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5.3. Hengistus the Saxon shooteth at the crowne and scepter of the kingdome by craftie and subtile practises, a great number of forren people arriue in Britaine for the augmen|tation of his power, of the faire ladie Rowne his daughter, whereof Wednesdaie and Fridaie tooke their name, of the Iutes, Saxons, and Angles, Vortigerne being inflamed with the loue of Hengists daughter forsaketh his owne wife and marrieth hir, Vortigerne giueth Hengist all Kent, the Saxons come ouer by heaps to inhabit the land, the Bri|tish nobilitie moue the king to auoid them, he is depriued of his kingdome, the miserable destruction made by the Saxons in this land, skirmishes betwixt them and the Britains. The third Chapter.

Hengistus the Saxon shooteth at the crowne and scepter of the kingdome by craftie and subtile practises, a great number of forren people arriue in Britaine for the augmen|tation of his power, of the faire ladie Rowne his daughter, whereof Wednesdaie and Fridaie tooke their name, of the Iutes, Saxons, and Angles, Vortigerne being inflamed with the loue of Hengists daughter forsaketh his owne wife and marrieth hir, Vortigerne giueth Hengist all Kent, the Saxons come ouer by heaps to inhabit the land, the Bri|tish nobilitie moue the king to auoid them, he is depriued of his kingdome, the miserable destruction made by the Saxons in this land, skirmishes betwixt them and the Britains. The third Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _NOw Hengistus,Hengist pur|poseth at the first to con|quere the Britains. being a man of great wit, rare poli|cie, and high wisedome, vn|derstanding the kings mind, who wholie trusted to the va|liancie of the Saxons, & here|withall perceiuing the fruit|fulnesse of the countrie, pre|sentlie began to consider with himselfe, by what wiles and craft he might by little settle heere, and obteine a kingdome in the Ile, and so establish the same to him and his fore euer.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Therefore first he indeuored with all speed possiblePolydor. to fense that part of the countrie, which was giuen him and his people, and to inlarge and furnish it with garisons appointed in places most conuenient. After this he did what he could to persuade the king, that a great power of men might be brought ouer our of Germanie, that the land being fortified with such strength, the enimies might be put in feare, and his subiects holden in rest. The king not fore|séeing the hap that was to come, did not despise this counsell tending to the destruction of his kingdome, and so was more aid sent for into Germanie: where|vpon now at this second time shere arriued héere 16 vessels fraught with people, wil. Malm. 18 Foists or plates saie the Scotish wri|ters, and 5000 men in the same. and at the same time came the ladie Rowen or Ronix (daughter to Hen|gist) a maid of excellent beautie and comelinesse, able to delight the eies of them that should behold hir, and speciallie to win the heart of Uortigerne with the dart of concupiscence,The Saxons call these ves|sels C [...]ol [...]s, or Kéeles, and our old histo|ries Cogio|nes. wherevnto he was of nature much inclined, and that did Hengist well perceiue.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 There came ouer into this land at that time, and soone after, thrée maner of people of the Germane nation, as Saxons, Vitae or Iutes, and Angles, o|uer the which the said Hengist and Horse being bre|thren,The Vitae or Iutae are called Ibitti. Alex. Now. were capteines & rulers, men of right noble parentage in their countrie, as descended of that ancient prince Woden, of whom the English Saxon EEBO page image 79 kings doo for the more part fetch their pedegrée, as lineallie descended from him, vnto whome also the English people (falselie reputing him for a god) consecrated the fourth daie of the wéeke, as they did the sixt to his wife Frea: so that the same daies tooke name of them, the one being called Wodens|daie, and the other Freadaie, which woords after in continuance of time by corruption of spéech were somewhat altered,Wednesdaie, and Fridaie, whereof they came. though not much, as from Wo|densdaie, to Wednesdaie, and from Freadaie to Fridaie. The foresaid Woden was father to Uecta, the father of Westgistus that was father to the foresaid Hengistus and Horsus.Beda

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 But now to rehearse further touching those thrée people which at this time came ouer into Britaine out of Germanie. Of the Uites or Iutes (as Beda recordeth) are the Kentishmen descended, and the people of the Ile of Wight, with those also that in|habit ouer against the same Ile. Of the Saxons came the east, the south, & the west Saxons. Moreo|uer, of the Angles procéeded the east Angles, the middle Angles or Mercies,Cot. Tacitus. and the Northerne men. That these Angles were a people of Germanie, it appeareth also by Cornelius Tacitus, who called them Anglij, which word is of thrée syllables (as Po|lydor saith:) but some write it Angli, with two syl|lables. And that these Angli, or Anglij were of no small force and authoritie in Germanie before their comming into this land, maie appeare, in that they are numbred amongst the twelue nations there, which had lawes and ancient ordinances apart by themselues, according to the which the state of their common wealth was gouerned, they being the same and one people with the Thuringers, as in the title of the old Thuringers lawes we find re|corded, which is thus: Lex Angliorum & Werinorum, hoc est Thuringorum, The law of the Angles and We|rinians that is to saie the Thuringers, which Thurin|gers are a people in Saxonie, as in the description of that countrie it maie appeare.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But now to the matter.Polydor. Hengist perceiuing that his people were highlie in Uortigernes fauour,Rowen, or Ronowen Hengists daughter. be|gan to handle him craftilie, deuising by what means he might bring him in loue with his daughter Ro|nix, or Rowen, or Ronowen (as some write) which he beléeued well would easilie be brought to passe, bi|cause he vnderstood that the king was much giuen to sensuall lust,Wil Malm. which is the thing that often blindeth wise mens vnderstanding, and maketh them to dote, and to lose their perfect wits: yea, and oftentimes bringeth them to destruction, though by such pleasant poison they féele no bitter taste, till they be brought to the extreame point of confusion in déed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 A great supper therefore was prepared by Hen|gist, at the which it pleased the king to be present, and appointed his daughter,Gal. Mon. when euerie man began to be somewhat merrie with drinke, to bring in a cup of gold full of good and pleasant wine, and to present it to the king [...] saieng; Wassail. Which she did in such comelie and decent maner, as she that knew how to doo it well inough, so as the king maruelled great|lie thereat, and not vnderstanding what she ment by that salutation, demanded what it signified. To whom it was answered by Hengist,Wassail, what it signifieth. that she wished him well, and the meaning of it was, that he should drinke after hir, ioining thereto this answer, Drinke haile. Wherevpon the king (as he was informed) tooke the cup at the damsels hand, and dranke.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Finallie, this yoong ladie behaued hir selfe with such pleasant woords, comelie countenance, and ami|able grace, that the king beheld hir so long, till he felt himselfe so farre in loue with hir person, that he bur|ned in continuall desire to inioy the same: insomuch that shortlie after he forsooke his owne wife, by the which he had thrée sonnes,Polydor Fabian. named Uortimerus, Ca|tagrinus, and Pascentius, and required of Hengist to haue his daughter, the said Rowen, or Ronowen in mariage. Hengist at the first séemed strange to grant to his request, and excused the matter,Wil. Malm. for that his daughter was not of estate and dignitie méet to be matched with his maiestie. But at length as it had béene halfe against his will he consented, and so the mariage was concluded & solemnized, all Kent being assigned vnto Hengist in reward, the which countrie was before that time gouerned by one Guorongus (though not with most equall iustice) which Guorongus was subiect vnto Uortigerne, as all other the potentats of the Ile were.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 This mariage and liberalitie of the king towards the strangers much offended the minds of his sub|iects, and hastened the finall destruction of the land. For the Saxons now vnderstanding the affinitie had betwixt the king and Hengist, came so fast ouer to inhabit héere, that it was woonder to consider in how short a time such a multitude could come togi|ther: so that bicause of their great number and ap|prooued puissance in warres, they began to be a ter|rour to the former inhabitants the Britains.Wil. Malm. But Hengist being no lesse politike in counsell than vali|ant in armes, abusing the kings lacke of discretion, to serue his owne turne, persuaded him to call out of Germanie his brother Occa and his sonne named Ebusa, Gal. saith he was Hen|gists sonne and Ebusa his vncles sonne. Occa and E|busalcaders of Saxons. being men of great valure, to the end that as Hengist defended the land in the south part: so might they keepe backe the Scots in the north.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Héerevpon by the kings consent, they came with a power out of Germanie, and coasting about the land, they sailed to the Iles of Orknie, and sore vex|ed the people there, and likewise the Scots and Picts also, and finallie arriued in the north parts of the realme, now called Northumberland, where they setled themselues at that present, and so continued there euer after: but none of them taking vpon him the title of king, Wil. Malm. de Regib. till about 99 yéeres after their first comming into that countrie, but in the meane time remaining as subiects vnto the Saxon kings of Kent. After their arriuall in that prouince, they of|tentimes fought with the old inhabitants there, and ouercame them, chasing away such as made resis|tance, and appeased the residue by receiuing them vnder allegiance.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 When the nobles of Britaine saw and perceiued in what danger the land stood, Fabian. The great numbers of strangers sus|pected to the Britains. by the dailie repaire of the huge number of Saxons into the same, they first consulted togither, and after resorting to the king, mooued him that some order might be taken for the auoiding of them, or the more part of them, least they should with their power and great multitude vtterlie oppresse the British nation. But all was in vaine, for Uortigerne so estéemed and highlie fauou|red the Saxons, and namelie by reason of the great loue which he bare to his wife, that he little regarded his owne nation, no nor yet anie thing estéemed his owne naturall kinsmen and chiefe friends, by rea|son whereof the Britains in fine depriued him of all kinglie honour,Uortigerne depriued. after that he had reigned 16 yéeres, and in his steed crowned his sonne Uortimer.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Gyldas and Beda make no mention of Uortimer,Gyldas. Beda. H. Hunt. but declare that after the Saxons were receiued in|to this land, there was a couenant made betwixt them and the Britains, that the Saxons should de|fend the countrie from the inuasion of enimies by their knightlie force: and that in consideration ther|of, the Britains should find them prouision of a vit|tels: wherewith they held them contented for [...]. But afterwards they began to pike quarrels, as though they were not sufficientlie furnished of their due proportion of vittels, threatening that if they EEBO page image 80 were not prouided more largelie thereof, they would surelie spoile the countrie. So that without defer|ring of time, they performed their woords with effect of deeds,The mise|rable destruc|tion made by the Saxons in this land. beginning in the east part of the Ile, & with fire and swoord passed foorth, wasting and destroieng the countrie, till they came to the vttermost part of the west: so that from sea to sea, the land was wasted and destroied in such cruell and outragious manner, that neither citie, towne, nor church was regarded, but all committed to the fire: the priests slaine and murthered euen afore the altars, and the prelats with the people without anie reuerence of their e|state or degrée dispatched with fire and swoord, most lamentablie to behold.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Manie of the Britains séeing the demeanour of the Saxons, fled to the mounteins, of the which di|uers being apprehended, were cruellie slaine, and other were glad to come foorth and yeeld themselues to eternall bondage, for to haue reléefe of meate and drinke to asswage their extremitie of hunger. Some other got them out of the realme into strange lands, so to saue themselues; and others abiding still in their countrie, kept them within the thicke woods and craggie rocks, whither they were fled, liuing there a poore wretched life, in great feare and vnqui|etnesse of mind.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But after that the Saxons were departed and withdrawne to their houses, the Britains began to take courage to them againe, issuing foorth of those places where they had lien hid, and with one consent calling for aid at Gods hand, that they might be preserued from vtter destruction, they began vnder the conduct of their leader Aurelius Ambrose, to prouoke the Saxons to battell, and by the helpe of God they obteined victorie, according to their owne desires. And from thence foorth, one while the Bri|tains, and an other while the Saxons were victors. So that in this British people, God (according to his accustomed maner) as it were present Israell, tried them from time to time, whether they loued him or no, vntill the yeare of the siege of Badon hill, where afterwards no small slaughter was made of the eni|mies:So Gyldas was borne in the yeare of our Lord 493. which chanced the same yeare in the which Gyl|das was borne (as he himselfe witnesseth) being a|bout the 44 yeare after the comming of the Saxons into Britaine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Thus haue Gyldas & Beda (following by likelihood the authoritie of the same Gyldas) written of these first warres begun betwéene the Saxons and Bri|tains. But now to go foorth with the historie, accor|ding to the order of our chronicles, as we doo find recorded touching the doings of Uortimer that was elected king (as ye haue heard) to gouerne in place of his father Uortigerne.

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