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12.34. The recapitulation of sundrie acts, and of the commming of Iohn the kings sonne to Ireland, with his successe there. Chap. 34.

The recapitulation of sundrie acts, and of the commming of Iohn the kings sonne to Ireland, with his successe there. Chap. 34.

HOw omitting the building of three ca|stels, one at Tipporarie, the other at Arch|phin, & the third at Lismore, after the com|ming of earle Iohn, & speaking nothing of the euill fortune of thrée woorthie yoong men; Robert Barrie at Lismore, Reimond Fitzhugh at Olethan, and Reimond Cantitinensis at Odrona. Of part of the garrison of Archphin slaine in the wood there, by the prince of Limerike on Midsummer daie, & foure knights there killed, not without manfull defense. Of them of Limerike, and the noble man Ograine slaine at Tipporarie. Of them of Archphin slaine a|gaine by those of Limerike in taking of a preie. Of Dermucius Mac Arthie prince of Desmond, with others slaine in a parlée neere Corke by them of Corke, and the garrison of Theobald brother to Walter. Of the slaughter of them of Kencolon, with their prince inuading Meth by the men there|of, & William Litle, and one hundred of their heads sent to Dublin. Of the finding out of the bodies of Patrike, Brigid, & Columbe at Dundalke, & their translation from thense by the procurement of Iohn de Curcie.

Of the heading of Hugh Lacie at Dornach, through the treason of his owne Irishmen. Of the killing of twelue noble knights vnder Iohn de Cur|cie, in the returne from Connagh. Of the traitorous and lamentable slaughter of Roger Powre, and manie others in Osserie: and thorough that occa|sion, the priuie conspiracie of all Ireland against the Englishmen, manie castels being therewith de|stroied. All which things are not vnwoorthie to be re|corded, when the dominion was translated to the kings son. But assigning these dooings to other wri|ters, we will proceed to more profitable matters. How and wherefore this first enterprise of the kings son had no good successe I thought good to declare brieflie: that this finall addition (albeit it can not be a cure to that which is past) yet it may be a caueat for things to come. ¶ This recapitulation followeth in a more absolute forme, pag. 53. which being de|liuered Note. out of sundrie copies, doo perfect one ano|ther.]

When all things méete and necessarie for so great a iournie or voiage were at the king his com|mandement and charges made readie; then Iohn the kings yoonger sonne a little before made lord of Ireland, was seut ouer; and in the Lent time (1) he tooke leaue of his father, and as he tra|uelled towards saint Dauids to take shipping, he passed and rode along by the sea coasts of South|wals, and so came to (2) Penbroke. There brought and accompanied him vnto the ship a noble and a worthie man named Reinulfe Glanuile, one of the K. his most priuie councell in all weightie matters; as also cheefe iustice of England. And on wednes|daie in the Easter weeke, the wind being at east and blowing a good gale, he tooke ship in Milford hauen, but for hast he left to doo his deuotion and oblation at saint Dauids, which was but an euill halsoning: ne|uerthelesse on the next morrow about noonetide he arriued in safetie vnto Waterford with all his com|panie, which were about thrée hundred gentlemen, and of bowmen, footmen, horssemen, and others a great number. Then was fulfilled the vaticine or prophesie of old Merlin: A burning globe shall rise Prophesies of Merlin fulfilled. out of the east, & shall compasse about the land of Ire|land, and all the soules of that Iland shall flée round about the fire. And hauing spoken these words of the father, he continueth his speech, and thus speaketh of his sonne: And of this fire shall rise a sparkle, for feare of which all the inhabiters of the land shall tremble and be afraid: and yet he that is absent shall be more estéemed than he that is present, and better shall be the successe of the first than of the second.

Iohn at this his first arriuall into Ireland was of the age of 12 yeres, which was from the first arri|uall of his father thirtéene yeares, of the landing of the earle Strangbow fouretéene yeares, and from the first entrance of Robert Fitzstephans fiftéene yeares, and the yeare of our Lord one thousand one hundred eightie and fiue, Lucius then Romane bi|shop, Frederike the emperor, and Philip the French king. There passed ouer with the king in the same fléet manie good clerks, among whome (3) one was speciallie commended vnto this yoong lord by his fa|ther, for that he was a diligent searcher of naturall EEBO page image 52 histories, as also had béene before two yeares in the same land, and there collected sundrie notes, and suf|ficient matter as well for his historie, as for his to|pographie: and which after that he was returned home, and attending in the court, did (as leisure ser|ued him) digest and set in good order of a booke, the same being his labor of thrée yéeres. A trauell to him painefull, but to his posteritie profitable, although much misliked and enuied at by such as then were li|uing: the one liked it well, but the other dispraised it; the one reaped a benefit and commoditie, but the other of a secret malice maligning the same, fret|ted in his humor, and was grauelled in his owne fellie.

(1) The first voiage of the king his sonne, being then but a child of twelue yéeres of age: the English chronicles doo make small mention therof. But such as doo write thereof, doo report that the king brought his sonne as farre as Glocester on this iornie: and there dubbing and honoring him with the degree of knighthood, sent him on his iornie.

(2) Penbroke is an old and an ancient towne, builded by a noble man named Arnulph Montgome|rie the ancestor of the Carews, whose names are Montgomeries, & lieth in Westwales named De|metia, but now of this towne is called Penbroke|shire. The ancient house of the Ca [...]ws. It standeth vpon a créeke of Milford hauen, about two miles from the castell Carew: of which castell the Montgomeries builded, and there dwel|ling tooke the name thereof, & were called Carews, which name that familie dooth yet reteine. In this towne of Penbroke standeth a goodlie and a strong castell, which hath béene in times past the seat and house of manie a noble man bearing the name of the earles of Penbroke. In this was king Henrie the seuenth borne. It is now in great ruine and in decaie.

(3) This man ment here is Giraldus Cambren|sis the author of this booke, who (as it appeareth by this and other his works) was learned and much giuen to studie. He was archdeacon of saint Dauids, and descended from Girald of Windsore, and the ladie Nesta his wife, for he was the son of Maurice, and the sonne of the foresaid Girald and Nesta: and so this Girald of Windsore was his Proauus or great grandfather.

12.35. The praise and commendation as also the excuse of Robert Fitzstephans and the earle Strangbow. Chap. 35.

The praise and commendation as also the excuse of Robert Fitzstephans and the earle Strangbow. Chap. 35.

RObert Fitzstephans was the first who taught and shewed the waie to the earle, the earle to the king, and the king to his sonne. Great praise-worthie was he that gaue the first aduenture, and much was he to be commended who next followed and increased the same: but aboue all others he deserued best, who fulfilled, absolued, and ended the same. And here is to be noted, that albeit both Fitzstephans and the earle did helpe Dermon Mac Morogh to recouer his countrie of Leinster, as also defended and kept the same from robbers, théeues, & enimies: yet they did it in diuerse respects. The one in respect of his faith and promise, the other for loue of Eua, & of the (1) inheritance, which by hir should grow and come vnto him. But as concern|ing the intruding vpon Waterford, and the con|quests of sundrie territories as well in Desmond as in Meth, I can not excuse them. The earle, who in right of his wife was lord of Leinster, the fist part or portion of Ireland, surrendred and yéelded vp all his right and title there vnto the king himselfe, and tooke it againe to hold of him. The like also did all the princes of the land. Whereby as also by other old and ancient records it is apparant, that the English na|tion entred not into this land by wrong and iniurie, (as some men suppose and dreame) but vpon a good ground, right, and title.

(1) The course of this historie in the beginning dooth plainelie declare, how that Dermon after his departure from the king came to the citie of Bris|tow, and there hauing conference with Richard Strangbow erle of Chepstow, did offer vnto him his onelie daughter and heire in marriage, with the in|heritance of all Leinster: conditionallie that he would passe ouer into Ireland, and to helpe him to recouer his land, which conditions were accepted and afterwards performed. Afterwards he lieng at saint Dauids for passage, there he met with Robert Fitz|stephans, & did condition with him, that if he would passe ouer into Ireland to helpe him, he would giue him the towne of Wexford with certeine cantreds therevnto adioining, which conditions were then ac|cepted and afterwards performed. Thus it appeareth that the one for loue of the gentlewoman, and the o|ther in respect of his promise did passe ouer into that land and realme.

12.36. The causes of lets whie this con|quest could not nor had his full perfection. Chap. 36.

The causes of lets whie this con|quest could not nor had his full perfection. Chap. 36.

HAppie and for euer happie had Ireland béene, which being valiantlie conquered, well replenished with townes, and fortified with castels from sea to sea of the first (1) aduen|turers, who were then minded to haue established a good order and gouernment, had not they through the secret malice and treacherie of some men béene cal|led awaie and sent from home. Yea happie had it beene, if the first conquerors (being noble and valiant men) might according to their deserts haue had the charge of gouernment committed vnto them. For whie, a nation which at the first comming ouer of our men, when they were galled with our arrows, and a|fraid of our force, they were then easie to be recla|med. But partlie by meanes of trifling and delai|eng of time, which is alwaies dangerous, and partlie by reason that the best seruitors being called home from thense, new rulers tooke too much ease, and liued in too much securitie; nothing was doone to anie pur|pose: and therevpon the people of that countrie tooke hart of grace, and practised our manners in shooting and the vse of our weapons: and by little and little they became so well expert and skilfull therein, that whereas at the first they were easie to be ouercom|med, were now strong and hardie, and not onlie able to resist, but also readie to put vs in danger and ha|zard. And the causes herof whoso listeth to search, shall easilie find out the same: for if you will read ouer the bookes of the kings & prophets, examine the course of the old testament, and well consider the examples of these our latter daies; you shall find it most certeine and true, that no nation, no state, no citie, nor com|mon-wealth was euer ouerthrowne by the enimie, nor ouercome by the aduersarie but onelie for sinne Sin the cause of ouerthrows by the enimie. and wickednesse. And albeit the Irish people and nation for their sinfull and abhominable life did well deserue to be ouerthrowne and ouerrun by stran|gers; yet was it not Gods will and plesure that they should vtterlie be brought into subiection: neither was it his good will & pleasure that the Englishmen, though they had brought some of them into subiecti|on, EEBO page image 53 yet they should not therefore haue the whole em|pire and entire souereigntie ouer them: for both were sinfull people and merited not anie fauour at Gods hand, but deserued to be seuerelie punished, and ther|fore neither the one (albeit he were a conqueror, and had the ouer hand) could yet obteine a seat (2) in Pal|las castell, nor yet the other be fullie subdued & broght into perfect subiection. The Irish people are said to haue the foure men whome they account to be great prophets, and whome they haue in great veneration and credit (3) Merlin, Bracton, Patrike, and Co|lumkill, The foure Irish pro|phets. whose books and prophesies they haue among themselues in their owne language, and all they in|treating and speaking of the conquest of this land, doo affirme that the same shall be assailed with often warres, the strifes shall be continuall, and the slaugh|ters great. But yet they doo not assure nor warrant anie perfect or full conquest vnto the English nation (4) not much before dooms daie. And albeit the whole land of Ireland, from sea to sea, haue for the most part béene in the power of the Englishmen, and by them fortified and replenished with sundrie and ma|nie castels, though sometimes to their perilles and smarts: yet Bracton saith, that the king who shall make the absolute and finall conquest, shall come from out of the deserts and mounteins of saint Pa|trike, and vpon a sundaie at night shall with force breake into a castell builded in the fastnesse of Opha|lie: and vntill that time the English nation shall from time to time be in continuall troubles with the Irishrie, sauing that they shall hold and inioie the whole land bordering vpon the east coasts of the seas.

(1) The course of this historie dooth at full de|clare in particulars, how the first aduenturers were maligned, & as much as might be descredited. First Robert Fitzstephans, whose seruice was counted no|table, and his fidelitie to his prince and king trustie and assured: yet fell he into the kings displeasure, was cast into prison, and albeit deliuered out againe, yet the king conceiuing some gelousie of him, had him ouer into Normandie, where he serued two yeares in his warres: and although he were againe afterward sent ouer into Ireland, yet was he not in anie authoritie or office. The earle Strangbow although he came ouer with the king his speciall li|cence, yet his good successe was so enuied at, that the king made proclamation, that all his subiects be|ing in Ireland with the earle, should returne & come home; and that no vittels, no munition, nor anie re|léefe should be transported out of anie of his domini|ons into Ireland. And albeit the earle afterwards were reconciled to the king, yet was he faine to yéeld vnto him all his land and dominion of Leinster vn|to the kings deuotion, & to receiue the same againe to be holden of the king. Reimond who could not be charged, nor spotted with anie vntruth: yet the trea|cherous Heruie with his false informations so in|ueigled and falselie informed the king against him, that he was sent for home, and not trusted with anie gouernement. Hugh de Lacie, who (as the historie saith) was the first that made waie into Ulster, who fortified the prouince of Leinster and Meth with ma|nie strong holds & castels, and brought all the coun|trie to a peaceable state; he was suspected to haue meant the impropriation of the whole land to his owne vse, and was dismissed of his charge and go|uernement, and sent for home: and in place and lieu of these were sent ouer William Fitzaldelme, Phi|lip of Chester, and others, in whome was no value at all, but onelie to pill and poll the people, and to heape vp treasure and riches.

(2) Pallas was the daughter of Iupiter, who for hir excellent gift in inuention, is said and fained by the poets to be borne of the braine of Iupiter with|out anie moother, she inuented the order of warres, and deuised the maner of fightings, she maketh men to be bold, and giueth the victorie. And bicause Eng|glishmen could not obteine a full and a perfect victo|rie: therefore they were said not to sit in Pallas castell.

(2) There were two Merlins, and both were pro|phesiers: the one was named Merlinus Calidonius, or Syluestris, bicause his dwelling and habitation was néere or by a wood called Calidonia, he was borne in the marches of Scotland, but a man verie excellent|lie well learned in philosophie, and in knowledge of all naturall causes; and by diligent obseruations he would gesse maruellouslie at the euents of manie things. Wherevpon he was taken for a phrophesier, and reputed for a magician or a diuinor. He was in the time of king Arthur, about the yeare fiue hun|dred and thréescore, and of this Merlin it is spoken in this historie. The other Merlin was before this man and in the time of Uortiger: about the yeare of our Lord foure hundred and thréescore, and he was named Ambrosius Merlinus, who was also excellentlie well learned, both in philosophie and the art magike; but his sentences were so darkelie couched, that no|thing could be conceiued nor vnderstood by them be|fore the euent.

(4) Much adoo there hath béene, and manie books written, concerning the full conquest of this land: so manie heads, so manie reasons. But if men would haue the truth plainelie told, it is soone to be séene how the verie cause proceedeth and is continued for want of a generall reformation. But Pluto hath so blinded mens eies, that séeing they can not nor will not see: but hereof I shall more at large write in an other place.

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