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1.1. The Chapters of those lawes which yet remaine to be obserued, are these.

The Chapters of those lawes which yet remaine to be obserued, are these.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _LEt euerie shire haue certein men skilled in the lawes appointed to Lawiers [...]. be resident in the same, according as in the beginning it was insti|tuted. Let their sonnes also in their youth be brought vp in knowledge of the same lawes.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Let them onelie keepe in their custodies The tables of the law to be kept. the tables of the lawes, with the register bookes of the kings & peeres of the realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 If any of them be conuicted of extort bri|bing, Bribers to be hanged. or other the like vniust dealing, let him die vpon the gallowes, and his bodie remaine vnburied.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Such as are cõdemned for theft, let them be hanged, and those that are proued giltie Punishment too theft and m [...]ther. of murther, let them lose their heads.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 A woman which is condemned to die, ei|ther A woman cõ|demned to be drowned, or burned quick. let hir bee drowned in some riuer, ei|ther else let hir be buried quicke.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He that blasphemeth the name of God, of the saints, of his prince, or of the cap|teine Blasphemers haue their toongs cut out of his tribe, let him haue his toong cut out.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He that is conuicted of a lie to his neigh|bours The punish|ment for a lier. hinderance, let him haue his swoord taken from him, and be banished out of all mens companie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Such as be accused of any crimes that deserue death, let them passe by the sen|tence A man accu|sed to be con|demned by an o [...] quest o [...] men. of 7 honest men, either else of 9, 11, 13, 15, or more, so that the number be od.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Robbers by the high waies, destroiers Robbers to be put to the sword. of corne growing in the fields, as is vsed by enimies in time of warre, let them die by the swoord.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Fugitiues, vagabonds, and such other [...]agabonds to be whipped and burnt in the chéeke. The wife shal not suffer for the husbands offense. The concu|bine and hir mate to haue [...] punish|ment. idle persons, let them be whipt and burnt in the cheeke.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Let not the wife suffer for the husbands offense, but the husband shal answer for the wiues misdeeds, if he be priuie therevnto.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Any mans lemman or concubine shall suffer the same paines that he dooth which offendeth with hir.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He that rauisheth a maid shall die for it, [...] [...]s of m [...]s shall die. vnlesse she require for safegard of his life, to haue him to hir husband.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 If any man be taken with an other mans Adult [...] shall die. wife in adulterie, she consenting vnto him therein, they shall both suffer death for it. But if she consent not, but be forced a|gainst hir will, then he shall die onelie for the same, and she shall be released.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 If the child hurt the father either with A child h [...]|ting his father shall die. toong, hand, or foot, let him first be depriued of that member, and then hanged, his bo|die to remaine without buriall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 A murtherer, a dumbe person, or he that who are not to inh [...]t. is vnthankfull to his parents, shall not in|herit his fathers patrimonie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Iuglers, wizzards, necromancers, and Iuglers and wizzard [...], [...]. such as call vp spirits, and vse to seeke vpon them for helpe, let them be burnt to death.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Let no man sow in the earth any graine So [...]ing of graine. before it be purged of all the weeds.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He that through negligent slouth, suffe|reth Euill hus|bandrie. his arable ground to bee choked vp and ouergrowne with weeds; for the first fault let him forfait an oxe, for the second ten oxen, and for the third let him forgo the same ground.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thy companion in the warres, or thy Buriall of friends. friend being slaine, see him buried, but let the enimie lie vnburied.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Anie straie cattell that commeth into w [...]ifes and [...]. thy grounds, either restore them to the ow|ner, either els deliuer them to the searcher out of theeues, commonlie called Tonode|rach, or to the parson or vicar of the towne: for if thou reteine them in thy hands by the space of three daies, thou shalt be ac|counted giltie of theft.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He that findeth anie thing that belon|geth Things found. to an other man, let him cause it to be cried in the market, or els he shall be iud|ged for a fellon.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He that striketh him, with whom he go|eth Aduersaries in sute of law. to the law, about anie matter in con|trouersie, shall be iudged giltie of the acti|on, and the other set free.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 If oxen or kine chance by running togi|ther Oxen or kine hurting [...]h other. to kill one another, the truth being not known which it was that did the hurt, that which is found without hornes shall be iudged the occasion of the skath; and he that is owner of the same, shall haue the dead beast, and satisfie him for the losse to whome it belonged.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 If a sow eate hir pigs, let hir be stoned A sow. to death, and buried, so that no man eate of hir flesh.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 A swine that is found eating of corne Swine. that groweth in the field, or wrooting vpon the tilled grounds, let it be lawfull for anie man to kill the same without danger.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Other kinds of beasts, wherein other Beasts [...] f [...]ant. men haue anie propertie, if they breake in|to thy pastures, or eate vp thy corne, im|pound them, till time the owner haue satis|fied thee for the quantitie of the damage.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 ¶ These were ciuill ordinances belonging Articles tea|ching religion to the good gouernement of the people, o|ther there were, which apperteine to reli|gion: EEBO page image 134 as these.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thou shalt deuoutlie reuerence the al|tars, temples, images, oratories, chapels, priestes, and all men of religion.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thou shalt obserue with due reuerence Kéeping of ho|lie daies. festiuail and solemne holie daies, fasting daies, vigils, and all maner of ceremonies instituted by the godlie ordinance of man, in the honor of our S. Christ & his saints.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 To hurt a priest, let it be accounted an offense woorthie of death. Priests.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 That ground wherin anie that is slaine lieth buried, leaue it vntilled for seuen Ground to be left vntilled. yeeres space.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Repute euerie graue holie, and adorne it with the signe of the crosse, so as thou Graurs. shalt be well aduised that in no wise with thy feet thou tread vpon it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Burie the dead according to the quanti|tie of his substance. Buriall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The bodie of a noble man & of him that hath well deserued of the common-wealth, Buriall of no|ble men. shall be buried in solemne and pompous wise, but yet in mourning sort & dolorous manner.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Let there be two knights or esquires to attend his bodie to the graue. The one be|ing mounted vpon a white horsse shall beare the coate-armor of the dead, and the other in mourning apparell with his face couered shall ride vpon a blacke horsse; who after the corps is brought to church, tur|ning his horsse from the altar, shall crie out how his maister is dead: and there|with the people making an outcry against him, he shall streictwaies depart and get him with all speed to the place frõ whence he came; the other going streight to the al|tar, shall there offer vp vnto the priest his coate-armor with his horsse, as a token to signifie thereby that his maister dooth in|ioy euerlasting life, in the land of perma|nent light and ioies eternall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But this custome of buriall, as that which was supposed not apperteining to the order of the christian religion, the age that followed did vtterlie abolish, appointing to the priests in steed of the horsse and armor, fiue pounds ster|ling in monie for the offering. With these and diuers other ordinances, which time and other statuts by other kings deuised haue abrogated, Kenneth gouerned his people in great felicitie during his life time.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The bishops sée, which before had béene at Abirne|thie, he translated vnto the church of that holie man S. Reule his church, now called Saint Andrewes. S. Reule. Euer since which time the towne hath béen called S. Andrewes, and those which gouerned the same church a long time after, were called the great bishops of Scotland: for the realme was not diui|ded into dioceses till the daies of Malcolme the 3, who by diuine inspiration (as is said) ordeined the sée of Murthlake, now called Abirden: but such as were reputed of vertuous behauiour and know|ledge méet for the office, vsed the authoritie & roome of bishops, in what place soeuer they were resident. Yet such was the continuance of those which gouer|ned the church of S. Andrewes, that there haue béene aboue the number of fortie bishops resident there, since the first institution of that sée; manie of them for the opinion conceiued of their holinesse, being numbred according to the manner in times past in the register of saints. But now to returne vnto Ken|neth, The bounds of the Scotish kingdome. who hauing (as is said) inlarged the bounds of his kingdome, so as the same stretched foorth vnto the confines of Northumberland on the one side, and to the Iles of Orknie on the other, the sea compas|sing the residue, at the length after he had reigned a|bout twentie yéeres in great renowme and glorie, he departed out of this life, through too much abun|dance King Ken|neth departed out of this life, 855. H. B. of rheumatike matter, at Fortiuiot, in the yéere of our Lord 856. His bodie was conueied into the Ile of Colmekill, and there honorablie buried a|mongst his ancestors.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 AFter his deceasse succéeded in gouernment [...] the realme his brother Donald, farre differing Donald. in qualities from his noble brother the foresaid Ken|neth; Donald the fourth of that name succée|deth his bro|ther Kenneth. The king is of dissolute be|hauior. but yet before he came to the rule of the realme, he disclosed not his vicious nature, for doubt of of|fending the king his brother. Neuerthelesse he had continued scarse two yéeres in the estate, but that he had subuerted all good orders in his realme, by his naughtie examples of dissolute liuing: for his mind was set on nothing but on wanton pleasure; as in the vnlawfull vse of concubines, riotous banket|ting, kéeping of hawkes, hounds, & horsses for plea|sure, and not for the vse of warres, whereof he had no regard at all: for such charges as he should haue béene at for maintenance of men of warre to kéepe the frontiers of his realme, were imploied on a sort of rascals, that serued him in the furtherance of his wanton delights and voluptuous desires, as hunts|men, falconers, cookes, bawdes, ruffians, and such like lozzels.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wherevpon diuers of the nobles remembring what apperteined to their duties, spared not but frée|lie The king is admonished of his nobles. admonished the king what danger would insue of his misordered behauior, if he reformed not his ma|ners, nor restreined the licentious dooings of his ser|uants and familie. But when they perceiued that their woords were not regarded, but for the same they themselues ran into displeasure; they sorrowed not a little, to sée so small hope of amendment of such enormities, as euerie where reigned through the re|gion: for all youthfull persons giuen to sensuall lust followed the same without anie feare or care of cor|rection, so that there was no measure of offending and haunting of euill rule in all parties, insomuch that shortlie, through want of all good gouernance, wrong was placed in stéed of right, and contempt of Gods honor imbraced euerie where in place of ver|tue and godlinesse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In this meane while, the residue of the Picts re|maining The exiled Picts require aid of the Englishmen. amongst the Englishmen, ceassed not to solicit the gouernors of the countrie to aid them to|wards the recouerie of their dominion out of the Scotishmens hands, promising to be subiects vnto the English nation, if by their helpe they might be restored to their ancient seates. At length Osbert Osbert and Ella kings of Northumber|land. and Ella kings of Northumberland were persuaded through instant sute to take that enterprise in hand, the rather vpon trust of good successe, for that they vnderstood what lacke of politike gouernement then remained amongest the Scots, by reason of the kings naughtie demeanor and most inordinat trade of life. But first there was a league concluded with The English|men and Bri|tains ioined their powers with the Picts. new articles of agreement betwixt the Englishmen and Britains, as yet inhabiting alongst the coasts of Cumberland, by meanes of which league both Britains and Englishmen ioined their powers to|gither, and in most spéedie and forcible wise passed the water of Twéed, first pitching their campe in the countrie of Mers. From [...]ence immediatlie king Osbert (being appointed as generall in that iournie) EEBO page image 135 sent an hera [...]d vnto Donald the Scotish king, com|manding [...] her [...]d is [...] vnto Do| [...]. him either to surrender vp vnto the Picts all such regions as the Scots had taken from them, either else to looke to haue the Englishmen and Bri|tains no lesse their enimies than the Picts, whose cause they had taken vpon them to mainteine and defend.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Donald being at the first sore troubled with these newes, yet at length (by the aduise of his nobles) he tooke a good hart vnto him, and in defense of his realme caused musters to be taken throughout all his dominions, and foorthwith came into the field to [...] is put to [...]ght at [...]dworth, or Iedburgh. incounter his enimies, whome he found at Ied|worth readie to giue battell: where after sore fight, in the end Osbert with his people was chased to the next mounteins. Donald hauing thus obtei|ned the victorie in this conflict, supposed all had béene his owne, and therevpon remooued ouer Tweed with all possible hast, marching foorth till he came to the mouth of that riuer, where there laie at anchor certeine English vessels, laden with proui| [...]on of vittels and all other things necessarie for the furniture of an armie. Donald setting vpon these ships, with small resistance tooke them, spoiled them [...] his prouision by w [...]ter is ta|ken by the [...]. of all such things as were found aboord, and after set fire on them. The spoile was diuided amongest the souldiers and men of warre, which serued them to small vse or commoditie: for all the youth of the ar|mie, through example of their prince, was so corrup|ted in vicious customes, that the campe was reple|nished with hoores, bawds, stews, and dicing tables, in such wise, that all such prouision as should haue serued for store and staple of vittels, was spent in riotous banketing without anie order or measure: & oftentimes (as it chanceth where politike gouerne|ment [...] great dis|order in the Scotish campe. lacketh) there happened amongest them in the armie, discord and variance with sundrie [...] and slaughters.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 When the enimies were aduertised how far out of order all things stood in the Scotish campe for want of g [...]d and discreet chie [...]eins, Osbright with all spéed got a mightie host togither againe, and before his approch was looked for of the Scots, he commeth vp|on them one morning in the breake of the day, and assaile [...] them in their lodgings, wherein he found them so vnprouided of all helps to make resistance, that it was a woonder to sée the disorder that appea|red amongest them: some of them running vpon their enimies naked without all discretion, other The Scots campe sud|denlie inua|ded. breaking foorth of the campe to saue themselues by flight, not sparing hill nor dale where they saw anie way to escape the enimies hands, though it were with present danger of breaking their necks downe the [...]deling banks and craggie rocks, being forced [...] by the fierce pursute of the Englishmen and Britains, who most eagerlie preased vpon them in all places, to reuenge the late receiued ouerthrow and slaughter of their friends and kinsfolks. There died of the Scots in this mortall bickering aboue [...]0000 [...] sl [...]. King Donald is taken with the n [...]bilitie. twentie thousand persons. King Donald being fast asleepe at the first assault of the enimies, as he that had drunke ouer night more than i [...]gh, was ta|ken before he could make anie shift for himselfe, with the residue of the nobilitie, that scaped with life.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Scotish campe, the next day a [...]ter this The campe is [...]. ouerthrow, was [...]ed, the spoile being d [...]ded a|mongest the Englishmen and Britains. But when the [...]ame of this infortunat battell was n [...]sed once through the realme of Scotland, how the king was taken prisoner, his campe woone, the armie [...], The whole [...] of Scotland dis| [...]ted. and almost all the souldiers and men of warre [...], those few of the nobles which were left aliue remaining prisoners in the enimies hands, there was such dole and lamentation made ouer all, as though the realme had alreadie béene lo [...] without re|couerie. Some there were that blamed fortune, some curssed the wicked trade of life in the king, o|ther bewailing the great calamitie of this mischance put the fault in diuers other things, as in such cases commonlie it falleth out: for in sundrie heads are e|uer sundrie opinions. Manie [...]an vp and downe the stréets and high waies, to inquire the certeintie of all things, and whether there were anie hope at all left to resist the enimies, also which way the eni|mies held, whereabout they went, and what they pur|posed to doo.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Anon after, when it was certeinlie knowen that The English men inuade Louthian, the Britains Galloway. the Englishmen were entred by Louthian, and the Britains by Galloway, there was such feare mixed with sorrow (for losse of their friends and kinsfolks) stricken into the peoples hearts, and namelie into the womens, that a greater hath not béene heard of in anie region. So that all prouision to defend The Scots left comfort|lesse. their countrie was quite neglected, so amazed were the Scots with the sudden change of fortunes fauor. The Englishmen herevpon tooke all the countrie e|uen to the water of Forth, and likewise the Britains seized into their hands all that which lieth from the The Bri|tains as yet kept posses|sion of Cum|berland, and those other coun [...]es li| [...]ng by the coast of th [...]se wes [...] seas. The victori [...] vsed cru [...]. bounds of Cumberland vnto Sterling bridge, fin|ding no resistance in their way at all. Herevnto as|well the Englishmen as Britains vsed the victorie verie cruellie, sparing neither one nor other of the Scotish bloud, that by anie means fell into their hands, but priests and all passed one way, that is, by the edge of the sword.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 King Osbert purposed to haue passed the water of Forth, that waie to haue entered into Fife, & so o [...]er Taie into Angus: but hearing that the Scots had gathered a power to impeach his passage, he staied certeine daies. At length vnderstanding that the enimies were nothing of that puissance or num|ber, as at the first they were reported to be; he de|termined to set ouer in certeine boats ten thousand of his men; but through a sudden tempest of wind A great manie Englishmen drowned. and weather, that rose in that instant, there were fiue thousand of them drowned, the residue being constreined to land againe on the same side from the which they loosed, hauing lost through violence of the weather all their tackle and whole furniture of their vessels. Osbert being also admonished with this mis|fortune, thought good to attempt no more the furi|ous rage of the water, but determined by land to go vnto Sterling, where he vnderstood he should find the Britains, with whome he might ioine his power, and passe ouer the bridge there, and so inuade other of the Scotish regions which lay thereabout.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But at his comming thither, certeine Scotish am|bassadours came vnto him to sue for peace, which Ambassadors sue for peace. they humblie required at his hands in name of the whole realme, beseeching him to consider [...] the state of the case as it stood, and not to trust too much Fortune is brittle. o [...] brittle fortune, the which sheweth hir selfe neuer stable; but commonlie vseth to call backe againe hir grant of prosperous successe, where the receiuer [...] not skill to vse it moderatlie, and the vanqui|shed séemeth to haue béene sufficientlie corrected. As for the Scots, though it might appeare that their force was greatlie abated, & that resistance should little auaile them: yet were they minded to die in defense of their liberties, rather than to submit them|selues vnto anie conditions of vile seruitude. The words of these ambassadors being throughlie weied (though some tooke them in great disdaine) yet in the end it was supposed that after victorie thus had a|gainst the enimies, honorable conditions of peace ought to be preferred before doubtfull warre.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wherevpon answere was made to the ambassa|dors, that both the English and British people with EEBO page image 136 their kings were contented to haue peace with the Peace gran|ted with con|ditions. Scots (though it laie in their hands now to destroy the whole nation) if so be the Scots would agrée to resigne aswell to the Englishmen as Britains all such lands and countries as they had now gotten in|to their possessions, without anie claime or title to be Articles of peace propo|ned. made to the same from thenceforth, either by them or anie of their posteritie, so that the water of Forth on the east halfe, should diuide the Scotish domi|nions from the confines of the Englishmen & Bri|tains, The Forth called the Scotish sea. and be called from that time euer after, the Scotish sea. On the west the water of Clide should diuide the Scotish lands from the Britains; the ca|stell of Alcluith, standing at the mouth of the same Donbreton. It was cal|led before Ca|er Arcluith, that is, the ci|tie vpon Cluid, as H. Llhoid hol|deth. riuer, to remaine in the hands of the Britains, from thencefoorth to beare the name of Dunbreton, that is to say, the castell of the Britains. And further|more, that if anie of the Scots should attempt to passe the said bounds into anie of the British or English borders, he should die for that offense. And if by force of tempest it chanced anie of them to be driuen to land on the south shore, within anie of those parties, they should take nothing away with them but water or vittels, and depart within thrée daies, except some reasonable cause of staie constreined them to the contrarie. Moreouer, they should not for|tifie anie townes or castels on the frontiers néere to the English or British confines. And further, they should couenant to pay vnto the Englishmen and Britains, within the space of twentie years, the summe of one thousand pounds of siluer. For per|formance of which articles of agréement, the Scots should deliuer thréescore hostages, being the sonnes and heirs apparant of the chiefest noble men of all Hostages are required. their realme and countrie. And if it so were that they misliked and refused anie of these articles, he com|manded that there should no other ambassadour come to him for anie other treatie of accord.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The ambassadors returning home, and declaring how they had sped, manie of the Scots thought the articles nothing reasonable for frée people to accept; The Scots mislike the ar|ticles of peace. other iudged that either they must come to some a|greement with the Englishmen and Britains, or els put the land in extreme perill. Thus had the peo|ple béene diuided into two contrarie opinions and factions, had not one Calene a noble man, borne of high parentage, and gouernour of Angus, with so|ber reasons and strong arguments appeased this contention, persuading them to haue respect to the Calene his graue counsell taketh place. time. And sith the force of the realme was so infée|bled, ab [...]ted, and brought vnder foot through aduerse fortune: better it was to yeeld vnto necessitie in sa|uing part at that present, in hope after, when occa|sion serued to recouer the residue, than through ob|serued wilfulnesse to lose the whole. For considering the present danger, it could be reputed no dishonor to receiue conditions of peace at the enimies hands, sith there wanted not the like example of the Ro|mans, who gladlie accepted such articles of peace, as that noble prince king Gald appointed them: and yet it is not to be iudged, that there wanted men of great knowledge and wisdome amongest them, and such as regarded their honor, so far foorth as reason in anie wise did reach.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The multitude moued with these words of Calene, whose graue authoritie (by reason of his age and The multi|tude consen|ted vnto Cale|ne his sai|engs. roome) was of no small reputation amongst them, hauing lost nine of his owne sonnes in the last bat|tell, they finallie determined to follow his opinion in receiuing the same conditions of agreement which Osbert had prescribed: and therevpon sent againe The Scots receiue the peace. their ambassadours with the hostages appointed for the establishing of the peace, in maner as is before rehearsed. Which being throughlie accomplished in such solemne wise, as in those daies and in the like cases was accustomed, Osbert set Donald with his King Donald with the noble men are sent home againe. nobles at libertie, sending them home togither with the ambassadours, being earnestlie required so to doo, both by the English lords, and also by the Bri|tains.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The agréement being thus made, the lands were Lands diui|ded betwixt the Britains and English|men. diuided betwixt the Englishmen and the Britains, in such sort as the Britains had for their part all that which lieth from Sterling vnto the west sea, betwixt the riuers of Forth and Clide, vnto Cumberland: and the Englishmen possessed the other parcels, li|eng from Sterling vnto the east sea, betwixt the Scotish sea and Northumberland: so that by this means, Clide water, Forth, and the Scotish sea (where Forth runneth into the maine sea) diuided the Scots from the Englishmen and Britains. And thus was the towne of Sterling a common march vnto those thrée people; the same towne with the castell remaining vnto Osbert, as it was couenan|ted amongest other articles of this peace. Here (as the Scotish writers haue) he ordeined his mint, and his coiners of monie to inhabit, wherevpon came vp the name of Sterling monie: but therein they are deceiued, for (as in the historie of England shall appéere) that name came not in vse till manie yéeres after. Osbert also in this place caused a stone bridge A bridge of stone made [...] Sterling. to be made ouer the water of Forth, in stead of the woodden bridge which the Picts had made there, and was now pulled downe, and in the midst of this new stone bridge he set vp a crosse, whereon were ingrauen these verses, to be read of the passers by:

Anglos à Scotis separat crux ista remotis,
Arma hîc stant Bruti, stant Scoti hac sub cruce tuti.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Picts which had béene with the Englishmen in this iournie, euer hoping to be restored to their lands and former possessions by Osbert, when they saw how he reteined the same in his owne hands, appointing his subiects to inhabit therein, they doub|ted that which afterwards came to passe in déed, least the Englishmen of friends would now become eni|mies, séeking the destruction of the whole Pictish generation, thereby to assure themselues in the pos|session of those lands and liuings, wherevnto the Picts (as they thought) would euer make some claime and title, whilest anie of them remained aliue.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Upon this mistrust therefore did those Picts, which were amongest the Englishmen, make the best shift they could for themselues, so that manie of them got ships, and sailed into Norwaie and Denmarke, vn|to The Picts went into Norwaie and Denmarke. their countriemen there: the other that could not make shift to get away, were slaine anon after by the Englishmen, so that one of them was not to: b [...] found aliue within anie of the English dominions. And such was the end of the Picts that fled vnto the Englishmen for succour. In this meane time the Scotish king Donald being restored againe to his countrie, was receiued with more ioy and honor than he had deserued; in hope yet by this scourge of aduerse fortune, that he would haue reformed his former abuses. Neuerthelesse, he had not béene at home anie long time, but that he fell to his old vici|ous King Donald falleth to his old vices a|gaine. trade of life againe, remoouing from his com|panie such honorable personages as wished the suer|tie of his estate, with the aduancement of the com|mon welth, to the reliefe and ease of his poore mise|rable subiects. At length the nobles of the realme, perceiuing the danger that their countrie stood in, by reason of Donalds insolent misorder, vndiscréet King Don [...]ld is laid in pr [...]|son. rule and gouernement, they found means to appre|hend and commit him vnto safe keeping. But the monstrous creature, within a few daies after he EEBO page image 137 was thus put in ward in great desperati [...] [...]ue He slaieth himselfe in prison. himselfe, in the sixt yeare after he had begun his in|fortunat reigne, and in the yeare of our Sauiour 860. 860.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The same yeare that the realme of Scotland was brought vnto such miserable state by the puissant force of the Englishman and Britains, as aboue is rehearsed; there were sundrie woonders heard of in the countrie; as in Louthian a child of one moneth A yoong babe giueth war|ning vnto his mother. old and a h [...]fe, admonished the mother to flie out of that co [...]ie: for it would come to passe, that the enimies should come and take that region out of the Scotishmens hands. Beasts also, as they were pa|sturing Beasts ro| [...]ng died. abroad in the fields there, roaring after a strange sort, suddenlie died. Fishes likewise, in shape resembling the figure of man, were found Fishes like in shape to men. dead in the sands of the Scotish sea. In Galloway there fell such abundance of adders and snakes out Adders and snakes fell downe out of the skie. of the skie, that the aire being corrupted with the sauour of them lieng on the ground, both men and beasts died of certeine diseases, which they tooke through infection thereof.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Such as were accounted to be skilfull in diuina|tion, affirmed that these things did signifie an in|fortunat reigne, with an euill end vnto king Do|nald, The interpre|tation of the prodigious things. King Con|stantine crow|ned. as afterwards it happened, who hauing made away himselfe in prison (as before is expressed) Con|stantine the sonne of king Kenneth was crowned king at Scone, in the chaire of marble there, accor|ding to the maner as then vsed. After his first en|tring into the estate, he would gladlie haue gone in hand with the wars against the Englishmen, to He lain would recouer his predecessors losses. He was adui|sed otherwise by his coun|cell. haue recouered out of their possessions, those coun|tries which they had latelie taken from the Scots in his predecessors time: but his councell aduised him otherwise, declaring that the state of the common|wealth was so decaied by the misgouernance of his said predecessor, that till the same were reformed, and such intestine discord, as through licentious li|bertie reigned amongest his subiects might be ap|peased and quieted, there was no hope to atchiue a|nie woorthie enterprise abrode against forreigne e|nimies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Herevpon by their aduertisements and good ad|uise, he deuised a reformation of all such misorders Misorders are redressed. as were growen vp in all parts of his realme: and first for the spiritualtie, he ordeined that priests should attend their cures, and not to intermeddle Priests shuld onelie attend their vocation. with anie secular businesse, but to be frée from go|ing forth to the warres: neither should they keepe horsses, hawks, or hounds. And if anie of them were found negligent in dooing his dutie apperteining to his vocation, he should for the first fault forfeit a A penaltie for not dooing their dueties. péece of monie, but for the second he should lose his benefice. For the youth of his realme he tooke order (to bridle them the better from wanton delights and Youth should cate but one meale a day. sensuall lusts) that none of them should haue past one meale a day, and that of no fine or deintie deli|cats, and to absteine from all such drinke as might Drunkennes punished with death. distemper their braine, so that if anie yoong person, either man or woman were knowen to be drunken, they should die for it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 He commanded further, that all the youth of his realme, should exercise running, wrestling, shoo|ting, throwing of the dart and bowle: so to auoid slouthfulnesse, that their bodies might with such ex|ercises be made the more able to indure paines and trauell: and for the same purpose he tooke order, that they should lie vpon the bare boords, with one man|tell onelie throwen vnder them, so that they should Youth to b [...] trained vp in hardnesse. tast nothing neither by day nor night, that might noozell them in anie wanton delights or effeminat pleasures. It was also ordeined, that all such as kept vittelling houses for banketting cheere, should Kéepers of banketting houses he ba|nished. be banished the rea [...]e, with those that kept brothell houses. Thus were the Scots by obseruing of these ordinances made within short [...]e of glut|tons an [...] excessiue [...]ders, sober and temper at men: of de [...] and [...]ull persons, hard, tough, and able Scots were made sober and able to abide hardnes to abide anie trauell or labor, were the [...]ame neuer so painfull: and hereof the state of the common|wealth began to grow to good perfection, so that Constantines administration was liked of the [...]ost part of all his subiects.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The first that went about to disquiet the prospe|rous reigne of that woorthie prince, was one Euan, Euan disqui|ered the king and realme. a man of an ancient house, & borne in the westerne Iles. ¶ Such haue béene the vnquiet nature of the Scotishmen, euen from the beginning, neuer to The vnquiet nature of Scotishmen. liue contented anie long [...]me either with peace or warre: for being once wearied with the charges of the warres, they streightwaies wish for peace; and hauing in time of peace heaped togither some wealth, then can they not suffer the gouernement of their superiors, but either are readie to fall out with some forreigne enimie, or else to raise some commotion amongest themselues. This Euan Euan lieute|nant of Dun|stafage conspi|reth against the king. therfore being the kings lieutenant of his castell of Dunstafage in Louchquhaber, practised a conspira|cie against the king, with a number of other light persons being gentlemen borne, misliking the ad|ministration of things, onelie for that they saw how their inordinat libertie to oppresse inferiour persons, and to vse such wild and insolent misdmeanour, as they had doone afore time; was now restreined by lawfull iustice and execution of due punishment for the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But as these conspirators went about to haue mooued the people of Louchquhaber, Murrey land, Rosse, and Cathnesse, to haue ioined with them in their traitorous interprise; some of them in whom Euan put most trust, secretlie aduertised the king The king is aduertised of Euan his treason. of all the whole matter, who gathering a competent number of men togither, made such spéedie hast to|wards Dunstafage, where the chiefe capteine of the rebels as then lay, that he came before the same yer The king cõ|meth to Dun|stafage with an armie. anie inkling were knowen to them within of his approch. By meane whereof comming vpon them so at vnwares, he had the castell soone at his pleasure; and immediatlie herevpon caused Euan to be trus|sed Euan is exe|cuted. vp on a high paire of gallowes, for a spectacle to all his complices. And furthermore, least the other conspirators might prouide them of some other chief|teine, he apprehended diuerse of the nobilitie that were accused to be of Euans confederacie, the which he put in streict prison, there to be safelie kept, till the Manie kept in prison. peeres of the realme had determined with good deli|beration, what should become of them. This busines being in this wise appeased, when all men looked for quietnesse, there suddenlie followed a greater and One trouble followeth another. more pernicious trouble: for such is the course of the world, that when men least thinke of mischiefe, they fall oftentimes into most danger.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Cadane king of Denmarke, pretending a title to all such lands as somtimes belonged to the Picts, for Cardane king of Denmarke that the residue of that nation which had escaped the hands of the Scots and Englishmen, had resigned vnto him all their right & interest of the same lands, he determined in that quarrell (and in reuenge of the The cause that made the Danes to make warre against Eng|land and Scotland. iniuries which the Picts alledged they had susteined) to make warres both vpon Scots and Englishmen. He caused therefore an huge number of ships to be prepared, and a mightie armie of men to be put in a readinesse, to passe in the same ouer into Albion, vnder the leading of his two brethren, the one na|med Hungar, and the other Hubba. These two chief|teins hauing their ships and men with all prouision A great nauie sent into Scotland. apperteining once readie, tooke the sea, and sailed EEBO page image 138 foorth till they came to the coosts of Scotland, where they tooke land within the countrie of Fife, before a|nie tidings were heard of their comming thither.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Danes being set on land, spared no kind of cru|eltie The Danes vse great crueltie. that might be shewed against the inhahitants, and namelie for that they had not as yet receiued the faith of Christ, they raged without all measure a|gainst priests, and religious persons, ouerthrowing and burning vp churches and chappels, wheresoeuer they found anie in their way. Wherevpon the Eng|lishmen The inhabi|tants fled the countrie. that inhabited in Louthian, and the Scots that dwelled in Fife, left their houses & possessions, fléeing into other parties, where they thought they might best escape the hands of their new come ad|uersaries. A great companie also of such vertuous and godlie persons, as about the same time laboured busilie in setting foorth the woord of life vnto the peo|ple in those parties, fled with one Adrian as then bi|shop of the Scotishmen, into the Iland called Maie, which lieth in maner in the midway of the passage o|uer the Forth betwixt Fife and Louthian, where as then there was a famous monasterie of moonks. But neither the reuerence of the place, neither the in|nocencie of those harmles creatures could restraine the Danes from polluting their wicked hands in murthering that deuout companie, as they were They that fled into May Iland were slaine. then estéemed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 This is that reuerend band of martyrs, which the Scotish people haue had in such reuerence in the foresaid Iland of Maie; a few names of some of that multitude as yet remaining in memorie a|mongst writers, as the foresaid bishop Adrian, Glo|dian, Gaius, or (as others write) Monanus archdea|con of saint Andrews, and bishop Stolbrand; the names of the residue are forgotten. ¶ Some there be that affirme how this companie were Hungari|ans, The vncerten+tie of writers in this matter of these mar|tyrs. the which flieng out of their countrie, from the persecution which was their exercised by men of mis|beliefe against the christians, they arriued here in Scotland, and applied themselues to the instructing of the Scotishmen in the way of saluation. Other write that they were Scots and Englishmen thus assembled there togither. But of whence soeuer they were, certeine it is that by custome they were be|come Scots, and instructed the Scots (as before is said) in the way of saluation. After this cruell slaugh|ter thus by the Danes committed, they continued in their wood rage, as they passed through Fife and the other countries néere bordering vpon the same, till all the inhabitants were auoided out of their hou|ses, either by flight or slaughter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Constantine the Scotish king being kindled in the meane time with passing great displeasure, for these so notable iniuries receiued at the hands of the Danes, thought good with all spéed to go against them, and to attempt the chance of battell before they had wasted anie further within his dominions, so greatlie to the diminishing of his roiall power and estimation amongst his subiects. Herevpon leuieng his people, and assembling a mightie host togither, he Constantine assembled a mightie army. passed foorth with the same towards his enimies, the which were lodged in two seuerall camps, the one be|ing distant from the other about a quarter of a mile, seuered in sunder with the course of a little riuer cal|led Leuin, the which (vpon the approch of the Scots vnto that part of the campe that laie on the further side next vnto them) chanced to be raised on such hight, thorough abundance of raine, that in two daies after vnneth it might bée passed ouer at the foords.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this sore and tempestuous weather, the aire cleared vp and waxed verie faire and calme, giuing occasion to the Scots to worke their feat against one part of their enimies, whilest the other could not come ouer vnto their aid and succor [...]. In this campe which lay on that side the riuer next vnto the Scots, Hubba was lodged, who did what he could to haue staied his men from issuing foorth of the campe, to giue battell when the Scots drew néere to the same, and assaied all waies by prouoking the Danes with skirmishes to come foorth and fight with them in The Scots & Danes ioine their battels. plaine field. But notwithstanding all that he could doo, foorth they rushed in such wise by plumps, and with so great noise and clamour, that the capteins were constreined of necessitie to set them in order of battell, sith they would néeds giue the onset vpon their present enimies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Danes did weare aloft vpon their armor cer|teine linen garments, wrought with red silke, shew|ing The Danes apparell. faire and white both at hand and a far off. Their weapons were of such sort as serued for the push ra|ther Their wea|pons. than for downe-right blowes, the points being of such a handsome strong fashion, that no armor might lightlie hold foorth against them. These kind of weapons, togither with the muster of their huge bo|dies, was dreadfull at the first for the Scotishmen to Tall men of bodie and lims. behold, as they marched towards them in araie of battell. But anon comming néere togither readie to ioine, the Scots manfullie taking to them new cou|rages, A battell. set vpon the Danes with great violence, who likewise began the battell verie stoutlie, so that the same continued right fierce and cruell a good space. At length the Danes being assailed on each side, both afront before, and on their backs behind, oppressed as The Danes take the flight. it were with multitudes, did throw downe their weapons and fled amaine. Manie of them making towards their campe were ouertaken and slaine, di|uerse of them falling into the ditches were oppressed with throng, aswell of their owne companie, as of their enimies, as they passed ouer them in following the chase, and striuing to enter the campe vpon such as stood to defend them from entering. Other there were that leaping into the water in hope to get ouer, were drownd in the whorling waues of the streame; though some, through helpe of their fellowes (which stood on the other side readie to haue passed the wa|ter, if they might so haue doone without manifest danger of drowning) escaped and got ouer, amongst whome Hubba was one, to the great reioising of his Hubba was saued from drowning. brother Hungar, to sée him thus deliuered twise from perill of death, as first from amongest his eni|mies, and secondlie out of the roring streame of that déepe and swift raging riuer.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Scots hauing thus put one part of their eni|mies to the woorse, with that happie successe tooke such The Scots tooke of this victorie immo|derate ioy. comfort and immoderate ioy, as though they had béene now sure of victorie ouer all the residue; so that for two daies togither, there was such dansing, sin|ging, and piping amongst them, as ehe like hath not béene heard of. Yea so farre procéeded their insolent outrage, that they began to contend amongst them The Scots for ioy readie to fall out. selues for the prisoners and spoiles, which they coun|ted now their owne, as though alreadie they had the same wholie in their possession: and further reasoned, not without altercation, whether the Danish captens after they had them once in their hands, should be put to death, or els be kept aliue to be shewed to the peo|ple in triumph or no. Great adoo and manie vaine woords were spent héereabout, in such earnest sort, that they were at point to haue fallen out amongst themselues: but there was no mention at all made touching the ordering of their battels, and other the necessarie procéedings against their enimies. At length, when the riuer was fallen and come to his old course againe, so that it might easilie be passed, Constantine in order of battell got ouer with his people, Constantine procéeded a|gainst his eni|mies. to the other side where the Danes were lodged, who hauing more mind to set themselues in such order, whereby EEBO page image 139 whereby they might gaine the victorie, than to deuise for the diuiding of the spoile, perceiuing occasion now offered to giue the onset, foorthwith araied their The order & [...]ing of the Danes [...]e. [...]bba had the right wing Buerne had the left wing. people in this sort.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Hubba with six thousand Danes, was placed in the right wing. The left was led by one Beurne an Englishman borne, who was fled out of his countrie, for that he could not beare such iniuries as Osbert offered him in forcing his wife, to the great reproch and dishonor of his house and name He had with him in this left wing certeine bands of Eng|lishmen, with those Picts that had escaped ouer into Denmarke (as before is mentioned.) Hungar with all the resi [...]e of the armie, kept the battell or middle Hungar kept the battell. ward, [...]xhorting his men to shew their force & man|hood that day, sith the same should either put them in possession of the whole l [...]d of Albion, wi [...]h all the substance and riches conteined therein, either else bring them perpetuall seruitude with ignominie a|mongst their most cruell and fierce aduersaries. He therefore himselfe openlie in presence of them all, [...]owed with solemne oth, either to returne with vic|torie to his campe, either else to die in the place, wil|ling [...]ngar made [...] [...]ow. them all to make the like couenant. Wherevp|on the vniuersall multitude allowed him so much The souldiers did make the like [...]ow. for this his motion, that there was not one amongst the whole number, which agréed not to [...]weare the like [...]th. Constantine keeping in manner the like order, placed in the right wing his brother E [...]hus, in the [...]ing Con|stantine pla|ced his men in like manner. left Duncane [...]he lieutenant or thane of Athole, ap|pointing to either of them ten thousand men a péece.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 All the residue were set in the battell where he him|selfe stood. And first he gaue them all hartie thanks in An incourage ment giuen to his souldiers. that they had so valiantlie atchiued the [...]orie in the last battell, requiring them now not to blemish their former glorie with anie faintnesse of courage, re|creant cowardise, or dishonorable flight: and further he willed them in no wise to be afeard of their eni|mies, in respect more for their hugenesse of bodie, than for anie of their valiant [...]outnesse of heart: for if they assailed them with one whole and entire con|sent, according to their woonted for wardnesse & man|like prowes, they should quicklie put them to [...]ight, and obteine a ioifull victorie. Heerewith he also war|ned them not to run rashlie vpon the enimies, but to suffer them first to giue the charge: for by that meanes he thought the Danes would wi [...]h their ear|nest violence disorder themselues, and so should it be more easie for the Scots to breake in amongst them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But this deuise did not a little abate the Scotish mens courages. For the Scots vse is, when they shall enter into battell, to make a great shout and noise, and therewith to run vpon their enimies, by which meanes (as they suppose) they both put the eni|mie in feare, and incourage themselues to the bat|tell. The Danes at the sound of the trumpet marched The Danes approch to|wards the Scots. foorth towards the Scots, where they [...]ood thus in or|der of battell: but when they perceiued that the Scots came not forward, they also staied in the [...]d|way to refresh themselues, least at the ioining they should be out of breath. Anon after, passing for|ward The Danes [...]ot quarels and threw darts. The Scots sho [...] arrowes and darts as thicke [...]s [...]. an easie pace, they shot quarrels, and threw darts at their enimies verie freshlie, and the Scots let [...]ie at them againe with arrowes and darts as thicke as it had béene a [...]torme of haile.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this they rushed togither with great violence on both sides: but within a while, the Danes after compassing the maine battell round about, they constreine the same in the end with great bloudshed The Scots [...]e put to [...]ght. and slaughter to giue backe and flee out of the field. Ten thousand Scots died that day in this infortunate battell with Constantine himselfe, who being first taken was had into a caue by the sea side amongst Con [...]tine is taken [...] [...]thered. The blacke den or [...]. the rocks, and there cruellie murthered by the enimies. The place was called certeine yeeres after, the blacke den: but now they name it the diuels den, in memorie of that heinous murther there committed. The Scotish nation also had beene vtterlie as then destroied, had not Ethus the brother of Constantine, perceyuing how the field was lost, escaped Ethus [...]ro|ther vnt [...] Constantine was sa [...]d by flight. awaie with two companies of his best men of warre, so reseruing himselfe to the time of more luckie fortune.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 THe people likewise doubting for want of a go|uernor Ethus. to be the sooner ouercome by their eni|mies, did lead [...]he said Ethus to Scone, where they crowned him king, in the yéere after the birth of our Sauiour 874, and the 13 after Constantine began 874. to rule the estate of the realme. The same yéere were manie woonders and v [...]keth sights séene with|in the Scotish do [...]ons. In the mouth of the Fishes like vnto men [...] shape. Forth, otherwise called the Scotish sea, there ap|peared fishes in great numbers, like vnto men in shape, swimming vp and downe in the streame with halfe their bodies aboue the water, and hauing a blacke skin, which couered there heads and necks, from their shoulders vpwards like an hood. These Bassmates. are called Bassmates, and vse to go in great compa|nies togither, as though they were skulles of her|rings, signifieng (when they are seene) some great [...]fortune vnto the countrie, as the common people haue long had an opinion. Also the loches, riuers, and all maner of other waters were frozen from the beginning of Nouember, till the latter end of A|prill; A long winter and when the frost brake, and the snowe mel|ted, there was such a [...]oud flowing ouer all the plaines euen to the roots of the mounteins, as the like had not bene séene. Furthermore, when the same shr [...]nke and went away, in the mud and [...]ime there was such a sort of frogs left, that when they were Frogs in the [...]d & [...]me. dead, and began to putrisie, the aire was so infected, that manie deadlie diseases insued, whereof great numbers of the inhabitants did perish. Moreouer, there was a mightie starre or comet séene with firie A comet. raies issuing foorth of the same, which both night and day folowed the moone during the moneth of Aprill, to the great horror of all that beheld it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But to procéed. The Danes (as is said) hauing vanquished the Scots, and was [...]ed the countrie of Fife, passed ouer into Louthian, where robbing and The Danes went into Louthian. spoiling all before them, they pursued the inhabi|tants into Northumberland, whi [...]her they fled for refuge. There the Danes being aided with certeine Englishmen in fauour of Bruerne, [...]ue in battell King Os [...]rt & E [...]a [...]aine. both Os [...]ert and E [...]a, kings of that countrie. The crueltie of the Danes was such after they had atchi|ued the victorie, that few escaped with life, but such as saued themselues by flight. But chie [...]lie there rage appeared most against priests, and such as pro|fessed themselues men of religion. For the Danes being Eth [...]ks, persecuted most egerlie those that in anie wise professed Christ. The like outragious This cr [...] inuaded Nor|folke also. murthering of the christians was practised through|out the countrie, and at length came vnto that blessed king saint Edmund, reigning as then o|uer the people of the Eastangles, as in the English historie more plainlie ma [...]e appéere. Howbeit other of the English kings mainteined the warres with these Danes certeine yéeres after this, with variable fortune; the most part of those people which inhabited on that coast toward the Germane seas, either be|ing [...]aine or brought into miserable bondage and thraldome. But Alured, which succéeded his brother king Edelfred, not in the kingdome of Northfolke King [...] redressed those harmes. Hector Boeti|us [...]staketh diuers mat|ters touching the report of our histories. and Su [...]ke (as Hector Boetius affirmeth) but in the kingdome of the We [...]ons, redressed a great part of this miserie, into the which the countrie was EEBO page image 140 thus brought by the Danes, by subduing them in sundrie conflicts, and sleaing their two capteins the foresaid Hungar and Hubba, as in the same En|glish historie is further expressed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But now to returne vnto Ethus, I find that he was of such swiftnesse of foot, that he would watch and make waie in running with harts and hounds, and therevpon was surnamed Lightfoot: but of what Ethus surna|med Lightfoot nimble lightnesse of bodie soeuer he was, truth it is that he was of disposition in mind vnfit to haue the order of anie publike regiment. For whereas he might haue recouered Fife and Louthian with other regions, whilest the Englishmen and Danes were Ethus neg|lected the op|portunitie. togither by the eares, he passed ouer that occasion, delighting more in following the pleasures of the bo|die & sensuall lusts, than to bestow his time in feates of chiualrie and other warlike exercises. The nobles of the realme perceiuing him thus to abuse the woor|thie A conspiracie made against king Ethus. gifts of his person, mistrusting least his insolent dooings should indamage the publike state of the common-wealth, they tooke counsell togither how they might apprehend him, and to send him some whi|ther out of the waie where to be safelie kept, and then to place some other in the gouernement of the realme, that might rule the same with more discreti|on & better aduise. And least their resolution should be disclosed before it tooke effect, they slacked no time, but went spéedilie about their businesse. And com|ming to the king, whome they found a hunting in Calidon wood, they suddenlie arested him, and ther|with King Ethus is arested, with his fa|uourers. committed him to safe kéeping: & those whome they knew to be fauourers of his euill rule and mis|gouernance, they put them also fast in irons, till they had answered vnto such articles as should be laid to their charge. This doone, they procéeded to the election of a new king; and in the end by the persuasion of one Dongall gouernor or thane of Argile, they chose Gregorie the sonne of that Dongall, which reigned Gregorie is chosen king. before Alpine, who was not past two moneths old when his father died.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 THis Gregorie being knowne to be a man woor|thie of the roome, though he himselfe onlie was Gregorie. against it, at length by persuasion receiued the inue|sture of the kingdome at Scone, with all due solem|nitie. Ethus hearing thereof, through anguish of mind died within thrée daies after, in the second yeere of his reigne, and 876, after the birth of our 876. H. B. 875. Io. Ma. Sauiour. There be that write how he was strangled in prison by Dongall his procurement, least by ad|uenture he might haue béene restored vnto libertie, and withall haue made claime to the crowne againe. Gregorie being thus established in the estate, consi|dering that the suertie of all realmes rested in the hands of the diuine maiestie, to begin his gouern|ment with some luckie enterprise, caused a conuoca|tion to be holden at Forfair, for the aduancement of A conuocati|on of the cler|gie. Priests are frée of all tri|bute. Christs religion: where amongst other things, it was ordeined, that priests from thencefoorth (to the end they might more freelie attend to their vocation) should be exempt from paieng of tribute and all ma|ner of exactions. Also that they should not be con|streined to go vnto the warres, neither to come be|fore They should not be called to serue in the warres. Authoritie gi|uen vnto bi|shops to order kings. anie temporall iudges, but onlie before their or|dinaries and bishops, by whome they should be iud|ged in all causes. The same ordinaries and bishops should also haue authoritie to order all men, both publike and priuate, aswell for the kéeping of faith gi|uen, as to constreine them to confirme the same, and to punish such as should be found in the contrarie; likewise in causes of controuersie touching matri|monie, tithes, testaments, legacies, and such like: moreouer the correcting of those that blaspheme ei|ther God or his saints.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Heretikes and necromancers, with other the like offendors against the lawes and articles of the chri|stian religion, was assigned vnto the bishops and their substituts, so that all those which were found dis|obedient vnto them, and refused to be at their com|mandement, then should haue authoritie to excom|municate them out of the church, and from compa|nie kéeping with anie of the cõgregation, so as they that were thus excommunicated, should be depriued of all abilitie to inioy anie inheritance or right to lands or possessions whatsoeuer they were. Neither should they be accepted as a witnesse in anie maner of cause, neither beare anie office or rule in the com|mon-wealth. This Gregorie also (as is said) was the first author of that ordinance, by the which the Scotish kings at their coronation vse of ancient cu|stome When the Scotish kings first be|gan to pro|mise by oth to mainteine the libertie of the church. King Grego|rie was giuen wholie vnto godlinesse. King Grego|rie was neuer maried. He was [...]. to vow by solemne oth, that during their liues, they shall mainteine and defend the church with his ministers, in all ancient liberties and priuileges, and not to suffer anie man to hurt or infringe the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 There was suerlie in this Gregorie a certeine na|turall inclination to vertue, with such aduisednesse in all his woords, that he vttered few or none but that the same séemed to be spoken with verie great con|sideration. He was neuer maried, but continued in chastitie all his life time. Of meate & drinke he was verie spare, delighting in all kind of sobrietie, more watchfull than giuen to sléepe. But his fame increa|sed most for his mainteining of iustice and ciuill ad|ministration concerning the state of the common-wealth, not omitting the practise of warre, where ne|cessitie required. The first expedition which he tooke in hand, he made into Fife, to recouer that countrie to He made an expedition in|to Fife. The Picts fled into Lou|thian. the crowne of Scotland. At whose entrance into the same, the Picts, whome the Danes had left in those parties at their departure thence, being striken with feare to fall into the hands of the Scots their ancient enimies, fled foorthwith into Louthian, leauing Fife in manner void, and without anie that would offer to defend it against the Scots.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wherevpon Gregorie so finding it desolate of The king set inhabitants in Fife. inhabitants, sent for people out of other parts of his realme, appointing them dwellings in that countrie as he thought most expedient. This doone he passed He subdued Louthian. into Louthian, where taking the fortresses and pla|ces of defense, some by force, and some by surrender, he easilie reduced that countrie into his subiection, so that within a few daies, hauing there all at his plea|sure, he came vnto Berwike, where there were a great number of Danes ioined togither with the The Danes and Picts ioine them|selues togi|ther. Picts, as men not minding to flee anie further, but to fight with the Scots euen there, if they should come forward vpon them. But when they saw what number the Scots were of, and héerewith doubting the Englishmen to come on their backs if the mat|ter went not well with them; they thought it best that such Danes as were of anie great reputation of nobilitie, should withdraw into Berwike before the enimies were at hand, and the residue to passe o|uer Twéed into Northumberland, there to ioine They [...]ed in|to Northum|berland. with other Danes that in those parties were latelie arriued.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But the Englishmen within Berwike, abhorring The Danish nobilitie fled into Berwike nothing more than to be vnder subiection of the Danes, in the euening after the receiuing of the Danish nobles into their towne, deliuered it togi|ther with their ghests vnto the Scotishmen, who suf|fering the Englishmen at their pleasure either to go their waies with all their goods, or to remaine still in their houses, slue the Danes, without sparing either The Danes are slaine in Berwike. man, woman, or child. Then leauing a strong garri|son of Scotishmen within Berwike, Gregorie marched foorth with the residue of his people into Northumberland, to vnite that countrie to other of EEBO page image 141 his dominions that bordered vpon the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In those parties at that selfe time there were two armies lodged in the fields, the one of Danes not far from Yorke, vnder the leading of one Herdunt, who had latelie taken and sacked that citie, and the o|ther of Englishmen that laie 20 miles off from the said Danes. Herdunt hearing of the slaughter which the Scots had made of his countriemen at Ber|wike, threatned sore that he would not leaue a man aliue of the Scotish race within anie part of the con|fines Herdunt threatned the Scots. of Albion. Which vow manie of the companie, following their capteins example, likewise made. Shortlie after, hearing of their enimies approch, the The Danes prepare to the battell. whole host (by commandement of Herdunt) issued foorth of their campe to giue battell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Héere the Scotish king standing with his people in order of battell, had thought to haue vsed some The Scots egerlie innade their enimies. comfortable speech vnto them, thereby to incourage them to fight: but such hast was made by the Scots to preasse vpon their enimies, that he saw it more needfull to take héed to the ordering of them in per|fect araie, than to stand about to erhort them, whome he saw readie inough of their owne accord to fight. Therefore he said no more vnto them, as he went a|mongst the ranks, but onelie willed them to remem|ber how cruellie Constantine their king was some|time King Grego|rie his saieng to the souldi|ers. murthered, after he had yéelded himselfe priso|ner to these enimies, with whome they should now ioine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Scots héere vpon running to the battell with no lesse stoutnesse of mind than violent force, gaue their enimies scarse space to charge their weapons, but bare them downe with long speares and iaue|lins, and withall the bilmen following them made great slaughter on ech side, so that there néeded nei|ther exhortation of capteins, nor diligence of wi|flers The Danes [...]d to their camp [...]. to kéepe them in araie. For the wrathfull sto|machs of the souldiers onelie wrought the feat in such sort, that the Danes were quicklie put to flight and chased. Those that could not escape to the campe, got them vnto the next mounteins, who chanced vp|on better lucke than those that escaped to the campe, for the egernesse of the Scots was such in chasing the enimies, that neither ditch nor rampire could staie them from entring the campe vpon the Danes where they made greater slaughter than they had doone in the field.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The next daie Herdunt goeth about to assemble his men togither againe, being dispersed here and Herdunt as|sembled his men togither. there: but when he vnderstood how he had lost the more halfe of his whole host, he cursed that vnhappie day, and determined to retire vnto Rasin, who as Herdunt went toward Ra|sin, chiefe ge|nerall of the Danes in England. then was capteine generall of all the Danes that were in England. But Herdunt by reason of [...]s wounded men, whome he was [...] to carie wi [...] him, could not make forward wi [...] anie great speed, so that he was scarse fortie miles got footh on his waie, when woord came to him, that [...] fighting with the Englishmen vnwarilie, at a place called Helcades, chanced to be slaine with a great multi|tude of his people: and therevnto his head was ca|ried abroad vp and downe the countrie from towne to towne to be séene. By such mishaps the prosperitie of the Danes so much flourishing of late, began now manifestlie to decaie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Herdunt although he was not a little discouraged therewith, ye [...] he chose foorth a plot of ground mo [...] Herdunt re|mained in camp [...]. méet for his [...]; were he determined to abide in campe, till he might vnder [...] what the Danes in other places were [...]. But Gregorie king of Scots, hauing thus expelled the Danes foorth of Northumberland, brought [...]at countrie vn|der his subiection: neuer thele [...]e he [...] in|habitants King Grego|rie suffered the inhabi|tants of Nor|thumberland to inioy their lands. King Grego|rie wintered at Berwike. to inioy all their posse [...] still; onelie re|ceiuing of them in name of souereigntie a yéerelie tribute. So that within a few daies after, he brake vp his armie, and went himselfe into Berwike, where he remained all the winter season in consulta|tion with his nobles about the publike affaires of the realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the beginning of the next summer, he prepared againe for warre, and raising an armie, he purposed King Grego|rie prepared an armie a|gainst the Britains. to make a iournie against the Britains, who held (as before ye haue heard) a great part of Scotland. But he was not driuen to vse anie force in this warre: for the Britains being vexed afore this time with warre by the Danes, had compounded with them for an huge summe of monie to haue truce for twen|tie yéeres space: but the Danes without regard to their promise, shortlie after (with a greater power than at the first) entered into the British borders, re|newing the warre so fiercelie, that albeit their force was sore enféebled, by reason of the two last ouer|throwes; yet the Britains doubting the woorst, fea|red to incounter with them, and therefore after con|sultation had, they thought it best to assaie if they might happilie allure the Scots, of their enimies to become their friends. Héerevpon sending vnto the The Bri|tains send to king Grego|rie. Scotish king an herald, they require to ioine with them in armes against the Danes, common enimies to both their countries, promising that if they would so doo, they would willinglie render into his hands all such possessions which they held at anie time be|longing vnto the Scotish kingdome.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Gregorie weieng with himselfe how necessarie this friendship should be, not onelie to the publike King Grego|rie his consi|deration. weale of all the whole land of Albion, but also of the good suertie and aduancement of Christes religion, whereof the Danes were greeuous aduersaries (for this he thought, that if Scots, Englishmen, and Britains did some in one, and knit themselues to|gither in aiding each other, there was no nation in the world that they néeded to feare) he consented vn|to the request of the Britains, and so accepting their A peace con|cluded, and lands surren|dered to the Scots. offer, he had all those regions which perteined some|time to the Scots, and were now in possession of the Britains, surrendered into his hands, and so by this means were the Scotish confines inlarged and extended vnto their owne ancient limits and for|mer bounds.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This dissention and variance being ceassed after this maner, it greatlie reioised the minds of all the inhabitants of this Ile; but contrariwise, the Danes looked for nothing more than present destruction to insue vpon them, if this amitie should continue anie while amongest their enimies. Wherefore they prac|tised sundrie means to breake th'amitie thus remai|ning betwixt their aduersaries, Scots, English|men, and Britains. Wherein they néeded not great|lie to trauell, for within a short time after the conclu|sion of the same league, the prosperous successe of the Englishmen (which for a season had followed them vnder the conduct and gouernement of their king Alured against the Danes) occasioned the The Bri|tains repent them of the league made with the Scots. Britains also (hauing now no further feare of the Danish puissance) to repent themselues of the league, which they had latelie made with the Scots, so that Constantine, whome a little before they had receiued to be their king after the deceasse of his father, raised a power, and with the same entered into Annandale, to recouer that countrie out of the Scotishmens hands. But hearing in the end that Gregorie was comming with a great armie to suc|cour his subiects, whome the said Britains [...] [...]ch side had sore afflicted, they began to draw backe to|wards Cumberland with their [...]ie, thinking there to be in safetie, vntill a time more conuenient.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But king Gregorie coasting the countrie, met EEBO page image 142 with them at Lochmaben, and there gaue them bat|tell, The Scots ouerthrow the Britains. wherein when Constantine perceiued how his people began to shrinke backe, as one hauing more regard to his honor than to the suertie of his life, he rushed foorth into the formost prease, there to succour and relieue his standards: but being compassed a|bout amongest a great companie of his enimies, his chance was there to be slaine with a number of Constantine is slaine. the chiefest lords of all the British nation. The other multitude séeing the day go thus against them, fled to saue their liues, leauing the victorie so vnto the Scots.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This ouerthrow did put the Britains in danger to haue bin vtterlie ouerrun, what by the Scots on the one side, and Danes on the other: for as for forren aid to be looked for of the English, they had plaine an|swer they should haue none, sith they had so vniust|lie broken the league concluded with their confede|rats the Scots, to the great hinderance of the pros|perous procéedings of all the inhabitants of this Ile, against their common enimies the Danes. Yet the better to establish the estate of their coun|trie, and in hope of some recouerie of their former damages; they crowned to their king one Herbert or (as some copies haue) one Hebert the brother of Herbert king of Britaine sent ambassa|dors to Gre|gorie. the last Constantine, and herewith sent ambassa|dours vnto Gregorie king of the Scotishmen to ex|cuse themselues, in that they had so wrongfullie at|tempted the warres against him and his people, laieng all the fault in Constantine, who against the wils and contrarie to the minds of his subiects, did take vpon him that dishonorable and most infortu|nat enterprise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Gregorie hauing heard the message of these am|bassadours, for answere declared vnto them, that King Grego|rie his an|sw [...]re. he vnderstood well inough, that the Britains now sued for peace vpon no reuerend consideration they had vnto their oths of couenant; but onelie for that they saw how if they should pursue the warre still, they were sure that in the end they should be like to haue the foile: and therefore he was fullie thus resol|ued, not to conclude anie peace or truce wi [...]h such disloiall people, till they had resigned ouer into his hands the whole possession of the countries of Cum|berland Gregorie re|quired a resig|nation of Cumberland and Westmer|land. and Westmerland, with assurance neuer to pretend anie claime or title vnto those dominions from thenceforth: and herewith for performance of couenants, to render into his hands not onelie the keies of all the townes, castels and fortresses in the same countries, and to auoid quite their waies into Wales to other their countriemen there, but also to deliuer sixtie noble mens sonnes and heires appa|rant as pledges to remaine with the Scots.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The ambassadours returning home with this message, and reporting it accordinglie vnto their king, when all men had said their aduise, in the end they condescended to conclude a peace with the rehearsed conditions prescribed by the Scotish king, sith they saw no better meane to preserue their nation from present destruction. And thus deliue|ring the appointed number of pledges, they left the countries of Cumberland and Westmerland void, Peace was concluded. surrendering into the Scotishmens hands the pos|sessions of all the townes, castels and fortresses, and therewith departed into Northwales, where they placed themselues in the countrie betwixt Conway and the riuer of Dée, out of the which they expelled the Humf. Lhoid. 870. Englishmen (that were then in possession thereof) and therewith they erected a kingdome there, which they named Stradcluid, mainteining warres a|gainst the Englishmen manie yeares after.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 King Gregorie hauing thus inlarged his king|dome, assembled his nobles at Carleill, where he resolued (with their aduise) to follow such good for|tune as by Gods prouidence dailie chanced vnto them. Wherevpon it was agréed, that they should go first vnto Yorke to conquere that citie, whilest The policie of the Scots to haue taken [...]orke. the Englishmen in Kent were occupied with the Danes that were come thither; so as neither the one nation nor the other could attend to make anie attempt to hinder the Scotishmens enterprise. But in the meane time came ambassadours vnto Gre|gorie King Alured sent ambassa|dours vn [...]o king Grego|rie. from king Alured, to congratulat his prospe|rous successe against his enimies the Danes and o|thers. These ambassadours also willed to haue the ancient league betwixt Englishmen and Scots re|newed, by which means both their powers might ioine togither against their common enimies, when they should attempt anie wrongfull inuasion.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This request was granted, so that shortlie there|vpon Peace confir|med. peace was established betwixt those princes and their people, with confirmation of the old league, whereto were added these articles; That the Scots should inioy possession of Northumberland without anie claime to be made to the same by the English|men; New condi|tions of peace. If the Danes chanced to inuade either of their dominions, the warre should be accounted as com|mon to them both; Neither should the Scots grant No passage to be granted vnto the eni|mie. passage to anie enimie of the Englishmen through Scotland, neither the Englishmen suffer the Sco|tishmens enimies to passe through England; If a|nie Englishmen did rob or steale anie thing out of Punishment of robbers. Scotland, that should not breake the league; but the offendors with the receiuers should be deliuered to the Scotish magistrats, to be punished according to the qualitie of the offense; and the like should be ob|serued by the Scots towards the Englishmen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus things being quieted with the Englishmen, as Gregorie was about to lay armour aside, word came to him of new troubles forth of Galloway, by Galloway in|uaded by the Irishmen. reason of an inuasion made by the Irishmen into that countrie. For the Irishmen hauing knowledge that the inhabitants of Galloway had spoiled two ships of Dubline arriuing on their coast, sent ouer a great power of men, the which landing in Galloway, made great slaughter of the people on each side. King Gregorie being aduertised hereof, streitwaies made towards them, but they hauing knowledge of his comming drew to their ships with a great prey of goods and cattels, and returned therewith imme|diatlie backe into their owne countrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Herevpon Gregorie without delaie got togither his ships and followed the enimie with all his armie, and landing in Ireland, put the nobles of that realme in great feare, who as then were in contention togi|ther which of them should haue the gouernement, by reason their king was latelie dead, and had left a sonne behind him being but a child in yéeres, to suc|céed him in his throne. Some therefore of the wiser sort, and such as tendered the wealth of their coun|trie, went earnestlie about to agree the parties, but when they saw that it would not b [...], they did so much preuaile, that a truce was taken betwixt them for A [...]ce was taken betwixt the two parties. a while, least fighting still amongst themselues, they should put their countrie in danger to be ouerrun of the Scots: against whome when they had agréed vp|on the foresaid truce, either of the factions raised a The two I|rishmen ga|ther their powers. power, one Bren being generall of the one, and Cor|nelius of the other; for these two princes were heads of the parties, betwixt whom the controuersie for the gouernement of the realme rested [...]nd therevpon by consent of the residue had the [...]ding of all them that were of their [...]on.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 These two capteins with their armies in [...]mped themselues vpon the banke of the riuer Bane, vn|der the mounteine called Fute: their camps being seuered by a small distance the one from the other, Two armies one néere the other. in such a strong place, that it was not possible for EEBO page image 143 the enimies to approch them without manifest dan|ger to cast away themselues. Their chiefe purpose The Irish|mens practise. was to prolong the time here in this place, till they had famished the Scotish armie, and then to deale with them at their pleasure. But the industrious pro|uision of Gregorie passed the politike deuise of the Irishmen: for he had commanded that euerie one of The Scots had made pro|uision of vit|tels afore hand. those Scotishmen, which passed the seas with him, should purueie himselfe of vittels, according to the custome of the countrie, for fiftie daies space, as of bread, chéese, butter, lard, and powdered biefe: as for drinke, they knew they should not néed to care, sith they were sure to find water inough in euerie place where they chanced to come: for as yet filthie & ser|uile gluttonie had not softned nor inured with wan|ton delicacie the warlike natures of the Scotish people.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the end Gregorie, hauing for certeine daies rested himselfe and his men, and deuising in the meane time which way he might best indamage the enimies; at length concluded to send in the night season two thousand of his souldiors vp to the ridge The kings deuise. of the forenamed mounteine called Fute, through the thicke bushes and woods, wherewith the same was couered, to the end that getting to the top of that hill, right ouer where the Irish camps laie, they might in the morning (at what time Gregorie with the rest of the armie went about to assaile his eni|mies) tumble downe stones from the browes of the hill vpon them, thereby either to destroy great num|bers of them, either else to constreine them to come foorth of their strength into the plaine fields, and so to fight with them in a place indifferent.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Kenneth Cullan the thane of Carrike, tooke vp|on him to haue the conduct of them that should go a|bout Kenneth Cullan. this interprise, who conueieng his band ouer the water of Bane, and so vp on the backeside of the King Grego|ne assailed the Irishmen. mounteine, in the morning when their felows fell in hand to assaile the Irish campe, where Bren lodged, they tumbled such plentie of mightie stones downe vpon the Irishmen, that aboue a thousand of them being slaine, all the residue were forced to forsake their ground, & to flée in maner without anie stroke striken. The Scots that were sent to pursue them, tooke a great number of them prisoners, and slue but The Irish are pursued. a few, hauing before hand such commandement from their prince.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Whilest this mischiefe fell vpon Bren and his people, Cornelius with his folkes curssing that in|fortunate daie, left their lodgings, and marched their waies in good order of battell, till they were farre inough out of danger. The bodie of Bren also was found amongst other in the rifling of the campe, Bren was slaine. with the head bruised in péeces, and the braines pa|shed out with some stone throwne downe by the Scotishmen from the hill side: which Gregorie at the request of some of the prisoners, caused to be bu|ried in christian sepulchre. He caused also women and children to be sent awaie harmelesse, onelie re|teining the men of able age prisoners. Furthermore Women and children are kept harmles. he commanded that they should vse neither fire nor sword, but against such onelie as with weapon in hand made anie resistance: and commanded them Unarmed men were spared. Ui [...]s were commanded to be prouided also that they should prouide themselues of vittels to serue them, whilest they should lie abroad & remaine there in that countrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Herevpon manie of the Irish people thus fasting the merci [...] clemencie of the Scotish king, yéelded themselues vnto him with sundrie fortresses, so that Gregorie finding sufficient prouision of vittels to serue his host for a long season, he went vnto the strong citie of Doungarg, or Doungard, which he en|uironed Doungarg or Doungard besieged. about with a strong siege, & continuing the same certeine daies, at length they within wearied with continuall trauell and lacke of vittels, opened The towne was yéelded. the gate, and suffered him to enter. He would not permit his men to meddle with anie of the spoile, but appointed the townesmen to redéeme the same A gentis ransome. (their armour excepted) of his souldiors for a péece of monie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Afterward, tarieng in this citie by the space of thrée daies, he departed and came afore another citie called Pontus, which he receiued by surrender, and Pontus was surrendred also. therfore preserued the citizens from all hurt & annoi|ance. From thence he purposed to haue gone vnto Dublin, about 14 miles distant from Pontus, but as he marched thitherwards, he was aduertised that Cornelius was comming towards him with such Cornelius came with an huge armie. an huge armie, as the like had not béene séene with|in the memorie of man in that Ile. Whervpon Gre|gorie changing his purpose of going to Dublin, vp|on report of these newes, he got him vp into the next mounteine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The next day came the Irishmen ranged in thrée The Irish|men came in thrée battels. Kernes. These might we name Gal lowglasses, if they had beene furnished with exes. battels. In the first there was a great multitude of Kernes with darts and bowes: in the second were a great number of mightie tall men, armed in cotes of male, with bucklers and great long swoords, which they caried vpon their right shoulders. In the third battell, wherein stood their generall Cornelius, with all the chiefest nobles of the countrie, were an infi|nite companie of all sorts of souldiors, chosen foorth of all the whole numbers. The Scots (according to The Scots came in two wings. their custome) diuided themselues into two wings, and a middle ward, in euerie of the which were thrée sorts of souldiors: as first archers, and those with long speares, then bilmen, and last of all such as bare long swoords and leaden malles.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus the battels being ordered on both parts, Two battels ioine. forward they make one towards another to begin the fight. The Scots (after their shot and throwing of darts was spent, and that they came to ioine) kept off their enimies with long speares or iauelins, in such sort, that they were not able to come néere them: which disaduantage Cornelius perceiuing, com|manded on high, that they should with their swoords cut those [...]ns in sunder. And as he lifted vp the visor of his helmet, the better to exhort his people to the execution hereof, he was so wounded in the face Cornelius was sore wounded. with a speare, that he was faine to withdraw apart out of the field. The Irishmen supposing he had fled, incontinentlie to saue themselues, threw off their The Irish ran away. armor and fell to running awaie. Thus did the victo|rie incline to the Scotish standards.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There died but a few (to speake of) in the battell, howbeit in the chase there was a woonderfull num|ber slaine: for the Scots pursued them euen vnto Dublin gates, which citie the next daie Gregorie be|set on each side with a mightie siege. There was got Dublin be|sieged. into this citie at the same time a woonderfull multi|tude of people, what of such as were receiued into it fléeing from the battell, as also of other which were there assembled before, in hope of assured victorie and safegard of their goods. By reason wherof being thus besieged, they began quicklie to want vittels, so that either they must of necessitie yeeld, either else by some issue auoid that danger wherein they were pre|sentlie bewrapped.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But forsomuch as they saw no great likelihood of good successe in that exploit, in the end it was con|cluded amongst them, that (sith there was no meane for those noble men which were inclosed within that citie to escape the enimies hands, and that there were none other of anie reputation abroad able to defend the countrie from the Scotishmens puissance) they They confuse vpon a treatie of peace to be made. should fall to some treatie with the Scotish king for a peace to be had, with so reasonable conditions as might be obteined: for other remedie in that pre|sent EEBO page image 144 mischiefe they could deuise none, and therefore this was iudged the best waie of the whole number, namlie of Cormach bishop of Dublin, a man for his singular vertue and reputation of vpright life, of no small authoritie amongst them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He tooke vpon him also to go vnto Gregorie to breake the matter, & so comming afore his presence, besought him most humblie to haue compassion vp|on Cormach B. of Dublin went vnto K. Gregorie. the poore miserable citie, and in such sort to tem|per his wrath, if he had conceiued anie péece of dis|pleasure against the citizens, that it might please him yet vpon their humble submission to receiue them vnto his mercie, and further to accept into his protection his cousine yoong Duncane, vnto whome the kingdome of Ireland was due of right, as all Duncane. the world well vnderstood. He besought him also to remember, that it apperteined more to the honor of a king, to preserue the lawfull right of other kings A wittie saieng. and princes with the quiet state of cities and coun|tries, than by violent hand to séeke their destruction.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Wherevnto the king answered, that he was not come into Ireland for anie couetous desire he had to the realme, or to the intent to spoile his kinsman of King Grego|rie his wife & godly answer. the gouernement thereof, but onelie to reuenge such iniuries as the Irishmen had doone to his subiects. Not the Scots but the Irishmen themselues were they that had giuen the occasion of the warre, which they had déerelie bought with no small portion of their bloud (which had bene shed) as punished for that crime worthilie by the iust iudgement of almightie God. But as touching an end to be had of his qua|rell, & for the reseruing of the kingdome vnto yoong Duncans behoofe, when he had the citie at his plea|sure, he would then take such order as he should thinke most conuement.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This answer of the Scotish king being reported vnto them within the citie, they determined foorth|with to set open their gates to receiue him: who, Dublin is sur rendered vnto K. Gregorie. when he had caused search to be made whether all things were truelie ment according to the outward shew or not, he marched foorth towards the citie to enter the same in order of battell, with all his whole Gregory was receiued with procession. armie, into the which he was receiued with processi|on of all the estates: for first there met him all the priests and men of religion, with the bishop the fore|said Cormach, who hauing vpon him his pontificall apparell, bare in his hand the crucifix: then followed Cormach bi|shop of Dub|lin becõmeth a crosse-bearer. the nobles with the other multitude.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Which order when Gregorie beheld, he comman|ded his battell to staie a little, and therewith he him|selfe aduanced foorth on foot till he came to the bishop, and falling downe vpon his knées, he reuerentlie kissed the crucifix, wherevpon receiuing humble thanks with high commendation of the bishop for He kisseth the crucifix. such his clemencie, he entered the citie, not staieng till he came into the market place, where comman|ding one part of his armie to keepe their standing, he went with the residue vnto the church of our ladie, and after to that of saint Patrike, where hearing the celebration of diuine seruice, when the same was en|ded, hée entered the castell, where his lodging was prepared. In the morning he caused execution to be doone of certeine vnrulie persons of his armie, who He entred the castell. in the night passed had broken vp the houses of some of the citizens, and rauished diuerse women. And for this act Gregorie being had in high reuerence of the Irish people, lodged part of his armie within the ci|tie, and part he commanded to lodge without in the campe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 At length hauing remained a season in this estate at Dublin, he caused the Irish lords to assemble in A peace con|clude [...] with Ireland. councell, where in the end the peace was concluded betwixt him and them, with these articles and coue|nants. First it was agréed that the yoong king Duncane should be brought vp vnder the gouerne|ment [...] of couenent. of wise and discréet persons, to be instructed in all princelie knowledge, within a strong castell, (wherein he had hitherto remained euer since his fa|thers Their yoong king to be wel brought vp. decease) till he came to yéeres of discretion. And that in the meane time Gregorie should haue the gouernance of the realme, receiuing all the for|tresses K. Gregorie to haue the go|uernment of the realme. He should also appoint the magistrates. No man to trafficke in Ireland with out a pasport. into his possession. He should also haue the ap|pointment of the magistrates, who should sée iustice ministred according to the old statutes & ordinances of the Irish kingdome. That the Irishmen should receiue neither Englishman, Britaine, nor Dane, into their countrie, no not so much as for trade of merchandize, without safe conduct to be granted by him. So that things being thus brought to a quiet|nesse in Ireland, he receiued an oth of the chiefest of them for performance of the couenants, and here|with K. Gregorie returned into Scotland. taking with him thréescore hostages, he retur|ned with his victorious armie backe into Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this there chanced no notable trouble to the Scots, neither forreine nor ciuill, by all the time of king Gregories reigne, so that passing the rest of his life in quietnesse, he studied chieflie for the politike gouernement of his people in good order and rule, to the aduancement of the common-wealth: and fi|nallie died an happie old man, in a castell called The king died. Doundore within the countrie of Gariosh, in the 18 yeere after his entring into his estate, and after the birth of our Sauiour 893. He was neuer maried, but liued in continuall chastitie: for his famous vic|tories 893. and other his princelie dooings, he deserued of the Scots to be numbered amongst their most high and renowmed princes. Amongst other his princelie acts which he set forward in his life time, to the ad|ornement of his countrie and common-wealth; A|berdine (of a village) was aduanced by him to the Aberdine is made a citie. state and dignitie of a citie, and the church there in|dowed with faire reuenues, and sundrie priuiled|ges. His bodie was conueied vnto the abbeie of King Grego|rie is buried in Colmekill. Colmekill, and there buried with all solemne pompe and exequies: ouer the which his next successor, Do|nald the fift of that name, caused a faire toome to be erected.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the daies of this Gregorie also, there liued that famous clearke Iohn Scot, a Scotishman in déed Iohn Scot. Some hold that he was an English|man. Bale. borne, but brought vp in studie of good literature at Athens, where hauing learned the Gréeke toong, he was sent for into France, to come vnto the empe|rour Lewes, with whom he remained in seruice for a time: and by whose commandement he translated the booke of saint Dionyse, intituled Hierarchia, into Latine. Afterwards being sent ambassador from the Dionys A [...]|pagita was translated by Iohn Scot. He taught [...]. Alured in England. He taught in Malmesburie same Lewes vnto Alured or Alfred king of Eng|land, he continued with him and taught his children, hauing a place thereto appointed him within the abbeie of Malmesburie, where he had such resort of hearers and scholers, that it was a woonder to be|hold. Notwithstanding, at length when he ceassed not to blame and sharpelie to reprooue the corrupt maners of such his scholers, as were giuen more to libertie than learning, he was by them murthered He was kil|led [...] his scho|lers. with daggers, as he was reading vnto them, and was afterwards registred amongst the number of martyrs.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 BUt to our purpose. After Gregorie, succéeded Donald the 5 in gouernement of the kingdome, Donald. he was the sonne of Constantine the second, who Donald the fift. finding the state of the realme in good quiet and flou|rishing in welth, he applied his whole studie to main|teine the same in semblable plight and condition. And before all things he caused iustice to be [...]ulie He was a good iusticier. ministred, so that no iniurie, speciallie if it were doone to ante poore person, escaped vnpunished. Christ He [...] re|ligious. the Lord of all vertue had giuen him such a godlie disposed EEBO page image 145 disposed mind, whose religion (to the aduancement of his glorie) he had euer in high veneration. Among other his godlie ordinances, he made this statute to be obserued as a law, that such as by swearing vnaduisedlie blasphemed the name of almightie God, or in cursing and banning called vpon the name of the wicked feend, and betooke anie christian creature vnto his hellish power and domination (a vice naturalie following the people of that nation) should haue his toong thrust through with a burnig [sic] iron. But wo worth the negligence of such as haue succeeded him, in suffering so necessarie an ordinance to be abolished and worne out of vse, considering the horrible othes and blasphemie, with the bitter and dreadfull cursings so much frequented of all estates in this our time, as well in Scotland as elsewhere, as without great horror of the hearers cannot bee halfe expressed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But to our purpose touching the gouernement of Donald, it chanced afterwards, that he had knowledge how Gormond a Dane was landed with a puissant armie vpon the coasts of Northumberland, and had pitched his campe neere vnto the shore, without dooing anie damage to the countrie: so that it was vncerteine what he intended, whether to begin a conquest there, or to passe ouer Humber to make warres on the Englishmen. To preuent therefore all dangers, Donald hasted towards Northumberland; howbeit he was not farre forwards on his iournie, but that word came vnto him, how Gormond was alreadie passed ouer Humber, and entered into the English borders. But yet did not Donald staie his iournie, till he hearde certeinlie that Gormond keeping vpon his way, was aduanced forward at the least 40 miles off from the riuer of Humber, doubting least happilie he had meant some deceit, as suddenlie to haue returned vpon the Scots in Northumberland, when the king had beene once gone backe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But now, when it was knowne that his purpose was onelie to assaile the English countries, accoring to the league newlie confirmed, Donald sent 5000 Scotishmen vnto the aid of the Englishmen; and also appointed two thousand horssemen to remaine with him in Northumberland (where he staied for a time) discharging the residue, & licensing them to returne vnto their homes. Shortlie after Gormond fought with Alured at Abingdon, where in the end the victorie abode with the Englishmen and Scots, though the same was got with such losse of men after long and doubtfull battell, that they were not able to pursue the enimies in chase, but constreined immediatly after to conclude a necessarie peace with them, on condition that the Danes should enioy common seats with the Englishmen in Albion, & that Gormond with his Danes should be baptised and professe the christian religion. Herevpon also were pledges deliuered on both parts, and Gormond comming to receiue baptisme had his name changed and was called Athelstane, during whose life the peace continued betwixt the two nations.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Whilst things passed thus in England, there rose a peece of trouble betwixt the inhabitants of Murrey land and Rosse, which disquieted king Donald not a little. The occasion grew by reason of certeine theeues, which comming foorth of Rosse in the night time, secretlie entered into Murrey land, to fetch booties from thence. At the first they of Murrey land made resistance against them as well as they might, but after calling their neighbours to aid them, they skirmished in such wise, that within two moneths space, there were slaine betwixt them two thousand of the one side and of the other. Donald being not a little offended to haue his peace broken with intestine discord, gathered a great power, and with the same hasted into Murrey land: where calling the chiefest dooers and mainteiners of this business to make answer to that which was laid to their charge, when they were not able to cleare themselues of the crime, he put them to open execution of death, to the example of other. This trouble being in this sort quieted, he went into Northumberland, to be there in a readinesse, if the Danes or Englishmen (whome he suspected) should attempt anie thing against his subiects in those parties: where in the end, after he had reigned almost I I yeers, he departed this world. His bodie was buried in Colmekill amongst his ancestors, with a marble toome set ouer his graue, as the manner in those daies was customable vsed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After Donald the fift, there succeeded in rule of the reame Constantine the third of that name, the sonne of Ethus the swift, beginning his reigne in the yeere after the incarnation 903. He was more apt for ciuill gouernement, than for the ordering of warlike affaires. King Edward that latelie succeeded Alured in rule ouer the Englishmen being ware thereof, sent vnto him a herald at armes, commanding him to restore vnto his subiects the Englishmen, the countries of Northumberland, Cumberland, & Westmerland (which the Scotish king Gregorie had in times past by occasion of the troublesome season taken from the right owners by force) either else to looke for warres at his hands within fortie daies after this summons.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Constantine heerevnto answered, that if king Edward were minded to make him wars for those lands which he held by rightfull title, he with his people would be readie to defend themselues, hoping in the almightie God that he would turne the punishment on them that uniustlie had piked the quarrell. Herevpon insued manie rodes and foraies betwixt the Englishmen and the Scots, made (as occasion serued) into ech others countrie, with diuers skirmishes and light bickerings for twelue moneths space togither, without anie notable incounter of their maine powers. In which meane time the Danes increased in puissance, more than was thought requisite for the suertie either of the Englishmen or Scots, which mooued king Edward by persuasion of his nobles, to make meanes vnto Constantine to haue the peace renewed: wherevnto Constantine lightlie agreed: so that the league was confirmed againe with the former articles betwixt the English and Scotish nations.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Shortlie after the warre was renewed betwixt the Englishmen and Danes, and a peace againe confirmed by conclusion of a mariage betwixt Sithrike king of Northumberland, and Beatrice daughter of king Edward, till at length Sithrike was poisoned by his wife the said Beatrice: and then bicause Aualassus (whome the English writers name Aulafe) and Godfrie, the sonnes of Sithrike, put the same Beatrice to death, his father king Edward mooued warre against them, and in foughten field discomfited them, but was slaine in that battell himselfe (as Hector Boetius saith.) But for the further truth of this matter, ye may read more in the historie of England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Danes being certified, that king Edward was this slaine, conceiued such hope of good successe after to come, that albeit they were at this time vanquished, they immediatlie made new preparation for the warre, and first of all Aualassus the one of the two brethren before mentioned, sent vnto Constantine the Scotish king, to allure him to ioyne with them against the Englishmen, which with great gifts and large promises he easilie brought to passe, the league notwithstanding which remained betwixt EEBO page image 146 the English and Scotish nations. Héere vpon both the Scots and Danes made the greatest prouision The Scots and Danes contederate themselues to|gither. Malcolme is made chiefe generall of the armie. He is created also heire ap|parant. The earle of Cumberland heire appa|rant to the king of Scots The Scots and Danes ioine their powers togi|ther. They begin a cruell warre. that might be, thinking verelie to subdue the Eng|lishmen, and to bring them to vtter destruction.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Malcolme sonne to king Donald was appointed by king Constantine to haue the leading of the Scotish armie, conteining the number of twentie thousand men. The same Malcolme also at the same time was created heire apparant of the realme, ha|uing Cumberland assigned vnto him for the main|tenance of his estate. And euen then it was ordei|ned, that he which should succéed to the crowne after the kings deceasse, should euer inioy that prouince. Malcolme ioining his power with Aualassus and Godfrie (who had assembled in like manner a migh|tie host of Danes) they all togither brake into the English confines, sparing no kind of crueltie that might be deuised, murthering the people without a|nie pitie or compassion in all places where they came, to the intent that the Englishmen mooued with the slaughter of their kinsfolks and friends, should come foorth into the field to giue battell, suppo|sing they should not be able to withstand the force of the Danes and Scotishmen now ioined in one ar|mie togither.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But the more vilanie they shewed in their dooings, the sooner were they punished for the same. For A|thelstane the base sonne of king Edward (whome the Athelstane base sonne vn|to king Ed|ward. Englishmen had chosen to succéed in gouernement of their kingdome after his fathers deceasse) with all spéed sought to be reuenged of such ini [...]ious doo|ings Where vpon getting togither an armie, he in|countred Athelstane came against the Scots. with them at a place called Broningfield, or Brunenburgh, in Iuly, in the yeere 937, where the English at the first of purpose gaue somthing backe, 937. as though they had fled: which manner when the Danes and Scots beheld, supposing the Englishmen had fled in déed, they began to pursue amaine, lea|uing The Scots and Danes out of order. their order of battell, ech of them striuing who might be the formost.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Englishmen (according to the order appoin|ted to them by their capteins) suddenlie fell into ar|raie againe, and fiercelie returning vpon their eni|mies, The Scots and Danes ouerthrowne. did beat them downe in great numbers, & so atchiued a most triumphant victorie. There died in this mortall battell manie thousands of Danes and Scotishmen, but chieflie the Scotish nobilitie bought The nobilitie went to wracke. the bargaine most déere, who choosing rather to die in the field than to suffer rebuke by dishonorable flight, it came so to passe that few of them escaped. There di|ed on that side (as some write) 20000 men in this battell, togither with Wilfert king of the Guentes, Hanwall king of Britains, and seuen dukes that came to helpe the Scots and Danes. Athelstane by good aduise following the victorie, entred into Nor|thumberland, Athelstane tooke Nor|thumberland. and finding the countrie dispurueied of men of warre, he easilie made a full conquest ther|of, hauing all the holds and fortresses deliuered into his hands.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Then without further delaie he passed into West|merland, and after into Cumberland, where the inha|bitants Westmerland and Cumber|land recoue|red. of both those regions bare-footed and bare|headed, in token of most humble submission, yéelded themselues vnto him, promising from thence foorth to continue his faithfull subiects. In the meane time Malcolme being sore wounded in the battell, esca|ped; yet with great danger, and in an horsse-litter Malcolme escaped his hurts. was conueied home into his countrie, where he de|clared to king Constantine the whole circumstance of the ouerthrow and losse of his countries aforesaid. Wherevpon Constantine caused a councell to be cal|led at Abirnethie, where he perceiued how sore his A councell called by Con|stantine. realme was inséebled through lacke of such of the no|bilitie as were lost in the last battell, by reason the re|sidue that were left, seemed through wan [...] of yéeres, neither able by counsell nor by force to defend the realme, so as he vtterlie despaired either to be of power to beate backe the enimies, or to gouerne his realme in such politike sort as he would haue wi|shed. And therefore, to rid himselfe of all such cares and troubles, and withall despising all such worldlie pompe as might withdraw him from diuine contem|plation (where vnto he was partlie bent) he gaue o|uer his kinglie estate, and became a canon within Constantine becommeth a canon. the abbeie of saint Andrewes amongst the couent there.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This was in the yéere of our Sauiour 943, and in the fortith yéere of his owne reigne (as Hector Boe|tius 943. saith:) but if he did thus forsake the world, and entred into religion immediatlie after the battell fought at Broningfield or Brunenburgh (for so we find it named by some writers) then must it néedes Matth. West. be before this supposed time alledged by the same Bo|etius, for that battell was fought anno 937, as the best approoued amongst our English writers doo re|port, so that it should rather séeme that Constantine refused in déed to deale with the gouernement of the realme, about the same yéere of our Lord 937, or shortlie after; and that Malcolme gouerned as re|gent and not as king whilest Constantine liued, who departed this life (after he had continued in the ab|beie of saint Andrewes a certeine time) in the fore|said yéere 943, falling in the fortie yéere after he first 943. Constantine died. began to reigne. He was first buried in the church there amongst the bishops, but afterwards he was taken vp and translated vnto Colmekill, where he had a toome set ouer him, as was conuenient for the memorie of his name.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the 36 yéere of his reigne there were two mon|strous creatures borne in Albion, the one amongst the Danes being an hermophrodyte, that is to say, A monster, a child with both sexes, hauing the head like a swine, the brest standing foorth more in resemblance than the common shape of man, a fat bellie, with féete like a goose, legs like a man, full of bristels, and a verie euill fauored thing to behold. The other was borne in Northumberland, onelie hauing a mans An other monster. sex, with one whole bellie from the nauill downe, but aboue the same diuided with two brests creasted or compassed ridge-wise, and not broad like to the shape of man: beside this it had foure armes and two heads. And euen as from the nauill vpwards it was thus diuided into two bodies, so did it appeare there was two contrarie wils or desires in the same, Two contra|rie willes in this monster. euer lusting contrarilie, as when the one did sléepe, the other would wake; when the one required to haue meat, the other passed for none at all. Oftentimes would they chide and brall togither, insomuch that at length they fell so far at variance, that they did beat and rent either other verie pitifullie with their nailes. At length the one with long sickenesse wea|ring away and finallie deceassing, the other was not One part died before the o|ther. able to abide the gréeuous smell of the dead carcase, but immediatlie after died also.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 About the same time there issued foorth a founteine Bloud issued out of an hill. of bloud out of the side of a mounteine in Gallo|way, and flowed in great abundance for the space of seuen daies togither, so that all the riuers therabout (whereof there is great store in that countrie) had their waters mixed with bloud, and so running into the sea, caused the same to séeme bloudie certeine miles distant from the shore. These prodigious What was ment by these woonders. sights put men in great feare, for that diuinours did interpret the same to signifie some great bloud|shed to fall vpon the Scots shortlie after. They were also the better beléeued, for that within a while after, that great ouerthrow happened at Broningfield, as before is specified.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 EEBO page image 147 AFter that Constantine (as is said) was entred into religion, the before named Malcolme the Malcolme forme of Donald was admitted king, [...] rather re|gent: who although he perceiued right well how the force of the realme was so infeebled, that there was no hope to mainteine warres abroad; yet his chiefe studie was by all means possible to defend the bor|ders of the Scotish dominion, and before all things to procure peace with the Englishmen. But as he was about to haue sent embassadours, vnto king Athelstane, to haue treated for peace, he was cre|diblie informed, how Athelstane had giuen Nor|thumberland [...] had gi [...]n him Northember| [...]g. vnto A [...]lassus, and made a league with him to haue his aid against the Scots. Which newes put Malcolme in woonderfull dread, for that he vnderstood how his realme was vnpurucied of skilfull capteins to make resistance. Yet he caused a councell to be called, wherein when such as were as|sembled [...] councel cal|led. proponed manie [...]ond and [...]dish reasons, it might happen there was small hope of anie good conclusion; but euen as they were at a point to haue broken vp without anie certeine resolution, word was brought ho [...] through seditious discord, which had chanced betwixt the Danes and Englishmen be|ing assembled togither in campe, they had fought a The English men and the Daius fall [...] togither, and fight. right cruell and bloudie battell, the victorie in the end remaining with the Englishmen, who ceased not to pursue the Danes in chase, so long as anie day light appéered in the skie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Aualassus with such Danes as he might get togi|ther Aualassus fled into [...]estmer|land, rifled the Ile of Man, and got him into Ireland. after that ouerthrow, fled into Westmerland, and within thrée daies after, in such ships as he found there vpon the coast, he failed ouer into the Ile of Man, and spoiling the same, with all the preie he pas|sed from thence ouer into Ireland. In the meane time king Athelstane hauing lost no small number of his people in the foresaid battell, omitted his iour|nie into Scotland, and lay still in Northumberland, no man vnderstanding what he intended to [...]. They go in procession in Scotland for [...]. Which newes were so pleasant to the Scotishmen, that there was common supplications and processi|ons made through the whole realme, in rendering thanks to almightie God for deliuering the people by this means from so great and present a danger.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Shortlie after came ambassadours from Athel|stane vnto Malcolme, to mooue means for a peace to Ambassadors sent vnto Malcolme. be concluded betwixt the Scotish and English nati|ons, according to the articles of the old league, which motion was i [...]fullie hear [...] of Malcolme, though he set a countenance of the matter as though he passed not whether he had warre or peace: but in the end, for that (as he said) peace was most necessarie for all parts, he shewed himselfe willing to haue the old [...] league renewed betwixt the Englishmen and Scots, with anie reasonable conditions which should be thought requisit.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After the returne of the ambassadours, the league The league was confir|med againe. was newlie confirmed betwixt the two kings and their people, with the semblable articles as were comprised in the old league, with this article onelie added therevnto; that Northumberland, being as Northumber|land allotted vnto Eng|land. now replenished most with Danish inhabitants, should remaine to the Englishmen; and Cumberland with Westmerland to the Scots: vpon this condition, that he which should succeed as heire vnto Cumberland and [...]ester|land to [...] ho|mage vnto England. the crowne of Scotland after the kings deceasse, being heire apparant, should hold those regions, and doo homage vnto the king of England as his vassall perpetuallie for the same. The peace being thus established betwixt these nations, Indulph the sonne of Constantine the third was proclaimed prince of Cumberland, and inheritour to the crowne of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this, Malcolme passed the residue of his life in good quiet, without anie troubles of warre, as a man onelie studieng to mainteine the state of his realme in good order, as well for the wealth of the temporalitie, as spiritualitie, wherevnto he was equallie inclined. At length, as he rode about the prouinces of his realme, to see the lawes dulie ministred, at Vlrine a village in Murrey land, where he caused iustice to be somewhat streictlie executed vppon King Mal|colme was murthered. offendors, he was murthered in the night season by treason of a few conspirators, in the fifteenth yeare of his reigne. But such as did this wicked The conspi|rators were put to [...]|tion. deed with their complices, by diligent examination were tried out, and on the next day being apprehended, suffered due execution, according as they had deserued, being torne in peeces with wild horsses, The murthe|rers were torne with [...]ies. and those peeces sent vnto sundrie cities, where they were hanged vp on the gates and towers, vntill they rotted away.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 They that were the deuisers of the murder also, The procu|rers of the murther were [...]ed. and procured the dooers therevnto, were thrust quite through vpon sharpe stakes, and after hanged vp aloft on high gibbets; and other of the conspirators were put to other kinds of death, as the case seemed to require. The death of Malcolme chanced in the yeare after the death of our Sauiour 959. Here 959. The mista|king of the names and tu [...]es of the English kings in the Scotish [...]|ters. we haue thought good to put you in remembrance, that either the Scots are deceiued in their account of yeares; or else mistake the names of the kings of England: for where they write that this Malcolme departed this life about the 22 yeare of Athelstane king of England, that can not be; if Malcolms deceasse chanced in the yeare 959, for Athelstane was dead long before that time, to wit, in the yeare 940, and reigned but sixteene yeares.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Moreouer, where the Scotish writers make [...]|tion of the warres which king Edmund that [...]|ded Athelstane had against A [...]lafe and the Danes of Northumberland, in the daies of king Indulph that succéeded Malcolme, it can not stand by anie means (if they mistake not their account of yeares:) for the same Edmund was slaine in the years 948. But verelie this fault in the iust account of yeares is but too common in the Scotish historie, and there|fore to him that should take vpon him to reforme the errors thereof in this behalfe, it were necessarie to alter in a maner the whole course of the same hi|storie. And therefore we will not with anie man to giue anie credit vnto their account in yeares, tou|ching the reignes of the English kings, further than they shall see them to agrée with our writers, whome in that behalfe we may more safelie follow, [...] by conferring the same with the Scotish writers in some places, happilie perceiue the true time, aswell of the reignes of their kings, as of ants done, to full [...]tin in yeares and seasons, much differing from their account: thereof to admonish the reader, aswell [...]re as in the English historie, we haue thought it not impertinent.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And albeit that some may [...] what rea [...] [...] haue to mooue vs to doubt of their account of years, more than we [...] of that in our owne writers? [...] will referre the same vnto their iudgements that are learned, and haue trauelled indifferentlis alike, aswell in peruling the one as the other without [...]. But as the errors are sooner found than ame [...] [...], so haue we thought good to set downe in the [...]argent of this booke, the yeares as we find them [...]ted in the Scotish writers, speciallie in places where we differ anie thing from them, because we will not séeme by way of controliment to preiudice the authors, further than by due consideration the [...] [...]sed reader shall thinke it expedient.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 B [...] to my purpose. After the corps of Malcolme Indulph. [...] buried (according to the custome) a|mongst, EEBO page image 148 his predecessors in the abbie church of Col|mekill, Indulph prince of Cumberland was placed in the marble chaire at Scone, there receiuing the crowne and other the inuestures of the kingdome. In the administration whereof he continued for the space of fiue yeares without anié notable trouble; in the end of which terme, he was required by messen|gers sent vnto him from Aualassus, to ioine with Indulph is prouoked by Aualassus to warre against England. him in league against the Englishmen, in reuenge of that ouerthrow, which aswell the Danes as Scots had receiued at Broningfield, alledging that oppor|tunitie was now offered, sith after the decesse of A|thelstane, the Englishmen had created Edmund to His persua|sions. be their king, a man of a dull wit, & not fit for the ad|ministration of high affaires: neither did the league concluded betwixt Athelstane and Malcolme inforce anie impediment, but that he might enter the warre against the Englishmen, considering that both the princes that were the authors of that league were departed out of this life, by whose deceasse the said league was ended.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But Indulph for answere herevnto declared, Indulph his answere. that the league was concluded betwixt Malcolme and Athelstane, by great deliberation of aduise, and by consent of all the estates of both realmes, taking their solemne oths for the true obseruing thereof, so that he could not, vnlesse he should violate that oth, attempt anie thing to the breach of peace with the Englishmen, procuring the iust indignation of al|mightie God against him and his people in that be|halfe. Herevpon the Danes accounting Indulph The Danes not pleased with such an answere pro|cure warre a|gainst Eng|land. but a slouthfull and negligent person for this kind of answere, as he that regarded not the honor of his realme and people, in letting passe so great opportu|nitie to be reuenged of the Englishmen for the death of such Scots as died in the ouerthrow at Broning|field, determined not to be noted with the like spot of reproch: but with all speed sending for aid into Norwaie, prepared to passe ouer into England, vn|der the conduct of Aualassus, who ioining his power The Norwe|gians c [...]me to the aid of A|ualassus. R [...]inold a va|liant capteine. with the Norwegians, which came to his aid vnder the leading of a right valiant capteine called Rai|nold, transported with all spéed ouerinto Northum|berland, vnto whome the gouernour there named Elgarine, acknowledging himselfe to be descen|ded of the Danish bloud, yéelded all the castels, Elgarine yéel|ded the forts vnto the Danes. tounes & forts, promising to aid Aualassus against king Edmund to the vttermost of his power.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 These newes comming to the knowledge of Ed|mund, with all spéed he gathereth his power, and [...]ing into Scotland for such aid as he ought to haue from thence by couenants of the league, there came vnto him ten thousand Scotishmen with rea| [...] 10000 soul|diers sent vn|to king Ed|mund. [...]ls to serue him in these his wars against the Danes. Then ioining his owne people with those Sco [...]ishmen, he set forward towards the enimies. There were a [...] 8000 Northumberland men with Aualassus, the which vpon the first incounter with the Englishmen, fell [...]reight to running away, which made an open and readie breach vnto the English part, to atteine the victorie: for the Danes being not able to resist the violent force of their enimies, in|couraged now with the flight of the Northumbers, were quicklie constreined to giue backe, and in the [...]nd [...] flee amaine, the Englishmen and Scots [...]d [...]wing in the chase with such fiercenesse, that all such as they ouer [...]ke died vpon the sword, though they submitted themselues neuer so humblie in requi|ring mercie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Elgarine yet chancing to fall into his enimies Elgarine is taken priso|ner. hands was taken aliue: for so had Edmund com|manded, that if anie man might take him, he [...] in anie case saue his life, that he might put [...] death in most cruell wise, to the example [...].

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 After this, and for the space of three daies after the battell, Edmund lay still in the fields néere vnto the place where they fought, and then repaired vnto Yorke, where Elgarine for his treason was drawen Elgarine is drawen in péeces. in péeces with wild horsses. There chanced also no notable trouble in Albion, during the space of foure yeares after this said ouerthrow of the Danes with their capteine Aualassus, who is also otherwise cal|led Aulafe, as is to be séene in the English histories, where the same make mention of the foresaid king Edmund, whome likewise they affirme to be the brother of Athelstane, and not his sonne, as before is partlie touched. Indulph in this meane time did with K. Indulph was diligent in his office. great diligence sée to the good order of his realme, shewing therein what belonged to the office of a woorthie prince. But euen as all things séemed to rest in peace & quietnes through the whole Ile of Al|bion, Hagon king of Norwaie, and Helrike king of Denmarke, of purpose to reuenge the slaughter of The kings of Denmarke and Norwaie enter with an armie into Scotland. their countrimen latelie made in Northumberland, came with a mightie nauie vnto the coasts of Scot|land, assaieng to land with their whole armie, first in the Forth, then in the riuer of Taie; but yet through such resistance as the Scots made, being assembled togither to kéepe them off, they were faine to with|draw, The enimies are put off. and wasting alongst the coasts of Angus, the Marnes, Mar, and Buthqhane, at length faining as though they would haue taken their course honie|wards, they lanched foorth into the high seas. But within foure daies after returning againe to the shore, they landed their people earlie in one morning vpon the coast of Boen, at a place called Cullane, a countrie ioining vnto Buthqhane, putting such of They land in Boen. the countrie people to flight, as presented them|selues to impeach their landing and inuasion.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But Inulph being aduertised hereof, forthwith King In|dulph draw|eth néere to|wards the e|nimies. assembling the whole power of his realme, drew towards that part with such speed, that he was come into Boen before his enimies were certified that he was set forward. So soone therefore as they heard he was come, such as were abroad foraieng the same countrie, were called backe to the campe. But Inulph without protracting of time came still forward, and vpon his approch to the enimies, he K. Indulph prepared to battell. prepared to giue battell, and with a short oration began to incourage his people to fight manfullie. But before he could make an end, the Danes gaue the onset with such violence, that the battell a long space The Danes gaue the onset. continued doubtfull on both sides, the Danes on the one part and the Scots on the other, dooing their vttermost indeuours to atchiue the victorie, till at length they of Louthian with their capteins Dunbar and Grame began to appeare on the backe halfe A supplie sene vnto the Scots. of the Danes. With which sight they were put in such feare, that those which fought in the fore ward, retired backe vnto the middle ward, whome the Scots eagerlie pursuing, beat downe euen till they came vnto the reare ward, which coueting rather to die in the fight, than to giue backe, and so to be slaine in the chase (for those in the reare ward were heauie armed men) continued the battell more with a certeine stiffe stubbornes of mind, than with anie great force or forcast, being so ouermatched as they were, & forsaken of their fellowes: for other of the Danes, namelie the archers and kernes fled their waies, The Danes fled. some towards their ships, and some here and there being scattered abroad in the fields, fell into the mosses, the maresh grounds, and other streicts, where they were slaine euerie one by such as followed in the chase.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Inulph himselfe with certeine companies about him, departing from his maine battell to discouer the fields, as though all had beene quiet on eche side, The king with few in his companie fell by chance vpon a whole band of the Danes, where the EEBO page image 149 the same lay incouert within a close vallie, being fled from the field thither vpon the first ioining of the battels, with the which entering into fight, he was shot through the head with a dart, and so died; but not before he was reuenged of those his enimies, the [...]. In [...]ulph was slaine with a dart and died. whole number of them being slaine there in the place. His bodie was first buried in Tullane, a towne of Boene, and after translated vnto the abbie of Colmekill, and there interred amongest other his predecessors the Scottish kings. Indulph reigned about nine yeares and died thus valiantlie, [...]61 saith Io. [...]. though infortunatlie, in the yeare after the incarnation 968, as saith Hector Boetius. 968

Compare 1577 edition: 1 AFter the corps of Indulph was remooued vnto Duffe. Colmekill and there buried; Duffe the sonne of K. Malcolme was crowned K. at Scone with all due solemnitie. In the beginning of his reigne, Cu|lene the sonne of K. Indulph was proclaimed prince of Cumberland: immediatlie wherevpon the king The king went vnto the westerne Iles. transported ouer into the westerne Iles, to set an or|der there for certeine misdemeanors vsed by diuers robbers and pillers of the common people. At his arriuall amongst them he called the tha [...]es of the He purged the Iles. Iles afore him, commanding streightlie as they would auoid his displeasure, to purge their countries of such malefactors, whereby the husbandmen and o|ther commons might liue in quiet, without vexation of such barrettors and idle persons as sought to liue onlie vpon other mens goods.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The thanes vpon this charge giuen them by the king, tooke no small number of the offendors, part|lie, [...]tors ta|ken and put to death. by publike authoritie, & partlie by lieng in wait for them where they supposed their haunt was to re|sort, the which being put to execution according to that they had merited, caused the residue of that kind of people either to get them ouer into Ireland, either else to learne some manuall occupation where|with Uagabounds compelled to learne an oc|cupation. to get their liuing, yea though they were ne|uer so great gentlemen borne. Howbeit the nobles with this ertreme rigor shewed thus by the king a|gainst their linage, were much offended therwith, The nobles were discon|tented with the kings doo|ings. accounting it a great dishonor for such as were des|cended of noble parentage, to be constreined to get their liuing with the labor of their hands, which onlie apperteined to plowmen, and such other of the base degrée as were borne to trauell for the maintenance of the nobilitie, and to serue at their commande|ment by order of their birth, and in no wise after such sort to be made in maner equall with them in state and condition of life.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Furthermore, they murmured closelie amongest The occasion of murmuring of the nobili|tie. themselues, how the king was onlie become friend to the commons & cleargie of his realme, hauing no respect to the nobilitie, but rather declared himselfe to be an vtter enimie thereof, so that he was vnwoor|thie to haue the rule of the nobles and gentlemen, vnles he knew better what belonged to their degrée. This murmuring did spread not onelie among them in the Iles, but also through all the other parts of his realme, so that they ceased not to speake verie euill of the gouernement of things. In the meane The king fell [...]cke. time the king fell into a languishing disease, not so gréeuous as strange, that none of his physicians could perceiue what to make of it. For there was séene in him no token, that either choler, melancho|lie, flegme, or any other vicious humor did any thing abound, whereby his bodie should be brought into such decaie and consumption (so as there remained vnneth anie thing vpon him saue skin and bone.)

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And sithens it appeared manifestlie by all out|ward signes and tokens, that naturall moisture did nothing faile in the vitall spirits, his colour also was fresh and faire to behold, with such liuelines of loo [...], that more was not to be wished for; he had also a temperat desire and appetite to his meate & drinke, but yet could he not sléepe in the night time by anie prouocations that could be deuised, but still fell into excéeding sweats, which by no means might be re|streined. The physicians perceiuing all their medi|cines to pant due effect, yet to put him in some com|fort of helpe, declared to him that they would send for some cunning physicians into forreigne parts, who happilie being inured with such kind of diseases, should easilie cure him, namelie so soone as the spring of the yeare was once come, which of it selfe should helpe much therevnto.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Howbeit the king, though he had small hope of The king be|ing sicke, yet he regarded iustice to be executed. recouerie, yet had he still a diligent care vnto the due administration of his lawes and good orders of his realme, deuising oft with his councell about the same. But when it was vnderstood into what a pe|rillous sicknesse he was fallen, there were no small number, that contemning the authoritie of the ma|gistrats, A rebellion practised. began to practise a rebellion. And amongst the chiefest were those of Murrey land, who slaieng sundrie of the kings officers, began to rage in most cruell wise against all such as were not consenting to their misordered tumult. The kings physicians for|bad The rebellion was kept frõ the kings knowledge. in anie wise, that the king should be aduertised of such businesse, for doubt of increasing his sicknes with trouble of mind about the same. But about that present time there was a murmuring amongst the people, how the king was vexed with no naturall sicknesse, but by sorcerie and magicall art, practised by a sort of witches dwelling in a towne of Murrey Witches in Fores. land, called Fores.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wherevpon, albeit the author of this secret talke was not knowne: yet being brought to the kings eare, it caused him to send foorthwith certeine wittie persons thither, to inquire of the truth. They that Inquirie was made. were thus sent, dissembling the cause of their iornie, were receiued in the darke of the night into the ca|stell of Fores by the lientenant of the same, called Donwald, who continuing faithfull to the king, had kept that castell against the rebels to the kings vse. Unto him therefore these messengers declared the cause of their comming, requiring his aid for the ac|complishment of the kings pleasure.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The souldiers, which laie there in garrison, had an inkling that there was some such matter in hand as The matter appeareth to be true. was talked of amongst the people; by reason that one of them kept as concubine a yoong woman, which was daughter to one of the witches as his par|amour, who told him the whole maner vsed by hir mother & other hir companions, with their intent al|so, which was to make awaie the king. The souldier A witches daughter is examined. hauing learned this of his lemman, told the same to his fellowes, who made report to Donwald, and hée shewed it to the kings messengers, and therewith sent for the yoong damosell which the souldier kept, as then being within the castell, and caused hir vpon streict examination to confesse the whole matter as she had séene and knew. Wherevpon learning by hir confession in what house in the towne it was where The witches are found out. they wrought there mischiefous mysterie, he sent foorth souldiers about the middest of the night, who breaking into the house, found one of the witches An image of wax rosting at the fire. rosting vpon a woodden broch an image of wax at the fler, resembling in each feature the kings person, made and deuised (as is to be thought) by craft and art of the diuell: an other of them sat reciting cer|teine words of inchantment, and still basted the i|mage with a certeine liquor verie busilie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The souldiers finding them occupied in this wise, The witches were exami|ned. tooke them togither with the image, and led them in|to the castell, where being streictlie examined for what purpose they went about such manner of in| [...]hantment, they answered, to the end to make away EEBO page image 150 the king: for as the image did waste afore the fire, so The whole matter is confessed. did the bodie of the king breake foorth in sweat. And as for the words of the inchantment, they serued to keepe him still waking from sléepe, so that as the war euer melted, so did the kings flesh: by the which meanes it should haue come to passe, that when the war was once cleane consinned, the death of the king should immediatlie follow. So were they The nobles of the countrie set the wit|ches on work. taught by euill spirits, and hired to worke the feat by the nobles of Murrey land. The standers by, that heard such an abhominable tale told by these wit|ches, streightwaies brake the image, and caused the witches (according as they had well deserued) to bée The witches were burnt. burnt to death.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 It was said, that the king at the verie same time that these things were a dooing within the castell of The king is restored to health. Fores, was deliuered of his languor, and slept that night without anie sweat breaking foorth vpon him at all, & the next daie being restored to his strength, was able to doo anie maner of thing that lay in man to doo, as though he had not béene sicke before anie thing at all. But howsoeuer it came to passe, truth it is, that when he was restored to his perfect health, The king with an armie pursued the rebels. he gathered a power of men, & with the same went into Murrey land against the rebels there, and cha|sing them from thence, he pursued them into Rosse, and from Rosse into Cathnesse, where apprehending them, he brought them backe vnto Fores, and there The rebels are executed. caused them to be hanged vp, on gallows and gibets.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Amongest them there were also certeine yoong gentlemen, right beautifull and goodlie personages, being neere of kin vnto Donwald capteine of the castell, and had béene persuaded to be partakers with the other rebels, more through the fraudulent coun|sell of diuerse wicked persons, than of their owne ac|cord: wherevpon the foresaid Donwald lamenting Captein Don wald craued pardon for them but not granted. their case, made earnest labor and sute to the king to haue begged their pardon; but hauing a plaine deni|all, he conceiued such an inward malice towards the king (though he shewed it not outwardlie at the first) that the same continued still boiling in his stomach, and ceased not, till through setting on of his wife, and in reuenge of such vnthankefulnesse, hée found meanes to murther the king within the fore|said castell of Fores where he vsed to soicurne. For Donwald conceiued ha|tred against the king. the king being in that countrie, was accustomed to lie most commonlie within the same castell, hauing a speciall trust in Donwald, as a man whom he ne|uer suspected.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But Donwald, not forgetting the reproch which his linage had susteined by the execution of those his kinsmen, whome the king for a spectacle to the people had caused to be hanged, could not but shew mani|fest tokens of great griefe at home amongst his fa|milie: which his wife perceiuing, ceassed not to tra|uell with him, till she vnderstood what the cause was of his displeasure. Which at length when she had learned by his owne relation, she as one that bare Donwalds wife counsel|led him to mur ther the king. no lesse malice in hir heart towards the king, for the like cause on hir behalfe, than hir husband did for his friends, counselled him (sith the king oftentimes v|sed to lodge in his house without anie gard about him, other than the garrison of the castell, which was wholie at his commandement) to make him awaie, and shewed him the meanes wherby he might soonest accomplish it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Donwald thus being the more kindled in wrath by the words of his wife, determined to follow hir ad|uise in the execution of so heinous an act. Whervpon The womans [...]ll counsell is followed. deuising with himselfe for a while, which way hée might best accomplish his curssed intent, at length gat opportunitie, and sped his purpose as followeth. It chanced that the king vpon the daie before he pur|posed to depart foorth of the castell, was long in his o|ratorie at his praiers, and there continued till it was late in the night. At the last, comming foorth, he called such afore him as had faithfullie serued him in pur|sute and apprehension of the rebels, and giuing them heartie thanks, he bestowed sundrie honorable gifts The king re|warded his friends. amongst them, of the which number Donwald was one, as he that had béene euer accounted a most faith|full seruant to the king.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 At length, hauing talked with them a long time, The king went to bed. he got him into his priuie chamber, onelie with two of his chamberlains, who hauing brought him to bed, came foorth againe, and then fell to banketting with Donwald and his wife, who had prepared diuerse de|licate His chamber|lains went to banketting. dishes, and sundrie sorts of drinks for their reare supper or collation, wherat they sate vp so long, till they had charged their stomachs with such full gorges, that their heads were no sooner got to the pil|low, but asléepe they were so fast, that a man might haue remooued the chamber ouer them, sooner than to haue awaked them out of their droonken sleepe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Then Donwald, though he abhorred the act great|lie in heart, yet through instigation of his wife hee called foure of his seruants vnto him (whome he had made priuie to his wicked intent before, and framed to his purpose with large gifts) and now declaring vnto them, after what sort they should worke the feat, they gladlic obeied his instructions, & spéedilie going about the murther, they enter the chamber (in which the king laie) a little before cocks crow, where The suborned seruants cus the kings throte. they secretlie cut his throte as he lay sléeping, with|out anie buskling at all: and immediatlie by a po|sterne gate they caried foorth the dead bodie into the fields, and throwing it vpon an horsse there prouided readie for that purpose, they conuey it vnto a place, about two miles distant from the castell, where they staied, and gat certeine labourers to helpe them to turne the course of a little riuer running through the fields there, and digging a déepe hole in the chanell, The king his buriall. they burie the bodie in the same, ramming it vp with stones and grauell so closelie, that setting the water in the right course againe, no man could perceiue that anie thing had béene newlie digged there. This they did by order appointed them by Donwald as is reported, for that the bodie should not be found, & by bléeding (when Donwald should be present) declare him to be guiltie of the murther. ¶ For such an opini|on men haue, that the dead corps of anie man being slaine, will bléed abundantlie if the murtherer be present. But for what consideration soeuer they bu|ried him there, they had no sooner finished the worke, The poorel [...] borers are slaine. but that they flue them whose helpe they vsed herein, and streightwaies therevpon fled into Orknie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Donwald, about the time that the murther was in dooing, got him amongst them that kept the watch, Donwald kept himselfe amongst the watchmen. and so continued in companie with them all the resi|due of the night. But in the morning when the noise was raised in the kings chamber how the king was slaine, his bodie conuied awaie, and the bed all bu|raied with bloud; he with the watch ran thither, as though he had knowne nothing of the matter, and Donwald a verie di [...]|biet. breaking into the chamber, and finding cakes of bloud in the bed, and on the floore about the sides of it, he foorthwith flue the chamberleins, as guiltie of that heinous murther, and then like a mad man running to and fro, he ransacked euerie corner within the ca|stell, as though it had béene to haue seene if he might haue found either the bodie, or anie of the murthe|rers hid in anie priuie place: but at length comming to the posterne gate, and finding it open, he burdened the chamberleins, whome he had slaine, with all the fault, they hauing the keies of the gates commit|ted to their kéeping all the night, and therefore it could not be otherwise (said he) but that they were of counsell in the committing of that most detesta|ble EEBO page image 151 murther.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Finallie, such was his ouer earnest diligence in [...] wiser than other. The matter [...]pected. the seuere inquisition and triall of the offendors héerein, that some of the lords began to mislike the matter, and to smell foorth shrewd tokens, that he should not be altogither cleare himselfe. But for so much as they were in that countrie, where he had the whole rule, what by reason of his friends and authori|tie togither, they doubted to vtter what they thought, till time and place should better serue there vnto, and héere vpon got them awaie euerie man to his home. For the space of six moneths togither, after this hei|nous murther thus committed, there appéered no Pr [...]digions [...]ather. sunne by day, nor moone by night in anie part of the realme, but still was the skie couered with continu|all clouds, and sometimes such outragious winds a|rose, with lightenings and tempests, that the people were in great feare of present destruction.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 IN the meane time Culene prince of Cumberland, the sonne (as I haue said) of king Indulph, accom|panied Culene. with a great number of lords and nobles of the realme, came vnto Scone, there to receiue the crowne according to the manner: but at his com|ming thither, he demanded of the bishops what the The king as|ked the cause of the foule weather. The bishops answer vnto the king. cause should be of such vntemperats weather. Who made answer, that vndoubtedlie almightie God shewed himselfe thereby to be offended most highlie for that wicked murther of king Duffe: and suerlie vnlesse the offendors were tried foorth and punished for that deed, the realme should féele the iust indigna|tion of the diuine iudgement, for omitting such pu|nishment as was due for so greeuous an offense. Culene héere vpon required the bishops to appoint publike processions, fastings, and other godlie exer|cises The king re|quired pub|like praiers to [...]e had. to be vsed of the priests and people, through all parts of the realme, for the good appeasing of Gods wrath in this behalfe; and in such sort and manner as in semblable cases the vse and custome in those daies was. He himselfe made a solemne vow, confirming it with a like oth, before all the péeres & nobles there The king made an oth. assembled, that he would not ceasse till he had reuen|ged the death of king Duffe vpon the false inhabi|tants of Murrey land, to the example of all other.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The multitude being present, getting them to ar|mor, followed their prince, taking his iournie with|out The king went with an arm [...]e into Murrey land. further delaie towards Murrey land, the inhabi|tants of which region hearing of his approch, and the cause of his comming, were striken with excéeding feare: but namelie Donwald, being giltie in consci|ence, doubted lest if he were put to torture, he should A giltie con|science accu|seth a man. be inforced to confesse the truth. Whervpon without making his wife priuie to his departure, or anie o|ther of his familie, saue a few such as he tooke with him, he secretlie got him to the mouth of the riuer of Spey, where finding a ship readie, he went aboord the Donwald get|teth him se|cretlie awaie. same, purposing to haue fled his waies by sea into Norwaie: for this is the peculiar propertie of a giltie conscience, to be afraid of all things, and either in ge|sture or countenance to bewraie it selfe, accounting flight most sure, if occasion may serue thereto. For this Donwald, whome no man (though some partlie The murther. of the king is reuealed. suspected him) might well haue burdened with the crime of his maisters death (by reason of his faith|full seruice shewed towards him afore time) had he not thus sought to haue auoided the countrie, was now detected of manifest treason, euerie man detes|ting his abhominable fact, and wishing him to be o|uer whelmed in the raging flouds, so to paie the due punishment, which of right he owght, for his vile tre|son in murthering his naturall lord.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Culene being heereof aduertised, passed ouer The castell of Fores is ta|ken and all the [...]nhabitants slaine. Spey water, and taking the castell of Fores, slue all that he found therein, and put the house to sacke and fire. Donwalds wife with his thrée daughters were taken: for Culene commanded, that whosoeuer could light vpon them, should in anie wise saue their liues, and bring them vnto him. Which being doone, he had The murther is who [...] con|fessed. them to the racke, where the mother vpon hir exami|nation confessed the whole matter, how by hir pro|curement chieflie hir husband was mooued to cause the déed to be doone, who they were that by his com|mandement did it, and in what place they had buried the bodie. Héere would the multitude haue run vpon hir and torne hir in peeces, but that they were restrei|ned by commandement of an officer at armes. The K. with the residue for that night rested themselues, and in the morning tooke order for due prouision of all things necessarie to take vp the bodie of king King Duffe his bodie to be taken vp. Duffe, and then to conueis it vnto Colmekill, there to be buried amongest his predecessors.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But as they were busie héereabout, woord came that the traitor Donwald was by shipwracke cast Donwald is taken prisoner vpon the shore within foure miles of the castell, as though he were by Gods prouision brought backe into his owne countrie to suffer worthie punishment for his demerits. Wherevpon the inhabitants of the places next adioining tooke him, and kept him fast bound till they knew further of the kings pleasure: who verie glad of the newes, sent foorth immediatlie a band of men to fetch him. They that were sent did as they were commanded: and being scarse retur|ned, there came in diuerse lords of Rosse, bringing with them Donwalds foure seruants, which (as be|fore Donwalds foure seruants were taken also. is said) did execute the murther. Thus all the of|fendors being brought togither vnto the place where the murther was both contriued and executed, they were arrained, condemned, and put to death in ma|ner as followeth, to the great reioising of the people that beheld the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 They were first scourged by the hangman, and then Donwald with his con|federats are executed. bowelled, their entrails being throwen into a fire and burnt, the other parts of their bodies were cut in|to quarters, and sent vnto the chiefest cities of the realme, and there set vp aloft vpon the gates & high|est towers, for example sake to all such as should come after, how heinous a thing it is to pollute their hands in the sacred bloud of their prince. This dread|full end had Donwald and his wife, before he saw anie sunne after the murther was committed, and that by the appointment of the most righteous God, the creator of that heauenlie planet and all other things, who suffereth no crime to be vnreuenged. Those that were the takers of the murtherers were Rewards gi|uen vnto the takers of those murtherers. highlie rewarded for their paines and trauell therein susteined, being exempt from charges of going foorth to the warres, and also of all manner of paiments belonging to publike duties, as tributes, subsidies, and such like.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 These things being thus ordered, the bodie of king Duffe was taken vp, and in most pompous manner The bodie of king Duffe honorablie bu|ried. conueied vnto Colmekill, accompanied all the waie by Culene, and a great multitude of lords both spiri|tuall and temporall, with other of the meaner states. There be that haue written how his bodie (though it had laine six moneths vnder the ground) was no|thing impaired either in colour or otherwise, when it was taken vp, but was found as whole and sound as though it had béene yet aliue, the skarres of the wounds onelie excepted. But to procéed, so soone as it Maruellous things are séene. was brought aboue the ground, the aire began to cleare vp, and the sunne brake foorth, shining more brighter than it had beene séene afore time, to anie of the beholders remembrance. And that which put men in most deepe consideration of all, was the sight of manifold flowers, which sprang foorth ouer all the fields immediatlie therevpon, cleane contrarie to the time and season of the yéere.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Within a few yeeres after this, there was a bridge EEBO page image 152 made ouer the water in the same place, where the bo|die had beene buried, and a village builded at the one end of the bridge, which is called vnto this day, Kil|flos, that is to say, the church of flowers: taking that Kilflos. name of the woonder there happened at the remoo|uing of the kings bodie, as the same authors would séeme to meane. But there is now (or was of late) a rich abbeie, standing with a verie faire church, conse|crat in the honor of the virgine Marie. Monstrous sights also that were seene within the Scotish king|dome that yéere were these: horsses in Louthian, be|ing of singular beautie and swiftnesse, did eate their Horsses eate their owne flesh. A monstrous child. A sparhawke strangled by an [...]wle. owne flesh, and would in no wise taste anie other meate. In Angus there was a gentlewoman brought foorth a child without eies, nose, hand, or foot. There was a sparhawke also strangled by an owle. Neither was it anie lesse woonder that the sunne, as before is said, was continuallie couered with clouds for six moneths space. But all men vnder|stood that the abhominable murther of king Duffe was the cause héereof, which being reuenged by the death of the authors, in maner as before is said; Cu|lene was crowned as lawfull successor to the same Duffe at Scone, with all due honor and solemnitie, in the yeere of our Lord 972, after that Duffe had 972. ruled the Scotish kingdome about the space of foure yeeres.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The beginning of Culenes reigne, begun with King Culene did not conti|nue as his be|ginning was. righteous execution of iustice, promised a firme hope of an other manner of prince, than by the admini|stration which followed he declared himselfe to be: for shortlie after loosing the rains of lasciuious wan|tonnesse to the youth of his realme, through giuing a lewd example by his owne disordered dooings, all such as were inclined vnto licentious liuing, follow|ed He followes his sensuall lustes. their sensuall lusts and vnbrideled libertie, aban|doning all feare of correction more than euer had béene séene or heard of in anie other age. For such was the negligence of the king, or rather mainte|nance of misordered persons, that whatsoeuer anie of the nobilitie did either against merchants, priests, Euill dooers were not pu|nished. or anie of the commons, though the same were ne|uer so great an iniurie, there was no punishment vsed against them: so that all men looked for some commotion in the common-wealth therevpon to in|sue, if there were not other order prouided therefore in time. The ancient péeres of the realme also being Good counsell was not heard gréeued thereat, spared not to admonish the king of his dutie, declaring vnto him into what danger the realme was likelie to fall through his negligent be|hauiour.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Culene answered them, that he wist well inough The kings answer vnto his graue p [...]eres. how yoong men were not at the first borne graue and sage personages, like to them with hoarie heads: wherefore their first youthfull yéeres could not be so stable as they might be héereafter by old age and con|tinuance of time. But as for such rigorous extremi|tie as diuerse of his elders had vsed towards their subiects, he minded not (as he said) to follow, being taught by their example (as by the kings, Indulph, Duffe, and such other) into what danger he might in|curre by such sharpe seueritie shewed in the gouern|ment of the estate. Wherevpon he was determined so to rule, as he might giue cause rather to be belo|ued He would not displease. than feared, which was the onelie meane (as he thought) to reteine his subiects in due and most faith|full obedience. This answer was such, that although it séemed nothing agréeable for the preseruation of the publike state in quiet rest and safetie, yet was there no man, by reason of his regall authoritie, that durst reprooue the same, but diuerse there were that praised him therein, as those that hated all such as lo|ued the vpright administration of iustice.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But such ancient councellors as had trulie ser|ued in rule of the common-wealth in the daies of the former kings, Indulph & Duffe, misliking the state of that present world (wherin the youth of the realme, Ancient coun|cellors leaue the court. namelie all such as were descended of noble paren|tage, and vsed to be about the king, followed their wilfull & sensuall lusts, growing euerie day through want of correction to be woorse and woorse) departed from the court, and withdrew to their homes, with|out medling anie further with the publike admini|stration. The youthf [...] court follow|eth their se [...]|suall lusts. In whose place there crept in others, that with their flatterie corrupted the residue of such sparks of good inclination as yet remained in the king, if anie were at all; insomuch that in the end he measured supreame felicitie by the plentifull inioi|eng of voluptuous pleasures and bodilie lusts. He fansied onelie such as could deuise prouocations ther|vnto, A wicked time of volup|tuousnesse. and in filling the bellie with excesse of costlie meates and drinks, those that could excell other were chieflie cherished, and most highlie of him estee|med.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Heerewithall he was giuen vnto leacherie beyond all the bounds of reason, sparing neither maid, wi|dow, A leacherous king. nor wife, prophane nor religious, sister nor daughter (for all was one with him) that to heare of such villanie and violent forcings as were practised Forcing of womenkind excéeded. by him and his familiars, it would loth anie honest hart to vnderstand or remember. He was so farre past all shame in this behalfe, that when his leache|rous lust by too much copulation was so tired, that he might no more exercise his former lewdnesse, he tooke speciall pleasure yet to behold other to doo it in O beastlie be|hauiour! his presence, that his decaied lust might be the more stirred vp with sight of such filthinesse. This abhomi|nable trade of life he practised for the space of thrée yeeres togither, giuing occasion of much spoile, ra|uine, manslaughter, forcings, and rauishments of women, with all such kind of wicked and diuelish transgressions: no execution of lawes (instituted by All honestie exiled. authoritie of the former kings, for restreint of such flagitious offenses) being put in vre, through negli|gence of this monstruous creature.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 So farre foorth also increased the libertie of théeues, Robberie, theft, &c. were mainteined. robbers, and other offendors, mainteined by such of the nobilitie as consented vnto their vnlawfull doo|ings, and were partakers with them in the same, that if anie man went about to withstand them, or refused to accomplish their requests and demands, he should be spoiled of all that he had, and happilie haue his house burnt ouer his head, or otherwise be misu|sed in such outragious and violent sort, that it would gréeue all those that had anie zeale to iustice, to heare of such enormities as were dailie practised in that countrie. Howbeit, at length the death of king Death [...] an end of all. Culene brought an end to all such wicked dealings: for falling into a filthie disease (through abuse of ex|cessiue drinking and leacherie) called the wasting of nature, he consumed awaie in such wise by rotting [...]. of his flesh, that he appéered more like vnto a dead carcase, than vnto a liuelie creature, insomuch that his owne seruants began to abhor him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wherevpon the lords and other honorable perso|nages of the realme, vnderstanding his case, caused a parlement to be summoned at Scone, where they determined to depose king Culene, and appoint some A parlement. other (whome they should iudge most méetest) to reigne in his place. Culene also not knowing where|fore this councell was called, as he was going thi|therwards, at Meffen castell, being almost in the mid waie of his iournie, was murthered by one King Culene was murthe|red. Cadhard the thane of that place, whose daughter he had rauished before time amongst diuerse other. This end had Culene togither with all his filthie sensuali|tie: but the reprochfull infamie thereof remaineth in memorie with his posteritie, and is not like to be for|gotten EEBO page image 153 whilest the world goeth about. He was thus dispatched in the fift yéere of his reigne, and after the birth of our Sauiour 976, the nobles & great péeres of the realme reioising at his death, though they al|lowed 976. not of the manner thereof.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 AFter that the bodie of king Culene was once conueied vnto Colmekill, and there buried a|mongst Kenneth. his elders, the nobles and great péeres as|sembled togither at Scone, where they proclaimed Kenneth the sonne of Malcolme the first, and brother vnto Duffe, king of the realme. In the beginning of his reigne, he had inough to doo to reduce the people Ill life is re|formed. from their wild and sauage kind of life (into the which they were fallen through the negligent gouern|ment of his predecessor) vnto their former trade of ciuill demeanor. For the nature of the Scotishmen is, that first the nobles, and then all the residue of the people transforme themselues to the vsage of their prince: therefore did Kenneth in his owne trade of liuing shew an example of chastitie, sobrietie, libera|litie, King Ken|neth was of a [...]rtuous li|uing. and modestie, misusing himselfe in no kind of vice, but refraining himselfe from the same. He ba|nished all such kind of persons as might prouoké ei|ther him or other vnto anie lewd or wanton plea|sures. He mainteined amitie aswell with strangers as with his owne people, punishing most rigorouslie He loued strangers. all such as sought to mooue sedition by anie manner of meanes. He tooke busie care in causing the people to auoid sloth, and to applie themselues in honest ex|ercises, He abhorred [...]outh. iudging (as the truth is) that to be the waie to aduance the common-wealth from decaie to a flourishing state.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus when he had somewhat reformed the misor|ders of his subiects, he indeuored himselfe by all meanes he could deuise to punish offendors against He did punish offendors. the lawes and wholesome ordinances of the realme, and to purge all his dominions of théenes, robbers, and other such as went about to disquiet common peace. At Lanerke, a towne in Kile, was a sessions A session kept at Lainrike, [...] Lanerke. appointed to be kept for execution of iustice, where certeine offendors were summoned to appéere. But at their comming thither, perceiuing that such mani|fest proofes would be brought against them of such crimes as they had committed, that they were not able to excuse the same, through persuasion of diuerse noble men vnto whom they were of kin, they fled se|cretlie The giltie ran awaie. their waies, some into the westerne Iles, and some i [...]to other places, where they thought most ex|pedient for safegard of their liues. The king percei|uing that through the disloiall meanes of the lords The king dis|sembled with thes [...] dooings. his purpose was so hindered, that he might not im|nister iustice, according to the institution of his lawes, he dissembled his wrath for a time, and licen|ced euerie man to depart to their houses, his traine onelie excepted Then went he into Galloway to vi|sit saint Ninian for performance of his v [...]w, which The king went to visit saint Ninian. The king consulted how to call the tr [...]ressors vn [...]dge|ment. he had made so to doo. Héere he inuented (by confe|rence which he had with some of his priuie councell) a deuise, whereby he might fetch againe the offendors vnto iudgement: but [...]his was kept close till the yéere following, for doubt least if those lords which bare them good will had come to anie inkling there|of, they would by vttering it haue disappointed his purpose.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 At length, after a yeere was passed, he appointed all the lords and nobles of his realme [...] assemble a [...] Scone, as though it had béene to haue communed a|bout An assemblie h [...]d at Scone. some weightie a [...]aires touching [...] state of [...] realme. The night then before they should come togi|ther into the councell-chamber, he caused by some of his faithfull ministers, a sort of armed men to be [...] Armed men laid in [...]. close in a secret place, with commandement giuen to their capteine, that in no wise he should [...]rre with [...] [...]he next day that [...] sembled togither, and then without delaie to execute that which should be giuen him in commandement. On the morrow after the nobles comming togither The king and lords sitting, the armed men step foorth. into the councell-chamber, they had no sooner taken their places, euerie one according to his degree a|bout the king, but that the armed men before menti|oned, came rushing into the house, placing them|selues round about them that were set, according to the order prescribed by former appointment. The lords with this present sight being much amazed, be|held one an other, but durst not speake a woord. Then the king perceiuing their feare, began to declare vn|to The king put teth the lords out of doubt. them the whole cause of his calling them to coun|cell at that time, and why he had appointed those ar|med men to be there attendant. The effect of his ora|tion there made vnto them was, that he had not In oration made by the king. caused those armed men to come into the chamber for anie harme ment towards anie of their persons, but onelie for the publike preseruation of the realme. For so much as they knew, there was one kind of A rehearsall of all [...] people much noisome to the common-wealth, being confederate as it were togither by one consent to ex|ercise all sorts of mischiefe and oppression against the poore people, as to rob, spoile, and take from them all that they had, to rauish their wiues, maids, & daugh|ters, and some times to burne their houses: the which licentious libertie in such wicked persons, through want of due punishment in the daies of king Cu|lene, what danger it had brought vnto the whole state of the Scotish common-wealth, there was none but might well vnderstand.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For sith it was so, that the lords and other high estates liued by the trauell of the commons, then if the same commons should in anie wise decaie, the lords and such other high estates could in no wise prosper: for if the labourer through iniurie of the robber were forced to giue ouer his labour; where should the lord or gentleman haue wherevpon to liue? So that those which robbed the husbandman, robbed also the lord and gentleman; and they that sought to mainteine such loitering persons as vsed to rob the poore man, went about the destruction both of king, lord, and gentleman; yea and finallie of the vniuersall state of the whole common-wealth. Ther|fore he that loued the common-wealth, would not séeke onelie to defend the commons from such iniu|ries as théeues and robbers dailie offered them; but also would helpe to sée iust execution doone vpon the sanie théeues and robbers, according to the lauda|ble lawes and customes of the land.

The last yeare (said he) you your selues remember (I thinke) how I purposed by your helpe and counsell to haue pro|céeded by order of the lawes against all enimies and perturbers of the peace. At Lainrike was the day Lainrike, or Lanerke. appointed for them to haue appeared, but there was not one of them that would come in, but contemp|tuouslie disobeieng our commandement kept them awaie, by whose counsell I know not. But I haue béene informed by some how diuers of you fauoring those rebels, by reason they were of your linage, were of counsell with them, in withdrawing them|selues so from iudgement.

Compare 1577 edition: 1

The often sending of messengers betwixt them and you, well neere persuaded vs to thinke that this report was true. But yet not withstanding, I haue put away all such [...]er suspicion out of my head, wishing you (as I [...]rust you be) void of all such dissi| [...]ation. And now I require you, not as fautors of the rebelles, but as defendors of the common|wealth, though happilie somewhat-slacke heretofore in discharge of your dueties, to shew your selues [...]ch in helping to apprehend the offendors, as that the world may perceiue you to haue made full satis| [...] for your [...] [...]ror, [...]f before in you there EEBO page image 154 were anie.
In the end he was plaine with them, and told them flatlie that they should assure them|selues to haue those armed men which they saw there present, to be continuallie attendant about them, till he might haue all the rebelles at commande|ment.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The lords hauing heard the kings spéech, and per|ceiuing The lords gentle submis|sion, with a large promise. what his meaning was, first partlie excused themselues so well as they might of their cloked dis|simulation, and then falling downe vpon their knées afore him, besought him to put away all displeasure out of his mind, and clearelie to pardon them, if in anie wise they had offended his maiestie, promising that they would with all diligence and faithfulnesse accomplish his desire, in causing the offendors to be brought in vnto iudgement: and till the time that this were brought to passe, they were well contented to remaine in such place where he should appoint them to abide. The councell then being broken vp, The king went to Ber|tha. the king with those lords passing ouer the riuer of Taie, went vnto Bertha, which towne during the kings abode in the same, was streictlie kept with watch and ward, that no creature might enter or go foorth without knowledge of the officers appointed by the king to take héed therevnto. If anie idle person were espied abroad in the stréets, streightwaies the Roges puni|shed. sergeants would haue him to ward.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The nobles remained in the kings house, or in o|ther lodgings to them assigned, procuring by their friends and ministers to haue such offendors as vsed to rob and spoile the husbandmen, apprehended and Iniurious men brought vnto Bertha. brought to the king to Bertha, there to receiue iudge|ment & punishment according to their merits: for so they perceiued they must néeds worke, if they min|ded the safegard of their owne liues. Hereof it fol|lowed also, that within short space after, there were brought vnto Bertha to the number néere hand of fiue hundred such idle loiterers as vsed to liue by A great num|ber of vaga|bonds were iudged to die. spoile and pillage, manie of them being descended of famous houses: all which companie being con|demned for their offenses to die, were hanged vp on gibbets about the towne, and commandement gi|uen by the king, that their bodies should not be ta|ken downe, but there to hang still to giue example to other, what the end was of all such as by wrong|full means sought to liue idelie by other mens la|bours.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The rebelles being thus executed, king Kenneth licenced the lords to depart to their owne houses, ex|horting The lords haue licence to depart. them to remember their duties towards the common-wealth, and to studie for preseruation of peace and quietnesse according to their vocation. After this, the realme continued in quietnesse with|out anie forraine or inward trouble for the space of certeine yeares following, and had remained in the same state still, if the Danes had not made a new The Danes séeke for to reuenge old losses. inuasion, who being sore greeued in their hearts for such displeasures as they had susteined in Albion, de|termined now with great assurance to reuenge the same. Where vpon gathering an huge multitude of The Danes take the sea to go into Al|bion. men togither, they were imbarked in vessels pro|uided for them; and sailing foorth, they purposed to take land vpon the next coast of Albion where they should chance to arriue; & being once on land, to de|stroie all before them, except where the people should submit & yeeld themselues vnto them. This nauie being once got abroad, within short time arriued [...] that point of land in Angus, which is called the red The Danes arriue at the red head, or red Braies in Angus. Braies, or red head, not far from the place where the abbie of Abirbroth, or Abirbrothoke was afterward founded.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Here the Danish fléet first casting anchor, their capteins fell in consultation what they were best to doe. Some of them were of this opinion, that it was not most expedient for them to land in that place, but rather to passe from thence into England; for at The Danes consuit to go into England the Scotishmens hands being poore, and yet a fierce and hardie nation, there was small good to be got, being thereto accustomed to giue more ouerthrowes than they commonlie receiued. Againe, the soile of that countrie was but barren, and in manner ouer|growen with woods (as it was in déed in those daies) with few townes & small habitations, and those so poore, that no man knowing the same, would vouch|safe to fight for anie possession of them: wherein con|trariwise England (that part namelie which lieth towards the south) was so fruitfull of corne and cat|tell, so rich of mines, and replenished with so manie notable cities and townes inhabited with men of great wealth and substance, that few were to be found comparable thereto. So that the matter be|ing well considered, they could not doo better, than to saile into Kent, where they might be sure of rich spoile, without anie great resistance. Other there were that held how that this iournie was attemp|ted They consult for to saile into Kent. by the counsell of their superiors, onelie to re|uenge such iniuries as the Danish nation had recei|ued at the hands of the Scotishmen, and not to at|teine They onelie sought re|uenge. riches or anie dominion.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Scots also being a cruell people, & readie to fight in defense of other mens possessions (as in the warres of Northumberland it well appeared) would suerlie be readie to come to the aid of the English|men into Kent, euen so soone as it was knowen that the Danes were on land in those parts: so that by this means they should be constreined to haue to doo both with the Scotishmen and Englishmen, if they first went into Kent: where if they set on land here in Scotland, they should incounter but onelie with the Scots. Therefore, the best were according Some thought best to land in Scotland. to their first determination, to land amongest the Scots, sith chance had brought them vnto those coasts; adding that when they had somewhat abated the arrogant presumption of their enimies there, then might they passe more safelie into England, af|ter a luckie beginning of fier and sword, to proceed against their aduersaries in those parties as fortune should lead them. This deuise was allowed of the greatest number, being glad to get beside the water. Wherevpon the mariners (vpon commandement giuen) drew with their ships into the mouth of the riuer called Eske, the which in those daies washed on the walles of a towne in Angus called then Ce|lurke, but now Mountros. Here the Danes ta|king The Danes doo land at Mountros. land, put the inhabitants of the countrie there|abouts in great feare, so that with all spéed for their safegard they got them into Mountros: but the towne being quickelie assailed of the Danes, was taken, put to the sacke, and after raced, castell and Mountros to|ken, and all within was slaine. all to the bare ground, not one liuing creature be|ing left aliue of all such as were found within the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 From thence the armie of the Danes passed The Danes come to the ri|uer of Taie. through Angus vnto the riuer of Taie, all the peo|ple of the countries by which they marched fléeing a|fore them. King Kenneth at the same time laie at Sterling, where hearing of these gréeuous newes, he determined foorthwith to raise his people, & to go King Ken|neth gathered a great armie. against his enimies. The assemblie of the Scotish armie was appointed to be at the place where the ri|uer of Erne falleth into the riuer of Taie. Here when they were come togither in great numbers at the day appointed, the day next following word was brought to the king, that the Danes hauing passed a [...]r Taie, were come before the towne of Bertha, They [...] s [...]ge before Bertha. and had laid siege to the same. Then without further delaie, he raised with the whole armie, and marched [...] towards his enimies, commi [...] that night EEBO page image 155 vnto [...] village not f [...]r distant from the ri|uer of Taie, famous euer after by reason of the battell fought then néere vnto the same. The Danes hearing that the Scots were come, detracted no time, but foorthwith prepared to giue battell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Kenneth as soone as the sunne was vp, beholding the Daues at hand, quickelie brought his armie in|to King Ken|neth set his men in aray. order. Then requiring them earnestlie to shew their manhood, he promiseth to release the [...] of all tributs and paiments due to the kings cofers for the space of fiue yeares next insuing: and besides that he offered the summe of ten pounds, or else lands so much woorth in value to euerie one of his armie, that should bring him the head of a Dane. He wil|led them therefore to fight manfullie, and to remem|ber The king ex|horted the Scots vnto [...]. there was no place to atteine mercie; for either must they trie it out by dint of swoord, or else if they fled, in the end to looke for present death at the eni|mies hands, who would not ceasse till time they had found them foorth, into what place so euer they resor|ted for refuge, if they chanced to be vanquished. The Scots being not a little incouraged by the kings words, kept their order of battell according as they were appointed, still looking when the onset should be giuen. Malcolme Duffe prince of Cumberland led the right wing of the Scots; and Duncane lieu|tenant The order of the Scotish battell aray. of Atholl the le [...]t: King Kenneth himselfe go|uerned the battell. The enimies on the other part had taken their ground at the foot of a little moun|teine The Danes had the ad|uantage of a little moun|teine. right afore against the Scotish campe. Thus both the armies stood readie ranged in the field, be|holding either other a good space, till at length the Scots desirous of battell, and doubting least the Danes would not come foorth to anie euen ground, aduanced forward with somewhat more hast than The Scots begin the bat|tell. the case required, beginning the battell with shot, and throwing of darts right freshlie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Danes being backed with the mounteine, were constreined to leaue the same, and with all spéed to come forward vpon their enimies, that by ioining they might auoid the danger of the Scotish|mens arrowes and darts: by this meanes therefore they came to hand-strokes, in maner before the signe was giuen on either part to the battell. The fight was cruell on both sides: and nothing hindered the Scots so much, as going about to cut off the heads of the Danes, euer as they might ouercome them Which maner being noted of the Danes, and percei|uing that there was no hope of life but in victorie, they rushed foorth with such violence vpon their ad|uersaries, that first the right, and then after the left The two wings of the Scots fled. wing of the Scots, was constreined to retire and flée backe, the middle ward sto [...]tly yet kéeping their ground but the same stood in such danger, being now left naked on the sides; that the victorie must néedes haue remained with the Danes, had not a renewer of the battell come in time, by the appointment (as is to be thought) of almightie God.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For as it chanced, there was in the next field at the same time an husbandman, with two of his sons busie about his worke, named Haie; a man strong and stiffe in making and shape of bodie, but indued Haie with his two sonnes. with a valiant courage. This Haie beholding the king with the most part of the nobles, fighting with great valiancie in the middle ward, no [...] destitute of the wings, and in great danger to be oppressed by the great violence of his [...], caught a plow-beame in his hand, and with the same exhorting his sonnes to doo the like, hasted towards the battell, there to die rather amongest other in defense of his countrie, than to remaine aliue after the disco [...]ture in mise|rable [...] an [...] bondage of the cruell and most vnmercifull enimies. There was néere to the place of the battell, a long lane fensed o [...] the sides with di [...]|ches and walles made of [...], through the which the Scots which fled were beaten downe by the enimies on heapes.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Here Haie with his sonnes supposing they might Haie [...]aied the Scots [...]rõ running away best staie the [...]ght, placed themselues euer [...]wart the lane, beat them backe whome they met fleeing, and spared neither friend nor [...]o: but downe they went all such as came within their reach, wherewith diuerse hardie personages cried vnto their fellowes to returne backe vnto the battell, for there was a new power of Scotishmen come to their succours, The Scots were driuen to their battell againe. by whose aid the victorie might be easilie obteined of their most cruell aduersaries the Danes: therefore might they choose whether they would be slaine of their owne fellowes comming to their aid, or to re|turne againe to fight with the enimies. The Danes being here staied in the lane by the great valiancie The Danes fled towards their fellowes in great dis|order. of the father and the sonnes, thought verely there had béene some great succors of Scots come to the aid of their king, and therevpon ceassing from further pursute, fled backe in great disorder vnto the other of their fellowes fighting with the middle ward of the Scots.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Scots also that before was chased, being in|couraged herewith, pursued the Danes vnto the place of the battell right fiercelie. Wherevpon Ken|neth K. Kenneth called vpõ his men to remem ber their duties. perceiuing his people to be thus recomforted, and his enimies partlie abashed, called vpon his men to remember their duties, and now sith their ad|uersaries hearts began (as they might perceiue) to faint, he willed them to follow vpon them manfully, which if they did, he assured them that the victorie vn|doubtedlie should be theirs. The Scots incourages with the kings words, laid about them so earnestlie, The Danes [...]orsake the fields. that in the end the Danes were constreined to for|sake the field, and the Scots egerlie pursuing in the chase, made great slaughter of them as they fled. This victorie turned highlie to the praise of the Sco|tish nobilitie, the which fighting in the middle ward, bare still the brunt of the battell, continuing man|fullie therein euen to the end. But Haie, who in such wise (as is before mentioned) staied them that fled, causing them to returne againe to the field, deserued immortall fame and commendation: for by his meanes chieflie was the victorie atchiued. And therefore on the morrow after, when the spoile of the The spoile is diuided. field and of the enimies campe (which they had left void) shuld be diuided, the chiefest part was bestowed on him and his two sonnes, by consent of all the mul|titude; the residue being diuided amongst the souldi|ers and men of warre, according to the ancient cu|stome vsed amongst this nation.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The king hauing thus vanquished his enimies, as he should enter into Ber [...]ha, caused costlie robes to be offered vnto Haie and his sonnes, that being Haie refused costlie gar|ments. richlie clad, they might be the more honoured of the people: but Haic refusing to change his apparell, was contented to go with the king in his old gar|ments whither it pleased him to appoint. So en [...]ring with the king into Bertha, he was receiued with The king came to Bertha. little lesse honor than the king himselfe, all the people running foorth to behold him, whome they heard to haue so valiantlie restored the battell, when the field was in maner lost without hope of all recouerie. At his entring into the towne he bare on his shoulder the plow-beame, more honourable to him than anie sword or battell are might haue béene to anie the most valiant warrior. Thus Haie being honored of all estates, within certeine daies after, at a councell Haie i [...] made one of the nobilitie. holden at Scone, it was ordeined, that both he and his posteritie should be accepted amongst the num|ber of the chiefest nobles and peeres of the realme, being rewarded (besides monie and other great gifts) He had reue|nues assig|ne [...] to him. [...] and reuenues, s [...]ch as he should choose EEBO page image 156 sufficient for the maintenance of their estates.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 It is said, that by the counsell of his sonnes, who knew the fruitfulnes of the soile, he did aske so much ground in those parts where the riuer of Laie runs by the towne of Arrole ouer against Fife, as a falcon Haie his request. would flie ouer at one flight. Which request being freelie granted of the king, the place was appointed at Inschire for the falcon to be cast off: the which ta|king hir flight from thence, neuer lighted till shée came to a great stone néere a village called Rosse, The falcon mesured Haie his lands out. not passing foure miles from Dundée. By which meanes all that countrie which lieth betwixt In|schire aforesaid, and the said stone (being almost six miles in length, and foure in breadth) fell vnto Haie and his sons. The name of the stone also being cal|led the falcons stone to this daie, dooth cause the thing better to be beléeued, and well néere all the foresaid ground still continueth in the possession of the Haies euen vnto this day. Besides this, to the further hono|ring Haie had armes giuen him. of his name, the king gaue him armes thrée scutchons gules in a field of siluer, a plowbeame ad|ded therevnto, which he vsed in stead of a battell axe, when he fought so valiantlie in defense of his owne countrie. Thus had the Haies their beginning of no|bilitie, whose house hath atteined vnto great estima|tion of honor, and hath béene decorated with the of|fice of the constableship of Scotland, by the bounte|ous beneuolence of kings that succéeded. These things happened in the first yéere of king Kenneth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the residue of the time that he reigned, though there chanced no great businesse by forren enimies, yet by ciuill sedition the state of the realme was woonderfullie disquieted. First a companie of Kerns of the westerne Iles inuading Rosse, to the intent to Ciuill wars in Scotland. haue fetched a bootie, were met withall by the waie and ouerthrowne by the inhabitants of that coun|trie. After this sturre, another followed, farre more dangerous to the whole state of the common-welth, raised by one Cruthlint, one of the chiefest lords of the Mernes, who was sonne vnto a certeine ladie An other com|motion in Mernes by Cruthlint. named Fenella, the daughter of one Cruthneth, that was gouernor of that part of Angus which lieth be|twixt the two riuers, the one called Southeske, and the other Northeske. So it chanced, that on a time Cruthlint came vnto the castell of Delbogin to sée his grandfather, the said Cruthneth as then lieng in Cruthlint went to sée his grandfather. the same: where vpon light occasion a fraie was be|gun amongst the seruingmen, in the which two of Cruthlints seruants fortuned to be slaine. Which in|iurie Two of his seruants were slaine. when Cruthlint declared by waie of complaint vnto his grandfather, he was so slenderlie heard, and answered in such reprochfull wise, as though he him|selfe had bin the author of the busines, so that Cruth|neths seruants perceiuing how little he was regar|ded of their maister, fell vpon him and beat him, that They set vp|on Cruthlint also. not without danger of life he brake foorth of their hands, and hardlie escaped away.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In his returne homewards, he came to his mo|ther Fenella, where she lay within the castell of Fe|thircarne, the chiefest fortresse of all the Mernes. Where being incensed through his mothers instiga|tion, Cruthlint was instiga|ted to reuenge being a woman of a furious nature, he attemp|ted foorthwith to be reuenged of the iniurie receiued: so that assembling a number of his friends and kins|folks so secretlie as he might togither, with a band of the inhabitants of the Mernes, he entereth into Angus, and comming vnto the castell of Delbogin He killed all them that were in the castell. in the night season, was suffered to enter by the kée|pers of the gate, nothing suspecting anie treason in the world, by reason wherof was Cruthneth sudden|lie oppressed, the house sacked and raced, not one that was found within the same being left aliue. The spoile also was diuided by Cruthlint amongst them which came with him. The next day likewise he for|raied the countrie all there abouts, returning home The countrie is forraied. with a great bootie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 They of Angus prouoked herewith, rested not long; but assembling themselues togither inuaded They of Mernes re|quite their iniuries. the countrie of Merns, where making great slaugh|ter on each side, they left the countrie void almost both of men and cattell. Thus did the people of those two countries pursue the warre one against another a certeine time, with dailie incursions and wastings of either others countries, in such cruell wise, that it was thought the one of them must néeds shortlie come to vtter destruction, if spéedie remedie were not the sooner prouided. The king being informed of this mischiefe and great trouble, which was fallen The king made a procla|mation by an herald. out through sedition amongst those his subiects, hée made proclamation by an herald, that those of An|gus and Mernes, whom he vnderstood to be culpable, should appeare within fifteene daies after at Scone, The culpable should appeare at Scone. there to make answer afore appointed iudges, to such things as might be laid to their charge, vpon paine of death to euerie one that made default. When the day of appearance came, there were but few that did appeare.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The most part of them doubting to be punished The faultie men ran away for their offenses with Cruthlint their capteine, fled out of Mernes, taking with them their wiues, and their children, and all their goods. The king being sore mooued herewith, perceiued how readie the Sco|tish The K. was sore offended therewith. people were by nature vnto rebellion, when they were gentlie vsed: and againe how they obeied the magistrates best when they were restreined from their wild outragious dooings by due punishment and execution of iustice. He considered therefore that if he did not cause those seditious rebels which had thus disobeied his commandements to be puni|shed according to the order of the lawes, he should haue the whole realme shortlie disquieted with ciuill The K. min|ded to punish the disobedi|ent rebels. Cruthlint ta|ken with ma|nie more. warre and open rebellion. Where vpon with all spéed he caused earnest pursute to be made after Cruth|lint, and the residue of the offendors, the which at length being taken in Lochquhabir, were brought vnto a castell in Gowrie called Dounsinnam, where after iudgement pronounced against them, Cruth|lint He is executed with certeine others. first, and then other the chiefest stirrers on either side were put to execution. The commons, for that it was thought they followed their superiors against their willes, were pardoned and licenced to depart to their houses.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 For this equitie shewed in ministring iustice by The K. was worthily com|mended for his iustice. the king, he was greattlie praised, loued, and dread of all his subiects; so that great quietnesse followed in the state of the common-wealth, greatlie to the aduancement thereof, and so continued till the 22 yéere of this Kenneths reigne. At what time the blind loue he bare to his owne issue, caused him to procure a detestable fact, in making away one of his K. Kenneth poisoned his confin Mal|colme. néerest kinsmen. This was Malcolme the sonne of king Duffe, created in the beginning of Ken|neths reigne prince of Cumberland, by reason wher|of he ought to haue succéeded in rule of the king|dome after Kenneths death. Whereat the same Ken|neth gréeuing not a little, for that thereby his sonnes should be kept from inioieng the crowne, found meanes to poison him. But though the physicians vnderstanding by such euident signes as appeared in The K. was not suspected of this fact. his bodie, that he was poisoned indéed, yet such was the opinion which men had of the kings honor and in|tegritie, that no suspicion at all was conceiued that it should be his deed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The cloked loue also which he had shewed toward him at all times, and so sudden commandement gi|uen by him vpon the first newes of his death, that his The poiso|ning of Mal|colme is brought into suspicion. funerals should be celebrated in euerie church and chappell for his soule; and againe, the teares which he EEBO page image 157 shed for him, in all places where anie mention chan|ced to be made of the losse which the realme had su|steined by the death of so worthie a prince, made men nothing mistrustfull of the matter, till at length some of the nobles perceiuing the outward sorow (which he made) to passe the true griefe of the heart, began to gather some suspicion, that all was not well: but yet bicause no certeintie appeared, they kept their thoughts to themselues. About the same time came ambassadors foorth of England from king Edward the sonne of Edgar (which after through treason of Ambassdors came from K. Edward. his stepmother Esculda, was made a martyr) requi|ring that sith Malcolme the prince of Cumberland was deceassed, it might please the king with the states of the realme to choose some other in his place, who dooing his homage vnto the king of England, He required a new prince to be elected. according as it was couenanted by the league, might be a meane to confirme the same league be|twixt the two nations for the auoiding of all occasi|ons of breach thereof that otherwise happilie might insue.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Kenneth at the same time held a councell at Scone, where hauing heard the request of these am|bassadors, The K. heard a fit message for his pur|pose. in presence of all his nobles, he answered that he was glad to vnderstand that king Edward was so carefull for maintenance of loue and amitie betwixt his subiects and the Scotishmen, according to the articles of the ancient league in times past concluded betwixt them, the ratification whereof for his part he likewise most earnestlie desired, and therefore in rendering most heartie thanks vnto him for his gentle aduertisement, he purposed by the aduise of his nobles, and the other estates of his realme as then there assembled, to elect a new prince of Cumberland, without anie further delaie: and therevpon required the ambassador to be present on the morrow, to heare what he was whom the nobles should name to be preferred vnto that dignitie. The ambassadors herevpon departing foorth of the coun|cell chamber, were conueied to their lodging by di|uerse of the nobilitie that were appointed to kéepe them companie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Then Kenneth with a long oration went about The king re|quested that the crowne might come by inheritance. to persuade the péeres, and other the estates of the realme there (as I said) assembled, to alter the cu|stome and ancient order vsed by their elders in choo|sing of him that should succéed in the gouernance of the realme, after the deceasse of him that was in possession. He vsed so manie reasons as was pos|sible for him to deuise in that behalfe, thereby to in|duce them to his purpose, which was to haue an act established for the crowne to go by succession, onelie to this end, that one of his sonnes might inioy the A fit oration for his pur|pose. same immediatlie after his deceasse. He declared also what discommodities, seditions, and great incon|ueniences had growne, in that the crowne had gone in times past by election: for though it was ordeined at the first that it should so doo, vpon a good intent and great consideration, yet in processe of time proofe He had roome though to walke in, to gather proofes & reasons to persuade this matter, it be|ing good of it selfe. and experience had shewed, that more hinderance happened vnto the common-wealth thereby (beside the danger euer insuing incidentlie vnto such issue as the king left behind him) than profit, if the sundrie murthers, occasions of ciuill discord, and other wic|ked practises were throughlie weied and considered, the summe whereof he recited from point to point, and so in the end with great instance be sought them, that so pernicious a custome might be abolished and taken away, to the great benefit of the whole state of the realme, speciallie sith in all realmes common|lie the order was, that the sonne should without anie contradiction succéed the father in the heritage of the crowne and kinglie estate.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The king had no sooner made an end of his long oration, which he handled after the pithiest sort hée The peeres of the realme ded wilinglie grant to his reqest. could, but that diuerse of the noble men which were there amongst other, being made priuie to the mat|ter aforehand, motioned meanes to haue Malcolme the son of Kenneth created prince of Crunberland, that he might so haue an entrance to the crowne af|ter the deceasse of his father. This motion by and by was in manie of their mouthes, which Kenneth perceiuing, he required of the most ancient peeres whome they would name to be prince of Cumber|land, that there might be a meane to ratifie and con|firme the league betwixt the Scots and English|men, Constantine the sonne of king Cullin, and Grime the nephue of king Duffe by his brother Mo|gall: howbe it by the force of the former law they might by good reason haue looked to haue had the pre|ferment themselues.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But yet perceiuing it was in vaine to denie that which would be had by violence (although they The herald required Cõ|stantine his voice first. should neuer so mus [...] stand against it) being first de|manded of the herald what they thought, they an|swerd (notwithstanding against their minds indéed) that the king might order all things as should stand with his pleasure, appointing whom he thought most méet to bée prince of Cumberland, and to ab|rogate Constantins his saieng. the ancient law of creating the kings, in deuising new ordinances for the same, as should séeme vnto him and those of his councell most requi|site and necessarie. The multitude then following their sentence, cried with lowd & vndiscréet voices, The multi|tude wel plea|sed, crie Mal|colme. to haue Malcolme the sonne of king Kenneth crea|ted prince of Cumberland. And thus the same Mal|colme (though as yet vnder age) was by the voices of the people ordeined prince of Cumberland, in place of the other Malcolme sonne to king Duffe. The daie next following, the ambassadors comming into the councell chamber, heard what was decréed touching their request, and then being highlie re|warded of the kings bountious liberalitie, they re|turned into England, and Malcolme with them, to be acquainted with king Edward, and to doo his ho|mage for the principalitie of Cumberland, as the cu|stome was.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 At the same time also there was a new act deuised A new act for the succession of the crowne. and made, the old being abrogated (by the appoint|ment of the king) for the creation of the Scotish kings in time to come, manie of the nobles rather consenting with silence, than greatlie allowing it ei|ther in harts or voices, though some currifauours a|mong them set forward the matter to the best of their powers. The articles of this ordinance were these. The eldest heire male of the deceassed king, Articles con|cluded in that parlement. whether the same were sonne or nephue, of what age soeuer he should be, yea though he should be in the mothers wombe at the tune of the fathers deceasse, should from thence-foorth succéed in the kingdome of Scotland. The nephue by the sonne should be prefer|red before the nephue by the daughter, in atteining to the heritage of the crowne. And likewise the bro|thers sonne should be admitted before the sisters son. The same law should be obserued of all such of the Scotish nation, as had anie lands or inheritance comming to them by descent. Where the king by this meanes chanced to be vnder age, & not able to rule, there shuld be one of the chiefest péeres of the realme chosen and elected to haue the gouernance of his per|son and realme, till he came to 14 yéeres of age. The which foureteenth yéere of his age being accompli|shed, he should haue the administration committed to his owne hands. The heires of all other persons of ech estate and degrée should remaine vnder the wardship of their appointed gouernors, till they came to the age of 21 yéeres, and not till then to meddle with anie part of their lands and liuings.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 EEBO page image 158 These lawes and ordinances being once published and confirmed, king Kenneth supposed the kingdome King Ken|neth ministred iustice trulie. to be fullie assured vnto him and his posteritie, and therevpon indeuored himselfe to win the harts of the people with vpright administration of iustice, and the fauour of the nobles he sought to purchase with great gifts which he bestowed amongst them, aswell The good will of the nobilitie he bought with gifts. in lands belonging to the crowne, as in other things greatlie to their contentation. Thus might he séeme happie to all men, hauing the loue both of his lords and commons: but yet to himselfe he séemed most The king had a giltie consci|ence. vnhappie, as he that could not but still liue in conti|nuall feare, least his wicked practise concerning the death of Malcolme Duffe should come to light and knowledge of the world. For so commeth it to passe, that such as are pricked in conscience for anie secret offense committed, haue euer an vnquiet mind. And (as the fame goeth) it chanced that a voice was heard A voice heard by the king. as he was in bed in the night time to take his rest, vttering vnto him these or the like woords in effect:

Thinke not Kenneth that the wicked slaughter of Malcolme Duffe by thee contriued, is kept secret from the knowledge of the eternall God: thou art he that didst conspire the innocents death, enterprising by traitorous meanes to doo that to thy neighbour, which thou wouldest haue reuenged by cruell pu|nishment in anie of thy subiects, if it had beene offe|red to thy selfe. It shall therefore come to passe, that both thou thy selfe, and thy issue, through the iust ven|geance of almightie God, shall suffer woorthie pu|nishment, to the infamie of thy house and familie for euermore. For euen at this present are there in hand secret practises to dispatch both thée and thy issue out of the waie, that other maie inioy this kingdome which thou doost indeuour to assure vnto thine issue.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The king with this voice being striken into great dread and terror, passed that night without anie sleepe comming in his eies. Wherefore in the morning he The king confesseth his sinnes. got him vnto bishop Mouean, a man of great holi|nesse of life, vnto whome he confessed his heinous and most wicked offense, beseeching him of counsell, which waie he might obteine pardon and forgiuenes at Gods hands by woorthie penance. Mouean hea|ring how the king bemoned his offense committed, he willed him to be of good comfort. For as the wrath of almightie God was prouoked by sinne and wicked offenses, so was the same pacified againe by repentance, if so be we continue penitent and wil|ling to amend. King Kenneth being confirmed in The king ta|keth great re|pentance. hope of forgiuenesse by these and sundrie other the like comfortable woords of the bishop, studied vnfei|nedlie to doo woorthie penance, leauing nothing vn|doone which he thought might serue for a witnesse of his penitent hart, thereby to auoid the vengeance which he stood in feare of to be prepared for him, by reason of his heinous and wicked crime.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 It chanced héerevpon, that within a short time af|ter he had beene at Fordune, a towne in Mernes, to visit the reliks of Paladius which remaine there, he The king went to For|dune in pil|grimage. A parke with wild beasts at the castell of Fethircarne. turned a little out of the waie to lodge at the castell of Fethircarne, where as then there was a forrest full of all manner of wild beasts that were to be had in anie part of Albion. Here was he receiued by Fe|nella ladie of the house, whose son (as ye haue heard) he caused to be put to death, for the commotion made betwixt them of Mernes and Angus. She was also of kin vnto Malcolme Duffe, whome the king had Fenella was of kin vnto Malcolme. made awaie, and in like manner vnto Constantine and Grime, defrauded of their right to the crowne, by the craftie deuise of the king (as before is partlie mentioned.) This woman therefore being of a stout stomach, long time before hauing conceiued an im|mortall grudge towards the king, vpon the occasi|ons before rehearsed (namelie aswell for the death of hir sonne Cruthlint, as hauing some inkling also of the impoisoning of Malcolme Duffe, though no full certeintie therof was knowne) imagined night and She was de sirous for to reuenge. day how to be reuenged.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 She vnderstood that the king delighted aboue mea|sure in goodlie buildings, and therefore to the end to compasse hir malicious intent, she had caused a tow|er Fenella hir malicious in|tent. to be made, ioining vnto hir owne lodging with|in the foresaid castell of Fethircarne. The which tow|er was couered ouer with copper finelie ingrauen with diuerse flowers and images. Héereto was it hoong within with rich cloths of arras wrought with gold and silke, verie faire and costlie. Behind the same were there crossebowes set readie bent with Crossebowes readie bent, hidden. sharpe quarrels in them. In the middest of the house there was a goodlie brasen image also, resembling the figure of king Kenneth, holding in the one hand a faire golden apple set full of pretious stones, deui|sed with such art and cunning, that so soone as anie man should draw the same vnto him, or remooue it neuer so little anie waie foorth, the crossebowes would immediatlie discharge their quarrels vpon him with great force and violence.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Fenella therefore being thus prouided aforehand, after meate desired the king to go with hir into Fenella had the king into the inner chamber. that inner chamber, into the which being entered, he could not be satisfied of long with the beholding of the goodlie furniture, aswell of the hangings as of di|uerse other things. At the last hauing viewed the i|mage which stood (as is said) in the midst of the cham|ber, he demanded what the same did signifie? Fenella answered, how that image did represent his person, and the golden apple set so richlie with smaragds, ia|cincts, saphires, topases, rubies, turkasses, and such like pretious stones, she had prouided as a gift for him, and therefore required him to take the same, be|séeching him to accept it in good part, though it were not in value woorthie to be offered vnto his princelie honor and high dignitie. And héerewith she hirselfe withdrew aside, as though she would haue taken some thing foorth of a chest or coffer, thereby to auoid the danger.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But the king delighted in beholding the gems and orient stones, at length remoouing the apple, the The king was slaine with the crosse bowes. better to aduise it, incontinentlie the crossebowes discharged their quarrels so directlie vpon him, that striking him through in sundrie places, he fell downe starke dead, and lay flat on the ground. Fenella as soone as she beheld him fall to the ground readie to Fenella esca|ped from them all. die, she got foorth by a backe doore into the next woods, where she had appointed horsses to tarie for hir, by meanes whereof she escaped out of all dan|ger of them that pursued hir, yer the death of the king were openlie knowne vnto them. His seruants His seruants looked for their king. still waiting for his comming foorth in the vtter chamber, at length when they saw he came not at all, first they knocked at the doore softlie, then they The doores broken open, they find him dead. rapped hard thereat: lastlie, doubting that which had happened, they brake open doore after doore, till at length they came into the chamber where the king lay cold dead vpon the floore.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The clamor and crie héerevpon was raised by his seruants, and Fenella curssed and sought for in eue|rie Fenella could not be found. place, that had committed so heinous and wicked a déed: but the vngratious woman was conueied so secretlie out of the waie, that no where could she be heard of. Some supposed that she fled first vnto Con|stantine, Fenella got hirselfe into Ireland by the helpe of Constantine. by whose helpe she got ouer into Ireland. The ambitious desire which the same Constantine shewed he had to succeed in gouernment of the king|dome after Kenneths deceasse, increased that suspi|cion greatlie. For immediatlie after it was known Constantine aspired vnto the crowne. that Kenneth was dead, he got his friends togither, and went vnto diuerse places requiring the lords to EEBO page image 159 assist him in atteining to the crowne, which by the old ordinance and law of the realme (instituted in the beginning, and obserued till now of late, that Ken|neth by his priuate authoritie had gone about to a|brogate the same) ought to descend vnto him, as all the world verie well vnderstood.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 COnstantine procured friends, so on ech side, that by their meanes being of high authoritie in the Constan|tine. realme, he was brought by them vnto Scone, and there crowned king the 12 day after Kenneths de|ceasse, Constantine procured friends. in the 25 yeere after that the same Kenneth had begun his reigne ouer the Scotishmen, and in the yéere of our saluation a thousand iust, in the which 994. Io. Ma. 1000. H. B. yéere (as is said) sundrie vnketh sights were séene as well in Albion, as in other places. The sea left vpon the sands on the coasts of Buchquane, an infinite Maruellons [...]aps chanced. multitude of fishes, the which lieng there dead, caused such a filthie sauour, that the aire being therewith in|fected, great death of people insued. The moone appée|red of a bloudie colour, to the great terror of them The moone appéered blou|die. that beheld it. In the summer next following, corne failed, and cattell died so generallie, that if there had not beene more plentie of fish got than was accusto|med Scarsitie of corne and cat|tell. It rained stones. to be, the people had béene famished in manie places. In Albion and also France it rained stones. But all these dreadfull woonders might not with|draw the Scotishmen from their wicked vices, wherevnto in those daies they were wholie giuen, though there wanted not diuerse vertuous men, as Preaching was despised. well bishops as other, that in their sermons exhorted the people to repent and amend their naughtie li|uings: for otherwise vndoubtedlie such grislie sights and tokens as chanced in those daies, menaced some great mischiefe to fall vnto the whole nation. And suerlie their woords proued true: for the Scots con|tinuing in their wilfulnesse, being stubborne harted one against another, brought their countrie into danger of vtter destruction.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Malcolme the sonne of Kenneth, created (as ye Malcolme seeketh trends against Con|stantine. haue heard in his fathers life time) prince of Cum|berland, hearing that Constantine (against the or|dinance latelie made) had vsurped the crowne, as soone as his fathers bodie was buried in Colmekill, with such funerall pompe as apperteined, he desired his fathers friends to giue him such faithfull counsell as they thought most expedient, which way he were best to woorke for the appeasing of the sedition now begun, by reason of Constantines presumptuous Good counsell was giuen him. attempt. There were some amongest that compa|nie that tooke it to be best, first to vnderstand the minds of all the péeres and nobles of the realme, be|fore they went about anie exploit against the tyrant; least whilest Malcolme should séeke to deliuer him|selfe from danger, he might happilie wind himselfe further into trouble, than without extreame perill of the common-wealth he should be able to get foorth thereof againe. Other there were that iudged it best [...]et other counsell was giuen him. suddenlie to go against Constantine before he made himselfe strong: for if they came vpon him yer he were prouided for their comming, manie of them that feigned themselues to be his friends, would for|sake him, so soone as they saw anie power of his eni|mies at hand. And then should he either fall into their hands, or be driuen to flée the realme for safe|gard of his life.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The flerce yoong man following this counsell as the best to his seeming, & trusting more to his owne wit than to the graue aduise of men of skill, assem|bled Malcolme go|eth with an [...]rmie to fight with Con|stantine. [...]. Constan|tine went to [...] Mal|colme. togither in all hast possible about the number of ten thousand men, with whome making towards Constantine with spéedie iornies, at length he came into Louthian. Constantine being informed of all his aduersaries dooings, had gotten togither also an huge power, so that passing foorth with the same to incounter them, the brute which ran of his great number and puissance, caused Malcolme for verie feare that he should not be able in anie part to match Malcolme thought him|selfe too weake him, to breake vp his armie, and to flée backe into Cumberland: by reason whereof he had béene put to such hinderance and dishonor, as would not easilie haue béene recouered, had not Kenneth the bastard sonne of his father the aboue mentioned Kenneth incamped with a mightie power about Sterling, & defended the passages of the Forth, that Constan|tine with his armie could not come ouer. Then rose Lacke of vit|tels caused Constantine to breake vp his campe. there great famine and penurie of vittels in both hosts, so that Constantine with great indignation was constreined to breake vp his campe, and so to leaue his enterprise for that season.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus was the realme diuided into two sundrie factions, wherevpon followed wastings and incur|sions made into each others possessions, with such crueltie, that the same might be a sufficient instruc|tion what mischiefe happeneth through ciuill discord. The poore commons and husbandmen were brought to such miserie through the often spoilings and rob|beries vsed by the men of warre, that they were not able to till their grounds. Finallie, there rose one mischiefe so fast in the necke of an other, that no kind of crueltie was spared, robbing, reauing, and forcible extortion was exercised on all sides without hope of anie redresse or amendment. Whilest the Scotishmen were thus at diuision amongest them|selues, King Ed|ward, or ra|ther Ethe [...]red, purchased peace of the Danes. renting and pulling in péeces their owne mi|serable natiue countrie, Edward king of England being oppressed with inuasion of Danes, was glad to buie peace at their hands, for himselfe and his peo|ple, with right large summes of monie; but percei|uing that his enimies ceassed not dailie to spoile and rob his subiects, he purposed to trie what he might Malcolme is readie to helpe king Ed|ward against the Danes. doo by making them warre: and to make his part the stronger, he required Malcolme prince of Cum|berland to aid him against the Danes, according to the couenant of the ancient league. Malcolme con|senting to K. Edwards request, came with a mightie armie of Cumberland men to support him: by rea|son whereof the Danes doubting to be ouermatched, King Ed|ward made peace with the Danes. after certeine light skirmishes, without anie great bloudshed, condescended to haue peace, which was concluded with these conditions: that king Edward should paie vnto the Danes a thousand pounds of gold, for the which they should content themselues with those lands which they had alredie in possession, and to inuade no further vpon the Englishmen; but contrariwise to be readie to fight in their defense, if anie forreine enimie sought to make anie warres vpon them. In the meane time, whilest Malcolme was thus in England occupied in aid of king Ed|ward against the Danes, king Constantine thought the time to serue verie well for his purpose, to reduce all those regions of Scotland, which tooke part with his aduersarie (the foresaid Malcolme) vnder his sub|iection.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He assembled therefore twentie thousand men, King Con|stantine ren [...]|ed warre with Malcolme. and comming into Louthian, heard how Kenneth the bastard aforesaid (being left by his brother Mal|colme to resist Constantines attempts) had got to|gither an huge armie of his brothers friends, and was come vnto Crawmond, where the riuer falleth into the Forth, thrée miles from Edenburgh, pur|posing there to abide his enimies, if they minded to assaile him. Constantine herevpon hasted thither|wards, and comming within sight of his enimies, Constantine ioined battell with Kenneth the bastard. streightwaies ioined battell with them; immediat|lie wherewith there rose such an outragious tempest of wind, comming out of the east, & driuing the sand in the faces of Constantines men, that they were not able to sée about them to make anie defense a|gainst EEBO page image 160 their enimies that then preassed vpon them right eagerlie. By means whereof the discomfiture lighted vpon Constantines side, though neither part King Con|stantine is slaine. had anie great cause to reioise: for in the hotest of the fight, Constantine and Kenneth chanced to in|counter togither, and so fighting man to man, either slue other. Thus Constantine ended his life by dint of the enimies sword, in the third yeare of his reigne, & in the yeare after the incarnation 1002, & his bodie 1002 was buried in Colmekill amongst his predecessors.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 THen Grime nephue to king Duffe, hearing of the slaughter made betwixt king Constantine and Kenneth, gathered togither the residue of Con|stantines Grime. armie, being scattered abroad after the ouerthrow, supposing that by the death of Kenneth, the partie of his brother Malcolme was sore weake|ned, & therevpon he came vnto the abbeie of Scone, and there caused himselfe to be crowned king, as lawfull successor vnto Constantine, by force of the old laws and ordinances of the realme. And to esta|blish Grime vsed liberalitie and gentlenesse towards Con|stantines friends. himselfe the more firmelie in the state, he shew|ed great gentlenesse towards all them that were friends vnto Constantine, and bestowed vpon them manie bountious gifts. Neither was his liberalitie shut vp from other that had fauored Malcolme, for to the end he might allure them to beare him good will, he rewarded them highlie both in lands and treasure: but other of the same faction, whome he saw by no means could be woone, he caused them to be proclamed traitors, and confiscated their goods as rebels to his person, and enimies to the crowne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Malcolme prince of Cumberland sore mooued in his mind that Grime had thus taken vpon him the crowne, called his friends togither, requiring to Malcolme prince of Cumberland is mooued a|against Grime. A good coun|sell. haue their aduise, which way he were best to woorke in this so great a matter. They counselled him in no wise he should despise the force of his enimies, but rather to assaie by all means to draw those no|bles vnto his purpose, which were assistant vnto Grime. Wherevpon Malcolme following the coun|sell of his friends, sent foorth secret messengers vnto Malcolme sendeth priui|lie to the lords of Scotland. those lords that tooke part with Grime, requiring them to remember their promised faith, giuen vnto his father king Kenneth, concerning the obseruance of the law established by their consent for the succes|sion of their kings: which if they would doo in re|nouncing their obeisance vnto the vsurper Grime, he promised so to gouerne the realme with equall iu|stice, that no estate in reason should find cause to Malcolme his promise vnto the Scots. mislike with his dooings. Manie of the nobles by means of this message reuolted from the said Grime soliciting their friends by earnest trauell to doo the like. But other & the greater number tooke those that brought the message, & sent them as prisoners vnto Malcolme his messengers are committed to prison. Grime, who presentlie committed them to prison.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Malcolme sore offended therewith, by counsell of his friends, assembled an armie to go against them, that (contrarie to the law of all nations, as he see|med Malcolme be|ing offended therewith, ga|thered an ar|mie. to take the matter) had imprisoned his pur|seuants and messengers: but as he was mar|ching forward on his purposed iournie, he heard by the way, how his aduersarie king Grime had gathered a farre greater power than he had with Grime is of greater force than Mal|colme. him, not onelie of all such of the Scotish nation in|habiting beyond the riuers of Forth and Clide, but of them also of the westerne Iles. Malcolme doub|ting least if the certeintie hereof were once bruted a|mongest his people, the fame would increase the Malcolme would not haue his peo|ple to vnder|stand the trueth thereof. terror more than néeded; he gaue commandement therfore that no maner of wight should be suffered to come into his armie, vnlesse he were first brought to his presence. But this deuise nothing auailed him: for thereby, that which he desired to be concea|led His aduise a|uailed not. and kept most secret, became the more manifest, by reason that such as had some inkeling of the mat|ter, told it from one to another; making it much more than it was in déed. For there rose a murmu|ring amongest them, that there was such treason contriued, that if Malcolme with his armie went forward to ioine with his aduersaries, he should not A brute spred in Malcolmes armie of trea|son. be in danger onelie of them, which he knew to come against him in Grimes host; but also of no small number of them which were in his owne armie, who vpon the ioining had determined to turne their speare points against him in Grimes quarell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 This rumor passing from one to another, put the whole number in great feare. It was first raised by certeine merchantmen, of whome there was a Merchant|men authors of the rumor. great number in Malcolms host, hauing more skill in buieng and selling, than in anie warlike feats or enterprises. These at the first suing for licence to de|part home, and could haue no grant, began to la|ment their miseries, in such dolefull wise, that all the campe was troubled with the noise; insomuch that euen the old men of warre, and diuerse of the capteins were not a little discomfited and amazed with such wailefull clamors. Malcolme being ad|uertised hereof, thought not good to match in battell against his fierce enimies with his people thus asto|nied through dread and terror, and therefore gaue li|cence Malcolme li|cenceth the most part of his armie to depart hence. Malcolme in|tendeth to stop his eni|mie from pas|sing ouer the Forth. The great bishop of Scotland. to the most part of his host to depart for that time, and aboad onelie with certeine bands of his most faithfull friends néere to the water of Forth, to stop his enimies from passing ouer that riuer.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Whilest the realme of Scotland was thus disqui|eted and troubled with ciuill discord, Fothadus the great bishop of Scotland, a man of right appro|ued vertue and clemencie, sore lamenting to sée his countrie thus diuided and rent as it were in péeces, got him into his pontificall vestures, with a multi|tude of other reuerend priests and ecclesiasticall mi|nisters, in humble wise comming and presenting Fothadus sée|keth to take vp the matter. themselues before king Grime, who with great re|uerence receiuing them, willed to vnderstand the cause of their comming. Then Fothadus answered, that he was come as the seruant of Christ, the au|thor of all peace and concord, beséeching him by way of humble supplication to take ruth and pitie of the great trouble and miserie fallen to the realme, since the time he had taken the gouernance vpon him, the state of things being such, as if some redresse were not found in all speedie wise, the vtter ruine of the common-wealth must needs insue, by reason of the sundrie debats and factions dailie rising among the people of all sorts and degrees, so that murthers, The fruits of ciuill warre. robberies, rapes, with all other kinds of iniuries & mischiefe were still put in practise without restreint or punishment, in such licentious sort that no man could assure himselfe of his owne: for whether it were within doores, or without, the robber was as redie to laie hands on it as the owner. Neither was there anie hope of reformation so long as the ciuill wars lasted. Therefore if it might stand with the pleasure of king Grime in reliefe of the poore com|mons of Scotland, to condescend vnto some neces|sarie Fothadus vndertaketh to conclude a peace betwixt the parties. agreement with Malcolme, Fothadus offered to vndertake to conclude a peace betwixt them, in such wise as should in no maner of behalfe be preiu|diciall to his honor and roiall maiestie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Grime mooued with the words of the bishop (who most instantlie besought him, although the calami|tie and great affliction of his people did but little mollifie his heart; yet in respect of his owne suertie, which might not continue if his people were once de|stroied, to remit part of his high displeasure) answe|red, that peace he could be contented to haue, so the same might be concluded with his honor saued: for Grimes an|swere to Fo|thadus. suerlie wars he neuer desired but onelie in defense EEBO page image 161 of his good title and right, which he had to the crowne descended vnto him by the old lawes and ancient ordinances of the realme, and therefore he purposed not to leaue the same with life, but to fight for it a|gainst Malcolme, and all his partakers, euen vnto death. But if it were so, that Malcolme would con|tent himselfe with the principalitie of Cumberland, and so therevpon breake vp his campe, and depart foorth of the lands perteining vnto the crowne, he would gladlie come to a communication with him for peace; but if Malcolme refused thus to doo, he as|sured him that he would not leaue off to pursue him to the vttermost of his power, as his most cruell and fierce enimie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Fothadus hauing heard Grimes words, besought him to stai [...] a time, till he might go vnto Malcolme, to vnderstand what his full mind was in this behalfe not doubting but to find him conformable vnto anie reasonable motion, for relieuing of the poore afflic|ted state of the land. Grime granting vnto this re|quest, Fothadus goeth vnto Malcolme. Fothadus in like sort and habit as he came vn|to Grime, went vnto Malcolme, whome he found at Sterling; where comming before his presence with a long oration, he greatlie bewailed the dolorous calamities of the Scotish common-wealth, into the which it was fallen through ciuill sedition onlie, and herewith declared also by great likeliehood of sub|stantiall reasons, how infortunat and miserable the end should be of the warres, if the same were pur|sued to the vttermost. His tale being throughlie heard and well digested, wrought so with Malcolme, that he promised to withdraw into Cumberland without anie further attempt, if Grime would in Malcolms of| [...]. like case breake vp his campe, and a [...]ée to haue a truce for three moneths space, in which meane time they might by certeine commissioners appointed and authorised thereto, talke and common for conclu|ding of a finall peace and concord betwixt them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Grime refused not this offer, and so therevpon licenced his people to depart to their homes, repai|ring Grime is con|tented with Malcolms motion. himselfe with certeine of his nobles into An|gus vnto the castell of Forfair, there to take further aduise what was to be doone touching the appointed communication of peace. But Fothadus would in no wise rest, till the commissioners were met and Fothadus his diligence to procure the parties to a|gréement. assembled togither in communication at Scone, where within few daies after (chieflie through his earnest diligence) peace was concluded with these conditions. First, that Grime during his life time should inioy the crowne, and after his deceasse the The condi|tions of the peace betwixt Grime and Malcolme. same to remaine to Malcolme & his heirs by lineall descent for euer, according to the ordinance & decrée made & established by K. Kenneth. And whosoeuer should go about either by word or déed to impeach or hinder the said ordinance and decrée, should be re|puted for a traitor to the common-wealth & realme. Furthermore all the lands lieng betwixt Louthian & Northumberland, and betwixt Clide and West|merland, euen from the Almaine seas to the Irish seas, should presentlie remaine & be transported vn|to the dominion & gouernement of Malcolme, with the which contenting himselfe, during the naturall life of Grime, he should continue in friendship with the said Grime, & so in no wise stirre or moue anie warre or debate, either against him or anie of his friends: for if he did, and went about to breake anie of the articles of this peace, he should not onelie lose those lands which he now held, but also be depriued of all the right, title, claime, and interest which either he or his posteritie might make or pretend vn|to the crowne at anie time hereafter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 When both the princes had bound themselues by solemne othes to performe euerie point and points The warres being [...]assed, the princes applie their studies to re|forme misde|meanors. in these articles comprised, they laid armor aside, and began to take order for reforming of all misde|meanours, which had happened within the land, by reason of the ciuill contention mooued betwixt them and their partakers. Howbeit, commandement was giuen by either of these princes, that their sub|iects should be still in a readinesse with armour and weapons (if néed required) to desend themselues a|gainst all sudden inuasions of their neighbours, whereby it may be gathered, that the one had the o|ther still in some mistrust, what countenance so [...]uer they shewed outwardlie. Yet notwithstanding, for the space of 8 yeares togither, the peace continued without breach, or any notable trouble betwixt them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 But Grime at length of a chast & liberall prince, King Grime his alteration from noble qualities vnto detestable vices. through long slouth and increase of riches, became a most couetous ty [...]ant, and so corrupted in maners and conditions, that it passed the bounds of all rea|son and equitie: insomuch that when he had put vn|to death diuerse of his nobles, to the end he might haue their lands and goods as forfeited by atteindor, he oppressed the people by continuall exactions also each day more than other. His subiects being thus brought into extreame miserie through his wicked and vniust gouernement, not knowing where to séeke for redresse, saue onelie at the hands of almigh|tie The common peoples praier God, the punisher of all sinne, besought him to haue pitie of their afflictions and miseries, and to change the gouernment of the realme into some bet|ter state. The lords also hauing great indignation of the trouble fallen to the realme, by the kings misgo|uernance and auaricious crueltie, appointed a cer|teine The lords re|quire Grime to reforme the [...] of his officers. number of gentlemen to go vnto him as am|bassadors from them, to require him to put awaie from him such naughtie persons as by euill counsell had peruerted his mind, & mooued him to doo things contrarie to his honor, and the wealth of his realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 One of these ambassadors (to whome the charge was giuen) had the words in name of them all, who comming before the kings presence, declared to him that they were sent from the residue of the nobles and péeres of his realme, to admonish him of things perteining to the suertie of his estate, and common wealth of his dominions: which was, that whereas through persuasion of euill councellors he suffered manie enormities to be committed by his ministers and officers against his subiects, to their vtter impo|uerishment and vndooing, the rebuke whereof did re|dound vnto his dishonour; if it would please him to remooue out of his presence and seruice all such dis|loiall persons as sought the hinderance of the com|mon-wealth, he should win therby the loue of all his liege subiects, which now could not but grudge and repine at this his gouernement, as men by the same brought into such calamitie, that better it were for them in their iudgements to be dead than aliue, if re|formation were not the sooner had against such extor|tions as his seruants and officers did dailie practise, The office of the sword. and for the which no doubt he must néeds answer, sith the sword was committed vnto him, not to [...] couetous persons, nor to oppresse innocent and [...]ue dealing people, but contrarilie to punish and correct guiltie and vniust dealers.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 When king Grime had heard what message these ambassadors had brought, he answered to the same with fa [...]ed words, and willed them vnder the pre|text of courtesie to a banket, in purpose to haue put King Grime purposed to haue slaine th [...] messengers. them all in prison: but they being aduertised thereof got them in all ha [...] to their horsses, and fled forthwith vnto Ber [...]a, where the residue of the nobles at the same time were assembled. Grime hauing [...]us no regard to the wholesome aduertisement of his no|bles, thought that all things would come forward with such felicitie and [...]ap as he wished, not cea [...]ng from raising new paiments and exactions [...]ill of EEBO page image 162 his subiects, till at length he was aduertised how his nobles had raised open warre against him, at which The lords of Scotland ar|rere warre a|gainst Grime their king. newes being sore kindled with displeasure, he got to|gither a great number of men, and marched foorth towards them that had so rebelled against him. Then followed more mischaefe and trouble than euer had béene séene afore that time in Scotland: for by reason of this ciuill dissention, castels were raced and ouer|throwne, What mischief insued. townes burned vp, corne destroied, fields wasted, and the people slaine in all places, yea as well in churches as elsewhere.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Malcolme prince of Cumberland hearing of such cruell wars as were thus raised in Scotland betwixt the king and the nobles of the realme, to the danger of the vtter euersion of the whole common-wealth, returned with all spéed foorth of England (where he was with an armie as then in aid of king Egeldred against the Danes) into his owne countrie for de|fense of his subiects, if anie attempt should happilie be made against them in that troublesome season. Howbeit, he was no sooner returned home, but the nobles of Louthian came vnto him, beseeching Malcolme is required to re|lieue the Sco|tish estate. him to take pitie vpon his miserable and torne countrie, & to imploie his whole force to remooue a|way from the people such imminent destruction as dailie hasted towards them, which to doo they thought it was partlie euen his dutie, sith God had bestowed vpon him such gifts, both of bodie, mind, and fortune, as most plentioustie appeared in him, not onelie for the weale of himselfe, but also of his friends & coun|trie, & therefore his part was to shew his earnest di|ligence to deliuer the common-wealth of such ty|rannie as was practised by the misgouernement of Grime and his vnhappie councellors. Which be|ing done, he might order all things as should like him best.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Malcolme mooued with these and the like persua|sions Malcolme con senteth to make warres against Grime. of the Scotish lords, which dailie resorted vnto him, resolued with promise of their support to leuie warre against Grime in this so necessarie a quarell, and so assembling a great puissance togither, he did set foorth towards his aduersarie. By the way also there came still vnto him great numbers of men from each side to aid him in this enterprise, offering by solemne othes to become his liegemen and sub|iects. Grime likewise being aduertised of those newes, with all spéed got togther such people as hee might assemble for the time, and comming forward Grime assem|bleth an armie to incounter Malcolme. The camps néere the one to the other. Grimes policie. with the same at the towne of Auchnabart, both the armies pitched downe their tents, the one fast by the other, on the Ascension daie. Here Grime suppo|sing that he might take his enimies at some aduan|tage, if he came vpon them on the sudden, for that be|ing giuen to deuotion, they would looke for nothing lesse than for battell on that daie, he got foorth of his campe in the dawning of that morning, in purpose foorthwith to assaile them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Notwithstanding, Malcolme being aduertised thereof, sent vnto Grime, requesting him to desist Macolmes request. from battell for reuerence of that blessed feast, but Grime would in no wise assent thereto, but néedes would come on without stop or staie; whervpon both the armies rushing togither met right fiercelie, so that in the beginning there was great slaughter The battell betwixt Grime and Malcolme. Grimes part discomfited. made on both sides, but within a while king Grimes side was put to the woorsse, and in the end clearelie discomfited. In the chase were manie slaine, but yet no such number as so notable a victorie required. It is said that Grime was taken aliue standing at de|fense, & most fiercelie fighting, who being sore woun|ded The end of king Grime. in the head, had both his eies put out, and after|wards continuing so in great miserie and langnor certeine daies, at length departed out of this life, in the 9 yéere of his reigne, and was buried in Colme|kill, after the incarnation 1010 yéeres.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 After this victorie thus obteined by Malcolme, he 1004. Io. M. 1010. H. B. called such noble men as were taken prisoners in Malcolmes words to thé that were ta|ken prisoners. this battell before him, vsing manie gentle woords toward them, declaring that the right of the crowne apperteined vnto him, and that the warres which hée had made, were not attempted against the common wealth of the Scotish estate, but rather in reliefe thereof, to the end the people might be deliuered of the tyrannie exercised by Grime and his councel|lors. When he had thus vttered his mind vnto them, he appointed a publike assembly to be kept at Scone A parlement at Scone. (for the election of a new king) there to be holden within 15 daies after. Whither the Scotish nobilitie comming togither at the time & place appointed, and consenting to crowne Malcolme king, he vtterlie Malcolme refuseth the crowne but vpon cõdition. refused to receiue the crowne, except the law establi|shed by his father Kenneth for the succession thereof were first confirmed and approoued, wherevpon the lords bound themselues by solemne othes to per|forme the same, and neuer to breake and violate it The ordinãce of king Ken|neth for the succession of the crowne is confirmed. in anie condition. His request herein being granted with generall consent both of the nobles and com|mons, the crowne was set vpon his head, he being placed in the chaire of marble, to the great reioising of all the people present.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 WHen the solemnitie of this coronation was ended, he called before him againe all the Malcolme lords and péeres of his realme; of the which, part had aided him in the last warres, and part had béene as|sistant vnto his aduersarie Grime: and there vsed the matter in such wise amongst them, that he made Malcolme a|gréeth the no|bles of his realme. them all friends, each one promising to other to for|get all former offenses, displeasures, and controuer|sies past, which he did to auoid all intestine trouble that might grow out of the rootes of such rancor and malice, as in time of the ciuill discord had sproong vp among them. Further, for the better administration Malcolmes wisdome in ordeining officers. of iustice in due forme and maner, he bestowed pub|like offices vpon discréet persons, skilfull in the laws and ordinances of the realme. Other offices pertei|ning to the warres & defense of the realme, he com|mitted to such as were practised & trained in such ex|ercises, so that iustice was ministred on all sides throughout the kingdome, with such equitie and vp|rightnesse, as had not beene heard of in anie age be|fore him. Whilest the Scotish estate was gouerned in such happie wise, by the prudent policie of king Malcolme; it chanced that Sueno king of Danes Sueno king of Denmark [...] landed in England. landed in England with a mightie nauie, in purpose to reuenge the iniuries done before vnto his people by the Englishmen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This Sueno (as appeareth more at large in the historie of Denmarke) first being an earnest perse|cutor of christian men, and punished by the diuine prouidence for his crueltie in that behalfe, shewed by sundrie ouerthrowes receiued at the enimies hands, as in being thrife taken prisoner, and in the end dri|uen and expelled out of his kingdome, he came into Scotland for reliefe and succour, where through the Sueno cõuer|ted to the chri|stian faith in Scotland. wholesome instruction of godlie and vertuous men, he renounced his heathenish beléefe, and receiued the christian faith, and being baptised, at length was restored home to his kingdome. Shortlie after with a mightie armie of Danes, Gothes, Norwegians, and Swedeners, with other northerne people, he arriued (as is said) in England, and chased king E|geldred Egeldred (or as the Scots write Eldred) chased into Northumber|land, getteth aid from the Scots. into Northumberland, who there receiuing aid from the Scots, according to the league which latelie before he had contracted with them, he deter|mined est soones to trie the chance of battell with his enimies. Marching forwards therefore towards them, he came to the riuer of Owse, néere to the banks whereof, not farre from Yorke, he pitched EEBO page image 163 downe his tents.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Then Sueno not forgetfull of the benefits and pleasures receiued but latelie at the Scotishmens Suenos mes|sage to the Scots. hands, sent an herald at armes vnto them, comman|ding them to depart their waies home, and to refuse Egeldreds companie; either else to looke for most cruell battell at the hands of the Danes, the Norwe|gians, and others the people of Germanie, there rea|die bent to their destruction. Egeldred being aduer|tised that his aduersaries messenger was thus come into his campe, caused him to be staied and arrested for a spie. And the same day he brought foorth his bat|tels readie ranged into the fields, to trie the matter by dint of swoord, if Sueno were so minded; who ve|rie desirous to accept the offer, brought foorth also his people in perfect order and well arraied to fight, so that there was no staie on either part, but that togi|ther they flue most fiercelie, & in such eger wise, that The battell betwixt Egel|dred & Sueno neither side had leasure to bestow their shot, but euen at the first they buckled togither at handblowes, con|tinuing certeine houres with great & cruell slaugh|ter, till at length the Englishmen were put to flight, The English men put to flight by the Danes. leauing the Danes a verie déere and bloudie victo|rie. The murther also that day of the Scots was great, but yet nothing to the number of the English|men. Egeldred himselfe with a few other, got a bote and passed ouer Ouse, so escaping out of the enimies Egeldred es|capeth by flight. hands, but the rest were for the most part either ta|ken or staine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Thus Egeldred being vtterlie vanquished and despairing of all recouerie, fled out of England ouer into Normandie, where he was verie friendlie recei|ued of Richard as then duke of Normandie, and af|terwards purchased such fauour there amongst the Normans, that he maried the ladie Emme, daugh|ter vnto the said duke, and begot of hir two sonnes, Alured and Edward, as in the English chronicles more at large it dooth appéere. Sueno hauing thus o|uercome his enimies, and now put in possession of the whole realme of England, was in mind to haue Suenos cru|ell imaginati|on. destroied all the English generation, so to establish the kingdome to him and his posteritie for euer, with|out anie impeachment afterwards to be made by such as should succéed of them that were then aliue. But the nobles of England aduertised of Suenos The nobles of England their humble petition vnto Sueno. determination, came humblie before his presence, & falling downe on their knées at his féet, besought him in most pitifull wise to haue compassion on their miserable estate, who in times past being a most puissant nation, both by sea and land, were now satisfied (if he would grant them life) to continue vn|der what bondage and seruitude it should stand with his pleasure to preseribe, for they desired neither pos|session of castels, townes, or other souereignties, but onelie to liue with their wiues and children vnder subiection within their owne natiue countrie, at the victors will and appointment.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Sueno, albeit he was of nature verie cruell, yet he qualified his displeasure by this humble submissi|on of the English nobilitie; in such sort, that he vsed Un [...]r what conditions Sueno licen|ced the Eng|lishmen to liue in their owne countrie. the victorie farre more gentlie, than at the first he had purposed, commanding that the whole English nation should remaine in the countrie, but in such wise, as by no meanes they should presume to beare anie armor or weapon, but to applie themselues vnto husbandrie, and other seruile occupations vnder the gouernement of the Danes, vnto whom they should resigne and deliuer all their castels, forts, and strong holds: and taking an oth to be true liege men vnto Sueno, as their souereigne lord and king; they should bring in (to be deliuered vnto his vse) all their weapons and armor, with other munition for the warres, also all their gold and siluer, aswell in pl [...] as coine. If anie of the Englishmen re [...]ed th [...]s is do, proclamation was made that he should immedi|atlie lose his life as a rebell and a disobedient per|son. These conditions were hard, and hardlie vrged. The Englishmen were brought vnto such an extre|mitie, that they were saine to accept these conditions of peace, for other meane to auoid present death they knew none. And thus was the dominion of Eng|land conquered by the Danes, after the Saxons had reigned in the same 564 yéeres. 529. H. B.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Such tyrannie also after this was vsed by the The miserie of the Eng|lishmen vnder the bondage of the Danes. Danes, that none of the English nation was admit|ted to anie office or rule within the realme, either spi|rituall or temporall, but were vtterlie remoued from the same, and some of them cast in prison and dailie put in hazard of their liues. Finallie, the English|men were brought into such miserable thraldome, that euerie housholder within the realme was con|streined to receiue and find at his owne proper costs and charges, one Dane, who should continuallie giue good watch what was said or doone in the house, and to aduertise the king thereof, for doubt of conspira|cies or treasons to be contriued and practised against his person and roiall estate. This Dane by the good man of the house and his familie, for honor sake, was called lord Dane, which woord was afterwards tur|ned to a name of reproch, as where anie idle person liued loitering, without the vse of some honest exer|cise The name of lordain how it came vp. to get his liuing withall, the people were and yet are accustomed to call him a lordaine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 ¶ Thus farre out of Hector Boetius we haue shew|ed of Suenos dooings in England, the which although it agrée not in all points with our English histories, yet sith the historie of Scotland in this place séemeth partlie to hang thereon, we haue thought good to set it downe as we find it in the same Boetius: but ad|uertising the reader withall, that if our histories be true, this which followeth touching Suenos inua|ding of Scotland, chanced before that Egeldred, whome the Scotish writers name Eldred, was dri|uen to flée into Normandie. For when that Sueno Sueno [...]anded héere this last time of his comming foorth of Den|marke into England in Iulie, in the yéere 1013, & departed this life in the be|ginning of Februarie, in the yeere 1014 lastlie returned into England, and constreined E|geldred so to forsake the land, he liued not long after but departed this life about Candelmas, in the yéere 1014 (as in the English histories ye may read more at large) not hauing time to make anie such iournie into Scotland: so that it may be thought, if he did enterprise anie such exploit there, it was before this his last arriuall in England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But now to procéed according to that which we find in the foresaid Boetius. Sueno hauing spoiled the Englishmen of their liberties (in manner before re|membred, or rather brought them to become tributa|ries vnto him, as at the first time of his arriuall here he did in deed, he thought it necessarie, for the more suertie of his estate in England, to conclude some peace or league with his neighbours the Normans, Britains, & Scots, vnder condition that they should not support anie Englishman against him. But for|somuch as he could not compasse his intention héere|in, he furnished all the castels and fortresses on the sea-coasts, ouer against Normandie, with men, mu|nition, and vittels, to resist all sudden inuasions that might be attempted on that side. And on the other Sueno prepa|reth to inuade the Scots. part towards the north, he made all the prouision he could deuise to make mortall wars vpon the Scots: and the more to annoie his enimies, he sent com|mandement vnto Olauus his lieutenant in Nor|waie, Olauus, and Onetus. and to Onetus his deputie in Denmarke, to some with all the power they might leauie into Scotland, to make warres on his enimies there.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wherevpon shortlie after those foresaid capteins arriued with an huge armie in the mouth of Speie, The Danes land in Scot|land. and landed in such puissant order, that the inhabi|tants of M [...]y and fled out of their houses, with EEBO page image 164 their wiues, children, and goods (such as they could conueie awaie with them) into places where they thought to remaine most out of danger. But the Danes, after their manner, burne and spoile all be|fore The crueltie of the Danes. them, aswell churches and chappels, as other buil|dings and edifices. Such of the people as could not flée in time, but by chance fell into their hands, were slaine without all mercie. Also all the strengths and holds in the countrie were taken by the Danes, thrée castels onelie excepted: that is to say, Elgin, Fores, and Narne, which the Danes named afterwards Burg, and for that they trusted (when the same was woone) the other two would yeeld without anie fur|ther defense, they first laid siege vnto this castell of Narne, inforsing themselues with all their power to The castell of Narne besie|ged. win it: but in the meane time, they were informed how Malcolme the Scotish king was come within fiue miles of them with all the forces of his realme to giue them battell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Incontinentlie herevpon they raised their siege, and hasted foorth to méet him, with no lesse courage than if victorie were alreadie present in their hands. Shortlie after, there came vnto them heralds also Malcolme sendeth am|bassadors to the Danes. from Malcolme, to vnderstand whie they had thus inuaded his realme with open and most cruell warre, hauing no occasion giuen by him or his subiects so to doo: who scarselie had doone their message, but that The Danes slea the am|bassadors. they were slaine foorthwith by cruell outrage of the Danes. Malcolme being sore mooued to vnderstand the law obserued by all nations for the safetie of mes|sengers to be thus violated by the enimies, kept on his iournie with the more fierce courage, till he came to a medow a little beside Killos, where he incam|ped for that night. Great noise and clamour was heard throughout the armie, euerie man being desi|rous of battell, to reuenge the iniuries doone by the Danes against their friends and countriemen: not|withstanding on the morrow, when they saw their e|nimies in farre greater number, and in better order than euer had béene séene by anie of them before that time, their hart began to wax faint, hauing greater The Scots through feare are astonied. care which waie to saue their owne liues, than to giue the onset vpon their enimies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Malcolme perceiuing such dread to be entred into Malcolms woords to his nobles. the harts of his people, that they were now more like to run awaie than to fight, if he should bring them foorth to battell, got him to a little hill, and calling his nobles about him, he declared vnto them how he could not but detest their great cowardise, that were thus astonied at the first sight of their enimies, with|out further triall of their forces. ¶

At home (said he) ye are most hardie and valiant, where no danger ap|péereth. What rebuke then is it vnto you, to be thus faint harted (now that ye are come where valiancie should be shewed) in degenerating so far from your woorthie fathers and noble progenitors, the which at Loncart vnder the conduct of my father Kenneth, Loncart. obteined so famous a victorie of the selfe same nati|on, whose furious puissance ye séeme now so much to feare? There hath béene triall made in battell with this enimie in our time, both within the bounds of Scotland, and also of England, to the great honor and renowme of our elders. What discomfitures the Danes haue receiued are yet fresh in memorie, so manie of them losing their liues amongst vs, that Albion may well be reckoned the sepulture of Albion the se|p [...]lture of Danes. Danes; as some of you can well record by your owne remembrance, and other haue heard by report of their forefathers and ancestors. Ye ought then (said he) to be of good courage, rather than to faint now at néed, considering ye haue to doo with those e|nimies, who are but the remnant of the other, which before haue béene vanquished and ouerthrowne by Scotishmen, both at Loncart, and in diuerse other places; yea and besides that, such as moo [...]ing warres now at this present without [...]ust occasion, haue vio|lated the lawes both of God and man, deseruing thereby iust vengeance at Gods hands, the punisher of all such vniust offendors. There is great hope therefore of victorie (said he) left vnto all such as fight against these enimies, if we take manlie harts vnto vs, and shew our selues in valiant constancie like to our elders, whereby it shall then appéere what outra|gious follie remained in the Danes, to inuade vs without occasion of iniuries preceding. Therefore if ye haue not more regard to the safetie of your fraile bodies, which must néedes at length perish, than to the defense and preseruation of your common countrie; why passe ye not forward, sith there is now no place nor time to take longer aduise in the matter, as ye may well vnderstand by the presence of the enimie readie to ioine?

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The nobles mooued with these woords of their prince, began boldlie to exhort their people to battell. Incontinentlie whervpon rose such noise and raging furie through the armie, that without measuring ei|ther their owne forces or their enimies, they rush The Scots without order rush foorth to battell. foorth vpon them without anie order or good araie. O|lauus & Onetus beholding the Scots to come thus furiouslie against them, boldlie incountred them with arraied battels. Wherevpon insued a verie ter|rible fight, with great manhood shewd on both sides, nothing being let passe that might apperteine to woorthie capteins: the Scots inforcing themselues to defend their countrie and ancient liberties on the one side, and the Danes dooing their best indeuour by valiant hardinesse to saue their liues and honors on the other. At length, after huge murther & slaugh|ter The Scots put to flight. Malcolme [...] wounded. made on both parts, the Scots were put to flight, Malcolme was sore wounded, & had his hel|met so fast beaten to his head, that it might not well be got off, yet was he conueied out of the field in ma|ner for dead, and kept secret in a wood, till he was somewhat amended, and then got him into places out of danger. The Danes hauing got this victorie, and gathered the spoile of the field, returned to be|siege e [...] soones the castell of Narne, with more force and violence than before.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 This castell in those daies was inclosed on ech side with the sea, hauing one narrow passage as an entrie vnto it, made by craft of man in manner of a bridge. Those that were within it, hauing know|ledge of the ouerthrow and losse of the field, rendered The castell o [...] Narne ren|dr [...]d by com|position. the fortresse, on condition, that leauing all their ar|mor, weapon, and other munitions behind them, they might depart with their liues and other goods saued. Neuerthelesse the Danes, contrarie to their [...]aith gi|uen, The Danes breakers of faith and pro|mise. being once entred the castell, hanged all those which they found within it ouer the wals, in most de|spitefull manner. Thus was Narne woone by the Danes, the strongest hold within Murrey land, and so garnished with men, munition, and vittels, that it was thought impregnable. Then those souldiers which kept Elgin and Fores, hearing what crueltie Elgin an [...] Fores left void. the Danes had thus vsed, fled out of those castels, and left them void without anie person to defend them. The Danes re [...]oising at this good fortune, trusted to establish themselues sure seates in Murrey land, and therevpon sent backe their ships into Norwaie and Denmarke, to fetch from thence their wiues and children. In the meane time they constreined such Scots as they had laid hands on, to reape and inne the corne growing abroad in the fields, vnto their vse and commoditie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 K. Malcolme being aduertised of all these things, doubting least by the arriuall of new aid, his enimies might war more puissant, in the beginning of the next summer he assembled a great multitud [...] of war|ors, EEBO page image 165 and came in good order and most warlike arraie vnto Murthlake, a towne of Mar, where the first e|rection Murthlake. of the bishops sée of Abirden was founded. Héere the one armie comming in sight of the other, they were suddenlie both amazed. For the Scots ha|uing had too much experience of the crueltie shewed The Scots and Danes [...] afraid of [...]other. afore time by the Danes, were put in no small feare now at the plaine & open sight of them. The Danes being farre off from the sea side, and vpon an vn|knowne ground, were more afraid of some ginle|fall practise, than of the open violence and force of their enimies. Yet neuerthelesse in the end, by the in|couragement of the capteins on both sides, they buckled togither with great fiercenesse and most cru|ell malicious hatred on ech hand.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the first brunt thrée valiant capteins, that is to say, [...]nneth of Ila, Grime of Stratherne, and Pa|trike of Dunbar, rushing ouer fiercelie on their eni|mies, were slaine, and gaue occasion to manie of the [...] [...]s [...]ed [...]. Scotishmen to flee, but the place was such, that they could not well make their course anie waie foorth, by reason of the narrownesse thereof, fensed on either side with deepe trenches full of water and mud: also in trauerse were laid sundrie trées, as it had béene of purpose to impeach the passage, deuised in that sort (as was thought) in time of some ciuill warres. Here though Malcolme like a valiant champion, did his best to staie them that fled, yet was he borne backe with the preasie, till he came to the middest of this place, where stood a chappell dedicated in the honor of saint Moloke, the which Malcolme beholding, cast vp his hands towards heauen, making his praier on this wise.

¶ Great God of vertue, rewarder of pie|tie, and punisher of sinne, we thy people seeking to de|fend Malcolmes praier. our natiue countrie granted to vs of thy bene|uolence, as now destitute of all mortall helpe, and thus oppressed with the iniurious inuasion of Danes, doo flee vnto shée in this our extreme necessitie, besée|ching thee to haue compassion vpon our miserable e|state: remooue (oh mercifull lord) this dreadfull ter|ror [...]o you, that is to God, and o [...]r ladie, and saint Molo [...]e, for so he to [...]d them togither according to the manner of that tune. from thy people. And oh thou mother of God, the sweet refuge of mortall people in their distresse and miseries: and thou saint Moloke to whom this chap|pell was dedicate, helpe vs at this present, and in the honor of you I héere make a vow to build a cathe|drall church for a bishops sée, to remaine as a monu|ment, to testifie vnto our posteritie, that by your sup|port our realme hath béene defended.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Scarselie had Malcolme made an end of this praier, when diuers of the nobls with a lowd voice, as though they had béene assured that his praier was heard, cried to their companies; Stand good fellows, for suerlie it is the pleasure of almightie God, that we returne and renew the battell against our eni|mies. Héerevpon rose a woonderfull noise amongst The Scots oftentimes re|new battell. the souldiers, eth one incouraging other to withstand the enimies, and to fight in most manfull wise in de|fense of their countrie and ancient liberties, & foorth|with as it had béene by miracle they returned vpon their enimies, making great slaughter on ech side, without regard to their liues or bloudie wounds, which they boldlie and without feare receiued. Heere|with Malcolme with an ambushment of stout war|riors came vpon Onetus, who was pransing vp and downe the field without anie helmet on his head, as though the Scots had béene alreadie without recoue|rie clearelie discomfited, and so there was he beaten downe beside his horsse, and amongst the footmen [...]netus is slaine. slaine out of hand. The residue of the Danes behol|ding the slaughter of their capteine, staied from fur|ther pursute on the Scots. Heereof insued great boldnesse to the Scots, and discouragement to the Danes: albeit the battell continued still a long space, the souldiers dooing their best on either side, till at length the Danes were put to fight, manie of The Danes put to flight. them being slaine, and but few taken. D [...]s behol|ding the dis [...]ture of his people, [...] how his com|panion in authoritie was flame, fled into [...] [...]us [...]th into [...]rer [...]me land with a small companie about him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The next day, [...]lcolme considering what a [...]|ber of his most valiant capteins he had lost in this battell, diuided the spoile of the field amongest his men, and ceassing from further pursute of the Danes at that [...]me [...] into Angus, where he remained the residue of the yeere w [...]in the castell of Forf [...], taking counsell with his nobles touching the pub|like affaires of the realme, and how to recouer his countrie of Murrey land out of the ennimies hands. king Suen [...] hearing in the meane time how i [...] for|tunatelie his people had sped thus in Scotland at Suene [...]|teth a new ar| [...]e to [...] Scotland. the battell of [...]ake, in reuenge thereof deter|mined to inuad [...] the Scots with two mightie [...]a [...]es, the one to be rigged in England, and to come foorth of the riuer of [...]hames, and the other to be sent from Denmarke, one Camus a Dane, verie expert Ca [...] ap|po [...] cap| [...] generall of the Danes. in warlike knowledge, being appointed to be gouer|nor of all the men of warre that should come from both those parties.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The yeare next insuing, both these fléets according to commandement and order giuen, arriued and met togither within the mouth of the Forth, néere to saint Eb [...]s head. Here Camus going about to S [...]nt Eb [...]s [...]. The Scots [...]pe o [...] the Danes f [...]s landing. land his men, was kept off by the shout resistance of the Scots, there assembled for the same intent. Camus then plucking vp the sailes, directed his course vnto the Ile of Sketh, where riding at anchor for the space of one moneth, and abiding for some prosperous wind, at length when the same came once about, he passed from thence vnto the [...]ed|braies, called in Latine [...]ubrum promentorium. [...] there Carinus with his ar [...]e lan|deth at the [...]edbraus. landed his whole armie, before the countrie could be gathered to resist him. Camus being once landed, got him to the next hill, and beholding the ru [...]e of the towne of Montros, which a few yeares before had béene destroied by the Danes, he reioised not a little, for that his chance was to come on land in the selfe same place, where the Danes had earst vanqui|shed their enimies, hoping of like lucke in this his enterprise and present expedition.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 After this, he tooke his iournie through Angus, Camus mar|cheth through Angus. The crueltie of the Danes. sparing no maner of crueltie that might be deuised: cities, townes, villages, and churches, with all ma|ner of other buildings publike and priuat were con|sumed with fire. At his comming to Brechine, for that the castell there in those daies was of such strength, that it might not be hastilie woone, he The towne and church of Brechine de|stroied. caused the towne and church being right faire and sumptuouslie built in honor of the Trinitie (to whom it was dedicated) to be spoiled, & so raced to the earth, that one stone was not left standing vpon an other. With these and the semblable cruelties, Camus raging both against God and man, was final|lie aduertised that king Malcolme was come to Dundée with all the power of Scotland. Then sud|denlie he tooke the next way towards the sea side, comming the next day following vnto a village cal|led Balbrid, where he pitched downe his tents. The King Mal|colme hasteth foreward to fight with the Danes. same day, king Malcolme making all hast possible to succour his subicas, and preserue the countrie from the crueil outrage of the Danes, came to the towne of Barre two little miles from the place, where his enimies were incamped. In the morning he drew into the field, in purpose to giue them open battell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But before he arraied his battels, he called his Malcolmes oration. nobles and capteins togither, desiring them to con|sider how they should match in fight against people blinded with vile auarice, liuing on the spoile and pil|lage EEBO page image 166 got by théeuerie, and not by anie iust warres: enimies not onelie to the christian faith, but also to all innocent people, whome they sought vniustlie to inuade, without hauing occasion so to doo, saue onelie vpon an iniurious meaning to liue by spoile of other mens goods, wherein they haue no maner of proper|tie. He willed them therfore to remember how they were come thus against those enimies in defense of their natiue countrie, appointed vndoubtedlie by God to reuenge the cruell iniuries doone by the Danes against his name, and people that professed the same. They ought not then to measure force in number of souldiers, but rather in manhood and va|liancie of heart. Camus likewise exhorted his peo|ple, Camus ex|horteth his Danes. not vsing manie words, but yet pithie, desiring them to remember how it behooued them either to win immortall fame by victorie, either else to die with miserie in an vncouth land, by the hand of their most fierce and cruell enimies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Herewith Malcolme imbattelling his people, brought them foorth stronglie ranged in good order to incounter the Danes, which likewise approched to|wards him in good arraie of battell. His heart was filled the more with hope of victorie, for that he had tried sundrie times before the force of the enimies in diuers conflicts and encounters. For such is the na|ture The nature of valiant hearts and noble sto|machs. of noble and valiant stomachs, the more expe|rience they haue in honorable enterprises, the more are they kindled in desire to shew their powers in famous acts and woorthie attempts. The armies here vpon on both sides, fiercelie rushing togither, A bloudie bat|tell. began a battell right cruell & terrible, continuing certeine houres with such bloudshed, that the riuer of Lochtée ran with a purple hue downe into the Al|maine seas. The fields also where they fought, though they were full of sand (as the nature of the soile gi|ueth) yet were they made moist by the abundance of bloud spilled in the same. Manie there were so earnestlie bent to be reuenged on the enimie, that after they had their deaths wound, they would run themselues foreward vpon their aduersaries wea|pon, till they might close wish him, inforcing their vttermost powers to dispatch him also; so that di|uers were séene to fall to the ground togither fast grasping one another, and so immediatlie both of them to die withall: such burning hatred kindled their harts, that thus were they wholie set on re|uenge. At length yet the honor of the field remained Malcolme winneth the field. Camus is slaine. with Malcolme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Camus peceiuing the discomfiture to light on his side, with a small companie about him thought to haue escaped by flight vnto the next mounteins, but being pursued of his enimies, he was slaine by them yer he was got two miles from the place of the bat|tell. The place where he was slaine, is named after him vnto this day, and called Camestone, where is an obeliske set vp in memorie of the thing, with his An obeliske. picture grauen therein, and likewise of those that slue him. The principall slear of Camus was one Keith, a yoong gentleman of right hardie courage, The house of Keithes ad|uanced to ho|nor. whose seruice in the battell was verie notable, in re|compense whereof he was rewarded by king Mal|colme, with sundrie lands and faire possessions in Louthian. His familie (saith Hector Boetius) hath and dooth continue in great honor amongest Sco|tishmen euen vnto this day, and is decorated with the office of the marshalship of Scotland, to the high renowme and fame thereof, amongest the chiefest péers of the realme.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 An other companie of the Danes flieng from this ouerthrow were slaine at Abirlemnon, not past Danes slaine at Abirlem|non. foure miles from Brechin, where is set vp a great stone or obeliske, grauen with certeine characters or letters, to aduertise them that passe that waies foorth, of this slaughter of Danes there made by our woorthie elders. The residue of the Danes that esca|ped with life from the field, hauing certeine Scotish|men to their guides corrupted with monie sted to their ships, declaring to their fellowes what mishap had fortuned. King Malcolme after he obteined this famous victorie (as before is said) at Barre, he cau|sed The diuiding of the spoile. the spoile of the field to be diuided amongest his souldiers, according to the laws of armes; and then caused the dead bodies of the Danes to be buried in the place where the field had béene fought, and the bo|dies of the Scotishmen which were found dead were conueied vnto the places of christian buriall, and there buried with funerall obsequies in sundrie chur|ches and churchyards. There are séene manie bones Bones of Danes. of the Danes in those places where they were bu|ried, there lieng bare aboue ground euen vnto this day, the sands (as it often chanceth) being blowen from them. The other Danes, which escaped to their ships, pulled vp sailes to haue passed into Murrey land vnto Olauus, but remaining on the seas the space of foure daies togither, tossed to and fro by con|trarie winds, at length by a streinable east wind they were driuen vpon the coast of Buchquhan, and through want of conuenable harbrough were in pre|sent danger to haue béene cast away. At length, af|ter they had ridden at anchor in the Firth there, to their great displeasure a long space, and finding no prosperous winds to depart from the shore, for that their vittels began to faile them, they set fiue hun|dered of their best and lustiest souldiers on land, to fetch in some bootie or preie of cattell, therewith to relieue their hunger and famine. They that were thus sent foorth, being perfectlie appointed with ar|mour and weapon, ranged abroad till they had got togither a great number of beasts, with the which drawing towards their ships, they were incountred by the way by Marnachus the thane of Buchqu|hane Marnachu [...] thane of Buchquhan [...]. accompanied with the power of that countrie, whose force when they saw how they were not well able to resist without some aduantage of place, they got them vp into an high crag, where, with tum|bling downe stones vpon the Scotishmen as they mounted vp towards them, they caused them some|what to staie; but at length through the earnest exhor|tation of Marnachus, the Scots (as people inflamed with wood desire to be reuenged) mounted the hill in despight of their enimies, though diuers of them were slaine in that assault. Those which wan the height of the crag vpon the Danes, made such a cruell battell with them, that there was not one Dane that escaped their hands.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 This conflict was fought néere vnto Gemmer a Danes slain [...] néere vnto Gemmer. village or towne in Buchquhane, where, in memorie thereof, lie manie great bones of the Danes to be séene yet euen vnto these daies. It should appeare by the same bones, that men in former time were of more huge growth and stature, than they be at this present. The other Danes which were on ship bord, vnderstanding what had happened to their fellowes (because they returned not againe to the ships) so soone as the wind came about for their purpose, hoi|sed vp sailes, and tooke their course foorthright to|wards Murrey land. In the meane time king Sue|no hearing of these ouerthrowes, which his people had in such sort receiued at the Scotishmens hands, as a prince of a right haughtie courage, not lightlie ouercome with anie aduerse fortune, made prepa|ration in all spéedie wise to be reuenged, appointing his brother Canute, as then hauing the administra|tion Sueno prepa|reth the third time to inuade Scotland. Canute bro|ther vnto Sueno, ap|pointed gene|rall to come a|gainst the Scots. of Denmarke; to come from thence with a new fléete and armie against the Scots. It is said, that this Canuie, according to order prescribed him by his brother Sueno, landed first in Buchquhane, and EEBO page image 167 destroied a great part of that countrie by fire and sword, in reuenge of the slaughter of his countrie|men the Danes, which had beene there made late|lie before.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Malcolme sore kindled in wrath by these iniuries, though through continuance of the wars his power was greatlie decaied, yet did he assemble an armie with all spéed he could deuise, and marched with the same towards the Danes, in purpose to staie them with often skirmishes and light incounters, but in King Mal|c [...]es deter|mination. no wise to ieopard with them in anie pitcht field or generall battell, for feare least if he had the ouer|throw, he should not be able to furnish a new power for defense of his countrie, against the rage of the enimies. For the space therefore of fiftéene daies togither, there was often skirmishing betwixt the parties. The which terme being expired, the Scots beholding so huge murder of their countriemen and friends, with the spoile of the fields, and destruction of the townes and villages, burning and blasing on each side before their faces, they come to king Mal|colme, and desired him that he would grant them The Scotish|mens request vnto their king for li|cence to fight. licence to fight with their enimies, protesting plaine|lie, that if he would not consent thereto, they would giue battell at their owne choise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Malcolme perceiuing the earnest minds of his people to incounter their enimies in plaine field, and that he might no longer protract the time, he granted their petition, and therewith beseeching them to re|member their honors and dueties: incontinentlie the onset was giuen with great hatred and malice The onset is giuen. on either part, so that most egerlie continuing in fight a long time, they inforced themselues to rid each other out of life: so that all the nobles well néere on both sides were slaine, the name of victorie rather than the victorie it selfe remaining with the Scots, The Scots wan the name of victorie, ra|ther than vic|torie it selfe. who were so féeble and faint with long fight & slaugh|ter, that in the end of the battell they were not able to pursue those few of the Danes, which escaping with life fled faintlie out of the field. And so for that night, which followed the day of this bloudie battell, they lodged heere and there in seuerall places, at ad|uenture as well as they might.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 On the morow after, when it was vnderstood on both parties, what losse they had susteined, their minds were conuerted rather to peace than to re|new battell, bicause they were not of power longer Peace conclu|ded for want of power to mainteine battell. The articles of the peace betwixt the Danes and Scotishmen. to mainteine it. Wherevpon by mediation of such as tooke vpon them to treat a peace, the same was con|cluded with these articles. First, that the Danes should depart out of Murrey land, Buchquhan, and all other the bounds of Scotland. That the warres should clearelie ceasse betwixt the Danes and Sco|tishmen, during the naturall liues of Sueno and Malcolme, or either of them. That neither of those two nations should aid or in anie wise support the o|thers enimies. That the field where the last battell was fought, should be hallowed for christian buriall, within the which the Danes that were slaine in the same battell should be buried, and a church to be built there, and lands appointed foorth for the mainte|nance of priests, to celebrate there according to the order of the christian religion, then vsed by both the people: for the Danes latelie before that season had also receiued the faith. This peace being ratified by the solemne othes of both the kings, Sueno and Mal|coline, The holds in Scotland de|liuered vp by the Danes in|to the Scotish mens hands. Canute retur|neth into Denmarke. Canute with his Danes resigning vp the pos|session of such holds and places as they held in Mur|rey land, Buchquhan, or else where within anie part of the Scotish dominions, got him to his fléet, and departed with the same home into Denmarke.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 King Malcolme hauing thus restored his countrie vnto ioifull peace, thought nothing so good as to per|forme the articles of the agréement accorded be|twixt him and the Danes, and therefore caused a church to be builded in the place appointed, dedica|ting A church builded. the same in honor of saint Dlauus patrone of Denmarke and Norwaie, to signifie vnto such as came after, that sundrie nobles of the Danes laie buried in that church. In memorie hereof, the lands that were giuen to the same church, are called euen yet vnto these daies Crowdan, which signifieth as Crowdan, what it sig|nifieth. much as if ye should say, The slaughter of Danes. The church which was first builded there, chancing as often happeneth in those parties, to be ouercast with sands, an other was crected in place not farre off, hauing a more commodious site. Sundrie of the bones of them that were buried in this place, being Bones of Danes. left bare by reason that the sands were blowne away besides them, Hector Boetius (the writer of the Sco|tish chronicle) beheld in the yeere 1521, which séemed more like vnto giants bones, than to men of com|mon stature (as he auoucheth) whereby it should ap|peare, that men in old time were of much greater stature and quantitie of bodie, than anie that are to be found in these our daies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Malcolme being thus deliuered of his enimies Publike praiers. the Danes, caused publike praiers generallie to be made throughout the realme, in rendring thanks to almightie God, that it had pleased him to deliuer his people from the troubles of warre. He tooke order also, that churches should be repared, which by the The repa|ring of chur|ches. The restoring of lawes and iustice. enimies in time of the warres had béene destroied. And further, he caused the administration of the lawes and wholsome ordinances of the realme to be vsed and put in practise, according to the due forme of the same, which manie yéeres before could haue no place, by reason of the warres. He caused an assem|blie of all the estates of his realme to be called at A parlement at Bertha. Bertha castell, in those daies standing not farre from the place where the towne of Perth now standeth. In which conuention were manie things enacted, both for the setting foorth of Gods honor, and the weale of the realme, whereby Malcolme wan much praise a|mongst his subiects, to the eternall memorie of his nama.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 After this, supposing it most honorable to ad|uance the bloud of such as had serued well in the last warres, or had their fathers or other friends slaine in the same, he called a parlement at Scone, in the A parlement at Scone. which, causing partition to be made of the realme, by diuiding it into baronies, he bestowed it amongest Diuision of the realme in|to baronies. the nobles, according to the qualitie of euerie one his merits, reseruing in maner nothing to the main|tenance of the crowne, common entries onelie ex|cepted, with the mounteine wherin the marble chaire stood, and a few other possessions which he purposed to giue vnto churches and chappels. The nobles on the other part, to the end the king might haue suffici|ent wherewith to mainteine his roiall estate, gran|ted vnto him and his successors for euer the custodis The ward|ship of heires granted ta [...] the king. and wardship of their heires, if they chanced to die leauing them vnder the age of 21 yéeres: and in the meane time till the same heires came to the said age, they agréed that the king and his successors should inioy the vse and profits of their lands, whether they were men or women, and when they came to the age of 21 yeeres, that then they should enter into the possession of their lands, yéelding vnto him or his successors one yéeres rent in name of a reliefe; and if they chanced not to be married before their fathers Mariage o [...] wards. deceasse, then also should they marrie at the kings appointment, or else compound with him for the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Thus ended the parlement for that season, with great ioy and comfort on each hand, for that the king had shewed such liberall bountiousnesse towards his barons, and they no lesse mindfull of their duties had EEBO page image 168 declared such veneuolent hearts, as appeared in that their frée and large gift granted in forme and maner as before is expressed. Neither did Malcolme forget the vow which he made at Murthlake, when he was in danger to haue receiued the ouerthrow at the hand of the Danes. For according to the same vow, he caused a church to be built in the same place, e|recting a bishops sée there, and indowed it with the lands & possessions of these thrée places, Murthlake, The sée of Murthlake, otherwise A|berden. Cleometh, and Dunmeth, with all ecclesiasticall in|risdictions and tithes apperteining thereto. The bi|shops that sat in this sée were called the bishops of Murthlake, till the daies of king Dauid the first, who changing the name, caused them to be called the bi|shops of Abirden, augmenting the sée with sundrie faire reuenues to the better maintenance thereof.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Malcolme thus hauing purchased rest from further troubles of warre, gouerned the realme a certeine time after in good order of iustice, and caused a booke to bée set foorth, called Regia maiestas, conteining The booke talled Regia maiestas. the lawes and ordinances wherby the realme should be gouerned: and assigning foorth in the same what fées also should be giuen vnto the chancellor, secreta|rie, constable, marshall, chamberleine, iustice, trea|suror, register, comptroller, and other the officers of his house. Such princelie dooings and noble ver|tues were found in this Malcolme for a season, that if the same had continued with him in his latter age, there had neuer reigned anie king in Scotland, that might haue bene thought to haue passed him in wor|thie fame: neuertheles his excellent qualities were stained at length by that reprochfull vice of vile aua|rice. Malcolme waxeth aua|ritious. Couetousnes and age arri|uing togither. For as it oftentimes happeneth, couetousnesse and age laid hold on him both at once. He then began to repent in that he had béene so liberall in giuing a|way his lands to his barons; & to recouer the same againe, he surmized feigned matter by vntrue sug|gestions against diuerse of the chiefest nobles, put|ting some to death, & banishing other, that he might by this meanes inioy their lands and goods as con|fiscate Malcolmes crueltie to pur chase riches. to the crowne for their supposed offénses.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The nobles hauing great indignation at such cru|eltie vsed by the king against them and their linage, and that vpon no iust causes, but enelie vpon forged The conspi|racie of the Scotish nobi|litie against Malcolme. deuises, they conspired in sundrie méetings secretlie appointed amongst them, to find some meanes to dis|patch him out of life. At length he chanced to haue some inkling whereabout they went, & doubting to fall into their hands, fled for safegard of his life vnto Glammis, where diuerse of the conspirators were Malcolme s [...]ne at Glammis. brought into his lodging, by some of his owne hous|hold seruants, and there slue him in reuenge of their friends, whome he before had wrongfullie put to death. These murtherers with their complices incon|tinentlie fled with all spéed possible to auoid further danger for this their act: but missing their way (for the ground was quite couered as then with snow) they finallie came to the loch of Forfair, which was the same time frozen ouer. They therefore thinking to passe ouer it, when they came into the midst, the ise brake vnder them, so that sinking in, they were finallie drowned. Howbeit their bodies were after|wards The murthe|ters drowned. drawne foorth of the loch with drags, and dis|membred, and their heads and quarters were sent to diuerse townes of the realme, and there hoong vp for a signification of their wicked treason. This was the end of king Malcolme in the 32 yéere of his reigne, if ye reckon from the death of Constantine, or 25 after the death of Grime, and after the incar|nation of our Sauiour 1034 yéeres. He was buried 31. H. B. 1040. H. B. in Colmekill with his ancestors.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In this season was séene manie woonders and strange sights in Albion. On Christmas daie there Strange sights. was an earthquake, and a great rist of the earth made therewith in the midst of Striueling towne, out of the which issued such an abundant streame of water, that it bare away the next wood that was ad|ioining to the riuer of Forth. In the summer the sea rose higher, & flowed further into the land, than euer it had beene séene at anie other time. On Midsum|mer daie, which is the feast of saint Iohn Baptist, there was such a vehement frost, that the corne and other fruits of the earth were blasted and killed, so that therevpon followed a great dearth in all the countrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 AFter Malcolme succéeded his nephue Duncane Duncane. the sonne of his daughter Beatrice: for Mal|colme had two daughters, the one which was this Beatrice, being giuen in mariage vnto one Abba|nath Duncan king of Scotland. Crinen, a man of great nobilitie, and thane of the Iles and west parts of Scotland, bare of that mariage the foresaid Duncane; the other called Do|ada, was maried vnto Sinell the thane of Glam|mis, by whom she had issue one Makbeth a valiant Makbeth. gentleman, and one that if he had not béene some|what cruell of nature, might haue béene thought most woorthie the gouernement of a realme. On the other part, Duncane was so soft and gentle of na|ture, Duncan of [...] soft a nature. that the people wished the inclinations and ma|ners of these two cousins to haue béene so tempered and interchangeablie bestowed betwixt them, that where the one had too much of clemencie, and the o|ther of crueltie, the meane vertue betwixt these two extremities might haue reigned by indifferent par|tition in them both, so should Duncane haue proued a woorthie king, and Makbeth an excellent capteine. The beginning of Duncans reigne was verie quiet and peaceable, without anie notable trouble; but af|ter it was perceiued how negligent he was in pu|nishing offendors, manie misruled persons tooke oc|casion thereof to trouble the peace and quiet state of the common-wealth, by seditious commotions which first had their beginnings in this wise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Banquho the thane of Lochquhaber, of whom the Banquho thane of Loch quhaber. The house of ye Stewards. house of the Stewards is descended, the which by or|der of linage hath now for a long time inioied the crowne of Scotland, euen till these our daies, as he gathered the finances due to the king, and further punished somewhat sharpelie such as were notorious offendors, being assailed by a number of rebels inha|biting A mutinie a|mongst the people of Lochquhaber. in that countrie, and spoiled of the monie and all other things, had much a doo to get awaie with life, after he had receiued sundrie grieuous wounds amongst them. Yet escaping their hands, after hée was somewhat recouered of his hurts, and was able to ride, he repaired to the court, where making his complaint to the king in most earnest wise, he pur|chased at length that the offendors were sent for by a sergeant at armes, to appeare to make answer vnto such matters as should be laid to their charge: but they augmenting their mischiefous act with a more wicked déed, after they had misused the messenger A sergea [...] [...] armes slaine by the rebels. with sundrie kinds of reproches, they finallie slue him also.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Then doubting not but for such contemptuous dem [...]anor against the kings regall authoritie, they should be inuaded with all the power the king could make, Makdowald one of great estimation among Makdowald offereth him|selfe to be cap|teine of the rebels. them, making first a confederacie with his neerest friends and kinsmen, tooke vpon him to be chiefe cap|teine of all such rebels as would stand against the king, in maintenance of their grieuous offenses latelie committed against him. Manie slanderous words also, and railing tants this Makdowald vtte|red against his prince, calling him a faint-hearted milkesop, more meet to gouerne a sort of idle moonks in some cloister, than to haue the rule of such valiant and hardie men of warre as the Scots were. He EEBO page image 169 vsed also such subtill persuasions and forged allure|ments, that in a small time he had gotten togither a mightie power of men: for out of the westerne Iles there came vnto him a great multitude of people, of|fering themselues to assist him in that rebellious quarell, and out of Ireland in hope of the spoile came no small number of Kernes and Galloglasses, offe|ring gladlie to serue vnder him, whither it should please him to lead them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Makdowald thus hauing a mightie puissance about him, incountered with such of the kings peo|ple Makdowald discomfiteth the kings power. as were sent against him into Lochquhaber, and discomfiting them, by mere force tooke their capteine Malcolme, and after the end of the battell smote off his head. This ouerthrow being notified to the king, did put him in woonderfull feare, by reason of his The smal skil of the king in warlike af|faires. small skill in warlike affaires. Calling therefore his nobles to a councell, he asked of them their best ad|uise for the subduing of Makdowald & other the re|bels. Here, in sundrie heads (as euer it happeneth) were sundrie opinions, which they vttered according to euerie man his skill. At length Makbeth speaking much against the kings softnes, and ouermuch slack|nesse in punishing offendors, whereby they had such time to assemble togither, he promised notwithstan|ding, if the charge were committed vnto him and Makbeths offer. vnto Banquho, so to order the matter, that the re|bels should be shortly vanquished & quite put downe, and that not so much as one of them should be found to make resistance within the countrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 And euen so it came to passe: for being sent foorth with a new power, at his entring into Lochquha|ber, Makbeth and Banquho are sent against the rebels. The rebels forsake their capteine. the fame of his comming put the enimies in such feare, that a great number of them stale secret|lie awaie from their capteine Makdowald, who ne|uerthelesse inforced thereto, gaue battell vnto Mak|beth, with the residue which remained with him: but being ouercome, and fléeing for refuge into a castéll (within the which his wife & children were inclosed) at length when he saw how he could neither defend the hold anie longer against his enimies, nor yet vpon surrender be suffered to depart with life saued, hée first fiue his wife and children, and lastlie himselfe, Makdowald slaieth his wife and chil|dren, & lastlie himselfe. least if he had yeelded simplie, he should haue béene executed in most cruell wise for an example to other. Makbeth entring into the castell by the gates, as then set open, found the carcasse of Makdowald li|eng dead there amongst the residue of the slaine bo|dies, which when he beheld, remitting no peece of his cruell nature with that pitifull sight, he caused the Makdowalds head sent to the king. Makbeths crueltie. head to be cut off, and set vpon a poles end, and so sent it as a present to the king, who as then laie at Bertha. The headlesse trunke he commanded to bée hoong vp vpon an high paire of gallowes.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Them of the westerne Iles suing for pardon, in that they had aided Makdowald in his tratorous en|terprise, he fined at great sums of monte: and those whome he tooke in Lochquhaber, being come thither to beare armor against the king, he put to execution. Her vpon the Ilandmen conceiued a deadlie grudge towards him, calling him a couenant-breaker, a Makbeth de|famed by the Ilandmen. bloudie tyrant, & a cruell murtherer of them whome the kings mercie had pardoned. With which reproch|full words Makbeth being kindled in wrathfull ire against them had passed ouer with an armie into the Iles, to haue taken reuenge vpon them for their li|berall talke, had he nõt béene otherwise persuaded by some of his friends, and partlie pacified by gifts pre|sented vnto him on the behalfe of the Ilandmen, sée|king to auoid his displeasure. Thus was iustice and law [...]stored againe to the old accustomed course, by Iustice & la [...] restored. the diligent means of Makbeth. Immediatlie where|vpon [...]wed came that Suen [...] king of Norway was Sueno king of Norway [...]ded in [...]ife a [...]ued in Fife with a puissant armie, to subdue the whole realme of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 But here to the intent it maie be the better per|ceiued, what this Sueno was, I will somwhat touch from whence he descended. That Sueno, who (as ye This agréeth not with out English writers. haue heard) conquered the realme of England, be|ing also king of Denmarke and Norwaie, had thrée sonnes, Harold, Sueno, and Canute; the first he made king of England, the second king of Norwaie, and the third king of Denmarke. Harold inioied not Harold that reigned king of England, was not the son of Sueno but of Canute and was not slaine, but died of naturall disease. Sée more hereof in England. Canute king of Denmarke. Edmund Ironside. the same dominion of England past thrée yéeres af|ter his fathers deceasse, but was slaine by Ethel|dred or Egeldred, whom his father Sueno had chased into Normandie. But the same Etheldred kept not long the kingdome in peace, for Canute king of Denmarke, to reuenge his brothers death, landed in England with a mightie host, and sleaing Etheldred, recouered the kingdome to the vse of the Danes: but yet one Edmund sonne to the foresaid Ethel|dred, surnamed Ironside, mainteined the warre a|gainst Canute for a season, till at length by both their consents they agréed to fight a combat singularlie man to man, so to trie the matter betwixt them, who should reigne as king ouer the Englishmen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In this fight when they had continued a long space, and shewed right notable proofes of their man|hood:

Edmund (saith Canute) sith it hath pleased al|mightie Canutes words to Edmund Ironside. God, that thou shouldest thus trie the force of my hand without hurt or wound, I thinke it bée likewise his pleasure, that thou shouldest inioy part of the realme: go to therefore, I receiue thée as parte|ner with me in the king dome, so that (if thou be con|tented let vs diuide the kingdome betwixt vs with|out anie more contention.
Edmund gladlie acceptedthis condition of agreement, supposing it better to haue halfe the kingdome, than to stand to the doubt|full triall of loosing the whole: for he had receiued a wound at Canutes hands, though Canute vnder|stood not so much: againe, he foresaw that occasion hereafter might be offered, whereby he might with|out all trouble come to inioy the whole. Herevpon The diuision of the realme of England betwixt Ca|nute and Edmund Ironside. either of them lept beside their weried horsses in that fierce & earnest fight, & imbracing each other became good friends, in diuiding the realme according to the aboue mentioned motion of Canute. That part of England that lieth ouer against France was assig|ned vnto Canute; and the other, that is, the north parts vnto Edmund. In the meane time Emma the wife of Etheldred, with hir two sonnes (which she Alured & Ed|ward the sons of king E|theldred. had by the same Etheldred) Alured and Edward, fled ouer into Normandie, doubting least this concord betwixt Canute and Edmund should turne smallie to hir aduancement.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But now touching the arriuall of Sueno the Norwegian king in Fife (as before is expressed) ye shall vnderstand, that the pretense of his comming was to reuenge the slaughter of his vncle Camus, and other of the Danish nation slaine at Barre, Crowdane, and Gemmer. The crueltie of this Sue|no The crueltie of Sueno king of Nor|waie. was such, that he neither spared man, woman, nor child, of what age, condition or degrée soeuer they were. Whereof when K. Duncane was certified, he set all slouthfull and lingering delaies apart, and be|gan to assemble an armie in most spéedie wise, like a Duncane be|stirreth him|selfe in assem|bling an ar|mie. verie valiant capteine: for oftentimes it happeneth, that a dull coward and slouthfull person, constreined by necessitie, becommeth verie hardie and actiue. Therefore when his whole power was come togither, he diuided the same into thrée battels. The first was The Scotish armie diuided into thrée bat|tels. led by Makbeth, the second by Banquho, & the king himselfe gouerned in the maine battell or middle ward, wherein were appointed to attend and wait vpon his person the most part of all the residue of the Scotish nobilitie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The armie of Scotishmen being thus ordered, EEBO page image 170 came vnto Culros, where incountering with the eni|mies, after a sore and cruell foughten battell, Sueno remained victorious, and Malcolme with his Scots Sueno van|quisheth the Scots. discomfited. Howbeit the Danes were so broken by this battell, that they were not able to make long chase on their enimies, but kept themselues all night in order of battell, for doubt least the Scots assem|bling togither againe, might haue set vpon them at some aduantage. On the morrow, when the fields were discouered, and that it was perceiued how no enimies were to be found abrode, they gathered the spoile, which they diuided amongst them, according to the law of armes. Then was it ordeined by com|mandement Suenos com|mandement to spare fire and swoord. of Sueno, that no souldier should hurt either man, woman, or child, except such as were found with weapon in hand readie to make resi|stance, for he hoped now to conquer the realme with|out further bloudshed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 But when knowledge was giuen how Duncane was fled to the castell of Bertha, and that Makbeth Duncane fled to the castell of Bertha. was gathering a new power to withstand the incur|sions of the Danes, Sueno raised his tents, & com|ming to the said castell, laid a strong siege round a|bout it. Duncane séeing himselfe thus enuironed by Sueno besie|geth king Malcolme. his enimies, sent a secret message by counsell of Banquho to Makbeth, commanding him to abide at Inchcuthill, till he heard from him some other newes. In the meane time Duncane fell in fained communication with Sueno, as though he would Fained trea|tie. haue yéelded vp the castell into his hands, vnder cer|teine conditions, and this did he to driue time, and to put his enimies out of all suspicion of anie enterprise ment against them, till all things were brought to passe that might serue for the purpose. At length, when they were fallen at a point for rendring vp the hold, Duncane offered to send foorth of the castell in|to the campe great prouision of vittels to refresh the armie, which offer was gladlie accepted of the Danes, for that they had béene in great penurie of sustenance manie daies before.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The Scots héerevpon tooke the iuice of mekil|woort berries, and mixed the same in their ale and Spiced cups prepared for the Danes. bread, sending it thus spiced & confectioned, in great abundance vnto their enimies. They reioising that they had got meate and drinke sufficient to satisfie their bellies, fell to eating and drinking after such greedie wise, that it séemed they stroue who might de|uoure and swallow vp most, till the operation of the berries spread in such sort through all the parts of their bodies, that they were in the end brought into The Danes ouercome with drinke, fall asléepe. a fast dead sleepe, that in manner it was vnpossible to awake them. Then foorthwith Duncane sent vnto Makbeth, commanding him with all diligence to come and set vpon the enimies, being in easie point to be ouercome. Makbeth making no delaie, came with his people to the place, where his enimies were Makbeth as|saiteth the campe of the Danes, being ouercome with drinke and sléeps. lodged, and first killing the watch, afterwards ente|red the campe, and made such slaughter on all sides without anie resistance, that it was a woonderfull matter to behold, for the Danes were so heaire of sléepe, that the most part of them were slaine and ne|uer stirred: other that were awakened either by the noise or other waies foorth, were so amazed and dizzie headed vpon their wakening, that they were not a|ble to make anie defense: so that of the whole num|ber The slaugh|ter of Danes. Sueno with ten other esca|ped. there escaped no more but onelie Sueno him|selfe and ten other persons, to whose helpe he got to his ships lieng at rode in th [...] mouth of Taie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The most part of the mariners, when they heard what plentie of meate and drinke the Scots had sent vnto the campe, came from the sea thither to be par|takers thereof, and so were slaine amongst their fel|lowes: by meanes whereof when Sueno perceiued how through lacke of mariners he should not be a|ble to conueie awaie his nauie, he furnished one ship Sueno fléeth with one ship, leauing the re|sidue of his nauie behind him. The fléete of the Norwegi|ans sunke by vehement rage of winds. throughlie with such as were left, and in the same sailed backe into Norwaie, cursing the time that he set forward on this infortunate iournie. The other ships which he left behind him, within three daies af|ter his departure from thence, were tossed so togi|ther by violence of an east wind, that beating and rushing one against another, they sunke there, and lie in the same place euen vnto these daies, to the great danger of other such ships as come on that coast: for being couered with the floud when the tide commeth, at the ebbing againe of the same, some part of them appéere aboue water.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The place where the Danish vessels were thus lest, is yet called Drownelow sands. This ouerthrow re|ceiued Drownelow sands. in manner afore said by Sueno, was verie displeasant to him and his people, as should appéere, in that it was a custome manie yeeres after, that no knights were made in Norwaie, except they were first sworne to reuenge the slaughter of their coun|triemen The oth that knights tooke in Norware, to reuenge the death of their friends. Solemne pro|cessions for victorie got|ten. A power of Danes arriue at Kingcorne out of Eng|land. The Danes vanquished by Makbeth and Banquho. and friends thus slaine in Scotland. The Scots hauing woone so notable a victorie, after they had gathered & diuided the spoile of the fleld, caused solemne processions to be made in all places of the realme, and thanks to be giuen to almightie God, that had sent them so faire a day ouer their enimies. But whilest the people were thus at their processi|ons, woord was brought that a new fléet of Danes was arriued at Kingcorne, sent thither by Canute king of England, in reuenge of his brother Sue|nos ouerthrow. To resist these enimies, which were alreadie landed, and busie in spoiling the countrie; Makbeth and Banquho were sent with the kings au|thoritie, who hauing with them a conuenient power, incountred the enimies, slue part of them, and chased the other to their ships. They that escaped and got once to their ships, obteined of Makbeth for a great summe of gold, that such of their friends as were slaine at this last bickering, might be buried in saint Danes buried in S. Colmes Inch. Colmes Inch. In memorie whereof, manie old se|pultures are yet in the said Inch, there to be seene grauen with the armes of the Danes, as the maner of burieng noble men still is, and héeretofore hath béene vsed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 A peace was also concluded at the same time be|twixt A peace con|cluded be|twixt Scots and Danes. the Danes and Scotishmen, ratified (as some haue written) in this wise: That from thencefoorth the Danes should neuer come into Scotland to make anie warres against the Scots by anie maner of meanes. And these were the warres that. Dun|cane had with forren enimies, in the seuenth yéere of his reigne. Shortlie after happened a strange and vncouth woonder, which afterward was the cause of much trouble in the realme of Scotland, as ye shall after heare. It fortuned as Makbeth and Banquho iournied towards Fores, where the king then laie, they went sporting by the waie togither without o|ther companie, saue onelie themselues, passing tho|rough the woods and fields, when suddenlie in the middest of a laund, there met them thrée women in strange and wild apparell, resembling creatures of elder world, whome when they attentiuelie beheld, woondering much at the sight, the first of them spake The prophesie of thrée wo|men suppo|sing to be the weird sisters or feiries. and said; All haile Makbeth, thane of Glammis (for he had latelie entered into that dignitie and office by the death of his father Sinell.) The second of them said; Haile Makbeth thane of Cawder. But the third said;

All haile Makbeth that héereafter shalt he king of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2

Then Ban [...]uho; What manner of women (saith he) are you; that séeme so little fauourable vnto me, whereas to my follow heere, besides high offices, ye assigne also the kingdome, appointing foorth nothing for me at all & Yes (saith the first of them) we pro|mise EEBO page image 171 greater benefits vnto thée, than vnto him, for he shall reigne in déed, but with an vnluckie end: nei|ther shall he leaué anie issue behind him to succéed in his place, where contrarilie thou in déed shalt not reigne at all, but of thée those shall be borne which shall gouerne the Scotish kingdome by long order of continuall descent. Herewith the foresaid women vanished immediatlie out of their sight.
This wasreputed at the first but some vaine fantasticall illusi|on A thing to woonder at. by Mackbeth and Banquho, insomuch that Ban|quho would call Mackbeth in iest, king of Scotland; and Mackbeth againe would call him in sport like|wise, the father of manie kings. But afterwards the Banquho the father of ma|nie kings. common opinion was, that these women were ei|ther the weird sisters, that is (as ye would say) the goddesses of destinie, or else some nymphs or feiries, indued with knowledge of prophesie by their necro|manticall science, bicause euerie thing came to passe as they had spoken. For shortlie after, the thane of The thane of Cawder con|demned of treason. Mackbeth made thane of Cawder. Cawder being condemned at Fores of treason a|gainst the king committed; his lands, liuings, and offices were giuen of the kings liberalitie to Mack|beth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The same night after, at supper, Banquho iested with him and said; Now Mackbeth thou hast obtei|ned those things which the two former sisters prophe|sied, there remaineth onelie for thée to purchase that which the third said should come to passe. Wherevpon Mackbeth deuiseth how he might at|teine the king|dome. Mackbeth reuoluing the thing in his mind, began euen then to deuise how he might atteine to the kingdome: but yet he thought with himselfe that he must tarie a time, which should aduance him there|to (by the diuiné prouidence) as it had come to passe in his former preferment. But shortlie after it chan|ced The daugh|ter of Siward earle of Nor|thumberland, wife to king Duncane. that king Duncane, hauing two sonnes by his wife which was the daughter of Siward earle of Northumberland, he made the elder of them called Malcolme prince of Cumberland, as it were there|by to appoint him his successor in the kingdome, im|mediatlie after his deceasse. Mackbeth sore trou|bled herewith, for that he saw by this means his hope sore hindered (where, by the old lawes of the realme, the ordinance was, that if he that should succéed were not of able age to take the charge vpon himselfe, he that was next of bloud vnto him should be admitted) he began to take counsell how he might Mackbeth studieth which way he may take the kingdome by force. vsurpe the kingdome by force, hauing a iust quarell so to doo (as he tooke the matter) for that Duncane did what in him lay to defraud him of all maner of title and claime, which he might in time to come, pretend vnto the crowne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 The woords of the thrée weird sisters also (of whom Prophesies mooue then to vnlawfull at|tempts. before ye haue heard) greatlie incouraged him here|vnto, but speciallie his wife lay sore vpon him to at|tempt the thing, as she that was verie ambitious, burning in vnquenchable desire to beare the name of a quéene. At length therefore, communicating Women desi|rous of high estate. his purposed intent with his trustie friends, amongst whome Banquho was the chiefest, vpon confidence of their promised aid, he slue the king at Enuerns, Mackbeth [...]th king Duncane. or (as some say) at Botgosuane, in the sixt yeare of his reigne. Then hauing a companie about him of such as he had made priuie to his enterprise, he cau|sed himselfe to be proclamed king, and foorthwith Mackbeth v|surpeth the crowne. went vnto Scone, where (by common consent) he receiued the inuesture of the kingdome according to the accustomed maner. The bodie of Duncane was first conueied vnto Elgine, & there buried in king|lie wise; but afterwards it was remoued and con|ueied vnto Colmekill, and there laid in a sepulture Duncanes buriall. amongst his predecessors, in the yeare after the birth of our Sauiour, 1046. 1046. H. B.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 Malcolme Cammore and Donald Bane the sons of king Duncane, for feare of their liues (which they might well know that Mackbeth would séeke to Malcolme Cammore and Donald Bane flée in|to Cumber|land. Malcolme Cammore re|ceiued by Ed|ward king of England. Mackbeths liberalitie. bring to end for his more sure confirmation in the estate) fled into Cumberland, where Malcolme re|mained, till time that saint Edward the sonne of Ethelred recouered the dominion of England from the Danish power, the which Edward receiued Mal|colme by way of most friendlie enterteinment: but Donald passed ouer into Ireland, where he was ten|derlie cherished by the king of that land. Mackbeth, after the departure thus of Duncanes sonnes, vsed great liberalitie towards the nobles of the realme, thereby to win their fauour, and when he saw that no man went about to trouble him, he set his whole intention to mainteine iustice, and to punish all en|ormities Mackbeth studieth to ad|uance iustice. and abuses, which had chanced through the féeble and slouthfull administration of Duncane. And to bring his purpose the better to passe without anie trouble or great businesse, he deuised a subtill Mackbeths policie. wile to bring all offendors and misdooers vnto iu|stice, solliciting sundrie of his liege people with high rewards, to challenge and appeale such as most op|pressed the commons, to come at a day and place ap|pointed, to fight singular combats within barriers, in triall of their accusations. When these théeues, barrettors, and other oppressors of the innocent peo|ple were come to darren battell in this wise (as is said) they were streight waies apprehended by Streict iu|stice. armed men, and trussed vp in halters on gibbets, according as they had iustlie deserued. The residue of misdooers that were left, were punished and ta|med in such sort, that manie yeares after all theft and reiffings were little heard of, the people inioieng the blissefull benefit of good peace and tranquillitie. Mackbeth shewing himselfe thus a most diligent punisher of all iniuries and wrongs attempted by a|nie disordered persons within his realme, was ac|counted the sure defense and buckler of innocent people; and hereto he also applied his whole indeuor, A kinglie en|deuour. to cause yoong men to exercise themselues in vertu|ous maners, and men of the church to attend their diuine seruice according to their vocations.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 He caused to be slaine sundrie thanes, as of Cath|nes, Iustice mini|stred without respect of per|sons. Sutherland, Stranauerne, and Ros, because through them and their seditious attempts, much trouble dailie rose in the realme. He appeased the troublesome state of Galloway, and slue one Mak|gill a tyrant, who had manie yeares before passed no|thing of the regall authoritie or power. To be briefe, such were the woorthie dooings and princelie acts of this Mackbeth in the administration of the realme, that if he had atteined therevnto by rightfull means, and continued in vprightnesse of iustice as he began, till the end of his reigne, he might well haue béene numbred amongest the most noble princes that anie where had reigned. He made manie holesome laws and statutes for the publike weale of his subiects.

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