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4.32. Honorius sendeth earle Constantius to expell Constantine out of Gallia, the end of Constantinus the father and Constans the sonne, the valure and prowesse of the British souldiers, the British writers reprooued of nec|ligences for that thiy haue inserted fables into their woorkes, whereas they might haue deposed matters of truth. The xxxij. Chapter.

Honorius sendeth earle Constantius to expell Constantine out of Gallia, the end of Constantinus the father and Constans the sonne, the valure and prowesse of the British souldiers, the British writers reprooued of nec|ligences for that thiy haue inserted fables into their woorkes, whereas they might haue deposed matters of truth. The xxxij. Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 _THe emperour Honorius, perceiuing the réeling state of the empire, determined foorthwith to recouer it, be|fore it fell altogither into ru|ine: and therefore sent one Constantius an earle to driue Constantine out of Gallia, which he accordinglie performed: for after certeine bickerings, he slue the said Constantine at Arles, although not without great bloudshed. He pursued also the residue of the Britains, driuing them to the verie sea coasts, where they shrowded themselues among the other Britains, that before were setled in the countrie there, ancientlie called (as before we said) Armorica, that is, a region li|eng on the sea coast: for Ar in the British toong signifieth vpon; and Moure, perteining to the sea. And as this Constantine the father was slaine by Constantius, so was Constans the sonne killed at Uienna by one of his owne capteines named Ge|r [...]ntius. Whereby it came to passe, that Honorius shortlie after, hauing thus obteined the victorie of both these vsurpers, recouered the Ile, but yet not till the yeare next following, and that by the high indu|strie and great diligence of that valiant gentleman earle Constantius. The slaughter of Constantine & his sonne happened in the 1 yeare of the 297 O|lympiad, 465 after the comming of Cesar, 1162 after the building of Rome, the dominicall letter being A, and the golden number 13, so that the reco|uering of the Iland fell in the yeare of our Lord 411.411 Here also is eftsoones to be considered the valure of the British souldiers, who following this last re|membred Constantine the vsurper, did put the Ro|mane state in great danger, and by force brake through into Spaine, vanquishing those that kept the streicts of the mounteins betwixt Spaine and Gallia, now called France, an exploit of no small consequence, sith thereby the number of barbarous nations got frée passage to enter into Spaine, whereof insued manie battels, sacking of cities and townes, and wasting of the countries, according|lie as the furious rage of those fierce people was mooued to put their crueltie in practise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 ¶If therefore the Britaine writers had conside|red and marked the valiant exploits and noble en|terprises which the Brittish aids, armies and legions atchiued in seruice of the Romane emperours (by whome whilest they had the gouernement ouer this Ile, there were at sundrie times notable numbers conueied foorth into the parties of beyond the seas, as by Albinus and Constantius, also by his sonne Constantine the great, by Maximus, and by this Constantine, both of them vsurpers) if (I saie) the British writers had taken good note of the num|bers of the British youth thus conueied ouer from hence, & what notable exploits they boldlie attemp|ted, & no lesse manfullie atchiued, they néeded not to haue giuen eare vnto the fabulous reports for|ged by their Bards, of Arthur and other their prin|ces, woorthie in déed of verie high commendation.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And pitie it is, that their fame should be brought by such meanes out of credit, by the incredible and fond fables which haue béene deuised of their acts so vnlike to be true, as the tales of Robin Hood, or the gests written by Ariost the Italian in his booke in|tituled Orlando furioso, sith the same writers had other|wise true matter inough to write of concerning the worthie feats by their countriemen in those daies in forren parts boldlie enterprised, and no lesse valiantlie accomplished, as also the warres which now and then they mainteined against the Ro|mans here at home, in times when they felt them|selues oppressed by their tyrannicall gouernment, as by that which is written before of Caratacus, Uo|adicia, Cartimandua, Uenusius, Galgagus, or Galdus (as some name him) and diuers other, who for their noble valiancies deserue as much praise, as by toong or pen is able to be expressed. But now to returne vnto the British historie: we will pro|céed in order with their kings as we find them in the same mentioned, and therefore we haue thought good to speake somewhat further of Gratian, from whome we haue digressed.

4.33. Gratians rough regiment procureth his owne destruction, the comming of his two brethren Guanius and Melga with their armies, the Scots and Picts plague the Britains, they send for aid to Rome, Valentinian sendeth Gal|lio Rauenna to releeue them, the Romans refuse anie longer to succour the Britains, whom they taught how to make ar|mour and weapons, the Scots and Picts enter afresh into Bri|taine and preuaile, the Britains are brought to extreme mi|serie, ciuill warres among them, and what mischiefe dooth follow therevpon, their lamentable letter to Actius for succour against their enimies, their sute is denied, at what time the Britains ceased to be tributaries to the Romans, they send ambassadors to the K. of Britaine in France, and obteine their sute. The xxxiij. Chapter.

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Gratians rough regiment procureth his owne destruction, the comming of his two brethren Guanius and Melga with their armies, the Scots and Picts plague the Britains, they send for aid to Rome, Valentinian sendeth Gal|lio Rauenna to releeue them, the Romans refuse anie longer to succour the Britains, whom they taught how to make ar|mour and weapons, the Scots and Picts enter afresh into Bri|taine and preuaile, the Britains are brought to extreme mi|serie, ciuill warres among them, and what mischiefe dooth follow therevpon, their lamentable letter to Actius for succour against their enimies, their sute is denied, at what time the Britains ceased to be tributaries to the Romans, they send ambassadors to the K. of Britaine in France, and obteine their sute. The xxxiij. Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _GRatianus then,Gratia|nus. whome Maximus or Maximinus had sent into Britaine (as before ye haue heard) hearing that his maister was slaine, tooke vpon him the rule of this our Britaine, and made himselfe king therof, in the yeare 390. He was a Britaine borne, as Polydor writeth, coniecturing so,390. by that he is named of authors to be Municeps, that is to saie, a frée man of the countrie or citie where he inhabited. For his sternehesse and rough gouernement, he was of the Britains (as the histories alledge)Of the Ro|mane souldi|ers as Blon|dus saith. slaine and dispatched out of the waie, after he had reigned the space of foure yeares, or rather foure moneths, as should seeme by that which is found in autentike writers. Then the forenamed kings Guanius and Melga, which (as some write) were brethren,Galfrid. Caxton. returned into this land with their armies increased with new supplies of men of warre, as Scots, Danes, the Norwegi|ans, and destroied the countrie from side to side. For the Britains in this season were sore inféebled, and were not able to make anie great numbers of souldiers, by reason that Maximus had led foorth of the land the floure and chiefest choise of all the Bri|tish youth into Gallia,Galfrid. Matth. West. Caxton. as before ye haue heard.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Gyldas maketh no mention of these two kings Guanius and Melga of the Hunnes,Gyldas. but rehear|sing this great destruction of the land, declareth (as before ye haue heard) that the Scots and Picts were the same that did all the mischiefe, whome he calleth two nations of beyond the seas, the Scots comming out of the northwest, and the Picts out of the northeast, by whome (as he saith) the land was ouerrun, and brought vnder foot manie yeares af|ter. Therefore the Britains being thus vexed, spoi|led, and cruellie persecuted by the Scots and Picts (if we shall so take them) sent messengers with all spéed vnto Rome to make sute for some aid of men of war to be sent into Britaine. Wherevpon imme|diatlie a legion of souldiers was sent thither in the yéere 414,414. which easilie repelled the enimies, and chased them backe with great slaughter, to the great comfort of the Britains, the which by this meanes were deliuered from danger of vtter destruction, as they thought.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But the Romans being occasioned to depart a|gaine out of the land, appointed the Britains to make a wall (as had béene aforetime by the em|perours Adrian, Antoninus and Seuerus ouer|thwart the countrie from sea to sea,Beda and Polychron. stretching from Penuelton vnto the citie of Aclud, whereby the eni|mies might be staid from entring the land: but this wall being made of turfs and sods, rather than with stones, after the departure of the Romans was easi|lie ouerthrowne by the Scots and Picts, which eut|soones returned to inuade the confines of the Bri|tains, and so entring the countrie, wasted and de|stroied the places before them, according to their former custome. Herevpon were messengers with most lamentable letters againe dispatched towardsGyldas. Polychron. Beda. Matth West. Rome for new aid against those cruell enimies, with promise, that if the Romans would now in this great necessitie helpe to deliuer the land, they should be assured to find the Britains euermore obedient subiects, and redie at their commandement. Ua|lentinianus (pitieng the case of the poore Britains)Blondus. appointed another legion of souldiers (of the which one Gallio of Rauenna had the leading)Gallio Ra|uenna sent into Brit|taine. to go to their succours, the which arriuing in Britaine set on the enimies, and giuing them the ouerthrow, slue a great number of them, and chased the residue out of the countrie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Romans thus hauing obteined the victorie, declared to the Britains, that from thencefoorth they would not take vpon them for euerie light oc|casion so painefull a iournie, alledging how there was no reason why the Romane ensignes, with such a number of men of warre, should be put to tra|uell so far by sea and land, for the repelling and bea|ting backe of a sort of scattering rouers and pilfring théeues. Wherfore they aduised the Britains to looke to their dueties, and like men to indeuour them|selues to defend their countrie by their owne force from the enimies inuasions. And because they iud|ged it might be an helpe to the Britains, they set in hand to build a wall yet once againe ouerthward the Ile, in the same place where the emperour SeuerusA wall built ouerthwart the Iland Beda. caused his trench and rampire to be cast. This wall which the Romans now built with helpe of the Bri|tains, was 8 foot in bredth and 12 in length, trauer|sing the land from east to west, & was made of stone.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After that this wall was finished,Gyldas and Beda. the Romans exhorted the Britains to plaie the men, and shewed them the way how to make armor & weapons. Be|sides this, on the coast of the east sea where their ships lay at rode, & where it was douted that the enimies would land, they caused towers to be erected, with spaces betwixt, out of the which the seas might be dis|couered. These things ordered, the Romans bad the Britains farewell, not minding to returne thither againe.Gyldas. The Romans then being gon out of the land, the Scots and Picts knowing thereof, by & by came againe by sea, & being more emboldened than before, bicause of the deniall made by the Romans to come any more to the succor of the Britains, they tooke in|to possession all the north and vttermost bounds of the Ile, euen vnto the foresaid wall, therein to re|maine as inhabitans.This chanced in the yere 43. as M. W. saith And wheras the Britains got them to their wall to defend the same, that the eni|mies should not passe further into the countrie, they were in the end beaten from it, and diuers of them slaine, so that the Scots and Picts entred vpon them and pursued them in more cruell maner than before, so that the Britains being chased out of their cities, townes, and dwelling houses, were constreined to flie into desert places, and there to remaine and liue after the maner of sauage people, and in the end be|gan to rob and spoile one another, so to auoid the dan|ger of staruing for lacke of food: and thus at the last the countrie was so destroied and wasted, that there was no other shift for them that was left aliue to liue by, except onelie by hunting and taking of wild beasts and foules. And to augment their miserie, the commons imputing the fault to rest in the lords and Hector Boet. Rebellion. gouernors, arose against them in armes, but were vanquished and easilie put to fight at two seuerall times, being beaten downe and slaine (through lacke of skill) in such numbers, especiallie the latter time, EEBO page image 71 that the residue which escaped, withdrew into the craggie mounteins, where within the bushes and caues they kept themselues close, sometimes com|ming downe and fetching away from the heards of beasts and flocks of shéepe which belonged to the no|bles and gentlemen of the countrie, great booties to relieue them withall. But at length oppressed with ex|treme famine, when neither part could long remaine in this state, as néeding one anothers helpe, necessi|tie made peace betwixt the lords and commons of the land, all iniuries being pardoned and cléerelie for|giuen. This ciuill warre decaied for force of the Britains,Ciuill warre decaied the force of the Britains. What mis|chiefe follow of ciuill warres. little lesse than the tyrannicall practises of Maximus, for by the auoiding of the commons thus out of their houses, the ground laie vntilled, whereof insued such famine for the space of thrée yéeres togi|ther, that a woonderfull number of people died for want of sustenance.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus the Britains being brought generallie in|to such extreame miserie, they thought good to trie if they might purchase some aid of that noble man Ac|tius,Actius. which at that time remained in France as yet called Gallia, gouerning the same as lieutenant vnder the emperor Honorius: and herevpon taking counsell togither, they wrote a letter to him, the te|nor whereof insueth.

4.33.1. To Actius thrise consull.

To Actius thrise consull.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _THe lamentable request of vs the Bri|tains, beseeching you of aid to bee ministred vnto the prouince of the Romane empire, vnto our countrie, vnto our wiues and children at this present, which stand in most extreame perill. For the barbarous people driue vs to the sea, and the sea driueth vs backe vnto them againe. Hereof rise two kinds of death, for either we are slaine, or drowned, and against such euils haue we no remedie nor helpe at all. Therefore in respct of your clemencie, succor your owne we most instantlie require you, &c.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Notwithstanding the Britains thus sought for aid at Actius hands as then the emperours lieutenant,The Bri|tains could get no aid frõ the Romans. yet could they get none; either for that Actius would not, as he that passed litle how things went, bicause he bare displeasure in his mind against Ualentinian as then emperor; or else for that he could not, being o|therwise constreined to imploie all his forces in o|ther places against such barbarous nations as then inuaded the Romane empire. And so by that means was Britaine lost, and the tribute which the Bri|tains were accustomed to pay to the Romans ceas|sed, iust fiue hundred yéeres after that Iulius Ce|sar first entred the Ile.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Britains being thus put to their shifts, ma|nie of them as hunger-starued were constrained to yéeld themselues into the griping hands of their eni|mies, whereas other yet kéeping within the moun|teins, woods and caues, brake out as occasion ser|ued vpon their aduersaries, and then first (saith Gyl|das) did the Britains not putting their trust in man but in God (according to the saieng of Philo, Where mans helpe faileth, it is needfull that Gods helpe be present) make slaughter of their enimies that had béene accustomed manie yéeres to rob and spoile them in maner as before is recited, and so the bold attempts of the enimies ceassed for a time,Punishment ceaseth, but sin increaseth. but the wickednesse of the British people ceassed not at all. The enimies departed out of the land, but the inha|bitants departed not from their naughtie dooings, being not so readie to put backe the common eni|mies, as to exercise ciuill warre and discord among themselues. The wicked Irish people departed home, to make returne againe within a while after. But the Picts settled themselues first at that season in the vttermost bounds of the Ile, and there conti|nued, making insurrections oftentimes vpon their neighbours, and spoiling them of their goods.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This with more also hath Gyldas, and likewise Beda written of this great desolation of the British Galfridus. Gyldas his words are to be considered. people: wherein if the words of Gyldas be well weighed and considered, it maie lead vs to thinke, that the Scots had no habitations here in Bri|taine, but onelie in Ireland, till after this season, and that at this present time the Picts, which before inhabited within the Iles of Orkenie, now placed themselues in the north parts of Scotland, and after by processe of time came and nestled themselues in Louthian, in the Mers, and other countries more neere to our borders. But to procéed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 The British histories affirme, that whilest the Bri|tains were thus persecuted by these two most cruell and fierce nations the Scots and Picts, the noble and chiefest men amongst them consulted togither, & concluded to send an honorable ambassage vnto Al|droenus as then king of little Britaine in Gallia,An ambassage sent from the Britains vn|to Aldroenus king of Bri|taine in France. which Aldroenus was the fourth from Cnoan Meri|doc the first king there of the British nation. Of this ambassage the archbishop of London named Gue|theline or Gosseline was appointed the chiefe and principall, who passing ouer into little Britaine, and comming before the presence of Aldroenus, so decla|red the effect of his message, that his suit was gran|ted. For Aldroenus agréed to send his brother Con|stantine ouer into great Britaine with a conuenient power,Constantine the brother of Aldroenus. vpon condition, that the victorie being ob|teined against the enimies, the Britains should make him king of great Britaine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 ¶Thus it is apparent, that this land of Britaine was without anie certeine gouernour (after that Gratian the vsurper was dispatched) a number of yéeres togither, but how manie, writers in their ac|count do varie.Fabian. Fabian deposeth by diuers coniecturs that the space betwixt the death of Gratian, and the beginning of the reigne of the said Constantine, brother; to Aldroenus, continued nine and thirtie yéeres, during which time the Britains were sore and miserablie afflicted by the inuasions of the Scots and Picts, as before ye haue heard by testimonies taken out of Beda, Gyldas, Geffrey of Monmouth, and other writers both British and English.

4.34. What the Roman historiographer Mar|cellinus reporteth of the Scots, Picts, and Britains vnder the emperour Iulianus, Valen|tinianus and Valens, they send their vicegerents into Britaine, the disquietnesse of that time, London called Augusta, the worthie exploits of Theodosius in this Iland against the enimie, Valentinus a banished malefactor deuiseth his destruction, he is taken and executed, he refor|meth manie disorders and inconueniences, the first en|tring of the Saxons into Britaine, they are dawn [...]ed at the verie sight of the Romane ensignes, the Saxons lieng in wait for their eni|mies are slaine euerie mo|thers sonne. The xxxiiij. Chapter.

What the Roman historiographer Mar|cellinus reporteth of the Scots, Picts, and Britains vnder the emperour Iulianus, Valen|tinianus and Valens, they send their vicegerents into Britaine, the disquietnesse of that time, London called Augusta, the worthie exploits of Theodosius in this Iland against the enimie, Valentinus a banished malefactor deuiseth his destruction, he is taken and executed, he refor|meth manie disorders and inconueniences, the first en|tring of the Saxons into Britaine, they are dawn [...]ed at the verie sight of the Romane ensignes, the Saxons lieng in wait for their eni|mies are slaine euerie mo|thers sonne. The xxxiiij. Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _BUt now sith no mention is made of the Scots in ourMaximus. histories, till the daies of Maximus the vsurper or ty|rant, as some call him, who began his reigne here in Bri|taine about the yéere of our Lord 383,383 and that till after EEBO page image 72 he had bereft the land of the chiefest forces thereof, in taking the most part of the youth ouer with him: we find not in the same histories of anie troubles wrought to the Britains by that nation. Therefore we haue thought good héere to come backe to the for|mer times, that we may shew what is found men|tioned in the Romane histories, both before that time and after, as well concerning the Scots and Picts, as also the Saxons,Ammianus Marcellinus lib. 20. and especiallie in Ammianus Marcellinus, where in the beginning of his twentith booke intreating of the doings of the emperour Iu|lianus,The emperor Iulianus. he saith as followeth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In this state stood things in Illyricum or Slauonia, in and the east parts, at what time Constantius bare the office of consull the tenth time, and Iulianus the third time, that is to say, in the yéere of our Lord 360,360. when in Britaine quietnesse being disturbed by roads made by the Scots and Picts, which are wild and sauage people,Scots and Picts trouble the state of this Ile. the frontiers of the countrie were wasted, and feare oppressed the prouinces wearied with the heape of passed losses. The empe|ror [he meaneth Iulianus] as then remaining at Paris, and hauing his mind troubled with manie cares, doubted to go to the aid of them beyond the sea, as we haue shewed that Constantius did, least he should leaue them in Gallia without a ruler, the Almains being euen then prouoked and stirred vp to crueltie and warre.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 He thought good therefore to send Lupicinus vn|to these places to bring things into frame and order,Lupicinus sent into Britaine. which Lupicinus was at that time master of the ar|morie, a warlike person and skilfull in all points of chiualrie, but proud and high-minded beyond mea|sure, and such one as it was doubted long whether he was more couetous or cruell. Herevpon the said Lupicinus setting forward the light armed men of the Heruli and Bataui, [...] with diuers companies also of the people of Mesia now called Bulgarie; when winter was well entred and come on, he came him|selfe to Bulleine, and there prouiding ships, and im|barking his men, when the wind serued his purpose, he transported ouer vnto Sandwich,Rutupis. and so marched foorth vnto London, from thence purposing to set forward, as vpon aduise taken according to the qua|litie of his businesse he should thinke méet and ex|pedient.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the meane time, whilest Lupicinus was bu|sie here in Britaine to represse the enimies,Of the displa|cing of [...]hese men the lear|ned may sée more in Am. Mar. the em|perour Constantius displaced certeine officers, and among other he depriued the same Lupicinus of the office of the master of the armorie, appointing one Gumobarius to succeed him in that roome, before anie such thing was knowen in these parties. And where it was doubted least that Lupicinus (if he had vnderstood so much whilest he was yet in Britaine) would haue attempted some new trouble, as he was a man of a stout and loftie mind, he was called backe from thence, and withall there was sent a notarie vnto Bulleine, to watch that none should passe the seas ouer into Britaine till Lupicinus were retur|ned: and so returning ouer from thence yer he had anie knowledge what was doone by the emperour, he could make no sturre, hauing no such assistants in Gallia, as it was thought he might haue had in Britaine, if he should haue mooued rebellion there.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The same Marcellinus speaking of the doings a|bout the time that Ualentinianus,Lib. 26. being elected em|perour, had admitted his brother Ualens as fellow with him in gouernement,Ammianus Marcellinus lib. 26. hath these words. In this season as though trumpets had blowne the sound to battell through out the whole Romane empire, most cruell nations being stirred vp, inuaded the borders next adioining,The Almans. The Sar|matians. the Almans wasted and destroied the parts of Gallia and Rhetia, as the Sarmatians and Quadi did Pannonia,The Quadi. Picts and Saxons. the Picts, the Saxons, the Scots, and the Attacots vexed the Britains with continuall troubles, and gréeuous damages; the Austorians and the people of the Moores ouerran the countrie of Affrike more sharpelie than in time pastAustorians. The Goths. they had done; the pilfring troops of the Goths spoi|led Thracia; the king of Persia set in hand to sub|due the Armenians, and sought to bring them vnder his obeisance, hasting with all spéed toward Numo|nia, pretending (though vniustlie) that now after the deceasse of Iouinius, with whome he had contrac|ted a league and bond of peace, there was no cause of let what he ought not to recouer those things, which (as he alledged) did belong to his ancestors: and so foorth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Moreouer, the same Marcellinus in another place writeth in this wise,Lib. 27. where he speaketh of the said Ualentinianus. Departing therefore from A|miens, and hasting to Trier, he was troubled with gréeuous newes that were brought him, giuing him to vnderstand, that Britaine by a conspiracie of the barbarous nations was brought to vtter pouertie, that Nectaridus one of the emperours house earle of the sea coast,Comes maritimi tractus. hauing charge of the parties towards the sea, was slaine, and that the generall Bulcho|baudes was circumuented by traines of the eni|mies. These things with great horrour being knowne, he sent Seuerus as then erle, or (as I may call him lord steward of his houshold) to reforme things that were amisse,Comes domesti|corum. if hap would so permit, who being shortlie called backe, Iouinius going thither, and with spéed hasting forward, sent for more aid and a great power of men, as the instant necessitie then required. At length, for manie causes, and the same greatlie to be feared, the which were reported and ad|uertised out of that Ile, Theodosius was elected and appointed to go thither,Theodosius sent into Bri|taine. a man of approoued skill in warlike affaires, and calling togither an hardie youthfull number of the legions and cohorts of men of warre, he went foorth, no small hope being concei|ued of his good spéed; the fame wherof spred and went afore him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 A litle after, Marcellinus adding what people they were that troubled the Britains in this wise, saith thus. This shall suffice to be said,Picts diuided into two nations. Attacotti. that in this season the Picts diuided into two nations Dicalidones, and Victuriones, and in like maner the Attacotti a right warlike nation, and the Scots wandering here and there, made fowle woorke in places where they came. The confines of France were disquieted by the Frankeners and Saxons borderers vnto them, eue|rie one as they could breaking foorth, & dooing great harme by cruell spoile, fire, and taking of prisoners. To withstand those dooings if good fortune would giue him leaue,Theodosius passeth ouer into Britaine. that most able capteine going vnto the vttermost bounds of the earth, when he came to the coast of Bullen which is seuered from the contra|rie coast on the other side by the sea, with a narrow streight, where sometime the water goeth verie high and rough, & shortlie after becommeth calme & plea|sant, without hurt to those that passe the same, trans|porting ouer at leasure, he arriued at Sandwich (or rather Richburrow) where there is a quiet road for vessels to lie at anchor.Bataui Hol|landers. Wherevpon the Bataui and Heruli, with the souldiers of the legions called Iouij, and Victores, being companies that trusted well to their owne strength, marched foorth & drew towards London, an ancient citie, which now of late hath bin called Augusta.London cal|led Augusta. Herewith diuiding his armie into sundrie parts, he set vpon the troops of his enimies as they were abroad to forrey the countrie, pestered with burdens of their spoiles and pillage, and spéedi|lie putting them to flight, as they were leading a|way those prisoners which they had taken, with their EEBO page image 73 booties of cattell, he bereft them of their preie, the which the poore Britains that were tributaries had lost. To be briefe, restoring the whole, except a small portion bestowed amongst the wearie souldiers, he entred the citie which before was opprest with trou|bles, but now suddenlie refreshed, bicause there was hope of reliefe and assured preseruation.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this, when Theodosius was comforted with prosperous successe to attempt things of greater im|portance, and searching waies how with good aduise to woorke suerlie: whilest he remained doubtfull what would insue, he learned as well by the confession of prisoners taken, as also by the information of such as were fled from the enimies, that the scattered people of sundrie nations which with practise of great crueltie were become fierce and vndanted, could not be subdued but by policie secretlie practised, and sud|den inuasions. At length therefore setting foorth his proclamations, and promising pardon to those that were gone awaie from their capteins or charge, he called them backe againe to serue: and also those that by licence were departed and laie scattered here and there in places abroad. By this meanes, when manie were returned, he being on the one side ear|nestlie prouoked, and on the other holden backe with thoughtfull cares, required to haue one Ciuilis by name sent to him to haue the rule of the prouinces in Britaine in steed of the other gouernours,Theodosius requireth to haue Ciuilis sent to him. a man of sharpe wit, and an earnest mainteiner of iustice. He likewise required that one Dulcitius a capteine re|nowmed in knowledge of warlike affaires might be sent ouer to him for his better assistance.Dulcitius. These things were doone in Britaine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Againe, in his eight and twentith booke, the same Marcellinus reciting further what the same Theodo|sius atchiued in Britaine, hath in effect these words: Thedosius verelie a capteine of woorthie fame, ta|king a valiant courage to him, and departing from Augusta,London called Augusta. which men of old time called London, with souldiers assembled by great diligence, did succour and reléeue greatlie the decaied and troubled state of the Britains, preuenting euerie conuenient place where the barbarous people might lie in wait to doo mischiefe: and nothing he commanded the meane souldiers to doo, but that whereof he with a chéerefull mind would first take in hand to shew them in example. By this meanes accomplishing the roome of a valiant souldier, and fulfilling the charge of a noble capteine, he discomfited and put to flight sundrie nations, whome presumption (nou|rished by securitie) emboldened to inuade the Ro|mane prouinces: and so the cities and castels that had béene sore endamaged by manifold losses and displeasures, were restored to their former state of wealth, the foundation of rest and quietnesse being laid for a long season after to insue.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But as these things were a dooing, one wicked practise was in hand & like to haue burst foorth, to the gréeuous danger of setting things in broile, if it had not béene staied euen in the beginning of the first at|tempt. For there was one Ualentinus, borne in the parties of Ualeria adioining to Pannonia,Ualentinus. Ualeria now Stiermarke. now called Stiermarke, a man of a proud and loftie stomach, brother to the wife of Maximinus, which Ualentinus for some notable offense had béene ba|nished into Britaine, where the naughtie man that could not rest in quiet, deuised how by some com|motion he might destroy Theodosius, who as he saw was onelie able to resist his wicked purposes. And going about manie things both priuilie and apertlie, the force of his vnmeasurable desire to mischiefe still increasing, he sought to procure aswell other that were in semblable wise banished men, & inclined to mischiefe like him selfe, as also diuers of the souldi|ers, alluring them (as the time serued) with large promises of great wealth, if they would ioine with him in that enterprise. But euen now in the verie nicke, when they shuld haue gone in hand with their vngratious exploit, Theodosius warned of their in|tent, boldlie aduanced himselfe to sée due punish|ment executed on the offendors that were foorthwith taken and knowne to be guiltie in that conspiracie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Theodosius committed Ualentine with a few o|ther of his trustie complices vnto the capteine Dul|citius,Dulcitius is appointed to put Ualenti|nus to death. commanding him to sée them put to death: but coniecturing by his warlike skill (wherein he passed all other in those daies) what might follow, he would not in anie wise haue anie further inquirie made of the other conspirators, least through feare that might be spread abroad in manie, the troubles of the prouinces now well quieted, should be againe reuiued. After this, Theodosius disposing himselfe to redresse manie things as néed required, all dan|ger was quite remooued: so that it was most appa|rent, that fortune fauored him in such wise, that she left him not destitute of hir furtherance in anie one of all his attempts. He therefore restored the cities & castels that were appointed to be kept with garri|sons, and the borders he caused to be defended and garded with sufficient numbers to kéepe watch and ward in places necessarie. And hauing recouered the prouince which the enimies had gotten into their possession, he so restored it to the former state, that vpon his motion to haue it so,A part of Bri|taine called Ualentia. a lawfull gouernour was assigned to rule it, and the name was changed, so as from thencefoorth it should be called Ualentia for the princes pleasure.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Areani, a kind of men ordeined in times past by our elders (of whome somewhat we haue spoken in the acts of the emperour Constance) be|ing now by little and little fallen into vices, he re|mooued from their places of abiding, being openlie conuicted, that allured with bribes and faire promi|ses, they had oftentimes bewraied vnto the barba|rous nations what was doone among the Romans for this was their charge, to runne vp and downe by long iournies, and to giue warning to our cap|tains, what sturre the people of the next confines were about to make.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Theodosius therefore hauing ordered these & other like things,The praise of Theodosius. most woorthilie & to his high fame, was called home to the emperours court, who leauing the prouinces in most triumphant state, was highlie renowmed for his often and most profitable victo|ries, as if he had béene an other Camillus or Cursor Papirius, and with the fauor and loue of all men was conueied vnto the sea side; and passing ouer with a gentle wind, came to the court, where he was receiued with great gladnesse and commendation, being immediatlie appointed to succéed in the roome of Ualence Iouinus that was maister of the hors|ses. Finallie, he was called by the emperour Gra|tianus, to be associated with him in the imperiall estate, after the death of Ualence, in the yeare after the incarnation of our Sauior 379,379 Wil. Har. and reigned em|perour, surnamed Thodosius the great, about 16 yeares and 2 daies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Hereto also maie that be applied which the foresaid Marcellinus writeth in the same booke, touching the inuasion of the Saxons,Wolf. Lazi. the which (as Wolf. La|zius taketh it) entred then first into great Britaine, but were repelled of the emperour Ualentinianus the first,Seuerus. by the conduct and guiding of Seuerus. The same yéere (saith he) that the emperours were the third time consuls, there brake forth a mul|titude of Saxons, & passing the seas, entred strong|lie into the Romane confines: a nation fed often|times with the slaughter of our people, the brunt of EEBO page image 74 whose first inuasion earle Nonneus susteined,Nonneus Co [...]es. one which was appointed to defend those parties, an ap|prooued capteine, & with continuall trauell in warres verie expert. But then incountring with desperate and forlorne people, when he perceiued some of his souldiers to be ouerthrowne and beaten downe, and himselfe wounded, not able to abide the often as|saults of his enimies, he obteined this by informing the emperour what was necessarie and ought to be doone,Seuerus coronell of the footmen. insomuch that Seuerus, maister or (as I maie call him) coronell of the footmen, was sent to helpe and reléeue things that stood in danger: the which bringing a sufficient power with him for the state of that businesse, when he came to those places, he diuiding his armie into parts, put the Saxons in such feare and trouble before they fought, that they did not so much as take weapon in hand to make re|sistance, but being amazed with the sight of the glit|tering ensignes, & the eagles figured in the Romane standards, they streight made sute for peace, and at length after the matter was debated in sundrie wise (because it was iudged that it should be profitable for the Romane commonwealth) truce was gran|ted vnto them, and manie yoong men (able for ser|uice in the warres) deliuered to the Romans accor|ding to the couenants concluded.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this the Saxons were permitted to depart without impeachment, & so to returne from whence they came, who being now out of all feare, and pre|paring to go their waies, diuers bands of footmen were sent to lie priuilie in a certeine hid vallie so ambushed, as they might easilie breake foorth vpon the enimies as they passed by them. But it chanced far otherwise than they supposed, for certeine of those footmen stirred with the noise of them as they were comming, brake foorth out of time, and being sudden|lie discouered whilest they hasted to vnite and knit themselues togither, by the hideous crie and shout of the Saxons they were put to flight. Yet by and by closing togither againe, they staied, and the ex|tremitie of the chance ministring to them force (though not sufficient) they were driuen to fight it out, and being beaten downe with great slaughter, had died euerie mothers sonne, if a troope of horsse|men armed at all points (being in like maner pla|ced in an other side at the entring of the waie to as|saile the enimies as they should passe) aduertised by the dolefull noise of them that fought, had not spée|dilie come to the succour of their fellowes.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Then ran they togither more cruellie than before, and the Romans bending themselues towards their enimies, compassed them in on each side, and with drawne swords slue them downe right, so that there was not one of them left to returne home to their natiue countrie to bring newes how they had sped, nor one suffered to liue after anothers death, either to reuenge their ruine, or to lement their losse. Thus were the limits of the Romane empire pre|serued at that time in Britaine, which should séeme to be about the yéere of our Lord 399.399

¶Thus were the Romans, as commonlie in all their martiall affaires, so in this incounter verie for|tunate, the happie issue of the conflict faling out on their side. And strange it is to consider and marke, how these people by a celestiall kind of influence were begotten and borne as it were to prowesse and renowme; the course of their dealings in the field most aptlie answering to their name. For (as some suppose) the Romans were called of the Gréeke word [...],Solinus. Adr. Iun. signifieng power and mightinesse: and in old time they were called Ualentians, A valendo, of pre|uailing: so that it was no maruell though they were victorious subduers of forren people, sithens they were by nature created and appointed to be conque|rors, and thereof had their denomination.

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