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TO THE RIGHT HO|norable sir Henrie Sidneie knight, lord deputie generall of Ireland, lord president of Wales, knight of the most noble order of the garter, and one of hir maiesties priuie councell within hir realme of England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _MY verie good Lord, there haue beene diuerse of late, that with no small toile, and great commendation, haue throughlie imploied themselues, in culling and packing togi|ther the scrapings and fragments of the historie of Ireland. A|mong which crue, my fast friend, and inward companion, maister Edmund Campion did so learnedlie bequite himselfe, in the penning of certeine breefe notes, concerning that coun|trie, as certes it was greatlie to be lamented, that either his theame had not beene shorter, or else his leasure had not beene longer. For if Alexander were so rauisht with Homer his historie, that notwithstanding Thersites were a crabbed and a rugged dwarfe, being in outward feature so deformed, and in inward conditions so crooked, as he seemed to stand to no better steed, than to lead apes in hell: yet the vali|ant capteine, weighing how liuelie the golden poet hath set forth the ouglie dandeprat in his colours, did sooner wish to be Homer his Thersites, than to be the Alex|ander of that doltish rithmour, which vndertooke with his woodden verses to blase his famous and mar|tiall exploits: how much more ought Ireland (being in sundrie ages seized of diuerse good and couragi|ous Alexanders) sore to long and thirst after so rare a clarke, as maister Campion, who was so vpright in conscience, so deepe in iudgement, so ripe in eloquence, as the countrie might haue beene well assu|red to haue had their historie trulie reported, pithilie handled, and brauelie polished.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Howbeit, although the glose of his fine abbridgement, being matcht with other mens dooings, bare a surpassing kind of excellencie: yet it was so hudled vp in hast, as in respect of a Campion his absolute perfection, it seemed rather to be a woorke roughlie hewed, than smoothlie planed. Vpon which ground the gentleman being willing that his so tender a suckling, hauing as yet but greene bones, should haue beene swadled and rockt in a cradle, till in tract of time the ioints thereof were knit, and growen stron|ger: yet notwithstanding he was so crost in the nicke of this determination, that his historie in mitching wise wandred through sundrie hands, and being therewithall in certeine places somewhat tickle toon|ged (for maister Campion did learne it to speake) and in other places ouer spare, it twitled more tales out of schoole, and drowned weightier matters in silence, than the author (vpon better view and longer search) would haue permitted. Thus much being by the sager sort pondered, and the perfection of the historie earnestlie desired: I, as one of the most that could doo least, was fullie resolued to inrich maister Campion his chronicle, with further additions. But weighing on the other side, that my course packthred could not haue beene sutablie knit with his fine silke, and what a disgrace it were, bungerlie to botch vp a rich garment, by clouting it with patches of sundrie colours, I was forthwith reclai|med from my former resolution, reckoning it for better, that my pen should walke in such wise in that craggie and balkish waie, as the truth of the matter being forprised, I would neither openlie borrow, nor priuilie imbezell ought to anie great purpose from his historie. But as I was hammering that worke by stealths on the anuill, I was giuen to vnderstand by some of mine acquaintance, that o|thers had brought our raw historie to that ripenesse, as my paine therein would seeme but needlesse. Wherevpon being willing to be eased of the burden, and loath also in lurching wise to forstall anie man his trauell, I was contented to leaue them thumping in the forge, and quietlie to repaire to mine vsuall and pristinat studies, taking it not to stand with good maners, like a flittering flie to fall in an other man EEBO page image 6 his dish. Howbeit the little paine I tooke therein was not so secretlie mewed within my closet, but it slipt out at one chinke or other, and romed so farre abroad, as it was whispered in their eares, who before were in the historie busied. The gentlemen conceiuing a greater opinion of me, than I was well able to vphold, dealt verie effectuallie with me, that as well at their instance, as for the affection I bare my natiue coun|trie, I would put mine helping hand to the building and perfecting of so commendable a worke. Hauing breathed for a few daies on this motion, albeit I knew that my worke was plumed with downe, and at that time was not sufficientlie feathered to flie: yet I was by them weied not to beare my selfe coy, by gi|uing my entier friends in so reasonable a request a squemish repulse. Wherefore, my singular good lord, here is laid downe to your lordship his view a briefe discourse, with a iagged historie of aragged weale|publike. Yet as naked as at the first blush it seemeth, if it shall stand with your honor his pleasure (whom I take to be an expert lapidarie) at vacant houres to insearch it, you shall find therein stones of such estima|tion, as are worth to be coucht in rich and pretious collars. And in especiall your lordship, aboue all others, in that you haue the charge of that countrie, maie here be schooled, by a right line to leuell your gouerne|ment. For in perusing this historie, you shall find vice punished, vertue rewarded, rebellion suppressed, loi|altie exalted, hautinesse disliked, courtesie beloued, briberie detested, iustice imbraced, polling officers to their perpetuall shame reprooued, and vpright gouernours to their eternall fame extolled. And trulie to my thinking, such magistrats as meane to haue a vigilant eie to their charge, can not bestow their time better, than when they sequester themselues from the affaires of the wealepublike, to recreat and quicken their spirits by reading the chronicles that decipher the gouernement of a wealepublike. For as it is no small commendation for one to beare the dooings of manie, so it breedeth great admiration, ge|nerallie to haue all those qualities in one man harboured, for which particularlie diuerse are eternised. And who so will be addicted to the reading of histories, shall readilie find diuerse euents worthie to be re|membred, and sundrie sound examples dailie to be followed. Vpon which ground the learned haue, not without cause, adiudged an historie to be the marrow of reason, the creame of experience, the sap of wis|dome, the pith of iudgement, the librarie of knowledge, the kernell of policie, the vnfoldresse of trea|cherie, the kalendar of time, the lanterne of truth, the life of memorie, the doctresse of behauiour, the register of antiquitie, the trumpet of chiualrie. And that our Irish historie being diligentlie heeded, yeeldeth all these commodities, I trust the indifferent reader, vpon the vntwining thereof, will not de|nie. But if anie man his stomach shall be found so tenderlie niced, or so deintilie spiced, as that he maie not, forsooth, digest the grosse draffe of so base a countrie, I doubt not, but your lordship, who is thoroughlie acquainted with the woorthinesse of the Iland, will be soone persuaded to leaue such quaint and licou|rous repastours, to feed on their costlie and delicate woodcocks, & willinglie to accept the louing present of your heartie welwiller. The gift is small, the giuer his good will is great, I stand in good hope, that the greatnesse of the one will counterpoise the smalnesse of the other. Wherefore that I maie the sooner vnbroid the pelfish trash that is wrapt within this treatise, I shall craue your lordship to lend me either your eares in hearing, or your eies in reading the tenor of the discourse following.


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A TREATISE CON|teining a plaine and perfect description of Ire|land, with an Introduction to the better vnderstan|ding of the histories apperteining to that Iland: compiled by Richard Stanihurst.

1.1. The names of Ireland, with the com|passe of the same, also what shires or coun|ties it conteineth, the diuision or partition of the land, and of the language of the people. The first chapter.

The names of Ireland, with the com|passe of the same, also what shires or coun|ties it conteineth, the diuision or partition of the land, and of the language of the people. The first chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _THe more part aswel of Cosmo|graphers, as Chrono|graphers, do with on accorde af|firme, that the nation of Ireland (the vtter|most wea|sterne Ile known) is halfe as big as Britannia. Which I take to be true, if the word Britannia so farre displaie the significati|on, that it comprise England, Wales, and Scotland. To which opinion Giraldus Cambrensis relieth, sai|eng, The length and breadth of Ireland. Girald. Cam|brens. lib. 1. topog. dist 1. rub. 2. Polych. lib. 1. cap. 32. that Britannia conteineth in length eight hun|dred miles, and two hundred in breadth. Ireland he taketh to be in length from the mounteins called Torrach (the author of Polychronicon termeth them Brendane his hilles) to saint Columbe his Iland eight daies tourneie, rating of long Irish miles for|tie miles to the daie: and in breadth from Dublin to saint Patrike his hilles and the sea of Connaght foure daies torneie, according to the foriner rate. So as by Cambrensis his surueie, who was a curious insearcher therof, Ireland is thrée hundred & twentie miles long of Irish miles, and one hundred and three score miles broad. And accounting thrée hundred and twentie Irish miles to amount to foure hundred English miles, which may well be reckoned accor|ding to their indgements that haue trauelled in the Irish territories; Ireland will be found halfe as big as Britannia: which Girald. Cambrensis anoucheth, saieng, that Ireland is as big as Wales and Scot|land. Ireland hath on the east, England, within one daies sailing; on the southeast it hath France; His|paine on the south, distant thrée daies sailing; on the west the maine ocean sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Touching the name Ibernia, historiographers The name Iberni [...] whense it procéedeth. are not yet agreed from whense it is deducted. Some write it Hibernia corruptlie, and suppose that the strangers finding it in an od end of the world, foistie and moistie, tooke it at the first for a verie cold coun|trie, and thereof named it Hibernia, as to saie, the Winterland. But this error being vpon short expe|rience reformed, it could not be that the name should haue liued long, especiallie the first impositors suru [...]|uing the triall, and able to alter the first nomination. Others bring a ghesse, that it should be named of Ir|lamale. Ireland. But because I read nothing of them in anie probable historie, I purpose not to build vpon that coniecture.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Most crediblie it is holden, that the Hispaniards (the founders of the Irish) for deuotion towards Hispaine, called then Iberia of Iberius the sonne of Iberus the Hispanish riuer. Iuball, and the rather, for that themselues had dwel|led beside the famous riuer Iberus, named the land Iberia (for so Leland and manie forren chroniclers Leland. in cyg. cant. write it) or Ibernia, adding the letter (n) for diffe|rence sake. And from Ibernia procéedeth Iberland, or Iuerland; from Iuerland, by contraction Ireland: forsomuch as in corruption of common talke we find that (u) with his vocale is easilie lost and suppres|sed; so we saie ere for euer, nere for neuer, shoole for shoouell, ore for ouer, ene for euen, dile for diuell. At the same time it was also named Scotia, in reue|rence Scotia. Scotach. Gathelus. of Scotach the wife of Gathelus, ancient cap|teine of those Iberians that flitted from Hispaine into Ireland: & the said Scotach was old grandame to Hiberus and Hermon after the Scotish chroni|cles, who in anie wise will haue their countrimen deriued from the Irish, and not from the Britons. The name Scotia is of late yeares so vsuallie taken Iohan. maior. Scot. lib. 1. ca. 9. for that part of Britaine that compriseth Scotland, that diuerse ancient Irish authors are holden to be borne in Scotland, wheras in verie déed their natiue soile is Ireland. As the famous schooleman Io|hannes Iohannes do|minus Scotus borne in Ire|land. Duns Scotus, otherwise named Doctor subti|lis, for his subtill quiddities in scholasticall contro|uersies, was an Irish man borne, and yet is taken for a Scot.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Some hold opinion that he was borne in Thash|mon, a market towne fiue miles distant from Weiseford. Others anouch, and that more trulie, that he was borne in Downe, an old ancient ciuitie in the north of Ireland, and thereof they ghesse him to be named Dunensis, and by contraction Duns, Why schoole|men are cal|led Dunses. which tearme is so triuiall and common in all schools, that whoso surpasseth others either in cauilling sophi|strie, or subtill philosophie, is forthwith nickenamed a Duns. Wherefore as Scotland is named Scotia mi|nor, EEBO page image 10 so Ireland is tearmed Scotia maior, as the head Scotia maior. Scotia minor. from [...]hense the name of Scotia minor tooke his of|spring. The Irish also were named of the foresaid Gathelus, or Gaudeilus, Gaudeili. In their Irish Gaudeili. rithmes, they tearme Ireland verie often Banno. I cannot diuine what reason should lea [...] their makers Banno. therto, vnlesse it be the riuer in the countie of Weise|ford, named the Banne, where the Britons vpon the conquest first arriued. The place otherwise is called The riuer Bann [...]. Bagganbun, according to the old ancient rithme:

At the creeke of Bagganbun,
Ireland was lost and wun. Bagganbun.
For the remembrance of which riuer so notoriouslie famosed, it carieth great likelihood, that the name should be to the whole realme generallie ascribed. Sundrie Latine authors write Ireland Inuerna, o|thers Inuerna. Ioan. Camet|te [...] in cap. 35. Solini. Iuerna, diuerse Ijerna. Claudius nameth it Iberna. The diuersitie of which names grew, for that in their time the true and certeine name was not knowne, so that they were contented to take it as they found it, which matter is handled by Hermo|laus Barbarus.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 There are some of the ruder sort so quaint in seue|ring Hermol. Barb. ca. 16. in lib. 4. Plin. castig. The name I|r [...]sh and Ire|land curiously seuered. the name Irish and Ireland, as that they would be named Ireland men, but in no wise Irishmen. But certes, in my fantasie such curious distinctors may be verie aptlie resembled to the foolish butcher, that offred to haue sold his mutton for fiftéene grots, and yet would not take a crowne. Who so will grate vpon such nice diuersities, in respect that he is asha|med of his countrie; trulie (in mine opinion) his countrie maie be ashamed of him. Ireland is diui|ded into foure regions, Leinster, east: Connaght, 1. Lagenia. 2. Connatia. 3. Hultonia. 4. Momonia. 5. Media. west Méeth & cast Méeth. west: Ulster, north: Mounster, south: and into a fift plot, de falked from euerie fourth part, and yet mea|ring on each part, called thereof Media, Méeth, comprising as well east Méeth, as west Méeth: Lein|ster butteth vpon England, Ulster vpon the Scotish Islands: which face with Hebriades scattered be|tweene both the realms, wherin at this daie the Irish Hebriedes. Scot, successor of the elder Scithian, Pict, or Red|shanke dwelleth. Ech of these fiue, where-they are fra|mable to ciuilitie, & answer the writs of the princes courts, be sundred into shires or counties in this ma|ner. In Leinster lieth the counties of Dublin, Kil|dare, The shires and counties of Ireland. Weiseford or Gueisford, Catherlach, Kilken|nie, the counties of Leise & Ophalie, called the kings and quéenes counties: these two latelie so named by parlement, in the reignes of Philip and Marie, ha|uing shire townes accordant, Philips towne, and Marie bourgh. Connaght hath the countie Clare: Ulster the counties of Louth, Doune, Antrim, one moitie of the towne of Droghedagh (for the rest is in Méeth) and Carregfergus. In Mounster lie the coun|ties of Waterford, Limerike, Corke, the countie palantine of Tipperarie, Kerie, & the crosse of Tippe|rarie. Mounster was of old time diuided into cast Mounster, Ormond, west Mounster, Desmond, south Mounster, Toonmound. The occasion why Ireland was parted into these fiue principall regions grew of this. There arriued in Ireland fiue brethren, that were valiant & martiall gentlemen; to wit, Gandius, An. mun. 2533. Cambrens. lib. 1. dist. 3: [...]ub. 5. & 6. Genandius, Sagandus, otherwise named Gangan|dus, Rutheragus or Rutheranus, & Slanius. These fiue perceiuing that the countrie was not sufficient|lie peopled, were agreed (as it were) to cast lots, and to share the whole realme betwéene themselues. The foure elder brethren seuering the countrie into foure parts, and being loth to vse their yoongest brother like an outcast or stepsonne, condescended that each of them foure should of their owne portion allot to Slanius a paring or parcell of their inheritance. Which being as heartilie receiued of Slanius, as it was bountifullie granted by them, he setled himselfe therein, and of that partition it tooke the appellation of Media, Méeth. The foure parts méet at a certeine Méeth [...] it is named. stone at Méeth, néere the castell of Kilaire, as an in|different meare to seuer the foure regions.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But although Slanius in the beginning had the least parcell, yet in short space he stood so well to his tacklings, and incroched so far vpon his neighbors, that he obteined the whole monarchie of Ireland. At Méeth ap|pointed for the king his ta [...]. which time he did not suppresse in obliuion his inheri|tance of Meeth; but did inlarge it, and decreed it should be a countrie appendant to the monarch his diet or table. And albett the confines thereof were by Slanius stretched, yet it conteineth not so much land as anie of the other foure parts comprehendeth; but rather by indifferent surueie, the halfe deale, where of also it is not vnlikelie named Méeth. For whereas in the time of Slanius, each of the foure parts compriseth two and thirtie cantreds, Meeth conteineth but sixteene cantreds. A cantred is named Cantred. so much land as conteineth an hundred towneships. This Slanius is intoomed at an hill in Méeth, which of him is named Slane. There hath béene in anci|ent Slane. time one Galfride Geneuile, lord of the libertie of Meeth. This noble man became a frier preacher, Galfride Geneui [...]. and decesed in the yeare of our Lord 1314, the twen|tith of October, and was intoomed in the abbeie of the Blacke friers at Trim.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There is also another diuision of Ireland, into the The Eng|lish pale. English pale, and Irishrie. For when Ireland was subdued by the English, diuerse of the conquerors planted themselues néere to Dublin, and the con|fines thereto adioining, and so as it were inclosing and impaling themselues within certeine lists and territories, they feazed awaie the Irish; insomuch as that countrie became méere English, and there|of it was termed the English pale: which in ancient time stretched from Dundalke to Catherlagh or Kilkennie. But now what for the slacknesse of mar|chours, and incroching of the Irish enimie, the scope of the English pale is greatlie impaired, & is cram|perned and coucht into an od corner of the countrie named Fingall, with a parcell of the king his land, Méeth, the countries of Kildare and Louth, which parts are applied chieflie with good husbandrie, and taken for the richest and ciuilest soiles in Ireland. But Fingall especiallie from time to time hath bin Finguls ex|celleth in husbandrie. so addicted to all the points of husbandrie, as that they are nickenamed by their neighbours, for their continuall drudgerie, Collonnes, of the Latine word Collonnes of Fingall. Clowne. Coloni, wherevnto the clipt English word clowne seemeth to be answerable.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The word Fingall counternaileth in English Fingall, why so named. the race or sept of the English or estrangers, for that they were solie seized of that part of the Iland, gri|ping with their talants so firmelie that warme nest, that from the conquest to this daie the Irish ensmie could neuer rouse them from thense. The inhabi|tants of the English pale haue béene in old time so much addicted to their ciuilitie, and so farre seques [...]e|red from barbarous sauagenesse, as their onelie mo|ther toong was English. And trulie, so long as these The ci [...] of Ireland in ancient time. impaled dwellers did sunder themselues as well in land as in language from the Irish: rudenesse was daie by daie in the countrie supplanted, ciuilitie in|graffed, good lawes established, loialtie obserued, re|bellion suppressed, and in fine the coine of a yoong England was like to shoot in Ireland. But when their posteritie became not altogither so warie in kéeping, as their ancestors were valiant in conque|ring, the Irish language was frée dennized in the English pale: this canker tooke such déepe root, as the bodie that before was whole and sound, was by little and little festered, and in maner wholie putri|fied. And not onlie this parcell of Ireland grew to EEBO page image 11 that ciuilitie, but also Ulster and the greater part of Mounster, as by the sequele of the Irish historie shall plainlie appéere. But of all other places, Weis|ford with the territorie baied and perclosed within the riuer called the Pill, was so quite estranged weisford wholie En|glish. The Pill. from Irishrie, as if a traueller of the Irish (which was rare in those daies) had pitcht his foot within the Pill and spoken Irish, the Weisfordians would command him foorthwith to turne the other end of his toong and speake English, or els bring his trouch|man with him. But in our daies they haue so as|quainted themselues with the Irish, as they haue made a mingle mangle or gallimaufreie of both the languages, and haue in such medleie or checkerwise so crabbedlie iumbled them both togither, as com|monlie the inhabitants of the meaner sort speake neither good English nor good Irish.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There was of late daies one of the péeres of En|gland The saieng of a noble man touching the English of weisford. sent to Weisford as commissioner, to decide the controuersies of that countrie; and hearing in affable wise the rude complaints of the countrie clowns, he conceiued here & there some time a word, other whiles a sentence. The noble man being verie glad, that vpon his first comming to Ireland, he vn|derstood so manie words, told one of his familiar friends, that he stood in verie great hope to become shortlie a well spoken man in the Irish, supposing that the blunt people had pratled Irish, all the while they iangled English. Howbeit to this daie, the dregs of the old ancient Chaucer English are kept as well there as in Fingall, as they terme a spider, an attercop, a wisp, a wad, a lumpe of bread, a poc|ket, Old English in weisford and Fingall. or a pucket, a sillibucke, a copprous, a faggot, a blease, or a blaze, for the short burning of it (as I iudge) a physician, a leach, a gap, a shard, a base court or quadrangle, a bawen, or rather (as I doo suppose) a barton, the houshold or folks, meanie, sharpe, kéene, estrange, vncouth, easie, éeth or éefe, a dunghill, a mi|zen. As for the word bater, that in English purpor|teth Bater. a lane, bearing to an high waie, I take it for a méere Irish word that crept vnwares into the En|glish, through the dailie intercourse of the English and Irish inhabitants. And whereas commonlie in all countries the women speake most neatlie and pertlie, which Tullie in his third booke De oratore, spea|king in the person of Crassus séemed to haue obser|ued: yet notwithstanding in Ireland it falleth out contrarie. For the women haue in their English The pronun|tiation of the Irish women. toong an harsh & brode kind of pronuntiation, with vttering their words so péeuishlie and faintlie, as though they were halfe sicke, and readie to call for a posset. And most commonlie in words of two syl|lables they giue the last the accent: as they saie, markeat, baskeat, gossoupe, pussoat, Kobart, Ni|clase, &c: which doubtles dooth disbeautifie their En|glish aboue measure. And if they could be weaned from that corrupt custome, there is none that could dislike of their English.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Here percase some snappish carper will take me at rebound, and snuffinglie snib me for debasing the Irish language: but trulie, whosoeuer shall be found so ouerthwartlie bent, he takes the matter farre a|wrie. For as my skill is verie simple therein, so I would be loth to disueile my rashnes, in giuing light verdict in anie thing to me vnknowen: but onelie my short discourse tendeth to this drift, that it is not expedient that the Irish toong should be so vniuer|sallie gagled in the English pale: because that by proofe and experience we sée, that the pale was neuer in more florishing estate than when it was wholie English, and neuer in woorsse plight than s [...]nce it hath infranchised the Irish. But some will saie, that I shew my selfe herein as friuolous as some loosing The supersti|tion of gam|sters. gamsters séeme superstitious, when they plaie them|selues drie, they gogle wish their eies hither and thi|ther, and if they can prie out anie one that giueth them the gaze, they stand lumping and lowring, fretting and fuming, for that they imagine that all their euill lucke procéeded of him: and yet if the stander by depart, the looser may be found as drie shauen as he was before. And euen so it fareth with you, because you sée all things run to ruine in the English pale, by reason of great enormities in the countrie, either openlie practised, or couertlie win|ked at; you glanse your sie on that which standeth next you, & by beating Iacke for Gill, you impute the fault to that which perhaps would little further the weale publike if it were exiled. Now trulie you shoot verie néere the marke. But if I may craue your patience till time you sée me shoot my bolt, I hope you will not denie, but that as néere the pricke as you are, and as verie an hagler as I am, yet the scantling shall be mine. First therefore take this with you, that a conquest draweth, or at the leastwise ought to draw to it thrée things, to wit, law, apparell, A conquest implieth thrée things. and language. For where the countrie is subdued, there the inhabitants ought to be ruled by the same law that the conqueror is gouerned, to weare the same fashion of attire wherwith the victor is vested, and speake the same language that the vanquisher parleth. And if anie of these thrée lacke, doubtlesse the conquest limpeth. Now whereas Ireland hath bin by lawfull conquest brought vnder the subiection of England, not onelie in king Henrie the second his reigne, but also as well before as after (as by the dis|course of the Irish historie shall euidentlie be deci|phered) and the conquest hath béene so absolute and perfect, that all Leinster, Meth, Ulster, the more part of Connagh and Mounster, all the ciuities and burroughs in Ireland haue béene wholie Englished, and with English conquerors inhabited; is it decent (thinke you) that their owne ancient natiue toong shall be shrowded in obliuion, and suffer the enimies language, as it were a tettar or ringworme, to har|bor it selfe within the iawes of English conquerors? No trulie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 And now that I haue fallen vnwares into this discourse, it will not be farre amisse to stand some|what roundlie vpon this point. It is knowen, and by the historie you may in part perceiue, how braue|lie Ulster whilom florished. The English families were there implanted, the Irish either vtterlie ex|pelled or wholie subdued, the laws dulie executed, the reuenue great, and onelie English spoken. But what brought it to this present ruine and decaie? I doubt not but you gesse before I tell you. They were inuironed and compassed with euill neighbours. Neighbourhood bred acquaintance, acquaintance wasted in the Irish toong, the Irish hooked with it attire, attire haled rudenesse, rudenesse ingendered ignorance, ignorance brought contempt of lawes, the contempt of lawes bred rebellion, rebellion ra|ked thereto warres, and so consequentlie the vtter decaie and desolation of that worthie countrie. If these chinks, when first they began to chap, had beene diligentlie by the dwellers stopped; hir maiestie at this daie, to hir great charges, should not haue béene occasioned to dam vp with manie thousand pounds, yea and with the worthie carcases of valiant soul|diors, the gaps of that rebellious northerne coun|trie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Now put the case that the Irish toong were as sa|cred as the Hebrue, as learned as the Gréeke, as fluent as the Latine, as amarous as the Italian, as courteous as the Spanish, as courtlike as the French; yet trulie (I know not which waie it falleth out) I sée not but it may be verie well spared in the English pale. And if reason will not lead you to EEBO page image 12 thinke it, trulie experience must force you to grant it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In old time, when the Romans were first ac|quainted with the Gréeke toong, as it is commonlie the nature of man to be delighted with newfangle wares: so he was accounted no gallant among the Romans, that could not pratle and that Gréeke. Marcus Cicero father to Tullie, being at that time Cic. lib. [...]. de [...]. stept in yeares, perceiuing his countrimen to be|come changelings, in being bilwise and polmad, and to sucke with the Gréeke the conditions of the Gre|cians, as to be in words talkatine, in behauiour light, in conditions quaint, in manners hautie, in promises vnstedfast, in othsrash, in bargains wa|uering (which were reckoned for Gréekish proper|ties in those daies) the old gentleman not so much respecting the neatnesse of the language, as the naughtie fruit it brought with it; said, that his coun|trimen the Romans resembled the bondslaues of Siria; for the more perfect they were in the Greeke, the worse they were in their manners and life. If this gentleman had béene now liuing, and had séene what alteration hath happened in Ireland, through the intercourse of languages, he would (I dare saie) breake patience, and would demand whie the Eng|lish pale is more giuen to learne the Irish, than the Irishman is willing to learne English: we must Oneile whie he would not learne Eng|lish. imbrace their language, and they detest ours. One demanded merilie whie Oneile that last was would not frame himselfe to speake English? What (quoth the other) in a rage, thinkest thou that it standeth with Oneile his honor to writh his mouth in clatte|ring English? and yet forsooth we must gag our lawes in gibbrishing Irish? But I dwell too long in so apparant a matter. As all the ciuities & towns in Ireland, with Fingall, the king his land, Meth, the countie of Kildare, Louth, Weisford, speake to this daie English (whereby the simplicitie of some is to be derided, that iudge the inhabitants of the Eng|lish pale, vpon their first repaire into England, to learne their English in three or foure daies, as though they had bought at Chester a grotes worth of English, and so packt vp the rest to be carried af|ter them to London) euen so in all other places their natiue language is Irish.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 I find it solemnlie aduouched, aswell in some of the Camb. lib. 1. dist. 3. rub. 8. The founder of the Irish language. Irish pamphlets as in Girald. Camb. that Gathelus or Gaidelus, & after him Simon Brecke, deuised the Irish language out of all other toongs then extant in the world. And thereof (saith Cambrensis) it is called Gaidelach, partlie of Gaidelus the first founder, and partlie for that it is compounded of all languages. But considering the course of interchanging and blending of speeches togither, not by inuention of art, but by vse of talke, I am rather led to beléeue (séeing Ireland was inhabited within one yeare af|ter the diuision of toongs) that Bastolenus a branch of Iaphet, who first seized vpon Ireland, brought Bastolenus. thither the same kind of spéech, some of the 72 that to this familie befell at the desolation of Babell. Un|to whom succeeded the Scithians, Grecians, Egyp|tians, Spaniards, Danes, of all which the toong must Epiphan. cont. har. lib. 1. 1. tom. 1. néeds haue borowed part, but especiallie reteining the steps of Spanish then spoken in Granado, as from their mightiest ancestors. Since then to Hen|rie Fitzempresse the conqueror no such inuasion happened them, as whereby they might be driuen to infect their natiue language, vntouched in manner for the space of seuenteene hundred yeares after the arriuall of Iberius. It séemeth to borrow of the Spanish the common phrase, Commestato, that is, How doo you? or how fareth it with you? It fetcheth sundrie words from the Latine, as arget of Argen|tum, monie; salle of Sal, salt; cappoulle of Caballus, a plough horsse, or (according vnto the old English terme) a caball or caple; birreat of the old mothea|ten Latine word Birretum, a bonnet. The toong is sharpe and sententious, & offereth great occasion to quicke apophthegms and proper allusions. Where|fore their common iesters and rimers, whom they terme Bards, are said to delight passinglie these Bards. that conceiue the grace and propertie of the toong. But the true Irish indéed differeth so much from The obscuri|tie of the true Irish. that they commonlie speake, that scarse one in fiue hundred can either read, write, or vnderstand it. Therefore it is preserued among certeine of their poets and antiquaries. And in verie déed the lan|guage The difficul|tie. carrieth such difficultie with it, what for the strangenesse of the phrase, and the curious featnes of the pronuntiation, that a verie few of the coun|trie can atteine to the perfection thereof, and much lesse a forrener or stranger.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 A gentleman of mine acquaintance reported, that he did see a woman in Rome, which was pos|sessed with a babling spirit, that could haue chatted anie language sauing the Irish; and that it was so difficult, as the verie diuell was grauelled there|with. A gentleman that stood by answered, that he tooke the speech to be so sacred and holie, that no damned féend had the power to speake it; no more than they are able to saie (as the report goeth) the verse of saint Iohn the euangelist, Et verbum care Iohn. 1. verse 14. factum est. Naie by God his mercie man (quoth the other) I stand in doubt (I tell you) whether the a|postles in their copious mart of languages at Ieru|salem could haue spoken Irish, if they were appo|sed: whereat the companie heartilie laughed. As fluent as the Irish toong is, yet it lacketh diuerse words, and borroweth them verbatim of the Eng|lish. As there is no vulgar Irish word (vnlesse there be some od terme that lurketh in anie obscure The [...] the Irish. shrowds or other of their storehouse) for a cote, a gowne, a dublet, an hat, a drinking cup: but one|lie they vse the same words with a little inflexion. They vse also the contracted English phrase, God morrow, that is to saie, God giue you a good mor|ning.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 I haue apposed sundrie times the expertest men that could be had in the countrie, and all they could No Irish word for knaue. neuer find out an equiualent Irish word for knaue. The Grecians (according to Tullie his iudgement) were in the same predicament as touching the terme Ineptus: his words are these. Ego meherculè ex Lib. [...]. de orat. Ineptus. omnibus Latinis verbis, huius verbi vim vel maximam semper putaui. Quem enim nos ineptum vocamus, is mihi videtur ab hoc nomen habere ductum, quòd non sit aptus, idque in sermonis nostri consuetudine perlatè patet. Nam qui aut tempus, quo quid postulet, non videt, aut plura loquitur, aut se ostentat, aut eorum, quibuscum est, vel dignitatis vel commodi rationem non habet, aut denique in aliquo genere aut inconcinnus aut multus est, is ineptus esse dicitur. Hoc vitio cumulata est eruditissima illa Grae|corum natio. Itaque qui vim huius mali Graeci non vide|dent, ne nomen quidem ei vitio imposuerunt. Vt enim quaeras omnia, quomodo Graeci ineptum appellent, non re|peries.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Certes I haue béene of opinion (saith Tullie) that amongest the whole crue of Latine terms the word Ineptus hath béene of greatest importance or weight. For he, whom we name Ineptus, seemeth to me to haue the etymologie or of spring of his name here hense deriued, that he is not apt; which stretch|eth far and wide in the vsuall custome of our dailie spéech or communication. For he that dooth not perceiue what is sitting or decent for euerie sea|son, or gableth more than he hath commission to doo, or that in bragging, bosting, or peacockwise set|teth himselfe foorth to the gaze, by making more of EEBO page image 13 the broth, than the flesh is worth; or he that regar|deth not the vocation and affaires of them, with whome he intermedleth: or in fine, who so is stale without grace, or ouer tedious in anie matter, he is tearmed Ineptus; which is asmuch in English, in my phantasie, as saucie, or malapert. The famous & lear|ned Gréeke nation is generallie dusked with this fault. And for that the Grecians could not spie the Saucines. enormitie thereof, they haue not so much as framed a terme thereto. For if you should ransacke the whole Gréeke language, you shall not find a word to coun|teruaile Ineptus. Thus far Tullie. Yet Budaeus would not séeme to acknowledge this barrennesse, but that the Gréeke word [...] is equipollent to Inep|tus: but that I referre to the iudgement of the lear|ned, being verie willing to find out some other Bu|daeus, that could fashion an Irish word for knaue, Budae. lib. 2. de Asse. & part. ciue. whereof this discourse of Ineptus grew. As the whole realme of Ireland is sundred into foure principall parts, as before is said, so each parcell differeth ve|rie much in the Irish toong, euerie countrie hauing his dialect or peculiar maner in speaking the lan|guage: therefore commonlie in Ireland they as|cribe a propertie to each of the foure countries in this sort. Ulster hath the right Irish phrase, but not the true pronunciation; Munster hath the true pro|nunciation, but not the phrase; Leinster is deuoid of the right phrase, and true pronunciation; Con|naght hath both the right phrase and true pronuncia|tion. There is a cholerike or disdainfull interiection vsed in the Irish language called Boagh, which is as much in English as twish. The Irish both in Irish boagh. ancient time and to this daie commonlie vse it, and therefore the English conquerors called them Irish poghes, or pogh Morrice. Which tawnting terme is at this daie verie wrongfullie ascribed to them of the English pale. The English interiection, Fough, Fough. which is vsed in lothing a ranke or strong sauour, seemeth to be sib to the other.

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