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THE FOVRTH BOOKE of the Historie of England.

4.1. The Britains discomfited, sore wounded, slaine, and disabled by Plautius and his power, Claudius the Romane taketh the chiefe citie of Cymbe|beline the king of Britaine, he bereaueth the Britains of their armour, and by vertue of his conquest ouer part of the land is surnamed Britannicus. The first Chapter.

The Britains discomfited, sore wounded, slaine, and disabled by Plautius and his power, Claudius the Romane taketh the chiefe citie of Cymbe|beline the king of Britaine, he bereaueth the Britains of their armour, and by vertue of his conquest ouer part of the land is surnamed Britannicus. The first Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _NOw Plautius had much adoo to find out the Bri|tains in their lur|king holes and co|uerts; howbeit when he had traced them out, first he vanquished Cata|ratacus, and after Togodumnus the sonnes of Cyno|bellinus: for their father was dead not verie long before. These therefore fléeing their waies,Bodumni. Plautus receiued part of the people called Bodumni (which were subiects vnto them that were called Catuellani) into the obeisance of the Ro|mans: and so leauing there a garrison of souldiors,Catuellani. passed further till he came to a riuer which could not well be passed without a bridge: wherevpon the Bri|tains tooke small regard to defend the passage, as though they had béene sure inough. But Plautius appointed a certeine number of Germans which he had there with him (being vsed to swim ouer riuers, although neuer so swift) to get ouer, which they did, sleaing and wounding the Britains horsses, which were fastened to their wagons or chariots, so that the Britains were not able to doo anie péece of their ac|customed seruice with the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Herewithall was Flauius Uespasianus (that af|terwards was emperour) with his brother Sabi|nus sent ouer that riuer, which being got to the fur|ther side, slue a great number of the enimies. The residue of the Britains fled, but the next day proffe|red a new battell, in the which they fought so stout|lie, that the victorie depended long in doubtfull ba|lance, till Caius Sidius Geta being almost at point to be taken, did so handle the matter, that the Bri|tains finallie were put to flight: for the which his va|liant dooings, triumphant honors were bestowed vpon him, although he was no consull.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Britains after this battell, withdrew to the riuer of Thames, néere to the place where it falleth into the sea, and knowing the shallowes and firme places thereof, easilie passed ouer to the further side, whom the Romans following, through lacke of knowledge in the nature of the places, they fell into the marish grounds, and so came to lose manie of EEBO page image 35 their men, namelie of the Germans, which were the first that passed ouer the riuer to follow the Bri|tains, partlie by a bridge which lay within the coun|trie ouer the said riuer, and partlie by swimming, and other such shift as they presentlie made.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The Britains hauing lost one of their rulers,Togodum|nus. namelie Togodumnus (of whom ye haue heard be|fore) were nothing discouraged, but rather more e|gerlie set on reuenge. Plautius perceiuing their fiercenesse, went no further, but staid and placed gar|risons in steeds where néed required, to kéepe those places which he had gotten, and with all spéed sent ad|uertisement vnto Claudius, according to that he had in commandement, if anie vrgent necessitie should so mooue him. Claudius therefore hauing all things before hand in a readinesse, straightwaies vpon the receiuing of the aduertisement, departed from Rome, and came by water vnto Ostia, and from thence vnto Massilia, and so through France sped his iournies till he came to the side of the Ocean sea, and then imbarking himselfe with his people, passed ouer into Britaine, and came to his armie which abode his comming néere the Thames side, where being ioined, they passed the riuer againe, fought with the Britains in a pitcht field, and getting the victorie, tooke the towne of Camelodunum (which some count to be Colchester) being the chiefest citie apperteining vnto Cynobelinus. He reduced also manie other people into his subiection, some by force, and some by surrender, whereof he was called oftentimes by the name of emperour, which was a|gainst the ordinance of the Romans: for it was not lawfull for anie to take that name vpon him oftener than once in anie one voiage. Moreouer, Claudius tooke from the Britains their armor and weapons, and committed the gouernment of them vnto Plau|tius, commanding him to endeuour himselfe to subdue the residue.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Thus hauing brought vnder a part of Britaine,Dion Cassius. and hauing made his abode therin not past a sixtene daies, he departed and came backe againe to Rome with victorie in the sixt month after his setting foorth from thence,Suetonius. giuing after his returne, to his sonne, the surname of Britannicus. This warre he finished in maner as before is said, in the fourth yéere of his reigne, which fell in the yéere of the world 4011, after the birth of our Sauiour 44, and after the building of Rome 79.

4.2. The diuerse opinions and variable re|ports of writers touching the partile conquest of this Iland by the Ro|mans, the death of Guiderius. The second Chapter.

The diuerse opinions and variable re|ports of writers touching the partile conquest of this Iland by the Ro|mans, the death of Guiderius. The second Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _THere be that write, how Claudius subdued and added to the Romane empire, the Iles of Orknie situate in the north Ocean beyond Bri|taine: which might well be accomplished either by Plau|tius, or some other his lieute|nant: for Plautius indéed for his noble prowesse and valiant acts atchiued in Britaine, afterwards tri|umphed. Titus the sonne of Uespasian also wan no small praise for deliuering his father out of danger in his time, being beset with a companie of Bri|tains, which the said Titus bare downe, and put to flight with great slaughter. Beda following the au|thoritie of Suetonius, writeth bréeflie of this matter, and saith, that Claudius passing ouer into this Ile, to the which neither before Iulius Cesar, neither af|ter him anie stranger durst come, within few daies receiued the most part of the countrie into his sub|iection without battell or bloudshed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Gyldas also writing of this reuolting of the Bri|tains, saith thus:

When information thereof was gi|uen to the senate, and that hast was made with a spéedie armie to reuenge the same, there was no warlike nauie prepared in the sea to fight valiant|lie for the defense of the countrie, no square battell, no right wing nor anie other prouision appointed on the shore to be séene, but the backes of the Britains in stead of a shield are shewed to the persecutors, and their necks readie to be cut off with the sword through cold feare running through their bones, which stretched foorth their hands to be bound like womanlie creatures; so that a common prouerbe followed thereof, to wit, That the Britains were nei|ther valiant in warre, nor faithfull in peace: and so the Romans [...]leaing manie of the rebels, reseruing some, and bringing them to bondage, that the land should not lie altogither vntilled and desert, retur|ned into Italie out of that land which was void of wine and oile, leauing some of their men there for gouernors to chastise the people, not so much with an armie of men, as with scourge and whip, and if the matter so required, to applie the naked sword vnto their sides: so that it might be accounted Rome and not Britaine. And what coine either of brasse, siluer or gold there was, the same to be stamped with the image of the emperour.
Thus farre Gildas.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In the British historie we find other report as thus, that Claudius at his comming aland at Porchester,Gal. Mon. Matth. West. besieged that towne, to the rescue whereof came Guiderius, and giuing battell to the Romans, put them to the woorse, till at length one Hamo, being on the Romans side, changed his shield and armour, apparelling himselfe like a Britaine, and so entring into the thickest prease of the British host, came at length where the king was, and there slue him. But Aruiragus perceiuing this mischiefe, to the end the Britains should not be discouraged therewith, cau|sed himselfe to be adorned with the kings cote-ar|mor, and other abiliments, and so as king continued the fight with such manhood, that the Romans were put to flight. Claudius retired backe to his ships, and Hamo to the next woods, whom Aruiragus pur|sued, and at length droue him vnto the sea side, and there slue him yer he could take the hauen which was there at hand; so that the same tooke name of him, and was called a long time after, Hamons ha|uen, and at length by corruption of speach it was called Hampton, and so continueth vnto this day, commonlie called by the name of Southhampton.Hampton, why so called. Thus haue you heard how Guiderius or Guinde|rius (whether you will) came to his end, which chan|ced (as some write) in the 28 yéere of his reigne.

4.3. Aruiragus the Britaine & Claudius the Romane with their armies doo incoun|ter, a composition concerning ma|riage concluded betweene them, Claudius retur|neth to Rome. The third Chapter.

Aruiragus the Britaine & Claudius the Romane with their armies doo incoun|ter, a composition concerning ma|riage concluded betweene them, Claudius retur|neth to Rome. The third Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _ARuiragus the yoongest son of Kymbeline,Aruira|gus. Hector Boet. and brother to Guin|derius (bicause the same Guinde|rius left no issue to succéed him) was admitted king of Britaine in the yeere of our Lord 45, or ra|ther 46.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 EEBO page image 36 This Aruiragus, otherwise called by the Britains Meuricus or Mauus, of Tacitus Prasutagus, is al|so named Armiger in the English chronicle,Caxton. by which chronicle (as appéereth) he bare himselfe right man|fullie against Claudius and his Romans in the war which they made against him: in so much that when Claudius had renewed his force and woone Porche|ster,Gal. Mon. and after came to besiege Winchester (in the which Aruiragus as then was inclosed) Aruiragus assembling his power, was readie to come foorth and giue Claudius battell: wherevpon Claudius doub|ting the sequele of the thing, sent messengers vnto Aruiragus to treat of concord, and so by composition the matter was taken vp, with condition, that Clau|dius should giue his daughter Genissa in marriage vnto Aruiragus, & Aruiragus should acknowledge to hold his kingdome of the Romans.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Some write that Claudius in fauour of the vali|ant prowesse which he saw & found in Aruiragus,Ranulfus Ce|strensis. ho|nored not onlie him with the mariage of his daugh|ter the said Genissa, but also to the end to make the towne more famous where this marriage was so|lemnized, he therefore called it Claudiocestria, after his name, the which in the British toong was called before that daie Caerleon, and after Glouernia, of a duke that ruled in Demetia that hight Glunie, but now it is called Glocester.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Other there be that write, how Claudius being vanquished in battell by Aruiragus, was compelled by the said Aruiragus to giue vnto him his said daughter to wife, with condition as before is menti|oned: and that then Aruiragus was crowned king of Britaine.Sueton. But Suetonius maie séeme to reprooue this part of the British historie, which in the life of Claudius witnesseth, that he had by thrée wiues on|lie three daughters, that is to saie, Claudia, Antonia, and Octauia: and further, that reputing Claudia not to be his, caused hir to be cast downe at the doore of his wife Herculanilla, whome he had forsaken by waie of diuorcement: & that he bestowed his daugh|ter Antonia first on C. Pompeius Magnus, and af|ter on Faustus Silla, verie noble yoong gentlemen; and Octauia he matched with Nero his wiues son. Whereby it should appéere, that this supposed marri|age betwixt Aruiragus and the daughter of Claudi|us is but a feined tale.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 ¶And héere to speake my fansie also what I thinke of this Aruiragus, and other the kings (whome Gal|frid and such as haue followed him doo register in or|der, to succéed one after another) I will not denie but such persons there were, and the same happilie bea|ring verie great rule in the land, but that they reig|ned as absolute kings ouer the whole, or that they succéeded one after another in manner as is auou|ched by the same writers, it seemeth most vnlike to be true: for rather it maie be gessed by that, which as well Gyldas as the old approoued Romane writers haue written, that diuerse of these kings liued about one time, or in times greatlie differing from those times which in our writers we find noted. As for ex|ample, Iuuenal maketh this Aruiragus of whom we now intreat, to reigne about Domitians time. For my part therefore, sith this order of the British king|lie succession in this place is more easie to be flatlie denied and vtterlie reprooued, than either wiselie de|fended or trulie amended, I will referre the refor|ming therof vnto those that haue perhaps séene more than I haue, or more déepelie considered the thing, to trie out an vndoubted truth: in the meane time, I haue thought good, both to shew what I find in our hi|stories, and likewise in forren writers, to the which we thinke (namelie in this behalfe, whilest the Ro|mans gouerned there) we maie safelie giue most credit, doo we otherwise neuer so much content our selues with other vaine and fond conceits.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 To procéed yet with the historie as we find it by our writers set foorth: it is reported, that after the solemnization of this marriage,Legions of souldiers sent into Ireland. which was doone with all honour that might be deuised, Claudius sent certeine legions of souldiers foorth to go into Ire|land to subdue that countrie, and returned himselfe to Rome.

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