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4.16. Iulius Agricola is deputed by Vespa|sian to gouerne Britaine, he inuadeth the Ile of Anglesey, the inhabitants yeeld vp them selues, the commendable gouernement of A|gricola, his worthie practises to traine the Britains to ciuilitie, his exploits fortunatelie atchiued against diuerse people, as the Irish, &c. The 16. Chapter.

Iulius Agricola is deputed by Vespa|sian to gouerne Britaine, he inuadeth the Ile of Anglesey, the inhabitants yeeld vp them selues, the commendable gouernement of A|gricola, his worthie practises to traine the Britains to ciuilitie, his exploits fortunatelie atchiued against diuerse people, as the Irish, &c. The 16. Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _AFter Iulius Frontinus,Iulius Agri|cola lieutenant the emperor Uespasian sent Iulius Agricola to succéed in the gouernement of Bri|taine, who comming ouer a|bout the midst of summer, Cor. Tacit in vit. Agr. The first yéere of Agricola his gouerne|ment. found the men of warre thorough want of a lieute|nant negligent inough, as those that looking for no trouble, thought themselues out of all danger, where the enimies neuerthelesse watched vpon the next oc|casion to worke some displeasure, and were readie on ech hand to mooue rebellion. For the people called Ordonices, that inhabited in the countrie of Ches|shire. Lancashire and part of Shropshire, had latelie before ouerthrowne, and in maner vtterlie destroied a wing of such horssemen as soiourned in their par|ties, by reason whereof all the prouince was brought almost into an assured hope to recouer libertie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Agricola vpon his comming ouer, though sum|mer was now halfe past, and that the souldiers lod|ging here & there abroad in the countrie, were more disposed to take rest, than to set forward into the field against the enimies, determined yet to resist the present danger: and therewith assembling the men of warre of the Romans, and such other aids as he might make, he inuaded their countrie that had done this foresaid displeasure, and slue the most part of all the inhabitants thereof. Not thus contented (for that he thought good to follow the steps of fauou|rable EEBO page image 48 fortune, and knowing that as the begining pro|ued, so would the whole sequele of his affaires by like|lihood come to passe) he purposed to make a full con|quest of the Ile of Anglesey,The Ile of Anglesey. from the conquest wher|of the Romane lieutenant Paulinus was called backe by the rebellion of other of the Britains, as be|fore ye haue heard.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But whereas he wanted ships for the furnishing of his enterprise, his wit and policie found a shift to supplie that defect: for choosing out a piked number of such Britains as he had there with him in aid, which knew the foords and shallow places of the streames there, and withall were verie skilfull in swimming (as the maner of the countrie then was) he appointed them to passe ouer on the sudden into the Ile, onelie with their horsses, armor, and weapon: which enter|prise they so spéedilie, and with so good successe atchi|ued, that the inhabitants much amazed with that doo|ing (which looked for a nauie of ships to haue trans|ported ouer their enimies by sea, and therefore wat|ched on the coast) began to thinke that nothing was able to be defended against such kind of warriors that got ouer into the Ile after such sort and maner.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And therefore making sute for peace,Anglesey yéel|ded to Agri|cola. they deliue|red the Ile into the hands of Agricola, whose fame by these victories dailie much increased, as of one that tooke pleasure in trauell, and attempting to atchiue dangerous enterprises, in stead whereof his predeces|sors had delighted, to shew the maiesties of their of|fice by vaine brags, statelie ports, and ambitious pomps. For Agricola turned not the prosperous successe of his procéedings into vanitie, but rather with neglecting his fame, increased it to the vtter|most, among them that iudged what hope was to be looked for of things by him to be atchiued, which with silence kept secret these his so woorthie dooings.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Moreouer, perceiuing the nature of the people in this Ile of Britaine, and sufficientlie taught by other mens example, that armor should little auaile where iniuries followed to the disquieting of the people,Agricola his good gouern|ment. he thought best to take away and remooue all occasions of warre. And first beginning with himselfe and his souldiers, tooke order for a reformation to be had in his owne houshold, yéelding nothing to fauor, but altogither in respect of vertue, accounting them most faithfull which therein most excelled. He sought to know all things, but not to doo otherwise than rea|son mooued, pardoning small faults, and sharpelie punishing great and heinous offenses, neither yet deliting alwaies in punishment, but oftentimes in repentance of the offendor. Exactions and tributes he lessened, qualifieng the same by reasonable equi|tie. And thus in reforming the state of things, he wan him great praise in time of peace, the which either by negligence or sufferance of the former lieutenants, was euer feared, and accounted woorse than open warre. This was his practise in the winter time of his first yeere.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But when summer was come, he assembled his armie,His diligence. and leading foorth the same, trained his souldi|ers in all honest warlike discipline, commending the good, and reforming the bad and vnrulie. He himselfe to giue example, tooke vpon him all dangers that came to hand, and suffered not the enimies to liue in rest, but wasted their countries with sudden inuasi|ous. And when he had sufficientlie chastised them, and put them in feare by such manner of dealing, he spa|red them, that they might againe conceiue some hope of peace. By which meanes manie countries which vnto those daies had kept themselues out of bondage, laid rancor aside, and deliuered pledges, and further were contented to suffer castels to be builded within them, and to be kept with garrisons, so that no part of Britaine was frée from the Romane power, but stood still in danger to be brought vnder more and more.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the winter following,The second yéere of Agri|cola his go|uernment. Agricola tooke paines to reduce the Britains from their rude manners and customs, vnto a more ciuill sort and trade of liuing, that changing their naturall fiercenesse and apt dis|position to warre, they might through tasting plea|sures be so inured therewith, that they should desire to liue in rest and quietnesse:The woorthie practises of A|gricola to traine the Britains to ciuilttie. and therefore he exhor|ted them priuilie, and holpe them publikelie to build temples, common halls where plées of law might be kept, and other houses, commending them that were diligent in such dooings, and blaming them that were negligent, so that of necessitie they were driuen to striue who should preuent ech other in ciuilitie. He also procured that noble mens sonnes should learne the liberall sciences, and praised the nature of the Britains more than the people of Gallia, bicause they studied to atteine to the knowledge of the Ro|mane eloquence. By which meanes the Britains in short time were brought to the vse of good and com|mendable manners, and sorted themselues to go in comelie apparell after the Romane fashion, and by little and little fell to accustome themselues to fine fare and delicate pleasures, the readie prouoke vs of vices, as to walke in galleries, to wash themselues in bathes, to vse banketting, and such like, which a|mongst the vnskilfull was called humanitie or cour|tesie, but in verie deed it might be accounted a part of thraldome and seruitude, namelie being too exces|siuelie vsed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the third yéere of Agricola his gouernment in Britaine,The third yéere. he inuaded the north parts thereof (vn|knowne till those daies of the Romans) being the same where the Scots now inhabit: for he wasted the countrie vnto the water of Tay,The water of Tay. in such wise putting the inhabitants in feare, that they durst not once set vpon his armie, though it were so that the same was verie sore disquieted and vexed by tem|pest and rage of weather. Wherevpon finding no great let or hinderance by the enimies, he builded certeine castels and fortresses, which he placed in such conuenient stéeds, that they greatlie annoied his aduersaries, and were so able to be defended, that there was none of those castels which he builded, ei|ther woon by force out of the Romans hands, or giuen ouer by composition, for feare to be taken: so that the same beeing furnished with competent numbers of men of warre, were safelie kept from the eni|mies, the which were dailie vexed by the often issues made foorth by the souldiers that laie thus in garrison within them: so that where in times past the said e|nimies would recouer their losses susteined in sum|mer by the winters aduantage, now they were put to the woorse, and kept backe as well in the winter as in the summer.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the fourth summer,The fourth yéere of Agri|cola his go|uernment. after that Agricola was ap|pointed vnto the rule of this land,Clota. Bodotria. he went about to bring vnder subiection those people, the which before time he had by incursions and forreies sore vexed and disquieted: and therevpon comming to the waters of Clide and Loughleuen, he built certeine fortres|ses to defend the passages and entries there, driuing the enimies beyond the same waters, as it had beene into a new Iland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 In the fift summer,The fift yéere. Agricola causing his ships to be brought about, and appointing them to arriue on the north coasts of Scotland, he passed with his ar|mie ouer the riuer of Clide; and subdued such people as inhabited those further parts of Scotland, which till those daies had not beene discouered by the Ro|mans. And bicause he thought it should serue well to purpose, for some conquest to be made of Ireland, if that part of Scotland which bordereth on the Irish EEBO page image 49 seas might be kept in due obedience, he placed gar|risons of souldiers in those parties, in hope verelie vpon occasion to passe ouer into Ireland, and for the more easie aduancement of his purpose therein, he interteined with honourable prouision one of the kings of Ireland,An Irish king expelled out of his countrie. which by ciuill discord was expel|led and driuen out of his countrie. In déed Agricola perceiued, that with one legion of souldiers, and a small aid of other men of warre, it should be an easie matter to conquer Ireland, and to bring it vnder the dominion of the Romans: which enterprise he iudged verie necessarie to be exploited, for better kée|ping of the Britains in obedience, if they should sée the iurisdiction of the Romans euerie where exten|ded, and the libertie of their neighbours suppressed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the sixt summer of Agricola his gouernment,The sixt yeere of Agricola his gouern|ment. he proceeded in subduing the furthermost parts of Scotland northwards, causing his nauie to kéepe course against him by the coast as he marched foorth by land, so that the Britains perceiuing how the se|cret hauens and créekes of their countries were now discouered, and that all hope of refuge was in maner cut off from them, were in maruellous feare. On the other part the Romans were sore troubled with the rough mounteins and craggie rocks, by the which they were constreined to passe beside the dan|gerous riuers, lakes, woods, streicts, and other com|bersome waies and passages.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The danger also of them that were in the ships by sea was not small, by reason of winds and tempests, and high spring tides, which tossed and turmoiled their vessels verie cruellie: but by the painfull dili|gence of them that had béene brought vp and inured with continuall trauell and hardnesse, all those dis|commodities were ouercome to their great reioi|sing, when they met and fell in talke of their passed perils. For oftentimes the armie by land incamped so by the shore, that those which kept the sea came on land to make merrie in the campe, and then ech one would recount to others the aduentures that had happened, as the manner is in semblable cases.

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