of saint Albons. But the queene with hir sonne the prince, and Hen|rie Dissention in England. the yoong duke of Summerset, with diuers other fled into the north parts of England, and sent to the king of Scotland to desire him of aid, who vpon good aduise taken with his councell, for that king Henrie had euer kept well the peace with the realme of Scotland, and also for reuenge of his vncle the duke of Summerset his death, prepared an armie of twentie thousand men to passe into England: and in the meane time all the north parts of Eng|land, hearing that king Iames was readie to sup|port the quéene of England, ioined with hir, and past forward into the south parts, constreining the duke of Yorke to flée the realme, and so king Henrie in|ioied the gouernement of his realme againe, and for that time concluded an agreement with the duke of Yorke his aduersarie; which lasted not long.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The duke of Yorke remembring how readie king Iames was to prepare an armie in support of his aduersarie king Henrie, procured the borderers to make incursions vpon the Scotish subiects, & would suffer no redresse to be had, nor daies of truce to be kept on the borders, as in time of peace the custome was. Wherevpon king Iames raised a power, and King Iames inuadeth England. in person entered with the same into England, doo|ing great hurt by destroieng diuers townes, castels and peiles in Northumberland, the bishoprike and o|ther parts, till at length vpon faire promises made by the Englishmen, he returned into his owne coun|trie. [At this time, the art of printing was first in|uented Fr. Thin Lesleus lib. 8. pag. 308. The art of printing first inuented. in the citie of Mentz in Germanie, but whe|ther to great commoditie or discommoditie of lear|ning, I leaue to the iudgement of others, saith Les|leus.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this, king Henrie of England, perceiuing 1458. that the duke of Yorke by the counsell of the earle of Warwike, ceassed not to practise conspiracies a|gainst him, sent eftsoones to king Iames, requiring him of aid against them, and promised therefore to re|store vnto the king of Scotland the lands in Nor|thumberland, Cumberland, the bishoprike of Du|resme, and such like, which the kings of Scotland had held before. This offer was accepted, and by treaties and contracts accorded, sealed, and interchanged be|twixt the two princes (as the Scotishmen alledge.) The yéere next following, at the quéene of Englands 1459. EEBO page image 278 desire to support hir against the house of Yorke, king Iames with a great armie entered England, but af|ter that the queene in the meane time had slaine the duke of Yorke, & got the vpper hand of hir enimies, at the same quéenes request, he retired into Scot|land againe. Neuerthelesse shortlie after, when the earles of March and Warwike sought still to main|teine their quarrell against the quéene of England, she was constreined to withdraw into the north parts, and to desire king Iames to approch estsoones 1460. with his armie vnto the borders: which he did, mea|ning to win the castels of Rocksburgh and Warke, which were amongest other things promised to be deliuered vnto him by king Henrie, and so comming to Rocksburgh, laied his armie round about that ca|stell, and planted his siege in full warlike manner.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Héere the king hauing great experience in know|ledge of shooting great artillerie, departed from his campe, accompanied with the earle of Angus, and o|thers, and came to the trenches where the great ordi|nance was planted, which he caused to be shot off. And héere by great misfortune, this woorthie prince King Iames the second is slaine. Iames the second, was slaine by the slice of a great péece of artillerie, which by ouercharging chanced to breake, and siue not onelie the king standing some|what néere it, but also hurt the earle of Angus, with other: being a notable president from hencefoorth, how such great princes approch so néere within dan|ger of such péeces of ordinance, when they are shot off. He was thus killed the third day of August, in Alias 17. 23. Buchan. 1460. The buriall of Iames the second. The lamen|tation of the people. the yéere of his life 29, of his reigne 24, and after the incarnation 1460. His bodie was buried with all funerall obsequies according to his estate, within the monasterie of Holie rood house at Edenburgh, the people generallie lamenting his death with no lesse sorow and dolefull mone, than as is séene in a priuat house for the deceasse of the welbeloued mai|ster and owner thereof.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 In time of warre, amongest his subiects in the campe, he behaued himselfe so gentlie towards all The amiable conditions of Iames the se|cond. men, that they séemed not to feare him as their king, but to reuerence & loue him like a father. He would ride vp and downe amongest them, and eat & drinke with them, euen as he had béene fellowlike with the meanest. He had issue by his wife quéene Marie thrée The issue of Iames the second. Iames the third king of Scotland. Alexander duke of Al|banie. Iohn earle of Mar. sonnes, and two daughters. His eldest sonne named Iames, succeeded him in the kingdome; the second named Alexander, was created duke of Albanie; and his third sonne called Iohn, was made earle of Mar. The eldest of his daughters the Hammilton had in mariage (as before is said) and also after shall be mentioned.

*All the time of the reigne of this king, christian religion did greatlie flourish amongest the Scots: for there were amongest them twelue notable and famous bishops, whereof the chiefest were Iames Kennedie bishop of saint Andrewes, Turnebull bi|shop of Glascow, Thomas Spenser bishop of Aber|den, and Henrie Lichton bishop of Murrey. At what time likewise there were manie religious abbats that kept such great houses, as both the nobilitie and communaltie trauelling through out the kingdome, did neuer almost lodge in anie publike hosterie, but in the monasteries: which were neuer vexed or spoi|led, during the time of the ciuill warres of the king|dome. Beside these men of eminent learning, there flourished also Nicholas Deidone, and Iohn Eld|maire, singular diuines, with manie other doctors laudablie seene in all kind of learning. In the reigne of which king also, Charles the 7, king of France, Lesleus lib. 8. pag. 300. for singular seruice doone vnto him by the Scots, in the warres (betwéene the English and the French) did honorablie indow manie of the Scots (for recom|pense thereof) with manie rich possessions in A|quitaine, who by that meanes (setling themselues in that countrie) were the originall of manie woorthie families of that prouince, amongest which is that fa|mous kinred of Caldell de la Campania in Tolou|se, at this time greatlie flourishing, which had his be|ginning from Caldell a thane (or baron) being knight in the north parts of Scotland: for the grand|father of him which is now liuing, head of that house did inioy the place of magistrat or ruler of the Ca|pitoline in that citie, hauing that title confirmed to his posteritie. This mans sonne Peter Caldell be|ing a senator in the high court of Tolouse (common|lie called the parlement) was for his singular lear|ning and wisedome had in great honor of all men during his life, which stretched to extreame age. In whose place came Iohn (the eldest sonne of the said Peter) who dooth at this day possesse the roome of his father, as a senator of the said court of Tolouse. And his other children with great honor are indued with other offices of gouernement in the said citie.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Some strange sights there appéered before the death of this king Iames the second: for the day be|fore he was slaine, a blazing star was plainlie séene, A blasing starre. which signified (as was thought) the death of the said king. In the yéere before the siege, there was in Dundee an hermophrodyt, that is, a person with both An hermo|phrodyt, that is, a person being both man and wo|man. shapes, but estéemed for a woman onelie, till it was prooued, that lieng with hir maisters daughter night|lie where she dwelt, she had got the yoong damsell with child; for the which act, because she had counter|feited hir selfe a woman, and yet had wrought the part of a man, she was condemned to be buried quicke, and suffered according to that iudgement. At the same time, there was a certeine theefe, that with A wicked théefe that v|sed to kill yoong persons and to e [...]t them. his familie liued apart from the companie of men, remaining secretlie within a den in Angus called Fenisden, who vsed to kill yoong persons, and to féed on their flesh, for the which abhominable offense, be|ing apprehended with his wife and all his familie, they were burnt to death. One of his daughters that was scarse twelue moneths of age, onelie excepted, the which being preserued and brought vp in Dun|dée, before she came to the age of twelue yéeres, she His daughter falleth to the like practise. was taken in the like crime for the which hir father died, wherevpon she was iudged to be buried quicke: and going to execution, when the people in great multitudes followed hir, in woondering at so horrible an offense committed by one of hir age and sexe, she turned to them that thus detested hir wicked dooing, and with a countenance representing hir cru|ell Hir words going to exe|cution. inclination, said to them:

What néed you thus to raile vpon me, as if I had doone an heinous act con|trarie to the nature of man? I tell you, that if you knew how pleasant mans flesh is in taste, there would none of you all forbeare to eat it.
And thus with an impenitent and stubborne mind she suffered the appointed execution.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 AFter the death of Iames the second, his sonne Iames the third a child of seuen yeares of age Iames the third. succeeded, and foorthwith was sent for to the siege of Roxsburgh, whither he was conueied by the quéene, a woman of a stout stomach, representing the man|like The stout sto|mach of the quéene. race of hir countrie Gelderland, of the which she was descended. For comming with hir sonne thus to the siege, she spent not time in lamenting and wo|manish bewailing the irrecouerable losse of hir hus|band, but rather in comforting the lords, whose part had bin to haue comforted hir: and aboue all things she exhorted them with all diligence to im|ploie their whole indeuors and forces to the winning of that castell. Whose words so incouraged the cap|teins and whole armie, that the siege was continued Roxsburgh castell taken and broken downe. till the castell was woone, raced, and beaten downe flat to the ground: and the yoong king was crowned EEBO page image 279 at Kelso, with the vniuersall consent and great re|ioising 1461. I. M. 1460. Lesle. of all the noble men, and other being there present in the armie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This doone, they besieged the castell of Warke, which likewise they tooke, and threw downe, and af|terwards Warke besie|ged and woon. the king with the nobles of his realme came to Edenburgh, to take order for the quiet go|uernement of the realme. And because the king was yoong, there were chosen seuen regents to gouerne Seuen go|uernors cho|sen. both king & realme, as these, the quéene his mother, Iames Kenedie bishop of S. Andrews, that was sisters sonne to Iames the first, the bishop of Gla|scow, the earles of Angus, Huntleie, Argile, and Orkeneie. These, so long as Iames Kenedie liued, agréed well togither about the gouernement of the realme; but within a while after his deceasse, they fell at square, or rather before, as appeareth by Hec|tor Boetius, who saieth, that in the second yéere of this kings reigne, there was discord in brewing be|twixt the quéene and the archbishop Kenedie, who perceiuing that the woman sought to vsurpe wholie the gouernement vnto hir selfe, withstood hir in that behalfe, in so much that it was doubted least the matter would haue broken foorth into some ciuill warre, if the bishops of Glascow, Dunkeld, and A|berden, and certeine abbats had not taken in hand to trauell betwixt the parties for an attonement, who did so much in the matter, that they compounded the variance in this wise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The quéene mother was appointed to haue the charge of the kings person, and of his brethren, Alex|ander duke of Albanie, and Iohn earle of Mar, and likewise of his two sisters; but as for the administra|tion and gouernance of the realme, she should leaue it vnto the peeres. There were therefore elected by common consent as rulers, the bishops of Glascow and Dunkeld, the earle of Orkeneie, the lord Gra|ham, Thomas Boid, and the chancellor. About the same time, one Alane Keir, in hope to get the heri|tage of his brother, Iohn lord of Lorne tooke him, and kept him in prison. But Colen Campbell earle of Argile, taking great indignation with so pre|sumptuous a part, gathered a power, and comming against Keir, tooke him, and set his brother at liber|tie, and brought the offendor vnto Edenburgh, where he died in prison. Moreouer, shortlie after Donald lord of the Iles and earle of Rosse, who had serued Donald of the Iles efts [...]ones rebelleth. obedientlie in the armie at Roxburgh, and was (as outwardlie appeared) well reconciled, began anew to vse his old maners, spoiling & harrieng the whole countrie of Atholl, and tooke the earle thereof, and the countesse his wife captiues with him into the Iles.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 To represse his iniurious attempts, the regents togither were preparing an armie; but therewith came true aduertisements, that the said lord of the Iles, and other the principall offendors of his com|panie, were stricken through the hand of God with Donald be|came mad. a certeine frensie or madnesse, and had lost all their ships and spoiles in the sea, so that the earle of Atholl and his ladie were restored, and those frantike per|sons were brought vnto saint Brides church in A|tholl, Hitherto hath Hector Boe|tius continued the Scotish historie. He was killed 1461. Henrie king of England by safe con|duct commeth into Scot|land. for the recouerie of their health, but it would not be. Donald himselfe was afterward slaine in the castell of Inuernes by an Irishman that was a minstrell. In the yeare 1461, Henrie the sixt king of England being vanquished by his aduersarie Edward the fourth, purchased of king Iames the third a safe conduct for himselfe and a thousand horsse to enter into Scotland; and herevpon he came to Edenburgh, and was lodged in the house of the fri|ers preachers, with his wife quéene Margaret, and his sonne prince Edward. There was also with him the duke of Excester, and the duke of Sum|merset, with manie other of the English nobilitie.

Fr. Thin. Buchanan. And to the end this firme amitie thus begun, might more increase, and be further strengthened: the two quéenes Margaret (of England) and Marie (of Scotland) both French (by birth and nature) be|gan to intreat of a mariage (hoping by affinitie to establish that perfect amitie) to be solemnized be|tweene the daughter of Iames the second king of Scots, and the sonne of Henrie (king of Eng|land) being called prince of Wales, although none of them as yet was aboue seuen yeares old. Which mariage, Philip duke of Burgognie (vncle to the quéene of Scots, and deadlie enimie to the quéene of England) labored by all means to hinder, by his ambassador Gruthusius, a noble man and of great iudgement; for this Philip did vse such bitter enimi|tie against Reinold, grandfather to the son of king Henrie by the mothers side, that he did déepelie en|uie anie good successe to happen to anie of that race, whereby it might increase or florish; and therefore sought occasion by all deuise to hinder it: for whose cause, and at whose request, the said mariage was at that time rather deferred, than vtterlie broken off. But the end thereof (which was greatlie feared by this Philip to be the consummation of the mariage) was by the aduerse fortune of king Henrie vtterlie disappointed. For (as after shall appeare) this Hen|rie being incouraged (by the beneuolence of the Scots towards him) and throughlie confirmed (by the letters of his friend sent vnto him) dispatched his wife into France to Reinold hir father, to procure The quéene went into France for aid. what aid she could of hir friends beyond the seas, to helpe to restore him to the kingdome: which iournie succéeded not to hir in vaine, obteining succor from thence.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The same time, king Henrie deliuered the towne Berwike de|liuered to the Scotishmen. & castell of Berwike into the Scotishmens hands, whether by couenant thereby to haue the foresaid safe conduct granted, or of his own voluntarie will, to the end he might haue the more support and fauor amongest them, it is vncerteine by the variable re|port of writers. Neuerthelesse, shortlie after a truce A truce for 15 yeares. was taken betwixt king Iames and king Edward, for the tearme of fiftéene yeares, vpon what condi|tions or promises made on king Edwards part I find not. This truce was concluded in the moneth of Maie, in the yeare 1462, at the citie of Yorke, whither had bin sent the bishop of Glascow, the earle 1462. of Argile, kéeper of the priuie seale, the abbat of Ho|lie rood house, sir Alexander Boid, and sir William Crawston knights, ambassadors and commissio|ners for king Iames.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 All things in this season were ordered in Scot|land Iames Kene|die the archbi|shop gouer|neth the realme. by the aduise and counsell of Iames Kenedie bishop of saint Andrews, a man of great wisedome and policie, as well appeared in his prudent & sage gouernement of the realme, as well during the mi|noritie of this Iames the third, as also in the daies of his father king Iames the second. Pierre de Bre|zeie, Monsieur de la Uarrenne sent foorth of France to aid the part of Margaret quéene of England. otherwise called le Seigneur de la Uarenne, great seneshall of Normandie, was sent by the French king Lewes the eleuenth, with two thou|sand fighting men, to aid the part of king Henrie a|gainst king Edward. This Brezeie was one most in fauour with king Charles the seuenth, father vn|to the said king Lewes, and therefore (as manie did suppose) he was appointed by K. Lewes (who greatlie loued him not) to be chiefe in this iourneie, to the end his life might be put in hazard and aduenture; notwithstanding, after some danger both of tempest on the sea, and also of the enimies hands, he wan the castels of Bamburgh and Dunstanburgh, which he He kéepeth Anwike ca|stell, and is besieged. cast to the ground, and after tooke in hand to kéepe the castell of Anwike, and being besieged therein, EEBO page image 280 sent for aid to the Scots.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 George Dowglasse earle of Angus as then war|den He is rescu|ed by the earle of Angus. of the marches, immediatlie raised a power of 23000, men, and comming with the same to the bor|ders, chose foorth of all his numbers fiue thousand of the most able horssemen in all his armie, and com|ming Alias 13000. with them to the castell about the middest of the day, tooke the Frenchmen away with him into Scotland: the English armie that lay there at siege beholding the maner, and not once making profer to fight with him. Some Englishmen there were, that would faine haue fought with the Scots; but other (whose counsell was followed) were otherwise minded, alleging that better it were to let them passe without incounter, sith they left the castell void, than to ieopard vpon the doubtfull chance of battell, for though their number were not great, yet were they piked and chosen men, able to atchiue a great enter|prise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 After this, the sixtéenth of Nouember, in the yeare 1463, the quéene of Scots, mother to Iames thé 1463. The quéene mother died. third, died at Edenburgh, and was buried in the college of the Trinitie, which she hir selfe had foun|ded. This woman, after the deceasse of hir husband Iames the second, liued somewhat dissolutelie, pro|curing Adam Hepborne of Hales a maried man to Adam Hep|borns famili|aritie with the quéene of Scots, mo|ther to Iames the third. kéepe hir such familiar companie, as sounded great|lie to hir dishonor: for that she could not within the whole realme find some single man amongest all the nobilitie, with whome she might haue maried, & in some sort to haue auoided the greater open slander & infamie. In the same yeare, Alexander duke of Al|banie, Alexander duke of Alba|nie taken on the sea. and brother to the king, was taken on the sea by the Englishmen in the moneth of Iune, as he was returning from his grandfather the duke of Gilder: but the bishop of saint Andrews Iames Kenedie, caused both the said duke and also the ship, with all the goods there in being, at the time of the taking of it, to be restored; for otherwise (as he flat|lie protested) he would not kéepe the truce anie lon|ger concluded betwixt the two realmes.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The duke of Summerset, in hope of great fauor which he should find in England, persuaded king 1464. King Henrie returneth into England. Henrie to passe thither, and with a great companie of Scotishmen he entered England, and manie of the north parts resorted vnto him: but at length, at his comming to Exam, the lord Montacute with a great power was readie to giue him battell, and there discomfited him and his whole armie. The duke of Summerset and the lords Hungerford and Rosse were taken and put to death; the duke at Exam, and the lords at Newcastell. King Henrie escaped verie hardlie into Scotland againe, and there remained a certeine space after, till at length he thought to re|turne into England in such secret wise, as he should not haue béene once knowen, till he might haue got amongest his friends, which would haue supported him: but such diligent watch was laid for him all alongst the borders, that he was espied, taken, and deliuered to king Edward his aduersarie, who shut King Henrie is imprisoned. him vp in the tower of London till he was at length there made away, as in the historie of England ye may sée more at large.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 In the yeare 1466, that famous bishop Iames Kenedie departed this life, and was buried in the 1466. college of saint Sauiour, founded by him within the towne of saint Andrewes in most sumptuous wise. This prelat in prudent policie excelled all other Scotish bishops, of whome anie writer maketh mention. He kept the realme in good quiet, and ob|serued the truce concluded with the Englishmen, to the great weale and commoditie of the poore com|mons. He was verie rich, as appeared by sundrie buildings and woorks which he left behind him, as a memoriall of his name. [Whereof the thrée espe|ciall Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 8. pag. 314. things for rarenesse and magnificence, were his college of saint Sauiour (wherein youth might be trained to learning and religion) the other his sepul|chre, wherein he was buried (being a statelie péece of woorke, such as before had not béene accustomed for bishops of Scotland) & the third was a ship of woon|derfull burden: all which thrée, the common people affirmed were of one price, and stood him in like charge.] Besides his bishoprike, he held in his hands 1470. Buch. 1468. Lesle. 1469. Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 8. pag. 315. the commandarie of the abbeie of Pettinweme, which was woorth vnto him eight hundred crowns by yeare. [Afterward, at the parlement holden in October and Ianuarie, there were manie edicts made for the benefit of the commonwealth, & chiefe|lie for the estate of the merchants; at what time also there was a proclamation made, that none of the Englishmen should beare anie office, nor receiue a|nie benefice or benefit in Scotland.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the yeare 1469, on the tenth day of Iulie, 1469. The mariage of Iames the third. king Iames the third, being as then about twentie yeares of age, maried in the abbeie of Holie rood house néere Edenburgh, the ladie Margaret, daugh|ter to the king of Denmarke and Norwaie, which ladie was at the same time not past twelue yeares of age, some saie sixtéene. Hir father the king of Denmarke and Norwaie, in name of hir dower, transported and resigned to K. Iames all his right, The king of Norwaie re|signeth his title to the [...]t Iles. title, and interest which he pretended to the out Iles. The ambassadors that were sent into Denmarke to conclude this mariage, and to conueie the bride into Scotland, were these: Andrew Busdeir bishop of Glascow, the bishop of Orknie, the lord Auandale chancellor of Scotland, and Thomas Boid earle of Arrane, who had maried the kings sister, and was now in his absence run into the kings displeasure; whereof his wife hauing intelligence, hearing of hir husbands arriuall with the other in the Forth, got out of Edenburgh, & comming on shipbord to him, gaue him to vnderstand what displeasure the king The earle of Arrane in the kings displea|sure. had conceiued against him: who perceiuing him|selfe in what danger he stood if he tooke land, retur|ned backe into Denmarke, taking his wife with him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The king herewith was so offended, that he cau|sed both the said earle and his father to be attainted of high treason, and sent for his sister backe into Scotland, causing a diuorse in absence of hir husband to be sued & gotten foorth against them, marieng hir afterwards to Iames lord Hamilton, to whome he The lord Ha|milton mari|eth the kings sister. gaue the earldome of Arrane, which hir former hus|band had in gift before. Of this mariage, those of the house of Hamiltons are descended, & are néerest of bloud to the crowne of Scotland, as they pretend. [For (as saith Lesleus, lib. 8. pag. 316.) if the line of Fr. Thin. the Stewards faile, the crowne is to come to them.] But now to shew further what we find written con|cerning Giouan Ferre|rio in his ap|pendix of the Scotish histo|rie. the maner and cause of the banishment of the afore remembred Thomas Boid, Giouan Ferre|rio, in his appendix of the Scotish historie annexed vnto Hector Boetius lastlie printed at Paris in the yeare 1574, agreeth not with that which ye haue red before. For as he telleth the tale, the said lord Boid being one of the gouernors of the realme, elected thereto (as before ye haue heard) within short time The lord Boid beareth all the rule a|bout the king. grew so far in fauor with the king, that he might doo all things with him at his pleasure, although his as|sociats in authoritie did neuer so much go about to hinder his deuises: by reason whereof, he séemed to vsurpe the whole rule & administration of the realme into his owne hands, sore to the griefe of those his said associats being ioined with him in like office.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Hereof the state of the common-wealth through Through de|fault of agr [...]|ment in the gouernors, e|uell disposed men wax [...]old to woorke mischiefe. the dissention thus bred among the gouernors, was EEBO page image 281 brought into a miserable plight; for iustice in most places wanted hir due course, so as théeues and robbers taking boldnesse thereof, not onelie vpon the borders, but also elsewhere, began to exercise great outrage, to the breach of publike peace, and namelie the inhabitants of the out Iles fell to their woonted trade of pilfering, so that passing ouer in their long boats or barges, and landing here & there on the shore, they tooke preies of cattell and other goods, greatlie to their profit, and no lesse damage of the people that inhabited on the coasts ouer a|gainst them. In the north parts also, seditious tu|mults amongest the nobles, gentlemen, and people were raised, to the great disquieting of the whole countrie. Such disorders continued no small time, and because the said Thomas lord Boid bare grea|test rule about the king, the blame (as it commonlie happeneth) was imputed to him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 At length, when the king was growen to ripe They that be in authoritie be euer subiect to the spitefull blow of en|uies dart. yeares, and able to sée to the administration of the common-wealth himselfe, he was admonished by certeine graue personages to haue some regard, that such misorders as disquieted the whole state of the realme, might be reformed. Herevpon he cal|led a parlement, in the which, whether through enuie that the lords had conceiued against the lord Boid, or for that his dooings no lesse deserued such com|plaint, was exhibited by generall voices of the stats against him, that it was decreed by authoritie of the The lord Boid is accu|sed. whole assemblie, that he should come to answer in iudgement such crimes wherewith he was charged; but when he refused so to doo, and in contempt of the kings authoritie got togither a power of armed men to defend him from iniurie; that might séeme He refuseth to be tried by way of arrain|ment. (as he pretended) to be offered him: at length, the king was driuen of necessitie to make preparation for the leuieng of an armie to apprehend him by force. Whereof Boid being aduertised, fled into England, because he perceiued himselfe not able to resist the kings power. The king assured that he He fléeth into England. was thus auoided out of his realme, banished him for euer, and seized vpon his lands and goods as for|feited.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this, when the said Boid saw no hope to returne againe into the kings fauor, and finding no great comfort among the Englishmen, he passed from thence into Denmarke, where he remained He passeth in|to Denmarke. till the mariage was concluded betwixt the king, and the ladie Margaret, daughter to the king of Den|marke, as ye before haue heard: and then in hope by occasion of this mariage to obteine pardon, retur|ned now in companie of the bride, and of those am|bassadors His vaine hope to ob|teine pardon. that were sent to haue the conueiance of hir into Scotland: neuerthelesse, vnderstanding by his wife that came to him on shipboord before he set foot on land, that the kings displeasure continued still towards him so greatlie, that if he came on land, he should be sure to lose his head, he returned into Den|marke, and tooke his wife with him; as before is mentioned. Finallie he went into Italie, where at He goeth into Italie. He is mur|thered. length he was murthered by one, whose wife he went about to allure for the satisfieng of his sensuall lust. Before he was diuorsed from his wife the kings si|ster, he begat on hir a sonne, the which in the daies of king Iames the fourth, in a priuat quarrell that rose betwixt him and an other noble man, chanced to be slaine. Thus much touching the lord Thomas Boid of Kalmarnocke out of Ferrerio, who also in report of the matter touching the mariage betwixt the king and the daughter of Denmarke, somewhat varieth from an other that writ thereof.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The ambassadors that were sent vnto Christierne king of Denmarke & Norwaie in the yeare 1468, 1468. The a [...]as|sadors sent vnto Den|marke as Fer|rerio saith. as the said Ferrerio affirmeth, were these; Andrew bishop of Glascow, William bishop of Orkeneie; Andrew lord of Anandale chancellor of the realme, Martine Wane the great almoner, & the kings con|fessor, Gilbert de Kericke archdeacon of Glascow, Dauid Creichton of Crauston, & Iohn Shaw of Ha|lie. These ambassadors being dispatched into Den|marke in Iulie, in the yeare aforesaid, came at length to Haffnen, where K. Christierne then remai|ned, and were of him ioifullie receiued, & well heard concerning their sute, in so much at length, after he had proponed the matter to his councell about the eight of September, it was agréed in this sort, that the ladie Margaret, daughter to the said king Chri|stierne, should be giuen in mariage vnto K. Iames The mariage concluded. The Iles of Orkeneie and Shetland ingaged. of Scotland, and that the Iles of Orkeneie, being in number 28, and likewise the Iles of Shetland, of which there are eighteene, should remaine in posses|sion of the kings of Scotland, till either the said king Christierne or his successors in name of the mariage monie should pay vnto king Iames, or to his suc|cessors, the summe of fiftie thousand florens of the Rheine. This mariage was thought, by reason of this ingaging of those Iles, right profitable vnto the realme of Scotland, because of the controuersie and variance which had continued long before those daies betwixt the kings of Scotland and Denmarke, a|bout the right of possessing those Iles.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the moneth of Nouember next insuing, after 1469. the mariage had béene consummate in Iulie before, within the abbeie church of Holie rood house (as be|fore ye haue heard) or in saint Giles church in Eden|burgh (as other write) the thrée estates were called to assemble in Edenburgh, where the queene was crowned, and the parlement holden, the most part of the lords remaining still in Edenburgh all the next winter: and in the summer following, the king and quéene made their progresse into the north parts, 1470. and were honorablie receiued in the principall cities and townes where they came, and likewise by the nobles of the countrie, to the great reioising of the whole realme. After their returning to Edenburgh, the king called a parlement in the moneth of Maie 1471, in the which among other things it was ordei|ned, 1471. that the lords, barons, and burroughs of the realme, should build ships and boats, and prouide nets for fishing. Also it was ordeined that none The like act for shooting was institu|ted by king Iames the first. An. 1425. Iohn Maior should weare silks in dublet, gowne, or cloake, ex|cept knights, minstrels, & heralds; except they might dispend one hundred pounds in lands by yéere: and that the football and other vnlawfull games should be debarred, and the exercise of shooting maintei|ned. Iames eldest sonne to king Iames the third, was borne the tenth day of March, in the yéere 1472, 1472. who afterwards succéeded his father, and was cal|led Iames the fourth. Christierne K. of Denmarke, to congratulate the happie birth of this yoong prince The right to Orkeneie and Shetland resigned. being his nephue by his daughter, released all the right, title & claime which he or his successors might haue to the Iles of Orkeneie and Shetland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 A strange comet or blasing starre (as we call A blasing starre. it) appeared in the south, from the seuenteenth day of Ianuarie, vnto the eightéenth of Februarie, and 1473 was placed betwixt the pole and the pleiades, that is to say, the seuen starres. A great ship built by Ke|nedie the late archbishop of saint Andrews, called the bishops barge, brake and was lost beside Banburgh, A shipwrack. being fraught with merchandize, the twelfth of March. Manie merchantmens seruants and other passengers were drowned with hir, some escaped by boat, and were taken by the Englishmen, among whome was the abbat of saint Colme, who was con|streined to pay vnto his taker one Iames Kar foure score pounds for his ransome yer he could be suffe|red to depart. The abbasie of Dunfermling being EEBO page image 282 vacant, the couent chose one of their owne moonks called Alexander Thomson, and the king promoted Henrie Creichton abbat of Pasley thervnto, whom the pope admitted, & Robert Shaw parson of Min|to Abbeies gi|uen by vnlaw|full means. was preferred by the king vnto the abbasie of Pasley, and then in such wise began promotings of secular priests to abbasies at the princes request, and the laudable elections ancientlie vsed, made void: bicause the court of Rome admitted such as the princes made sute for and named, getting great rewards and notable summes of monie thereby, so that neither the bishops durst admit such as the co|uents elected, nor such as were elected durst pursue their right, and so the abbasies were bestowed vpon such as followed the court, and liued courtlie, secu|larlie, and voluptuouslie, to the great slander of reli|gious men, which by the naughtie examples of their gouernors fell to the works of wickednesse, where|vpon dailie much euill increased, and vertue in all estates decaied.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This yéere in September, the indulgence of the The bishop of S. Andrews made arch|bishop. 1474. sée of saint Andrews was published by Patrike Graham bishop thereof, and the same sée erected in|to the dignitie of an archbishops sée, at the sute of the said Patrike, who gaue information to the pope, that bicause the archbishop of Yorke was metropolitan of Scotland, and that there was oftentimes warre betwixt the realmes of England and Scotland, the Scotishmen could not haue accesse to their metro|politan, speciallie in cases of appellation. And there|fore the pope (as some write) thought it reason to make saint Andrews primat and metropolitan of Primat and metropolitan. Twelue bi|shops in Scotland. Scotland, and ordeined that the twelue other bi|shops of Scotland should be vnder his primasie, who would not agrée therto; but promised the king by way of a taxation eleuen thousand marks for his maintenance against the said archbishop: and the prelats sent to Rome about this matter. This yéere was a great death in the realme of Scotland, so that where a parlement was called in September, it 1476. was proroged vntill the twelfe day after Christmas. In Ianuarie the parlement was holden at Eden|burgh, The lord of the Iles at|teinted. in which Iohn lord of the Iles and earle of Ros was atteinted, partlie for his owne euill déeds, but most speciallie for the defaults of his father Do|nald lord of the Iles.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In Maie, in the yéere 1477, the king raised a pu|issant armie of the most able men vpon the north 1446. Lesle. The king rai led an armie. side of the water of Forth, to pursue the lord of the Iles both by sea and land. The earle of Crawford was made admerall of the armie by sea, and the erle of Atholl the kings vncle by his father was lieute|nant of the armie by land. But such meanes was v|sed by the earle of Atholl, that the lord of the Iles The lord of the Iles sub|mitteth him|selfe. humbled himselfe to the kings pleasure, vpon cer|teine conditions; and therevpon in the beginning of Iulie next insuing, the said lord of the Iles came t [...] the parlement vnto Edenburgh, and there was the agréement made and confirmed betwixt the king and him: he resigned into the kings hands all the right he had to the earledome of Rosse, the lands of Cantire and Knapden, which earledome the king He resigneth Ros, Cantire, and Knapden. annexed to the crowne, and pardoned him and his seruants of all offenses and transgressions before that day committed, and inuested him anew in the lordship and seigniorie of the Iles, and other his lands not released, to hold the same of the king by the seruice of ward and reliefe. The king also gaue vnto the earle of Atholl for his diligence shewed, in reducing the said lord of the Iles vnto order, the lands and forrest of Clouie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There was an inquisitor called Husman this yeere sent by pope Sextus into Scotland, to examin 1477. An inquisitor sent from the pope. by vertue of his commission Patrike Graham arch|bishop of saint Andrews, whose examination and proofes being sent vnto the pope, he pronounced him The archbi|shop is not well handled. an heretike, schismatike, and simoniake, and decla|red him accurssed, condemning him to perpetuall prison: and so he was degraded from all orders, cure, and dignitie of ecclesiasticall office, and Willi|am Depriued. 1478. Lesle. Schews archdeacon of the same sée was promo|ted in his place, to whome he was also committed to sée him safelie kept in prison. He was first sent vnto saint Colmes inch, and from thence to Dunferm|ling, Put in prison and lastlie to Lochleuin, where he died, and was buried in saint Sarffis Ile in Lochleuin. The said William Schewes was consecrated archbishop of saint Andrews on Passion sunday in Lent, within 1478. Lesle Holie rood house, the king being present, and manie 1479. wil. Schews is consecrated archbishop. of the nobles of the realme. And there the said arch|bishop receiued the pall, as a signe of his archbi|shops dignitie, and so was confirmed primat and le|gat of the realme, notwithstanding the impediment made against Graham before by the bishops about the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This yéere also Alexander duke of Albanie was The duke of Albanie im|prisoned. committed to prison by the king his brother, within the castell of Edenburgh, through euill counsell; but he brake out and escaped to Dunbar, where he caused the castell to be furnished with all necessaries: and leauing his seruants within it, passed himselfe into France, and was there of the king honorablie recei|ued, He escaped. and louinglie intreated. In the beginning of Maie following, the king besieged that castell by his Edenburgh besieged. lieutenant the earle of Auendale, who lost at that siege thrée good knights, the lord of Lute, sir Iohn Schaw of Sauch, & the lord of Cragiwallase, with the shot of a gun, & Iohn Ramseie was slaine with a stone cast by hand. When they within saw they could not long indure, they left the castell and fled a|waie by sea, and the earle of Auendale entered, and found it void of all things whereof anie account was to be made.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Doctor Ireland being graduat in diuinitie at 1479. Lesl. Doctor Ire|land sent vnto the king of Scots. Paris, was sent from the French king vnto the king of Scots, to persuade him to make war vpon England, to the end that king Edward should not aid the duke of Burgognie. And moreouer, he had in charge to mooue for the pardon of the duke of Al|banie, and shortlie after returned with answer. The erle of Mar called Iohn Steward the kings yoonger 1479. Lesl. 1480. Iohn Ste|ward a pri|soner. brother, this yéere in the moneth of December, was taken in the night within his owne house, and con|ueied vnto Cragmiller, where he was kept as priso|ner by the kings commandement, and after was conuict of conspiracie for witchcraft which he should practise against the king: and herevpon in Canno|gate beside Edenburgh, his veines were cut, and so Was put to death. he bled to death. There were manie and diuerse wit|ches and sorcerers, as well men as women conuic|ted of that crime, and burnt for the same at Eden|burgh. The king sent ambassadors into England to make sute to haue the ladie Cicill, daughter to king A mariage concluded. 1480. Lesle. Edward, ioined in mariage with his sonne Iames the prince, which was granted, and the mariage con|cluded to be solemnized, when the prince of Scot|land should come to perfect age: as in the English historie it more plainlie appeareth. Doctor Ireland, with a knight, and another religious man, came a|gaine to king Iames from the French king, to per|suade him to make warres against England: and at length, king Iames and his nobles condescended to breake the peace, wherwith Thomas Spenser bi|shop Bishop Spen ser died. of Abirden (that was full tenderlie beloued of king Edward, and had beene euer a mediator for peace betwixt the kings of England, France, and Scotland, & the duke of Burgognie) when he heard that warre would follow, he died through griefe of mind EEBO page image 283 mind and melancholie at Edenburgh, in the moneth of Aprill. The king sent two heralds vnto king Edward, requesting him not to aid the duke of Burgognie, nor anie other against the king of France: for if he did, he must needs support the Frenchmen, by reason of the league betwixt France and Scotland: but king Edward would not admit those heralds to his presence, but kept them still without answer, till he had sent foorth a nauie of ships into the Forth before Lieth, Kingorne, and Pettenwen, and then were the heralds licensed to returne. The English fleet entering the Forth, tooke eight great ships which they found in that riuer, and landing at Blacknesse, burnt the towne, and a great barge that laie there at rode, and so returned.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The king assembled an armie from all parts of the realme, and amongest other, the lord of the Iles came with a great companie: and now the king being readie to enter into England, there came to him a messenger of king Edward, sent from a cardinall legat that was resident as then in England, commanding king Iames by authoritie apostolike, not to proceed anie further in his purposed iournie, to the end that peace being obserued, all christian princes might bend their powers against the Turke & Infidels. This commandement did king Iames obeie, and so discharged his armie, notwithstanding that king Edward sent foorth his nauie againe into the Forth, to the Ile of Ins Keith, but they did no hurt: for the countrie men kept them off. The Scotish borderers inuaded the English marches, destroied townes, and led manie prisoners awaie with them into Scotland. The king of England caused Berwike to be assigned both by sea and land all the winter season, and ouerthrew a wall that was newlie made about it for defense thereof: but the Scots within it defended the towne for that time so stoutlie, that the enimies might not win it from them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The duke of Albanie, after his wife was dead, whom he had maried in France, perceiuing himselfe not so well intreated as before, came ouer into England, where king Edward receiued him verie honorablie, promising (as some haue written) to make him king of Scotland: and there vpon assembled an armie of thirtie thousand men, with a great nauie by sea to inuade Scotland, and appointed capteins and leaders of the armie by land, his owne brother the duke of Glocester, the duke of Albanie, and others. The king of Scots hearing of their approch to inuade his realme, raised a puissant armie to resist them, and came forward with the same vnto the towne of Lowder, where being incamped, the principall nobles of his realme, as Archembald earle of Angus, George earle of Huntleie, Iohn earle of Lenox, Iames earle of Buchquhane, Andrew lord Greie, Robert lord Lile, and diuerse other being armed, entered the kings lodging, where they accused him of diuerse things doone and practised by him contrarie to his honor and the common-weale of his realme; and speciallie, because he vsed yoong counsell of lewd persons, vnwoorthie and base of birth, such as Thomas Cochram, whome of a mason he had made earle of Mar, through whose deuise and counsell he had caused to be coined certeine monie of copper, not conuenient to be currant in anie realme, which the people refused, and so great dearth and hunger was raised through the countrie. Moreouer, that he would not suffer the noble men to come neere his presence, nor to take their counsell in gouerning the realme, but gaue himselfe to voluptuous pleasure, setting naught by the queene his lawfull wife, & keeping a naughtie harlot called the Daisie in hir place.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Also they laied to his charge, that he had put his brother the earle of Mar to death, and banished his other brother the duke of Albanie, and therefore they could not suffer him and the whole realme to be longer misled by such naughtie persons. And heerevpon they tooke Thomas Cochram earle of Mar, William Roger, and Iames Hommill tailor, who with others being conuicted, were hanged ouer the bridge at Lowder. Onelie Iohn Ramseie a yoong man of eighteene yeeres of age, for whome the king made great instance, was pardoned of life. This doone, they returned to Edenburgh, and appointed the king himselfe to be kept in the castell by the earle of Atholl, and in the meane time, the second of August, they sent Andrew Steward elect bishop of Murrey & Iohn lord Darneleie to the English armie, lieng then at Tuider, to take truce for three moneths: but the dukes of Glocester and Albanie came forward vnto Restalrig, where they incamped without anie resistance. The English nauie lieng also in the Forth was readie to assist their fellowes by land.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Heerevpon, certeine noble men of Scotland, as the archbishop of saint Andrewes, the bishop of Dunkeld, Colin earle of Argile, and Andrew Steward lord Auendale, great chancellor of Scotland, went to the English campe, & treating with the two dukes, agreed vpon certeine articles, whereby the duke of Albanie was receiued into his countrie againe in peaceable wise, and had giuen to him the castell of Dunbar with the earledoms of March and Mar. He was proclamed also generall lieutenant to the king. And so the Englishmen returned homewards, and came vnto Berwicke, where they hauing woone the towne as they passed that waies into Scotland, had left the lord Stanleie, and sir Iohn Eldrington, with foure thousand men, to keep a siege before the castell, and now they inforced the same: but the lord of Halis then capteine within that castell, defended it verie manfullie, sending to the duke of Albanie and other, the lords of the councell, for reliefe to raise the siege. The duke in deed raised an armie, and came to Lamer moore, but when they within perceiued that through dissention betwixt the king and the nobles of the realme, they were not liked to be rescued, they yeelded the castell into the Englishmens hands, the 24 of August, in that yeere 1482, after it had remained now at this time in the Scotishmens hands the space of 21 yeeres.

The king remaining as prisoner in Edenburgh castell, all things were ordered by the duke of Albanie, Andrew Steward lord of Auendale, chancellor, and others, till the said duke, the archbishop of saint Andrewes, the chancellor, the earle of Argile, and diuerse others, went to Striueling to visit the queene and prince, where the duke was persuaded by the queene, without knowledge thereof giuen to the other, to go vnto Edenburgh, and to restore the king unto libertie. The duke accordinglie to the queenes pleasure comming to Edenburgh, besieged the castell and wan it, remooued the earle of Atholl, and set the king and all his seruants at libertie, for the which good turne, the king shewed great tokens of loue to his brother the duke, although it lasted not long. The earle of Argile, the bishop of saint Andrewes, the chancellor, and others, which remained at Striueling, when they heard those newes, fled into their owne countries: and shortlie after, the bishop of S. Andrewes, at request of the king, resigned his bishoprike in fauor of maister Andrew Steward prouost of Glenelowden, and was content in recompense thereof, with the bishoprike of Murrey. This yaere there was great theft, reiffe, and slaughter in diuerse parts of the realme, by occasion of the variance betwixt the king and his nobles.

Charles the eight, king of France (in the beginning of his kingdome) sent to Scotland cer teine EEBO page image 284 ambassadors, which were Beroald or Bernard Steward, lord of Aubignie, marshall of France, and Peter Mallart doctor of both lawes, to renew the old league betwéene this Iames the third, and the king of France: for which cause the king of Scots and the nobles assembled at Edenburgh, where (with the French ambassadors) séeking all the rols of all the ancient leagues, they reconfirmed the same, with 1483. the seales of both parts set therevnto; which doone, the Frenchmen (with whome were sent into France di|uerse Scots) returned home. Amongest the Scots, one Robertson was the chiefe, a man famous for the feates of battell, and hauing imploied his seruice on the parts of the French in the Italian warres, which being ended, the said chosen soldiars following the conduct of Beroald Steward, went into England with Henrie earle of Richmont, after king, whose part they tooke against Richard at that time vsurper vpon the English, for which cause the earle of Rich|mont (when he was after king) did deerelie loue the Scots.

The seditions also, which a long time did burne in France, caused deadlie wars to grow betwéene the king of France and the duke of Burgognie. Where|vnto, when the death of Charles (the last duke of Burgognie, slaine at Nants by the duke of Lo|raine) did set end: Charles the eight of that name, king of France (assembling a great armie) did ap|plie all his force and deuise to expell Alphonse out of the kingdome of Naples; who at that time succéeded happilie vnto him, by reason that Alphonse was then easilie remooued. But after, when the Neapolitane people did reuolt (from the French faction) to Ferdi|nand the son of Alphonse, there arose great flames of warre and sedition through Italie, ech part studi|eng to support the strength of his owne. The admini|stration of which warre against Ferdinand, was chieflie performed by the Scots, as principall cap|teins of that armie, or at the least equall with the best. Of which Scots the chiefe were Alexander duke of Albanie, son to Iames the second king of Scots; Iohn also duke of Albanie sonne of this Alexander, George Montgomerie lord of Lorges, Bernard Steward (who was after made viceroy of Naples, which office he wiselie manie yéeres did execute) Ro|bert Steward marshall of France, Nicholas Scot, and others, wherof manie (for their woorthie exploits) were by the French honorablie rewarded with great possessions. Who also (as manie of the Scots before had doone) planting themselues in Isubria, be|came Certeine no|ble families in Italie and I|subria sproong from the Scots. the authors of manie ancient families. For though by the euill custome of common spéech, they reteine the name of Scot (as taken of their coun|trie) yet by the ensignes, and tokens which they had and vsed, it may easilie be knowne of what families the Scots their ancestors did descend.

Wherefore it followeth by most certeine coniec|ture, that the ancient familie of the earles (to whome vse of spéech hath long obteined the surname of Scots) flourishing in Placentia, had their originall from the stocke of the Dowglasses, as the armes of them both doo well witnesse: which kindred (besides manie other earles thereof) is at this day notablie beautified by Christopher Scot, who (with singular pi|etie and learning) dooth gouerne the church of Caua|lion. Againe, there is another familie of Scots, com|monlie called the Scoties in Isubria, whereof Ber|nard Scotia and Horace his brother (the one a se|nator of Mantua, and the other a prelat) are both fa|mous, as well for their vertue, as nobilitie: also Francis Scotia, lord of Pine and Mondone, and o|ther nobles of the marquesdome of Saluce, are des|cended from the Scots, with the large familie of the Schities (descended of Iames Orlando Scot, which we haue heard confirmed by the armes of that familie) are well aduanced about Cremona, Man|tua and Uerona, as are also the Paparons in Rome (so called for their armes and ensignes) whose ance|stors to be of the Scotish nobilitie, is witnessed by a woorthie monument thereof in the church of saint Marie the great, in which the father and the son called Paparons, being there buried, are both adorned with the ensignes of knighthood out of Scotland.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The duke of Albanie, for that he vnderstood there was poison giuen to him in drinke in the kings Poison giuen. chamber, and therefore stood in feare of his life, fled from the court vnto the castell of Dunbar, whereby insued great discord. The king fearing the displeasure of his nobles, got him also into the castell of Eden|burgh. The earles of Angus, Buchquhane, and o|thers left the king, and assisted the duke of Albanie. The king is forsaken. And the king through counsell of certeine meane persons whome he had againe taken vnto him, sum|moned the duke and other his assistants, to come to answer for such treason as he had to lay against Lords are summoned. them, & withall prepared an armie to besiege Dun|bar, wherof the duke being aduertised, fled into Eng|land, and afterwards being accompanied with the earle of Dowglasse, and a great number of English|men, inuaded Scotland vpon the west marches, Scotland in|uaded. where manie Englishmen were slaine and taken by the resistance of the lords Cokpull, Iohnston, and o|thers, the duke was put to flight, and the earle Dow|glasse taken and brought to the king, who because he was an aged man, and had béene long banished his countrie, was sent to the abbeie of Lundoris, where Earle Dow|glasse sent vn|to an abbeie. he remained the rest of his daies, and at length, de|parting this life, was buried there.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The duke of Albanie for the losse of that armie, was blamed of the king of England, and therevpon The duke of Albanie is blamed. taking a misliking, secretlie departed ouer into France by the helpe of Iohn Liddell, sonne to sir Iames Liddell knight, who afterwards lost his life for the same. The duke was well interteined in France by the king there: and finallie running at tilt with Lewes duke of Orleance, was hurt with the splint of a speare, and thereof died. He left behind him two sonnes, Iohn duke of Albanie, that was af|ter gouernor and tutor to king Iames the lift, and A|lexander that was after bishop of Murrey, and abbat of Scone. This yéere the lord Hume, Torreklis, Oli|phant, and Drummond, were made lords of the par|lement. In the yéere 1484, the king sent the archbi|shop of saint Andrewes vnto Rome, for certeine pri|uileges 1484. The archbi|shop is sent to Rome. The pope sent to intreat for peace. which he obteined. And the same yéere, pope Innocent the eight of that name, sent the bishop of Imola to treat of peace, betwixt Richard king of England, & Iames king of Scotland. Iames king of Scots, hauing not long before made diuerse in|cursions and rodes into England, and that to his pro|fit, he sued therevpon for a truce, which came to passe euen as king Richard wished, so that condescending to haue a communication, commissioners were ap|pointed Commissio|ners appoin|ted on the be|halfe of the king of Eng|land & Scot|land, to treat for a peace at Notingham. for both parts to méet at Notingham, the se|uenth day of September next insuing.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For the king of Scots there appeered Colin earle of Argile, the lord Campbell, the lord chancellor of Scotland, William bishop of Aberden, Robert lord Lile, Laurence lord Oliphant, Iohn Drummond of Stubhall, Archembald Quitelaw archdeacon of Lawden, and secretarie to king Iames, Lion king of armes, and Duncan Dundas. For king Richard, there came Richard bishop of saint Assaph, Iohn duke of Norffolke, Henrie earle of Northumber|land, Thomas lord Stanleie, George Stanleie lord Strange, Iohn Greie lord Powes, Richard lord Fitzhugh, Iohn Gunthorpe kéeper of the kings pri|uie seale, Thomas Barrow maister of the rols, sir EEBO page image 285 Thomas Brian chiefe iustice of the common plées, sir Richard Ratcliffe knight, William Catesbie, & Richard Salkeld esquires. These councellors in the later end of September, after sundrie meetings and communications had togither, concluded (as follow|eth) a peace to be had betwixt both the realmes for the space of thrée yéeres, the same to begin at the ri|sing A peace con|cluded for thrée yéeres. of the sunne, on the 29 of September in the yéere 1484, and to continue vnto the setting of the sunne on the 29 of September in the yéere 1487.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 During which terme, it was agréed, that not one|lie all hostilitie and warre should ceasse betwixt the two realmes, but that also all aid and abatement of enimies should be auoided, & by no colorable meanes or waie in anie case vsed. The towne and castell of Berwike to remaine in the Englishmens hands, for the space of the said terme, with the same bounds as the Englishmen possessed it at that season, when it was deliuered to the Scotishmen by king Henrie the sixt. It was likewise condescended, that all other castels, holds, and fortresses, during the tearme of the said three yéeres, should abide in the hands of those that held them at that present, the castell of Dunbar onelie excepted. This castell of Dunbar was deliue|red vnto the Englishmen by the duke of Albanie, The castell of Dunbar in the English|mens hands. when he fled into France, and so remained in their hands at that time of concluding this truce.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Héerevpon (by reason the Scotish commissioners had not authoritie to conclude anie full agréement An article for the castell of Dunbar. for that castell, vnlesse the same might be restored vn|to the king their maisters hands) it was accorded, that if the king of Scots, within the space of fortie daies next insuing, did intimate his resolute refusall to be agreeable, that the said castell should remaine in the Englishmens hands aboue the space of six mo|neths, that then during that terme of six moneths, those that kept the castell for the Englishmen should remaine in quiet, and not be troubled nor molested by anie kind of meanes by the said king of Scots, or anie other by his procurement, so that they within the castell likewise absteining from making anie is|sues or reisses vpon the Scotish people. And if after that the said terme of six moneths were once expired, it should chance that anie warre arose for defending or recouering the said castell, yet the truce should in|dure for all other rights and possessions; notwithstan|ding that it might be lawfull to doo what lay in anie of their powers, either for winning or defending the foresaid castell, as though no truce had béene conclu|ded.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 It was further agreed, that no traitor of either realme should be receiued by the prince of either An article for traitors. realme; and if anie traitor or rebell chanced to arriue in either realme, the prince thereof to deliuer him vpon demand made. Scots alreadie abiding in An article for Scotishmen alreadie being in England. An article for the wardens of the marches England & sworne to the king there, may remaine still, so their names be certified to the Scotish king within fortie daies. If anie warden of either realme should inuade the others subiects, he to whome such warden is subiect, shall within six daies proclame him traitor, and certifie the other prince therof with|in 12 daies. And in euerie safe conduct this clause A clause to be put in safe conducts. An article for such as should serue either princes in warre. should be conteined; Prouided alwaies that the ob|teiner of this safe conduct be no traitor. If anie of the subiects of either prince doo presume to aid, helpe, mainteine, or serue anie other prince against anie of the contractors of this truce, then it shall be lawfull for him, to whome he shewed himselfe enimie, to ap|prehend and attach the said subiect, going, comming, or tarieng within anie of his dominions.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Colleagues comprised in this truce (if they would assent thereto) on the English part were these: the Colleagues comprised in the truce. king of Castile and Leon, the king of Arragon, the king of Portingale, the archduke of Austrich & Bur|gognie, and the duke of Britaine. On the Scotish part, Charles the French king, Iohn king of Den|marke and Norwaie, the duke of Gelderland, and the duke of Britaine. The lordship of Lorne in the realme of Scotland, and the Iland of Lundaie lieng Lorne & Lun|daie excepted. in the riuer of Seuerne, in the realme of England, were not comprehended in this agréement. This concord, peace, and amitie thus concluded, was ap|pointed to be published the first day of October, in the most notable cities and townes of both the realmes.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For the sure obseruation, kéeping, & performance of this truce & league, there were appointed for con|seruators on the Scotish side, Dauid earle of Craw|ford and lord Lindseie, George earle of Huntleie lord Gordon and Badzenath, Iohn lord Darneleie, Iohn lord Kenedie, Robert lord Lile, Patrike lord Haleene, Laurence lord Oliphant, William lord Borthwike; sir Iohn Rosse of Halkheid, sir Gilbert Iohnston of Eiphinston, sir Iohn Lundie, sir Iohn Ogiluie of Arlie, sir Robert Hammilton of Fin|galton, sir William Balze of Lamington, sir Iohn Kenedie of Blarqhone, sir Iohn Wemes, sir Willi|am Rochwen; Edward Stochton of Kirke patie, Iohn Dundas, Iohn Rosse of Mountgrenan, es|quires.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 It was further agréed, that commissioners should Commissio|ners appoin|ted to méet at Loughmabe meet at Loughmaben on the eightéenth day of No|uember, as well for redresse of certeine offenses doone on the west marches, as also for declaring and publishing the peace. On the English part, the lord Dacres, the lord Fitzhugh, sir Richard Ratcliffe, sir Christopher Moresbie, sir Richard Salkeild, or thrée of them. For the Scots, the lord Kenedie, the lord Mountgomerie, the lord Lile, Iohn Maxwell ste|ward of Annandale, Robert Creichton of San|quhan, or thrée of them. Also, there were assigned commissioners to méet at Roidenborne for the east Commissio|ners to méet at Roiden|borne. And at Hal|dan Stanke. marches, the first day of December; and at Haldan Stanke for the middle marches, on the fourth day of the same moneth. At which two places for Scotland, there were assigned to appeere the earle of Huntleie, the earle of Angus, the earle of Argile chancellor of Scotland, the lord Auandale, the lord Seiton, the lord Oliphant, the lord Stubhall, with others.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For England, the earle of Northumberland, the lord Greistocke, the lord Scroope of Massan, sir Wil|liam Gascoigne, sir Robert Constable, and other. The same commissioners had authoritie to assigne certeine persons, to view and declare the bounds and limits apperteining to Berwike, according to the true meaning of the league. For the battell The battell ground. ground it was accorded, that the same should re|maine without sowing, earing, building, or inhabi|ting, as it had doone before. Shortlie after the con|cluding A mariage concluded be|twixt the duke of Rothsaie and the ladie Anne de la Poole. of this truce, king Richard intreated for a mariage to be had betwixt the prince of Rothsaie, el|dest sonne to king Iames & ladie Anne de la Poole, daughter to Iohn duke of Suffolke and to the ladie Anne his wife, that was sister to the said king Ri|chard. For the concluding of this mariage, both the kings sent their ambassadors againe vnto Noting|ham, where their treatie had such successe for that time, that the mariage was agréed vpon, and wri|tings thereof drawen, ingrossed, and sealed, and af|fiances made and taken by proctors and deputies on both parts. The foresaid yoong ladie was immedi|atlie called princesse of Rothsaie, but by the short life of king Richard hir vncle she shortlie after lost that name.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 King Iames within a while after the conclusion of this league and mariage aforesaid, for the expres|sing and declaring of his opinion touching the ca|stell of Dunbar, whether he would be agreeable that the same should remaine onelie six moneths, or else EEBO page image 286 during the tearme of the whole truce in the English|mens King Iames by letters sig|nifieth his mind tou|ching the arti|cles of Dun|bar. possessions, he wrote vnto king Richard a louing letter, signifieng vnto him, that he was not minded to séeke the recouerie of the said castell by force of armes, but rather to leaue it in his hand, during the whole terme of the truce. Neuerthelesse, he instantlie required him for the bond of that loue and familiaritie, which now by treatie and aliance was sproong vp betwixt them, that he would redeli|uer the said castell into his hands, according as rea|son might moue him thereto; considering the Eng|lishmen had no right to it, being onelie deliuered to them by traitors of their natiue countrie, without anie reasonable cause, or commission lawfullie au|thorised.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 King Richard dalied in this matter with pleasant K. Richard would not de|liuer the ca|stell of Dun|bar. letters and faire words féeding foorth king Iames, without minding to gratifie him in that sute, so that as long as king Richard liued, king Iames could neuer get it for anie thing he might doo. In the yeare 1486, Henrie earle of Richmond comming 1486. K. Richard ouerthrowne by the earle of Richmond. out of France with a power of men, of the which Bernard Steward a Scotishman was chiefe cap|teine, landed in Wales, and passing through the countrie into England, at length incountred king Richard, and slue him, so obteining the crowne of that realme. And after he was somewhat quietlie established in the same, he came into the north parts, where he remained the most part of the next sum|mer, and regarding nothing more than to haue the loue and friendship of his neighbors, & to be confede|rat with the kings and princes ioining next vnto him, he sent from Newcastell one of his councellors Richard Fox bishop of Excester, and sir Richard An ambassage sent into Scotland. Edgcombe knight, ambassadors vnto king Iames, to treat a contract, and renew the bond of peace and truce betwixt the said kings and their realmes.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 These ambassadors were gladlie receiued of king The kings answer. Iames, who declared vnto them, that he bare great fauor and loue vnto their maister, and would be glad to pleasure him in all he might: howbeit, that his subiects were not of so good a mind towards the English nation as he himselfe wished, and therefore he willed them to be contented with a truce for seuen yeares, sith further he could not doo, for doubt to of|fend his nobilitie and subiects. But he promised se|cretlie, that when those seuen yeares were expired, he would renew the same for the tearme of other His promise. seuen yeares, and so from seuen yeares to seuen yeares so long as he liued. This he did, because he perceiued that his people had him in such hatred, that they would not consent to anie bond that he should make. The ambassadors perceiuing his good mea|ning toward king Henrie, confirmed the truce for those seuen yeares, and so returned home to king Henrie, who was glad of that they had doone.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Fr. Thin. Buchanan. lib. 12. In the meane time died the quéene, a woman of singular beautie and goodnesse, who was suppo|sed greatlie to mitigat the vnbridled force of hir hus|band. At what time also in France died Alexander the kings brother, leauing behind him two sonnes, 1487. which were Alexander borne of his first wife (daugh|ter to the earle of Orkeneie) and Iohn (borne of his second wife) being after made gouernor of Scot|land.) Immediatlie after that this truce was thus concluded betwixt the two realmes, king Iames A parlement. caused the thrée estates to assemble in parlement at Edenburgh the first of October in the yeare 1487, in the which order was taken, that iustice oires No pardon to be granted to offendors for the space of seuen yeares. should be holden through all the parts of the realme, & that no pardons should be granted for anie great crime that shuld be committed for the space of seuen yeares to come, so that the king began to vse sharpe execution of iustice in all parts, which was right dis|pleasant to manie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 At the same time was an ambassador sent to the Ambassadors sent to the king of the Romans. king of Romans, for the calling in of a letter of marque, which had béene granted against Scotish merchants, at the sute and instance of certeine Hol|landers and Burgognions, and was shortlie after herevpon reuoked. After the parlement was en|ded, the king remooued vnto Striueling, leauing his The king gi|ueth himselfe to satisfie his lust in kéeping women and gathering treasure. wife the quéene, and hir sonne the prince at Eden|burgh castell, whilest he kéeping persons about him of meane calling, gaue himselfe to take his pleasure with women, & to gather vp gold and siluer, great|lie to the offense of his subiects. Yet in the meane time, now after the death of king Richard, whether it was by treson or appointment, the castell of Dun|bar After the deth of king Ri|chard, Dun|bar is deliue|red. was deliuered to the hands of king Iames, and that to his great ioy and high contentation; for he that ruled his kingdome more with rigor than with anie tractable meane of fau [...]rable iustice, stood euer in feare of some troublesome tumult that might be raised by his owne people, if occasion were mini|stred either through hope of forren aid or otherwise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 So long therefore as the castell was in the Eng|lishmens hands, he doubted least through practise, some conspiracie should be contriued betwixt his owne subiects and the English nation, greatlie to the annoiance of his estate, & therevpon he was the more desirous to reduce the same castell into his pos|session. But the onelie meane to haue assured him|selfe The meane whereby king Iames might haue auoided danger of deth by his sub|iects. from the hands of such as sought his life, had beene to haue changed his wilfull maner of gouern|ment, & to haue leaned vnto such counsell as would haue aduised him for the wealth of his whole realme, and not vpon desire to please, haue mainteined his vndiscréet opinions, to the wronging aswell of his commons as of the nobles and peeres of his realme; for the nobilitie of Scotland, namelie the earles of Angus, Argile, and Lenox, the lords Halis, Hume, Drummond, Greie, and others, perceiuing them|selues oppressed by such as from base birth had risen (without woorthie deseruing) to the degrée of coun|cellors, and therewith aduanced to so high authoritie, The conspi|racie of the Scotish lords against king Iames the third. as all things were ordered at their appointment, conspired togither, & determined by force of armes to sée a reformation in such a disordered maner of gouernement.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But yet because it should not be thought that they minded the destruction of their countrie, but rather the aduancement thereof, they made the lord Iames duke of Rothsaie sonne to the king (a child borne to goodnesse and vertue) the chiefe capteine in this their enterprise, and that in maner against his will; here|by openlie protesting, that they minded and purpo|sed the suppressing and confusion of an euill king, and not the subuersion of their natiue countrie. By which their craftie imagined inuention, they thought to remooue all suspicion of their purposed vntruth and shamefull disloialtie. They had sent to the earle of Dowglasse, who remained prisoner (as ye haue heard) in the abbeie of Lundoris, and required him to assist them in their begun enterprise, promising that they would restore him againe to his lands and former dignitie, and honor him as principall of their faction. But that noble, wise, and ancient earle, being alreadie schooled with troubles, and ha|uing learned by experience (to his great griefe) what such matter meant, refused to breake his ward, or to assist them in anie wise, dissuading them from their enterprise, because it séemed to him neither godlie nor honorable, sithens both himselfe and his friends had tasted for the like, great hinderance, which might be an example to him and others to beware in time to come.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The king being once informed of this rebellion EEBO page image 287 and conspiracie against him, was sore disquieted in his mind, and to meet their mischiefous attempts, King Iames gathereth an armie. gathered an armie. Yet before the vsing of anie force, he sent messengers to his sonne, and to the no|bles with him, to trie if he might come to some a|gréement with them. He sent also letters to the king of England, & to the French king, requiring them He sendeth letters to the kings of Eng land & France to take some paines in the matter, to procure an at|tonement betwixt him and his nobles. And besides this, he wrote to pope Innocent about the same Eugenius 8: Buchanan. purpose, praieng him to intermeddle his authoritie by sending some legate into Scotland, to appease the troubles thereof. But the Scotish nobilitie, and such of the people as were vp in armor against him, were so desperatlie set, and wholie bent on reuenge, that no wholesome counsell nor medicinable aduise might appease their furious rage, so that for answer to his messengers, they sent him word, that if hée would resigne the title of his crowne and realme, The answer of the rebels to the kings message. & depose himselfe of his whole regall dignitie, then they would come to some communication with him or else not. The like answer was giuen to the am|bassadors of England and France, that were sent vnto them from the kings of both those realmes, which sore lamented the fortune of their friend and alie the Scotish king.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But Adrian the bishop of Romes legat came too late, as who should say, a day after the faire: for when their grounded malice and spitefull hatred con [...]|ued against him might not be qualified by anie ma|ner of means, but that they were now comming forward with all their puisance to Striueling where he then remained, he would not staie till the erles of Huntleie, Erroll, Atholl, Crawford, Rothus, Su|therland, Cathnesse, & Marshall; the barons, Forbes, Ogiluie, Granth, Fraiser, and others, were arriued with their powers, amounting to the number of for|tie thousand men, with the which they were com|ming foorth of the north parts to his aid: but rashlie and without good aduise he issued out of the towne, accompanied with the earles of Glencarne & Mon|tros, the lords Graham, Ruthuen, Maxwell, and cer|teine others, and forthwith ioined battell with his ad|uersaries at Banockesborne, within two miles of Striueling.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Now when nothing might quiet them, at length they met thus in a pitched field, where after great They méet in a pitched field. The king is put to the woorsse. slaughter & murther made of an huge multitude of people, the king being put to the woorsse, fled into a mill, whither being fiercelie followed and found ther|in, he was cruellie slaine, and vnreuerentlie left starke naked. ¶ A notable mirror to all princes, that He is slaine. calling to remembrance such a miserable and most dolorous sight, they may take héed by what maner of persons they suffer themselues to be led and abu|sed. For if this prince king Iames the third had not followed vpon a wilfull pretense, and obstinat mind, the counsell and aduise of vantperlors, and such as (being aduanced from base degrée vnto high au|thoritie) studied more to keepe themselues in fauor, than to giue true aduertisements, and faithfull ad|uise vnto their prince, he might haue reigned longer by manie daies & yéeres, in great and high felicitie. [In which conflict was on the kings part slaine (as [...]. Thin. saith Buchanan) Alexander Coningham earle of Glencarne.] He was thus slaine neere Striueling, on the seuenth day of Iune, the yéere after the incar|nation 1488, being also the 29 of his reigne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 NOw then, after that the barons of Scotland had Iames the fourth. thus slaine their souereigne lord and liege king Iames, the third of that name: his eldest son Iames the fourth was crowned king of Scotland, and be|gan his reigne the 24 of Iune, in the yéere 1488, be|ing 1488. not past sixtéene yeeres of age, who notwithstan|ding that he had béene in the field with the nobles of the realme against his father, that contrarie to his mind was slaine; yet neuerthelesse afterwards, hée became a right noble prince, & seemed to take great The king was repen|tant. The king wore an iron chaine. was giuen to deuotion. He was a great iusticer. repentance for that his offense, and in token therof, he ware continuallie an iron chaine about his midle all the daies of his life. He was greatlie giuen to de|uotion and praier, visiting religious houses, and be|stowing on them sundrie gifts. He gouerned his realme in great rest, peace, iustice, and quietnesse, ri|ding him selfe in proper person diuerse daies and nights, to suppresse and take théeues, robbers, and op|pressors of his subiects in all parts of his realme, till he had brought the countrie to great quietnesse. He He was lear|ned. was learned and liberall, and indued with manie o|ther good vertues and qualities.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Anon after his coronation, the earle of Lennox, and the lord Lile, with diuers other their assistants, notwithstanding that they had beene with him at the slaughter of his father, séeing that things went not The nobles raise an armie againe. as they wished raised an armie, and caused the dead kings bloudie shirt to be borne afore them for a ban|ner: and comming forwards toward Striueling a|gainst They were ouerthrowne. the yoong king, were ouerthrowne at Toli|mosse, where the Lennor men, and sundrie other of the barons side were slaine, as the lord of Kiltrucht, and other taken and hanged for their offenses. The king called a parlement at Edenburgh, which was A parlement. holden the sixt of October, where he being mooued by clemencie, granted a generall pardon to all those A generall pardon. that came in field at Striueling with his father a|gainst him, and appointed euerie one to haue speci|all pardons there vpon vnder his seales. He likewise dispensed with the heires of them that were slaine with his father there in field, appointing them their particular dispensations vnder his seales, after the same maner. Further it was ordeined, that all iu|stices, shiriffes, stewards, bailiffes, lieutenants, and other which had offices in heritage, and had béene with his father at the field, should be suspended from the same offices for the tearme of three yeeres: and those which had offices for life, or for terme of yéeres, should be vtterlie excluded from the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Moreouer, he tooke order that all such g [...]ods as had béene taken from landed men and burgesses, should be restored to them againe, except that which was taken from such landed men and burgesses as were in the field against him; for that was deemed a lawfull preie. It was also iudged that the death of his father came vpon him through his owne default, and that king Iames the fourth then reigning, and all his adherents and partakers in that field, were innocent and giltlesse of all slaughter made there at that time, and clearlie acquit of all pursute and oc|casion thereof: the thrée estates granting to giue their seales to testifie the same, with the kings great seale of the realme, to be shewed vnto the pope, the kings of France, Spaine, Denmarke, and other princes their confederats. And for the ceassing of theft, reiffe, & such other great enormities, the king was appointed to ride in person once euerie yéere through all parts of the realme. And certeine noble men were ordeined to exercise iustice in euerie shire next adioining to the places where they had their chiefe residence: and herevnto they gaue their othes to be diligent in the administration of iustice. These ordinances were right well obserued all the daies of K. Iames the fourth his life time, so that the realme was reduced to great tranquillitie, and gouerned in good peace and iustice. Furthermore, all gifts made by his father in preiudice of the crowne, were reuo|ked, from the second day of Februarie immediatlie preceading his death, to the day in which hée was slaine.

EEBO page image 288 Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 13. About this time was a monster borne of a strange forme, hauing from the nauill downeward the perfect parts of one man, not different from the right proportion of a man: but from the nauill vp|ward, it was double bodied, hauing all perfect parts answering euerie of those bodies, sundered to all ac|tions and shew. This monster the king commanded to be diligentlie nourished and instructed, but chief|lie in musike (wherein it profited verie much.) Fur|ther also learning diuers sorts of languages, whose seuerall wits and natures manifestlie appeared by diuers dispositions of their minds. For sometime they would fall out one with another, and when anie thing displeased them, they would most bitterly con|tend the one with the other: contrarilie, when anie thing happened to their liking or desire, they would consult and agrée togither as friends. In which this was woorthie remembrance, that if the legges or loines had béene hurt below, they both togither felt the paine; but if they were pinched or grieued in any part aboue seuered from the other, then that bodie onelie felt the same which had that hurt doone vnto it. Which different sense did more plainelie appeare in the death of the one of them: for when the one bo|die died manie daies before the other, that which li|ued, did after by little and little consume, by the pu|trifaction of the other bodie then dead; which monster liued 28 yéeres, and in the time of Iohn the gouer|nor: of which thing we doubt not to write (more boldie) sith there are men yet liuing of honest fame which saw these things.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 This king in the beginning of his reigne, to make his estate the surer, and more faithfull to re|concile Buchan. li. 13. the harts of such as had mainteined factions against him, determined to marie the daughters of his aunt by two husbands, to two of those noble men: for which cause he maried Grecina Boid to Alexander Forbois, and Margaret Hammilton to Matthew Steward, by which in time there followed a most singular peace in the kingdome.) Also an es|quier, and an herald were sent into France, Spaine, 1486 A mariage sought for the king. and other places, to learne where the king might be a suter for some great ladie to ioine with him in ma|riage. Moreouer beside these, there were sent hono|rable ambassadors into France, Spaine, and Den|marke, to renew the old amities & leagues betwixt those realmes and Scotland, as had béene vsed in the daies of this kings progenitors. His two bre|thren, the duke of Rothseie, and the earle of Mar, he caused to be brought vp in good nourture and vertu|ous exercise, appointing to them such liuings for maintenance of their estates, as his father had assig|ned them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 For his councell he chose a certeine number of the prelats, noble men, and barons of his realme, such as were thought most meet, taking this or|der, that six of them at the least should continuallie remaine about him, by whose aduise he should doo all things that touched the affaires of the realme: and in case any thing was done without their aduise, the same should be iudged void, & not to be obeied, & this was inuiolablie kept all his daies. When the esquier and herald were returned againe into Scotland, 1491. which had bene to visit strange countries, and made report of that they had séene, there was a parlement holden, in which it was ordeined, that the bishop of Glascow, the earle Bothwell, and others, should go as ambassadors to sue for the kings mariage in place where it should be most expedient, and most to the kings liking. Great variance rose betwixt the archbishop of saint Andrews, and the bishop of Glas|cow, Two archbi|shops striue for the prehe|minence. touching the preheminence of their iurisdicti|on, which drew the noble men into factions, till the king commanded the same to ceasse, and that they should trie it by law before competent iudges.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 8. pag. 332. Iames Ogiluie knight of Aire, was sent am|bassador to the king of Denmarke, to whome the king gaue in charge, that he should labor to renew the old league that was betwéene the Danes and the Scots, which he wiselie executed and obteined, with certeine priuileges for the benefit of the merchants. By means whereof at his returne, he purchased such fauour of the king, as that he was aduanced to the title of a lord, in which the name of the Ogiluies was first increased with anie honorable title.) The king about the same time tooke order for increase Prouision made for ships. 1492. Lesle. of some number of ships to be had in his realme, and that euerie hauen towne should build some, as well for fishing, as to transport merchandize from place to place.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 The lords and barons, and such other as would, were commanded to helpe the merchants toward the building of such ships: and for good example, the king caused to make certeine ships at his owne charges, which might vse the trade of fishing. More|ouer, the king considering the ignorance that was amongst the landed men of his realme, when they Prouision made for learning. should passe vpon inquests, he ordeined that euerie landed man should put his eldest sonne to schoole, that he might learne perfectlie the lawes of the realme, and that vpon great forfeiture. Thus in the beginning of his reigne, diuers good lawes and con|stitutions were made, for the aduancement of the common-wealth, which he caused to be dulie obser|ued and kept during his time. The pope sent a proto|notarie 1494. Lesle. A protonota|rie sent into Scotland with a rose. 1495. Lesle. called Forman into Scotland, with a rose and a scepter of gold, to be presented vnto the king, desiring him to perseuere in godlinesse, honor, and vertue, as he had begun. The most part of this yéere the king spent in riding abroad through all parts of his realme to sée iustice ministred, speciallie in the 1492. The king go|eth on pro|gresse. north parts, where the people are commonlie fur|thest out of order.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There was shortlie after some appearance of warres betwixt England and France, wherevpon 1496. Lesl. king Charles sent vnto king Iames, requiring him of assistance, if it came to passe that the English|men did inuade France: and further declared, that he had one with him called Richard duke of Yorke, second sonne to king Edward the fourth, who had béene preserued now manie yéeres secretlie by his aunt Margaret duches of Burgognie, and therefore was iust inheritor to the realme of England, whom he would send into Scotland, praieng the king to assist him to recouer his rightfull heritage, the said realme of England. And shortlie after herevpon, the said feined duke (whose right name was Perkin Perkin War|becke. Warbecke, as in the English historie it appeareth) arriued in Scotland well and honorablie accompa|nied, to trie what purchase he might make there for succors to atteine his pretended right to the crowne of England.

Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 13. After whose arriuall he was brought to the presence of king Iames, before whom he did lamen|tablie bewaile (as he well could) the fall of the house of Yorke, and his owne calamities: most humblie and vehementlie beséeching him, to ransome the kinglie bloud from that contumelie. For answer wherevnto at that present time, the king bid him be of good heart, for he would so woorke, that he should find his sute not defrauded of all due effect, in ob|teining succor in his distresse. Few daies after, the king assembling togither his councell, commanded this (counterfeit) duke of Yorke to be brought vnto him, who now (more than before) did in this assem|blie bitterlie complaine of his misfortune, shewing, that being borne to great hope of a kingdome (as the sonne of the noblest king of that age) he was left EEBO page image 289 void of all helpe by the death of his father, & had like to haue fallen into the tyrannie of his vncle Richard duke of Glocester, before he could vnderstand what calamitie or misfortune might signifie.

But aided by diuine assistance, he (when his elder brother was murthered by his vncle) was preserued by the helpe of his fathers friends, and conueied a|way from the bloudie hands of the vsurping king Richard, who (not able in that kingdome, whose heire by right he was) to lead a bare and begged life, did so liue in forrein countries, as he counted the condi|tion of his brother (taken from those miseries by sud|den death) to be happie in respect of his owne trou|bles and extremitie: for he was reserued aliue to the scorne of fortune, not daring at the first to bewaile his calamitie amongst strangers, whereby he might mooue their pitie towards him: yea (and after) when by little and little he came to open what person hée was, how noblie borne, whose heire, and to whome alied, he was (to increase all his former miseries) more grieuouslie assaulted by the malice of fortune than before. For then he could not almost liue in safe|tie in anie place, bicause of the subtiltie of his eni|mies, who would haue bought his life (of those with whom he remained) priuilie solliciting them to dis|couer his secrets, and (vnder the colour of feined a|mitie) to corrupt his true friends, to search out and discouer his hidden friends, and to defame him a|mongst the common people.

Wherewithall not yet satisfied, they reuile (said he) the ladie Margaret his aunt, and imprison the nobles of England that séemed to fauor his cause; notwithstanding all which (she vsing the truth of hir owne conscience against the slanders of hir and his enimies, and mooued with pitie for the distresse of hir kinsman) did with hir abilitie relieue his ne|cessitie. But at length, when he saw no sure defense in a woman and widow (whose authoritie could not stretch to the command of hir people in that libe|rall sort as she would) he was driuen to séeke the aid of other princes, and to request them to looke in|to the misfortunes that might light vpon such great estates, and that they would not suffer kinglie bloud (oppressed by tyrants) to lament in such extremitie. For yet he was not so base minded (although hee were in manie great miseries) that he would not hope at one time or other to be restored to his king|dome, by the helpe of such friends as he had in Ire|land and England: adding therevnto the helpe which he should haue out of France, whereof he had alrea|die Lesleus lib. 1. pag. 334. made some triall by the singular beneuolence of the same king, hauing liberallie imparted manie be|nefits vnto him.

Besides which, not supposing this to allure the kings mind to his fauor, he began by flattrie to extoll him, not douting but he (whose fauor had bene liberallie shewd to the destressed) wold now diminish the same to him; but that he hoped that he would (for his sin|gular humanitie to all banished persons, for pitie to|wards a miserable creature, for loue towards his kinsman, for necessities cause towards his friend, and for the néerenesse of league that ought to be a|mong princes) succor and relieue him with men and monie, thereby to helpe him to the recouerie of his kingdom. Wherfore againe he importunatly requi|reth the king of aid in this extremitie, since the same was honorable to himselfe, acceptable to God, be|neficiall for his realme, and a singular fame among other princes in ioining with them determined to restore him. Which if he might obteine (and that the rather by his furtherance) he did liberallie promise alwaies to stand a most firme friend to the Scots, for whose cause he would spend his crowne and life.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus Perkin Warbecke did vse the matter in such subtill wise, that king Iames either giuing, or séeming to giue credit to his words, after aduise and deliberation had and taken with his councell, recei|ued him in honorable wise, naming and reputing him duke of Yorke, and therefore promised him to Perkin War|becke marieth the earle of Huntleies daughter. 1495. King Iames inuadeth Nor thumberland. 1496. aid him in all that he might. And shortlie after, hée maried him to his neere kinswoman the ladie Ka|tharine, daughter to the earle of Huntleie, and more|ouer raised a great armie, speciallie of the borderers, and with the same hauing this pretensed duke in companie with him, inuaded England, burnt towns spoiled houses, and tooke great booties and rich preies both of goods and prisoners, & allured with the swéet|nesse of such spoile and gaine, wasted all the countrie of Northumberland, and had gone further, but that he could perceiue no aid comming in vnto this new found duke, contrarie to such golden promises as he had made, that as soone as they were entered into England, there would flocke vnto him both of the nobilitie and commons, and that in great numbers.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 King Iames perceiuing no such matter, thought it better to returne with assured gaine, than to tarie 1497. Lesle. King Iames returneth without prof|fer of battell. this new sproong dukes doubtfull and vncerteine vi|ctorie. And so hauing his people laden and pestered with spoile and prisoners, he drew backe into Scot|land. The king of England aduertised hereof, made preparation for the raising of an armie, meaning to send the same against the Scots: but the rebellion A rebellion in Cornewall. of the Cornishmen, which chanced the same time a|bout a taxe leuied then of the people, constreined him to imploie that armie to represse the enterprise of those rebels. Yet neuerthelesse he sent the earle of Surreie to the borders, that with the power of the The earle of Surreie sent into the north. countrie adioining, he might defend the same from the inuasions of the Scots, if they attempted to breake in: and so the earle laie on the borders all that yéere.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 King Iames then perceiuing that no maine ar|mie 1498. The Scots inuade the borders of England. came against him, inuaded est soones the borders of England, and laied siege to the castell of Norham, sending his light horssemen abroad into Northum|berland, and the bishoprike of Durham, where they burned and spoiled all about in the countrie: but hea|ring that the earle of Surreie had raised an armie, The earle of Surreie rai|sed an armie. and was comming towards them, they returned to the host lieng before Norham, where king Iames perceiuing he could not win the castell, notwithstan|ding he had doone great hurt and damage thereto, he The Scots raise their siege. raised his siege, retired into his countrie, and left great companies on the borders for defense thereof. And so before the comming of the English armie, king Iames was returned. The earle of Surreie yet (as the English writers affirme) followed into The earle of Surreie went into Scot|land. Scotland, and tooke diuerse castels and towers, re|maining within the countrie the space of six or seuen daies, and then came backe without battell or anie notable skirmish offered.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 About the same time was one Peter Hialas sent Peter Hialas an ambassador from the king of Spaine. ambassador from Ferdinando king of Spaine, to treat as a mediator for the concluding of peace be|twixt the kings of England and Scotland, which Hi|alas trauelled so earnestlie in the matter, that at length it was agréed, that certeine commissioners of Commissio|ners met at Melrosse or Iedworth (as some say.) both the realmes should méet at Melrosse, where for the king of England, doctor Fox, then bishop of Dur|ham, with this Hialas, and other graue personages, met the Scotish commissioners. After long confe|rence and much talke had, for the conclusion of a ge|nerall A truce con|cluded for yéeres. peace, finallie nothing but a truce might be accorded for certeine yéeres, though Hialas did what he possiblie might, to haue agréed them for all maner of matters, quarrels, demands, and causes, whatsoe|uer The cause why Hialas was sent. the same had bene, that a perpetuall peace might haue béene concluded, because he was chieflie sent EEBO page image 290 for that intent.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The king of England required to haue the coun|terfeit duke of Yorke (otherwise named Perkin Warbecke) deliuered to him: but king Iames (e|stéeming his honor more than anie earthlie thing) would in no wise séeme to betraie him that fled to An article for Perkin War|becke. him for succour, and with whome he had coopled one of his owne kinswomen in mariage: but he was contented to couenant, that the same Perkin should be constreined to depart out of Scotland, and not to be further aided by him, or by anie other through his meanes or procurement. The king of Scots to kéepe promise made in the said treatie of peace, and know|ing himselfe to be abused by the said Richard, whom he had reputed to be verelie duke of Yorke (although King Iames reasoneth with the coun|terfeit duke of yorke. he was not so) called him before his presence, and de|clared to him the great fauour and good will which he had borne towards him, putting him in remem|brance that for his sake he had taken warre in hand against England, and inuaded the countrie in hope of assistance by his friends within the land, where not one resorted to him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 And albeit he had maried his néere kinswoman, yet might he not kéepe longer warre with England for his sake onelie; except he might be sure of some aid through his meanes, whereof he could sée no ap|péerance. He desired him therefore to withdraw foorth of his realme, either into Flanders to his fathers si|ster the ladie Margaret; or into some other place where it pleased him to abide, and expect some better time more conuenient for his purpose. The said Ri|chard gaue the king thanks, and obeied his pleasure, departing shortlie after out of Scotland, and sailed Perkin War|beck went in|to Ireland to come into Flanders. into Ireland, from thence to transport into Flan|ders. But finallie making an attempt into Eng|land, he was taken prisoner in the abbeie of Beau|lien, togither with his wife, whose beautie was such, as king Henrie thought hir a more méet preie for an emperor, than for souldiors, and therefore vsed hir ve|rie honorablie, appointing hir to remaine in the court with the quéene his wife, where she continued so long as the said king liued.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This yéere, the peace being well kept betwixt England and Scotland, the same was neere at point 1499. The truce like to be bro|ken. to haue béene broken; by reason that the English|men which laie in garrison within the castell of Nor|ham, did make a fraie with certeine Scotishmen that came riding neere to the castell, as it had beene to haue viewed it. But although they ment no euill, yet diuerse of the Scotishmen were slaine, and ma|nie wounded and sore hurt; so that king Iames ha|uing information thereof, was sore displeased there|with, thinking and saieng, that there was no more vncerteine thing, than to haue peace with England. And herevpon he sent his herald Merchmount with sharpe and vehement letters vnto the king of Eng|land, making great complaint for this iniurie and wrong doone to his subiects, by those within the ca|stell of Norham. But receiuing most reasonable let|ters for excuse of that which was doone, as well from the king of England himselfe, as from the bishop of Durham owner of the castell, he was indifferentlie well appeased & satisfied, so that he required to haue King Iames requireth to talke with the bishop of Durham. the bishop to come into Scotland vpon safe conduct to common with him, as well for the full quieting of this matter, as for other things which he had to talke with him of.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The bishop by licence of the king his maister, ac|complished the Scotish kings request; so that com|ming into Scotland, he was receiued by him verie honorablie at Melrosse, where (after certeine talke had betwixt them for the appeasing of this last dis|pleasure) King Iames purposeth to be a sutor for mariage in England. the king brake with the bishop for the ha|uing of the ladie Margaret, eldest daughter to Hen|rie the seuenth, as then king of England, to be giuen him in mariage: and further declared that he was minded to send his orators vnto hir father the said king Henrie, about the same matter. And forsomuch as he knew that the bishop was one that might doo much with king Henrie, who highlie fauoured him for his singular wisedome and learning, he desired him to be a meane to further his sute, which if it were obteined, he trusted it should highlie redound to the honor & wealth of both the realmes. The bishop con|sidering héerein as much as the king was able to tell him, did not onelie promise to doo all that in him lay, but also incouraged him to send his orators with all spéed, trusting that they should receiue a verie to|wardlie answer.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 King Iames following the bishops aduise, anon after his returne into England, sent certeine per|sons ambassadors vnto king Henrie, to mooue him Ambassadors sent into England. 1500. A mariage concluded be|twixt king Iames and the ladie Margaret. to the effect aboue mentioned. These ambassadors were highlie welcomed, and verie well heard, so that to be briefe, their request séemed so agréeable to king Henries mind, that the mariage was shortlie there|vpon concluded (but not consummate betwixt the foresaid Iames king of Scotland, and the said ladie Margaret daughter to king Henrie) in the seuen|téenth yéere of the said king Henries reigne. At the same time, when this mariage was so agréed vpon, a A peace con|cluded be|twixt Eng|land & Scot|land. peace was also concluded betwixt the kings of England and Scotland, for the terme of their two liues. And to auoid that none of either of the said kings subiects that had offended the lawes, should be receiued into anie of their dominions; it was accor|ded, that no Englishman should come within Scot|land, without his princes letters supplicatorie vnto the king of Scots, nor anie Scotishman to come within England, without the like letters from his prince, desiring safe conduct and passeport.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the yeere next insuing, Robert Blakater the 1501. bishop of Glascow, Adam Hepborne the earle Both|well, and other noble men of Scotland, were sent in ambassage from king Iames vnto the king of Eng|land, for the perfecting of the foresaid mariage be|twixt king Iames, and the ladie Margaret, eldest daughter to king Henrie, which earle by letters of procuracie and mandat, in the name of his maister king Iames, affied and handfasted the foresaid ladie Margaret in all solemne wise, according to the ma|ner: which assurance and contract thus made, was This was in the yéere 1502. published at Paules crosse in London, on the day of the conuersion of saint Paule, in reioising whereof Te Deum was soong, and fiers made, with great fea|sting & banketting throughout that citie. This doone, the ambassadors returned into Scotland, and then af|terwards was great preparation made in England for the conueieng of the said ladie into Scotland, and likewise great purueiance there for the receiuing of hir.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 On the sixtéenth of Iune, king Henrie tooke his 1503. Lesle. iournie from Richmond, with his daughter the said ladie Margaret, and came to Coliweston, where his mother the countesse of Richmond then laie. And af|ter he had remained there certeine daies in pastime and great solace, he tooke leaue of his daughter, gi|uing hir his blessing with a fatherlie exhortation, and committed the conueiance of hir into Scotland vnto the earle of Surreie, and others. The earle of Northumberland, as then warden of the marches, was appointed to deliuer hir vpon the borders vnto the king of Scotland. And so this faire ladie was conueied with a great companie of lords, ladies, knights, esquires, and gentlemen, vntill she came to the towne of Berwike, and from thence vnto Lam|bert church in Lamer moore within Scotland, where she was receiued by the king and all the nobles of EEBO page image 291 that realme, and from the said place of Lamberton church, she was conucied vnto Edenburgh, where the day after hir comming thither, she was maried vnto the said king with great and solemne triumph, to the high reioising of all that were present.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And verelie the English lords (as the earle of [...] of the [...]ge be| [...]t king Iames the [...] and [...] Margaret. Surreie and others) which gaue their attendance on the said ladie till the mariage and feast were ended) at their returne home, gaue great praise not onelie to the manhood of the Scots, but also to their ma|ners and heartie interteinment. For aswell the no|ble men as the ladies and gentlewomen of Scot|land at that present, were nothing behind the Eng|lish lords & ladies in costlie apparell, massie chaines, and other furniture, as well for themselues as their horsses, and made great bankets to the English|men, and shewed them such iusts and other pleasant pastimes in honor of the mariage, so well, as after the maner of the countrie could be deuised. By rea|son of this mariage and aliance, men were in great good hope that perfect peace and sincere amitie should continue betwixt the two realmes of England and Scotland a long time after: and verclie during the life of king Henrie the seuenth, no cause of breach was ministred betwixt him and his sonne in law, but that they liued in great loue and amitie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 About this time, the king of Denmarke, through di|uision that did rise betwixt him & his lords, was con|streined The king of Denmarke [...]th into Scotland. to forsake his countrie, and to come for aid into Scotland, where the king receiued him louing|lie, and vpon his earnest sute, for that he was both his coosine and confederat, and also the rather, at the contemplation of the French kings request and per|suasion, he prepared an armie of ten thousand men, the which vnder the conduct of the earle of Arrane, he sent with the said king of Denmarke to assist him against his aduersaries. The earle of Arrane ac|cording He is restored to his king|dome by the earle of Ar|rane [...] to king Iames. to his commission, attending the Danish king into his countrie, restored him to his kingdome and former gouernement, and so leauing him in peaceable possession thereof, returned with his ar|mie againe into Scotland, with great honor both to himselfe, the king, and realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Shortlie after was a parlement called, during the which the queene was crowned, and manie good acts and constitutions made, especiallie touching the li|miting of places where iustice should be ministred in the Iles and hie lands: whereby it came to passe, that the king was aswell obeied, & his lawes were The hie land [...] at [...] lawes. as duelie obserued and kept by the hie land men, as by those that dwelled in anie part of the low land. The king then being at peace with England, and [...] Les [...]. 1504. iustice so ministred amongest his owne subiects, that they liued in great rest and quietnesse, certeine of his councell [as William El [...]stone bishop of [...]. Aberden] deuised waies to win the king great pro|fit and gaines, by calling his barons & all those that A [...] to [...] the king [...]. held anie lands within his realme, to shew their eui|dences by way of recognition: and if they had not writings to shew, according to the ancient instru|ments and lawes of the realme sufficient for their warrant, the lands should remaine at the kings pleasure.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 But when the king perceiued his people to grudge herewith, and not without cause, as with a thing de|uised to disquiet his people and the whole countrie, of his owne curteous & gentle nature he easilie agréed with the possessors of such lands: for the which he pur|chased great loue amongest his people, & the de [...]sers of that ordinance wa [...] passing great hatred and ma|lice. This yeare in Maie the king held his court of 1506. iu [...]ice at Lowder, and remoouing it to Edenburgh, there continued the same, where the lord of Thorne|ton was conuicted for kissing his wife, and therefore lost his head [at Edenburgh by the kings sentence.] Fr. Thin. There came an ambassador this yeare also from the duke of Gelderland, to renew the league betwixt the king and the said duke. Also an herald came out of France, who brought news which the king liked well.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 This yeare also, the king caused a mightie ship to A great ship made. be made, the which was put foorth into the rode the seuenth of Iulie, and the king sailed himselfe into the Maie, an Iland in the Forth, and was driuen in againe with tempest: but the same ship was after appointed foorth, and sent to the sea with sundrie va|liant gentlemen in hir, to meet with the Hollanders which had taken and spoiled diuerse Scotish ships, and throwne the merchants and other that were in the same ouer boord. For reuenge whereof, Andrew The Hollan|ders ships ta|ken. Barton tooke manie ships of the Hollanders and fil|led certeine pipes with their heads, which he sent vn|to the king for a witnesse how he had sped. A star A bright star appeareth in the skie like a comet appeared the tenth of August, giuing great light in the night season like to the sun beams. A Frenchman named sir Anthonie Darcie knight, Anthonie Darcie. called afterward Le sir de la Bawtie, came through England into Scotland to séeke feats of arms. And comming to the king the foure and twentith of Sep|tember, the lord Hamilton fought with him right valiantlie, and so as neither of them lost anie peece of honor. This yeare Iames prince of Scotland and of the Iles was borne in the abbeie of the Holie 150 [...]. Prince I [...] is borne. rood house, the one and twentith of Ianuarie; and on the thrée and twentith of the same moneth he was baptised in the said abbeie church. His godfathers were these, Robert bishop of Glascow, and Patrike earle Bothwell; and the countesse of Huntleie was his godmoother. The quéene, after she was brought to bed, was verie weake and troubled with great sickenesse, so that she lay in great danger: for reco|uerie of whose helth the king went on foot vnto saint The king went on pil|grimage. Ninians in pilgrimage; and afterwards in Iulie, both the king and the quéene went thither to visit the same saint.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Pope Iulius the second sent an ambassador vnto The pope de|clared king Iames pro|tector of the faith. king Iames, declaring him protector and defendor of the faith, and in signe thereof sent vnto him a pur|pure diadem or crowne wrought with flowers of gold, togither with a sword, hauing the hilts and skabbert of gold set with pretious stones, which were presented vnto him by the said ambassador, and the abbat of Dunfermling, within the abbeie church of Holie rood house. At that time the peace contracted betwixt the two kings of Scotland and England was there confirmed. The lord of Terueer Horsses pre|sented vnto the king. or Camfire in Zealand (whose ancestors not long ago came f [...]th of Scotland) sent his messenger the baili [...]e of Terueer to the king, who presented vnto him certeine great horsses and other rich pre|sents, in remembrance that he came of the Scotish race; and the king in recompense thereof, sent vnto the said lord his order, and made his ambassador knight, rewarding him at his departing (which was in August) with right honorable gifts.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The whole realme remained in such peace and Peace and quietnesse in Scotland. quietnesse in these daies, that the king rode one day himselfe alone in po [...] from Sterling, by S. Iohns towne, and A [...]erden, vnto Elgin; and reposing a little part of the night in the house of maister Tho|mas Lesleie then parson of Angus, went to horsse againe, and came to saint Duthois in [...]e, by that time they were readie to go to [...]. This was on the one & thirtith day of August. About the latter end of September, the archbishop of sai [...] Andrews, and the earle of Arrane, were sent amb [...]dors into France. They tooke ship the seuen and twentith of An ambassage into France. September. The seuentéenth of Februarie, Iames EEBO page image 292 prince of Scotland departed this life at Striueling, and the bishop of Galloway also, who was appoin|ted to be his gouernor.

About this time, the K. (to tell you here, as saith Fr. Thin. Lesleus. lib. 8. pag. 345. Lesleus, a matter that to this day is remembred a|mongest the Romane people with great laughter) created a certeine Italian (with whose wit and plea|sant speach he was delighted) abbat of Tungland. This man (being a noble framer of deceipt, & boa|ster of his wit) did on a time persuade the king, that he was so conuersant in all hidden knowledge of naturall things, and in the secret science of Alchu|mie, that he could turne all other mettals into pure gold, if anie would beare the charge thereof. But af|ter much time spent thereabout (with long looking of the king, and the nobilitie, to see the effect hereof) there was nothing doone, but that their pursses were emptied, and the vaine man was defamed by the breach of his promise. At length when he was fallen into the hatred and offense of all men, he did (part|lie to gather againe an opinion & report of his vaine glorie, and partlie to recouer the kings fauor) giue out a rumor, that he would (by flieng) be in France before the ambassadors (which were sent thither, and had loosed from shore to take their iournie) should come thither. For the performance whereof, he ap|pointed a day for them to méet at Striueling, from whence he would take his flight, and begin his iour|nie. At what time, and to what place, manie resorted togither, desirous to sée this new bird; amongest whome (for recreations cause) came the king also.

What need manie woords. This man fastening (which he had caused to be made of the fethers of di|uerse foules) vnto both his sides, lifted vp himselfe from the castell of Striueling, into the aire to take his iournie: but this deceiuer suddenlie fell head|long to the ground, not able to be holpen by the force of his wings: wherewith the people (vncerteine whether they should rebuke the follie of the man, or pittie his misfortune) flocked about him, deman|ding this winged abbat how he did: to whome he answered, that he had broken the bone of his thigh, and was out of hope to flie anie more hereafter. To conclude, they all were like to die with laugh|ing, to sée him, which before would flie like Icarus, did now lie like Simon Magus, with all his bodie almost broken in péeces. At length when euerie one had laughed their fill, this woorthie abbat, to salue all the matter, referred the defalt of his flieng wholie to his wings, because they were not made of eagles fethers and such like, but onelie of pullens fethers, not méet or accustomed to cut the aire with flight; and which by a certeine inward vertue (working according to the nature of those foules) did draw the fethers downe toward the doonghill (whervpon those birds liue) as the adamant draweth iron.]

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The 9 of Maie in the yeare after, the lord D'obinie, and the president of Tholous, came from Lewes the 1508. An ambassage sent vnto the king. French king as ambassadors to declare vnto king Iames, that he ment to match his eldest daughter in mariage with Francis de Uallois of Uien, and duke of Angolesme; notwithstanding that Charles king of Castile that was after emperor, made sute for hir. Because therefore he ment not to conclude anie thing in such a weightie matter without con|sent of his confederats, of which he estéemed king Iames as chiefe, he required him of his aduise and counsell therein; who after aduisement taken, made answer, that albeit the king of France had suffici|ent The kings answer. counsell about him, yet sith he had desired his aduise, he would friendlie giue the same: which was that he should rather marie his daughter within his owne realme, vnto such as should succéed him, than to bestow hir vpon anie forren prince, sith otherwise some claime might be made in time comming vnto the crowne by such as should match with hir. And so with this answer, the president of Tholous depar|ted, reporting the same at his comming home vnto the French king, who therevpon followed his owne determination therein, confirmed and allowed thus by his confederat the king of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The lord D'obignie tooke a sicknesse and died ther|of The lord D'obignie died. at Corstorphin, in the moneth of Iune, and cau|sed his heart to be sent vnto saint Ninians in Gal|loway; because he had vowed a pilgrimage thither whilest he remained the French kings lieutenant in Naples, where he had atchiued manie high enter|prises against his enimies. His name was Bernard Steward, lieutenant of those men of warre which Charles the eight of that name king of France did send with Henrie earle of Richmond into England, when the same earle came against king Richard, whome he vanquished, and thereby got the crowne. And so after manie noble victories and valiant acts atchiued, this lord D'obignie ended his life in his owne countrie of Scotland, where he was borne. This yeare also in Maie and Iune, there were kept This was the king him|selfe. great iusts and tourneies in Edenburgh, by one calling himselfe the wild knight, who counterfeited the round table.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 There were diuerse ambassadors sent foorth this yeare also, as the archdeacon of saint Andrews, and Ambassadors sent. sir Anthonie Darcie into France, and the bishop of Murrey into England. The fiftéenth of Iulie, the queene was deliuered of a daughter, which shortlie after she had receiued baptisme, deceassed, and the quéene in that childbed was againe in great perill of death. The bishop of Glascow died this yeare in The archbi|shop of Glas|cow died. his iournie to Ierusalem, the nine and twentith of Iulie; Iames Beton succéeded him in that see. The thirtith of Iulie, there was a great fraie betwixt the lord Maxwell, and the lord Creichton of Sanchar, A bickering. where the lord Creichton was chased with his com|panie from Dunfreis, & the lord of Daliell and the yoong lord of Crauthlaie with diuerse other were slaine. The ninetéenth of September was a great An earth|quake. earthquake in manie places both of England and Scotland, namelie, the same was perceiued in chur|ches.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The king of England sent a gentleman with hors|ses Horsses sent vnto king Iames. trimlie trapped with bards of stéele to be presen|ted to king Iames, who thankefullie receiued them, and right honorablie rewarded the messenger. The archdeacon of saint Andrews returned foorth of The archdea|con of saint Andrews came out of France. France in a great ship called the treasuror, which ship was cast away on the coast of England, and the archdeacon, and foure hundred persons that were in hir, were brought to the king of England: but the archdeacon in Nouember following returned home and came to Edenburgh. Adam earle of Bothwell The earle Bothwell died. and lord Hales departed this life at Edenburgh the seuentéenth day of October, and earle Patrike suc|céeded him. Henrie the seuenth king of England, passed out of this world the two and twentith of A|prill, in the yeare 1509, and his sonne Henrie the 1509. eight succéeded him, after whose coronation king Iames sent an honorable ambassage of certeine King Henrie the eight suc|céedeth his father. lords and a bishop to congratulat him at his first en|trie into the rule of his kingdome, as to the maner in such cases apperteineth.

Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. [...]. cap. 250. At this time, Iohn and Andrew Barton (ob|teining letters of marque from the king against the Portingals) preieng on the borderers of Portingale did take manie of their ships (landed with rich mer|chandize) which they brought into Scotland. Which kind of prises being often made by the Bartons vn|to the Portingals, gaue them cause gréeuouslie to complaine to their king, of the wicked pirasie of the EEBO page image 293 Scots: but neither the king of Portingale with his councell, nor his people with their force, could at a|nie time suppresse the Bartons (defended with the Scotish letters of marque) but that he would in|uade, spoile, & carie awaie the Portingale ships, if he happened vppon anie of them. Touching which, be|cause it shall not séeme to be a manifest iniurie by the Bartons to the other (and not rather a iust cause giuen by the Portingals) we haue here inserted the letters of our king Iames the sift (as they be found amongst the records) written to Immanuell king of Portingale for this matter. In which it shall ma|nifestlie appeare, whether the fault were not mostlie in the Portingals or no.

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