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10.40. The vision which appeared vnto the king at his being at Cardiffe. Chap. 40.

The vision which appeared vnto the king at his being at Cardiffe. Chap. 40.

BUt before we doo proceed anie further, it were not amisse to declare what happened and befell vnto the king in his returning through Wales, after his comming from Ireland. In his iourneie he came to the towne of Cardiffe on the saturdaie in the Easter wéeke, and lodged there all that night. On the morrow being sundaie, and commonlie called little Easter daie or Low sundaie, he went somewhat earlie to the cha|pell of saint Perian, and there heard diuine seruice, but he staied there in his secret praiers behind all his companie, somewhat longer than he was woont to doo: at length he came out, and leaping to his horsse, there stood before him one hauing before him a stake, or a post pitched in the ground. He was of colour somewhat yellowish, his head rounded and a leane face, of stature somewhat high, and aged about fortie yeares; his apparell was white, being close & downe to the ground, he was girded about the middle, and bare footed. This man spake to the king in Dutch, sai|eng; God saue thée O king, and then said thus vnto him: Christ and his mother Marie, Iohn baptist, and Peter the apostle doo salute thée: and doo strictlie charge and command thee, that thou doo forbid, that hensefoorth throughout all thy kingdome and domi|ons, there be no faires nor markets kept in anie place vpon the sundaies: and that vpon those daies no maner or person doo anie bodilie worke, but one|lie to serue God, sauing such as be appointed to dresse the meat. If thou wilt thus doo, all that thou shalt take in hand shall prosper, and thy selfe shalt haue a happie life. The king then spake in French to the gentleman, who held his horsse by the bridle, and whose name was Philip Mertros, a man borne in those parts, and who told me this tale: Aske him whe|ther he dreame or not. Which when he had so doone, the man looking vpon the king said: Whether I dreame or not, marke well and remember what daie this is: for if thou doo not this, and speedilie amend thy wicked life, thou shalt before the yeare come a|bout heare such euill news of those things which thou EEBO page image 26 louest best, and thou shalt be so much vnquieted ther|with, that thou shalt not find anie ease or end vntill thy dieng daie. With this word the king put spur to the horsse and rode awaie towards the towne gate, which was at hand: but thinking vpon the words a|reigned his horsse and said; Call me yonder fellow againe. Wherevpon the foresaid gentleman as also one William, which two were onelie then atten|ding vpon him, first called and then sought him in the chappell, and finding him not there, sought him throughout the court, the towne, and in all the Ins, but could not find him. The king being verie sad and sorie that he had not throughlie talked with the man, went abroad himselfe to seeke him, but finding him not, called for his horsses and rode from thence by Rempinbridge to Newberie. And as this man had before threatned and said, it so came to passe before the yeare was ended: for his eldest sonne Henrie, and his two yoonger sonnes Richard earle of Aqui|taine, and Geffreie erle of Britaine, in the Lent fol|lowing forsooke and shroonke from him, and went to Lewes the French king. Whereof grew and insued vnto him such vexation and vnquietnesse, as he had neuer the like before, and which by one means and o|ther neuer left him vntill his dieng daie. And suerlie it was thought the same by Gods iust iudgement so befell vnto him: for as he had béene and was a diso|bedient sonne to his spirituall father, so his carnall sonnes should be disobedient and rebellious against their carnall father. Manie such forewarnings the king had by Gods mercie and goodnesse sent vnto him before his death, to the end he should repent and be conuerted, and not be condemned: which would to God that euerie prince and other man did not fro|wardlie and obstinatlie condemne, but rather with an humble and a penitent heart they would (as they ought to doo) receiue and imbrace the same! And therefore I haue and mind to write more at large in my booke, concerning the instruction and institu|tion of a christian prince.

10.41. The treason and killing of Ororike prince of Meth. Chap. 41.

The treason and killing of Ororike prince of Meth. Chap. 41.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 IN the meane time Ireland was in good rest and peace, vnder such as vnto whom the charge thereof was committed. And now on a time it happened, that the one eied O|rorike of Meth, being at Dublin, complained vnto Hugh de Lacie of certeine iniuries doone vnto him, praieng redresse: wherevpon the daie and a place of (1) parlée was betweene them appointed for the same. The night next before the daie of this parlée, a yoong gentleman named Griffith, the nephue of Ro|bert Fitzstephans, and Maurice Fitzgerald, being Griffiths dreame. the sonne to their eldest brother named William, dreamed in his sléepe that he saw a great heard of wild hogs to rush and run vpon Hugh de Lacie and his vncle Maurice; and that one of them being more horrible and greater than the rest, had with his tusks rent and killed them: if he had not with all his force and strength rescued them, and killed the bore. On the morrow according to appointment, they came to the place appointed for the parlée, which was a certeine hill called Ororikes hill: but before they came to the verie hill it selfe, they sent messen|gers the one to the other, requiring assurance and safetie: and hauing sworne on each part to kéepe faith and truth, they came to the place appointed and there met, but yet a small companie on either side. For it was agréed vpon on both parties, & by coue|nant excepted, that on each part they should bring but a few and the like number, and they to be all vn|armed; the swords on one side and the spars on the other side, and for all the residue of the people and companie to stand aloofe and a farre off. But Grif|fith, who came to the said parlee with his vncle Mau|rice, was verie pensife and much troubled, concer|ning the vision which he saw in his sleepe; and doub|ting of the worst, made choise of seuen of the best gentlemen of his kindred, whome he knew to be va|liant, and in whome he had a speciall trust and con|fidence. These he draweth to the one side of the hill, but as néere to the place of parlée as he could, [...]here euerie of them hauing his sword, spar and shield; lept and mounted vp to their horsses, and ranging the fields they made sundrie carreers and lustie tur|naments, vnder the pretense and colour of plesant|nes and [...]astime; but in verie déed to be in a readi|nesse if need should so require.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Hugh de Lacie and Ororike this meane while were talking and discoursing of manie things, but con|cluded not of anie thing; neither did Ororike meane anie such thing. For hauing a traitorous mind, and watching his time when he might best powre out his venem, fained himselfe to go out and abroad to make water, and vnder that colour beckened vnto his men, with whome he had concluded and agreed before, that with all hast they should come awaie vnto him; and they foorthwith in all hast so did, and he also then with a pale, grim, and murtherous counte|nance, hauing his ax or spar vpon his shoulder, re|turned backe againe. Maurice Fitzgerald, which was before warned by his cousine Griffith and ad|uertised of his dreame, gaue good eie and watched the matter verie narowlie; and therefore all the par|lée time, he had his sword readie drawne about him: and espieng the traitor to be fullie bent and about to strike Hugh de Lacie, he cried out vnto him, wil|ling him to looke vnto himselfe, and to be at defense with himselfe; wherewith the traitor most violentlie strake vnto him, thinking verelie to haue murthered and dispatched him. But the interpretor of the par|lée stepping in betwéene, saued Hugh de Lacie; but he himselfe was wounded to death, and his arme cleane cut off.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Then Maurice Fitzgerald with a lowd voice cried out to his companie, who with all hast came awaie; and then began a hot and a sharpe bickering of the English swords against the Irish spars. In which skirmishing Hugh de Lacie was twise felled to the ground, and had suerlie béene killed, if Maurice had not valiantlie rescued him. Likewise the Irishmen who were manie in number, they hauing espied the becking of the traitor, they came running in all hast out of the vallies with their weapons, thinking verelie to haue made a cleane dispatch and a full end of Hugh de Lacie and of Maurice Fitzgerald. But Griffith and his companions, still watching for that which indéed did happen, were at the first call of Mau|rice in a readinesse, and being on horssebacke they came awaie with all speed: which thing when the trai|tor saw, he gan to distrust, and thought to shift him|selfe awaie and so to escape. But as he was leaping to his horsse, Griffith was come, and with his staffe or lance strake downe and ran through both horsse and man: who being thus striken downe and kil|led, as also thrée other of his men, who brought him his horsse and were in this bickering, they cut off his head from the bodie, and sent it ouer into Eng|land to the king. The residue of the Irishmen fled foorthwith and ranne awaie, but being hardlie pur|sued euen to the verie woods, there was a great dis|comfiture and slaughter made of them. Rafe the sonne of Fitzstephans, being a lustie and a valiant EEBO page image 27 yoong gentleman did well acquite himselfe, and deserued great commendation for his good ser|uice.

(1) The maner of the Irishrie was euer, and yet is, that when so euer there is [...]e controuersie a|mongst them, they will oftentimes appoint places where to meet and assemble themselues for confe|rence; which commonlie is vpon some hill distant and farre from anie house, and this assemblie is cal|led among them a parlée or a parlement. And albeit the pretense héereof is of some quietnesse and re|dresse: yet experience teacheth that there is not a woorsse thing to be vsed among them. For lightlie and most commonlie there are most treacheries and treasons, most murthers and robberies, and all wic|kednesse imagined, deuised, and afterwards put in practise among them: and for the most part there is no parlée among them, whereof insueth not some mischéefe.

(2) This hill lieth in the prouince of Meth, about twentie miles from Dublin, and is now called the Taragh: some thinke this to be the middle part or nauill of that prouince; it is a verie pleasant and a fertile soile, and also for the most part cham|pion.

10.42. Sundrie examples concerning visions. Chap. 42.

Sundrie examples concerning visions. Chap. 42.

[...]Or so much as there be sundrie opini|ons and iudgments concerning visions, it shall not be much amisse, or impertinent to our matter, to recite a few examples & true reports of the same. Ualerius Maximus in his first Prognosticall [...]. booke and seauenth chapter writeth, that two men of Arcadia, iournieng togither in companie towards a towne named Megara, when they came [...]ther, the one of them lodged himselfe with his fréend, but the other at a common Inne. He who late in his fréends house being in bed and asléepe, dreamed that his com|panion came vnto him, and requested him to helpe him, bicause his hoast did oppresse him; wherewith he awooke, but verie shortlie he fell asléepe againe, and dreamed that his said companion came againe vnto him being verie sore wounded, and praied him that although he would not at the first time come and helpe him, yet that he would now reuenge his death, declaring that his host had taken his head and corps, and put it into a cart to be caried to the dunghill, and there to be buried. This man being awaked, and much troubled with this dreame, arose and sought for his fellow, and finding his dreame to be true, caused the hoast to be taken and apprehended, who for that his fact was executed and put to death. Aterius Ru|fus a gentleman of Rome likewise, being on a time at Siracusa, he dreamed that he was killed by a maister of fense, which came so to passe: for on the morrow after he was present at the plaie or game of swordplaiers or maisters of defense, whereas a (1) netcaster was brought in to fight with a sword|plaier. Wherevpon Aterius vttering his dreame to him that sat next by him, would haue gone and de|parted awaie; but being persuaded to the contrarie, did staie to his owne destruction. For the netcaster hauing ouerthrowne the swordplaier, and thinking to haue pearsed him through with his sword, [...]ed him and stroke Aterius, who sat in place next there|vnto, and so was he slaine. Also Simonides the poet, being on a time let on land vpon the sea shore, he saw there a dead man lieng vnburied. The night follow|ing he dreamed that the said dead man did aduise and admonish him, that he should not take ship the daie following: but his felowes minding not to lose anie time, and the weather seeming then to be faire, they went all aboord, and hoised vp their sailes; which Si|monides refused to doo, and tarried at land. It was not long after but that the weather wared to be fowle, and the seas to be high, and in the end both the ship and men to be all lost: but Simonides credi|ting his dreame, was saued. Moreouer Calphurnia, the wife vnto Iulius Cesar, the night before hir hus|band was s [...]aine, dreamed that she saw him greatlie wounded to lie in hir lap: wherewith she being a|fraid did awake, and told Iulius hir dreame, reque|sting him that he would forbeare to repaire to the se|nat house that daie: but he giuing small credit to a womans dreame, followed his mind, and was [...] by the senators. But to leaue these examples fetched from out of other nations, let vs come neere home to our selues. A brother of mine named Walter Bar|rie, a lustie yoong gentleman, making himselfe rea|die on a time to serue in a certeine hosting against his enimie; the night before he should take his iour|nie, he dreamed that my mother who was dead on long before, did come vnto him, and aduise & warne him, that if he loued his life he should in anie wise refraine and forbeare that iournie. She in déed was not his naturall mother, but his mother in law, and yet loued him in hir life time as intirelie as hir owne child. When he had told this his dreame to his father and mine, for indéed we were both brothers by one father, though we had not one mother: he also gaue him the like aduise and counsell, but he of his pre|sumptuous mind, not regarding the same, followed his owne mind, and the same daie was killed by his enimie.

(2) As dreames sometimes are good forewarnings to men to eschew euils which are towards, yet they are not alwaies to be so receiued, as prognostica|tions infallible. For sometimes the same fall out to the contrarie, as dooth appeere by Augustus the empe|ror; who hauing warres against Brutus and Cassi|us, and he by reason of his sicknesse carried in a lit|ter, his physician Arterius dreamed that the goddesse Minerua did appeare vnto him, willing him to aduise and counsell the emperor, that he should not by rea|son of his sicknesse come into the field, nor be pre|sent in the battell, which he did. But the emperor not|withstanding entered into the field, being carried in his litter, and tooke maruellous great pains. And al|beit Brutus taking the emperors tents, séem [...]d to haue the victorie; yet was he for all that vanquished, and the emperor had the conquest. Likewise in west Wales, of late yeares, it happened a certeine rich man dwelling on the north side of a certeine moun|teine; he dreamed thrée nights togither, that there was a chaine of gold hidden in the head stone, which couered and laie vpon a certeine well or founteine, named saint Bernaces well, and that he should go and fetch it. This man at length, som what beléeuing the dreame, and minding to trie the same, went to the place, and did put his hand into the hole or place: but his hand was no sooner in, but that it was bitten, stoong, and enuenomed with an adder. Wherefore a man may sée hereby what credit is to be giuen to dreams, and I for my part doo so credit of them as I doo of rumors. But concerning such visions as God dooth send by his angels to his prophets and holie men, we must otherwise thinke of them; bicause the effect of them is most vndoubted, certeine, and as|sured.

(1) The Romans had diuerse games, plaies, and exercises amongst themselues, and had for the same certeine amphitheaters and [...]heaters made of pur|pose, EEBO page image 28 wherein the people might sit to view and behold the same. Of these plaies or games some were of cruell beasts the one fighting with the other, some of men fighting with beasts, and some of men fighting the one with the other, and these plaies were called Ludi gladiatorij, games of sword plaieng or fighting: for as in combates in England, so they being vnharnessed, did fight with their swords or weapons in the open sight of the people, indeuouring ech one to kill the other, which were spectacles of cru|eltie to harden the peoples hearts against killing in the warres. Of these some were called Mirmillones, which were such as chalenged the fight; some were called Gladiatores, and these were such as we doo name masters of defenses, bicause they vsed onelie or cheef|lie the sword; and some were called Retiarij, and these besides their weapons did vse a certeine kind of net, which in fighting they were woont to take and in|trap their enimies, and such a one was this man, who fighting with a chalenger, did by chance misse him and kill Aterius.

(2) In the old and first ages, men were much gi|uen to dreames and visions: and oftentimes great forewarnings and prognostications were giuen thereby, as dooth appeare in the holie scriptures, as also in prophane histories. For Ioseph the son of Ia|cob, king Pharao, king Nabuchodonozor, Mardo|cheus, Daniell, Iudas Machabeus, Hercules, Pyr|rhus, Cicero, Cassius, Parmensis, & manie others dreamed dreames, and the same came to passe. But yet these being but particular examples, and which it pleased God for some secret cause to vse: they are not to be drawne for presidents and examples to be dailie or in these daies vsed; but rather we must haue a respect and a regard to Gods speciall com|mandement, who by the mouths of his prophets hath vtterlie forbidden vs to listen to anie dreamer, or to giue credit vnto his words. Thou shalt not (saith he) hearken to the words of a dreamer of dreames, for dreames haue deceiued manie a man, and they haue failed them who haue put their trust in them: for whie, they are full of deceipts and guiles, and in|uented either for the maintenance of superstition and error, or for the increasing of some filthie lucre and gaine. Phauorinus therefore inueighing against the Chaldeans, who were a people which were woont to relie much vpon dreames, willeth and aduiseth that no dreamer or interpreter of dreames should be sought or dealt withall. For (saith he) if they tell thee of anie good thing, and in the end doo deceiue thee, thou shalt be in miserie to hope in vaine for the same. If they tell thée of some misfortune, and yet doo lie, yet shalt thou be in miserie, bicause thou shalt be still in feare least it may happen. And likewise if they shew thée of euill haps, and the same doo so fol|low, thou shalt be in miserie and vnquieted, that thy fortune and destinie is so euill. But if they tell thee of good things, and it be long yer the same doo hap|pen, thou shalt be much vnquieted to looke so long for it; and alwaies in feare least thine expectation shall be frustrated: wherefore in no wise doo thou séeke anie such persons, nor giue anie credit vnto them.

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