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4.34. What the Roman historiographer Mar|cellinus reporteth of the Scots, Picts, and Britains vnder the emperour Iulianus, Valen|tinianus and Valens, they send their vicegerents into Britaine, the disquietnesse of that time, London called Augusta, the worthie exploits of Theodosius in this Iland against the enimie, Valentinus a banished malefactor deuiseth his destruction, he is taken and executed, he refor|meth manie disorders and inconueniences, the first en|tring of the Saxons into Britaine, they are dawn [...]ed at the verie sight of the Romane ensignes, the Saxons lieng in wait for their eni|mies are slaine euerie mo|thers sonne. The xxxiiij. Chapter.

What the Roman historiographer Mar|cellinus reporteth of the Scots, Picts, and Britains vnder the emperour Iulianus, Valen|tinianus and Valens, they send their vicegerents into Britaine, the disquietnesse of that time, London called Augusta, the worthie exploits of Theodosius in this Iland against the enimie, Valentinus a banished malefactor deuiseth his destruction, he is taken and executed, he refor|meth manie disorders and inconueniences, the first en|tring of the Saxons into Britaine, they are dawn [...]ed at the verie sight of the Romane ensignes, the Saxons lieng in wait for their eni|mies are slaine euerie mo|thers sonne. The xxxiiij. Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _BUt now sith no mention is made of the Scots in ourMaximus. histories, till the daies of Maximus the vsurper or ty|rant, as some call him, who began his reigne here in Bri|taine about the yéere of our Lord 383,383 and that till after EEBO page image 72 he had bereft the land of the chiefest forces thereof, in taking the most part of the youth ouer with him: we find not in the same histories of anie troubles wrought to the Britains by that nation. Therefore we haue thought good héere to come backe to the for|mer times, that we may shew what is found men|tioned in the Romane histories, both before that time and after, as well concerning the Scots and Picts, as also the Saxons,Ammianus Marcellinus lib. 20. and especiallie in Ammianus Marcellinus, where in the beginning of his twentith booke intreating of the doings of the emperour Iu|lianus,The emperor Iulianus. he saith as followeth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In this state stood things in Illyricum or Slauonia, in and the east parts, at what time Constantius bare the office of consull the tenth time, and Iulianus the third time, that is to say, in the yéere of our Lord 360,360. when in Britaine quietnesse being disturbed by roads made by the Scots and Picts, which are wild and sauage people,Scots and Picts trouble the state of this Ile. the frontiers of the countrie were wasted, and feare oppressed the prouinces wearied with the heape of passed losses. The empe|ror [he meaneth Iulianus] as then remaining at Paris, and hauing his mind troubled with manie cares, doubted to go to the aid of them beyond the sea, as we haue shewed that Constantius did, least he should leaue them in Gallia without a ruler, the Almains being euen then prouoked and stirred vp to crueltie and warre.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 He thought good therefore to send Lupicinus vn|to these places to bring things into frame and order,Lupicinus sent into Britaine. which Lupicinus was at that time master of the ar|morie, a warlike person and skilfull in all points of chiualrie, but proud and high-minded beyond mea|sure, and such one as it was doubted long whether he was more couetous or cruell. Herevpon the said Lupicinus setting forward the light armed men of the Heruli and Bataui, [...] with diuers companies also of the people of Mesia now called Bulgarie; when winter was well entred and come on, he came him|selfe to Bulleine, and there prouiding ships, and im|barking his men, when the wind serued his purpose, he transported ouer vnto Sandwich,Rutupis. and so marched foorth vnto London, from thence purposing to set forward, as vpon aduise taken according to the qua|litie of his businesse he should thinke méet and ex|pedient.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the meane time, whilest Lupicinus was bu|sie here in Britaine to represse the enimies,Of the displa|cing of [...]hese men the lear|ned may sée more in Am. Mar. the em|perour Constantius displaced certeine officers, and among other he depriued the same Lupicinus of the office of the master of the armorie, appointing one Gumobarius to succeed him in that roome, before anie such thing was knowen in these parties. And where it was doubted least that Lupicinus (if he had vnderstood so much whilest he was yet in Britaine) would haue attempted some new trouble, as he was a man of a stout and loftie mind, he was called backe from thence, and withall there was sent a notarie vnto Bulleine, to watch that none should passe the seas ouer into Britaine till Lupicinus were retur|ned: and so returning ouer from thence yer he had anie knowledge what was doone by the emperour, he could make no sturre, hauing no such assistants in Gallia, as it was thought he might haue had in Britaine, if he should haue mooued rebellion there.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The same Marcellinus speaking of the doings a|bout the time that Ualentinianus,Lib. 26. being elected em|perour, had admitted his brother Ualens as fellow with him in gouernement,Ammianus Marcellinus lib. 26. hath these words. In this season as though trumpets had blowne the sound to battell through out the whole Romane empire, most cruell nations being stirred vp, inuaded the borders next adioining,The Almans. The Sar|matians. the Almans wasted and destroied the parts of Gallia and Rhetia, as the Sarmatians and Quadi did Pannonia,The Quadi. Picts and Saxons. the Picts, the Saxons, the Scots, and the Attacots vexed the Britains with continuall troubles, and gréeuous damages; the Austorians and the people of the Moores ouerran the countrie of Affrike more sharpelie than in time pastAustorians. The Goths. they had done; the pilfring troops of the Goths spoi|led Thracia; the king of Persia set in hand to sub|due the Armenians, and sought to bring them vnder his obeisance, hasting with all spéed toward Numo|nia, pretending (though vniustlie) that now after the deceasse of Iouinius, with whome he had contrac|ted a league and bond of peace, there was no cause of let what he ought not to recouer those things, which (as he alledged) did belong to his ancestors: and so foorth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Moreouer, the same Marcellinus in another place writeth in this wise,Lib. 27. where he speaketh of the said Ualentinianus. Departing therefore from A|miens, and hasting to Trier, he was troubled with gréeuous newes that were brought him, giuing him to vnderstand, that Britaine by a conspiracie of the barbarous nations was brought to vtter pouertie, that Nectaridus one of the emperours house earle of the sea coast,Comes maritimi tractus. hauing charge of the parties towards the sea, was slaine, and that the generall Bulcho|baudes was circumuented by traines of the eni|mies. These things with great horrour being knowne, he sent Seuerus as then erle, or (as I may call him lord steward of his houshold) to reforme things that were amisse,Comes domesti|corum. if hap would so permit, who being shortlie called backe, Iouinius going thither, and with spéed hasting forward, sent for more aid and a great power of men, as the instant necessitie then required. At length, for manie causes, and the same greatlie to be feared, the which were reported and ad|uertised out of that Ile, Theodosius was elected and appointed to go thither,Theodosius sent into Bri|taine. a man of approoued skill in warlike affaires, and calling togither an hardie youthfull number of the legions and cohorts of men of warre, he went foorth, no small hope being concei|ued of his good spéed; the fame wherof spred and went afore him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 A litle after, Marcellinus adding what people they were that troubled the Britains in this wise, saith thus. This shall suffice to be said,Picts diuided into two nations. Attacotti. that in this season the Picts diuided into two nations Dicalidones, and Victuriones, and in like maner the Attacotti a right warlike nation, and the Scots wandering here and there, made fowle woorke in places where they came. The confines of France were disquieted by the Frankeners and Saxons borderers vnto them, eue|rie one as they could breaking foorth, & dooing great harme by cruell spoile, fire, and taking of prisoners. To withstand those dooings if good fortune would giue him leaue,Theodosius passeth ouer into Britaine. that most able capteine going vnto the vttermost bounds of the earth, when he came to the coast of Bullen which is seuered from the contra|rie coast on the other side by the sea, with a narrow streight, where sometime the water goeth verie high and rough, & shortlie after becommeth calme & plea|sant, without hurt to those that passe the same, trans|porting ouer at leasure, he arriued at Sandwich (or rather Richburrow) where there is a quiet road for vessels to lie at anchor.Bataui Hol|landers. Wherevpon the Bataui and Heruli, with the souldiers of the legions called Iouij, and Victores, being companies that trusted well to their owne strength, marched foorth & drew towards London, an ancient citie, which now of late hath bin called Augusta.London cal|led Augusta. Herewith diuiding his armie into sundrie parts, he set vpon the troops of his enimies as they were abroad to forrey the countrie, pestered with burdens of their spoiles and pillage, and spéedi|lie putting them to flight, as they were leading a|way those prisoners which they had taken, with their EEBO page image 73 booties of cattell, he bereft them of their preie, the which the poore Britains that were tributaries had lost. To be briefe, restoring the whole, except a small portion bestowed amongst the wearie souldiers, he entred the citie which before was opprest with trou|bles, but now suddenlie refreshed, bicause there was hope of reliefe and assured preseruation.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this, when Theodosius was comforted with prosperous successe to attempt things of greater im|portance, and searching waies how with good aduise to woorke suerlie: whilest he remained doubtfull what would insue, he learned as well by the confession of prisoners taken, as also by the information of such as were fled from the enimies, that the scattered people of sundrie nations which with practise of great crueltie were become fierce and vndanted, could not be subdued but by policie secretlie practised, and sud|den inuasions. At length therefore setting foorth his proclamations, and promising pardon to those that were gone awaie from their capteins or charge, he called them backe againe to serue: and also those that by licence were departed and laie scattered here and there in places abroad. By this meanes, when manie were returned, he being on the one side ear|nestlie prouoked, and on the other holden backe with thoughtfull cares, required to haue one Ciuilis by name sent to him to haue the rule of the prouinces in Britaine in steed of the other gouernours,Theodosius requireth to haue Ciuilis sent to him. a man of sharpe wit, and an earnest mainteiner of iustice. He likewise required that one Dulcitius a capteine re|nowmed in knowledge of warlike affaires might be sent ouer to him for his better assistance.Dulcitius. These things were doone in Britaine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Againe, in his eight and twentith booke, the same Marcellinus reciting further what the same Theodo|sius atchiued in Britaine, hath in effect these words: Thedosius verelie a capteine of woorthie fame, ta|king a valiant courage to him, and departing from Augusta,London called Augusta. which men of old time called London, with souldiers assembled by great diligence, did succour and reléeue greatlie the decaied and troubled state of the Britains, preuenting euerie conuenient place where the barbarous people might lie in wait to doo mischiefe: and nothing he commanded the meane souldiers to doo, but that whereof he with a chéerefull mind would first take in hand to shew them in example. By this meanes accomplishing the roome of a valiant souldier, and fulfilling the charge of a noble capteine, he discomfited and put to flight sundrie nations, whome presumption (nou|rished by securitie) emboldened to inuade the Ro|mane prouinces: and so the cities and castels that had béene sore endamaged by manifold losses and displeasures, were restored to their former state of wealth, the foundation of rest and quietnesse being laid for a long season after to insue.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But as these things were a dooing, one wicked practise was in hand & like to haue burst foorth, to the gréeuous danger of setting things in broile, if it had not béene staied euen in the beginning of the first at|tempt. For there was one Ualentinus, borne in the parties of Ualeria adioining to Pannonia,Ualentinus. Ualeria now Stiermarke. now called Stiermarke, a man of a proud and loftie stomach, brother to the wife of Maximinus, which Ualentinus for some notable offense had béene ba|nished into Britaine, where the naughtie man that could not rest in quiet, deuised how by some com|motion he might destroy Theodosius, who as he saw was onelie able to resist his wicked purposes. And going about manie things both priuilie and apertlie, the force of his vnmeasurable desire to mischiefe still increasing, he sought to procure aswell other that were in semblable wise banished men, & inclined to mischiefe like him selfe, as also diuers of the souldi|ers, alluring them (as the time serued) with large promises of great wealth, if they would ioine with him in that enterprise. But euen now in the verie nicke, when they shuld haue gone in hand with their vngratious exploit, Theodosius warned of their in|tent, boldlie aduanced himselfe to sée due punish|ment executed on the offendors that were foorthwith taken and knowne to be guiltie in that conspiracie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Theodosius committed Ualentine with a few o|ther of his trustie complices vnto the capteine Dul|citius,Dulcitius is appointed to put Ualenti|nus to death. commanding him to sée them put to death: but coniecturing by his warlike skill (wherein he passed all other in those daies) what might follow, he would not in anie wise haue anie further inquirie made of the other conspirators, least through feare that might be spread abroad in manie, the troubles of the prouinces now well quieted, should be againe reuiued. After this, Theodosius disposing himselfe to redresse manie things as néed required, all dan|ger was quite remooued: so that it was most appa|rent, that fortune fauored him in such wise, that she left him not destitute of hir furtherance in anie one of all his attempts. He therefore restored the cities & castels that were appointed to be kept with garri|sons, and the borders he caused to be defended and garded with sufficient numbers to kéepe watch and ward in places necessarie. And hauing recouered the prouince which the enimies had gotten into their possession, he so restored it to the former state, that vpon his motion to haue it so,A part of Bri|taine called Ualentia. a lawfull gouernour was assigned to rule it, and the name was changed, so as from thencefoorth it should be called Ualentia for the princes pleasure.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Areani, a kind of men ordeined in times past by our elders (of whome somewhat we haue spoken in the acts of the emperour Constance) be|ing now by little and little fallen into vices, he re|mooued from their places of abiding, being openlie conuicted, that allured with bribes and faire promi|ses, they had oftentimes bewraied vnto the barba|rous nations what was doone among the Romans for this was their charge, to runne vp and downe by long iournies, and to giue warning to our cap|tains, what sturre the people of the next confines were about to make.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Theodosius therefore hauing ordered these & other like things,The praise of Theodosius. most woorthilie & to his high fame, was called home to the emperours court, who leauing the prouinces in most triumphant state, was highlie renowmed for his often and most profitable victo|ries, as if he had béene an other Camillus or Cursor Papirius, and with the fauor and loue of all men was conueied vnto the sea side; and passing ouer with a gentle wind, came to the court, where he was receiued with great gladnesse and commendation, being immediatlie appointed to succéed in the roome of Ualence Iouinus that was maister of the hors|ses. Finallie, he was called by the emperour Gra|tianus, to be associated with him in the imperiall estate, after the death of Ualence, in the yeare after the incarnation of our Sauior 379,379 Wil. Har. and reigned em|perour, surnamed Thodosius the great, about 16 yeares and 2 daies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Hereto also maie that be applied which the foresaid Marcellinus writeth in the same booke, touching the inuasion of the Saxons,Wolf. Lazi. the which (as Wolf. La|zius taketh it) entred then first into great Britaine, but were repelled of the emperour Ualentinianus the first,Seuerus. by the conduct and guiding of Seuerus. The same yéere (saith he) that the emperours were the third time consuls, there brake forth a mul|titude of Saxons, & passing the seas, entred strong|lie into the Romane confines: a nation fed often|times with the slaughter of our people, the brunt of EEBO page image 74 whose first inuasion earle Nonneus susteined,Nonneus Co [...]es. one which was appointed to defend those parties, an ap|prooued capteine, & with continuall trauell in warres verie expert. But then incountring with desperate and forlorne people, when he perceiued some of his souldiers to be ouerthrowne and beaten downe, and himselfe wounded, not able to abide the often as|saults of his enimies, he obteined this by informing the emperour what was necessarie and ought to be doone,Seuerus coronell of the footmen. insomuch that Seuerus, maister or (as I maie call him) coronell of the footmen, was sent to helpe and reléeue things that stood in danger: the which bringing a sufficient power with him for the state of that businesse, when he came to those places, he diuiding his armie into parts, put the Saxons in such feare and trouble before they fought, that they did not so much as take weapon in hand to make re|sistance, but being amazed with the sight of the glit|tering ensignes, & the eagles figured in the Romane standards, they streight made sute for peace, and at length after the matter was debated in sundrie wise (because it was iudged that it should be profitable for the Romane commonwealth) truce was gran|ted vnto them, and manie yoong men (able for ser|uice in the warres) deliuered to the Romans accor|ding to the couenants concluded.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this the Saxons were permitted to depart without impeachment, & so to returne from whence they came, who being now out of all feare, and pre|paring to go their waies, diuers bands of footmen were sent to lie priuilie in a certeine hid vallie so ambushed, as they might easilie breake foorth vpon the enimies as they passed by them. But it chanced far otherwise than they supposed, for certeine of those footmen stirred with the noise of them as they were comming, brake foorth out of time, and being sudden|lie discouered whilest they hasted to vnite and knit themselues togither, by the hideous crie and shout of the Saxons they were put to flight. Yet by and by closing togither againe, they staied, and the ex|tremitie of the chance ministring to them force (though not sufficient) they were driuen to fight it out, and being beaten downe with great slaughter, had died euerie mothers sonne, if a troope of horsse|men armed at all points (being in like maner pla|ced in an other side at the entring of the waie to as|saile the enimies as they should passe) aduertised by the dolefull noise of them that fought, had not spée|dilie come to the succour of their fellowes.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Then ran they togither more cruellie than before, and the Romans bending themselues towards their enimies, compassed them in on each side, and with drawne swords slue them downe right, so that there was not one of them left to returne home to their natiue countrie to bring newes how they had sped, nor one suffered to liue after anothers death, either to reuenge their ruine, or to lement their losse. Thus were the limits of the Romane empire pre|serued at that time in Britaine, which should séeme to be about the yéere of our Lord 399.399

¶Thus were the Romans, as commonlie in all their martiall affaires, so in this incounter verie for|tunate, the happie issue of the conflict faling out on their side. And strange it is to consider and marke, how these people by a celestiall kind of influence were begotten and borne as it were to prowesse and renowme; the course of their dealings in the field most aptlie answering to their name. For (as some suppose) the Romans were called of the Gréeke word [...],Solinus. Adr. Iun. signifieng power and mightinesse: and in old time they were called Ualentians, A valendo, of pre|uailing: so that it was no maruell though they were victorious subduers of forren people, sithens they were by nature created and appointed to be conque|rors, and thereof had their denomination.

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