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3.9. Of king Helie who gaue the name to the Ile of Elie, of king Lud, and what memorable edifices he made, Lon|don sometimes called Luds towne, his bountiful|n [...]s, and buriall. The ninth Chapter.

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Of king Helie who gaue the name to the Ile of Elie, of king Lud, and what memorable edifices he made, Lon|don sometimes called Luds towne, his bountiful|n [...]s, and buriall. The ninth Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _HEere note by the waie a thing not to be be forgotten, that of the foresaid Helie the last of the said 3 [...] kings, the Ile of Elie tooke the name,whereof the Ile of Elie tooke name. bicause that he most commonlie did there inhabit, building in the same a goodly palace, and ma|king great reparations of the sluces, ditches & cau|sies about that Ile, for conueiance awaie of the wa|ter, that els would sore haue indamaged the coun|trie. There be that haue mainteined, that this Ile should rather take name of the great abundance of éeles that are found in these waters and fennes wher|with this Ile is inuironed. But Humfrey Llhoyd holdeth, that it tooke name of this British word He|lig, which signifieth willowes, wherwith those fennes abound.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 After the decesse of the same Helie,Lud. his eldest son Lud began his reigne, in the yéere after the cre|ation of the world 3895, after the building of the ci|tie of Rome 679, before the comming of Christ 72, and before the Romances entred Britaine 19 yéeres. This Lud proued a right worthie prince,A worthie prince. amending the lawes of the realme that were defectiue, aboli|shing euill customs and maners vsed amongst his people, and repairing old cities and townes which were decaied: but speciallie he delited most to beau|tifie and inlarge with buildings the citie of Troino|uant,London inclo|sed with a wal which he compassed with a strong wall made of lime and stone,Iohn Hard. in the best maner fortified with di|uerse faire towers: and in the west part of the same wall he erected a strong gate, which he commanded to be called after his name, Ludsgate, and so vnto this daie it is called Ludgate, (S) onelie drowned in pronuntiation of the word.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the same citie also he soiorned for the more part,Fabian. by reason whereof the inhabitants increased,Gal. Mon. and manie habitations were builded to receiue them,Matt. West. and he himselfe caused buildings to be made betwixt London stone and Ludgate, and builded for himselfe not farre from the said gate a faire palace, which is the bishop of Londons palace beside Paules at this daie,The bisshops palace. as some thinke; yet Harison supposeth it to haue bin Bainards castell, where the blacke friers now standeth. He also builded a faire temple néere to his said palace, which temple (as some take it) was after turned to a church, and at this daie called Paules. By reason that king Lud so much esteemed that ci|tie before all other of his realme, inlarging it so greatlie as he did, and continuallie in manner re|mained there, the name was changed, so that it was called Caerlud,The name of Troinouant changed and called London that is to saie, Luds towne: and after by corruption of spéech it was named London.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Beside the princelie dooings of this Lud touching the aduancement of the common wealth by studies apperteining to the time of peace, he was also strong & valiant in armes, in subduing his enimies, boun|tious and liberall both in gifts and kéeping a plenti|full house, so that he was greatlie beloued of all the Britaines. Finallie, when he had reigned with great honour for the space of 11 yéeres, he died, and was buried néere Ludgate, leauing after him two sons, Androgeus and Theomancius or Tenancius.

3.10. Of Cassibellane and his noble mind, Iulius Caesar sendeth Caius Volusenus to [...]uey the coasts of this Iland, he lieth with his fleet at Calice, purposing to inuade the countrie, his attempt is be|wraied and withstood by the Britains. The tenth Chapter.

Of Cassibellane and his noble mind, Iulius Caesar sendeth Caius Volusenus to [...]uey the coasts of this Iland, he lieth with his fleet at Calice, purposing to inuade the countrie, his attempt is be|wraied and withstood by the Britains. The tenth Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 _GAssibellane the brother of Lud was admitted king of Britaine, in the yéere of the world 3908,Cassibel|lane. after the buil|ding of Rome 692, and be|fore the comming of Christ 58 complet.Gal. Mon. For sith the two sonnes of Lud were not of age able to gouerne,Matt. West. the rule of the land was com|mitted to Cassibellane:Fabian. but yet (as some haue writ|ten) he was not created king, but rather appointed ruler & protector of the land, during the nonage of his nephewes.Gal. Mon. Now after he was admitted (by whatsoe|uer order) to the administration of the common wealth, he became so noble a prince and so bounti|ous, that his name spred farre and néere, and by his vpright dealing in seeing iustice executed he grew in such estimation, that the Britaines made small ac|count of his nephewes, in comparison of the fauour which they bare towards him. But Cassibellane ha|uing respect to his honour, least it might be thought that his nephewes were expelled by him out of their rightfull possessions, brought them vp verie honou|rablie; assigning to Androgeus,Matt. West. London and Kent; and to Theomantius the countrie of Cornwall. Thus farre out of the British histories, whereby it maie be gathered, that the yéeres assigned to these kings that reigned before Cassibellane, amount to the summe of 1058.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But whether these gouernors (whose names we haue recited) were kings,Polydor. or rather rulers of the com|mon wealth, or tyrants and vsurpers of the gouern|ment by force, it is vncerteine: for not one ancient writer of anie approued authoritie maketh anie re|membrance of them: and by that which Iulius Cesar writeth, it maie and dooth appéere, that diuerse cities in his daies were gouerned of themselues, as héere|after it shall more plainlie appéere. Neither doth he make mention of those townes which the British hi|stoie affirmeth to be built by the same kings. In déed both he and other Latine writers speake of di|uerse people that inhabited diuers portions of this land, as of the Brigantes, Trinobantes, Iceni, Si|lures, and such other like, but in what parts most of the said people did certeinlie inhabit, it is hard to auouch for certeine truth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But what Iohn Leland thinketh héereof, being one in our time that curiouslie searched out old antiqui|ties, you shall after heare as occasion serueth: and likewise the opinions of other,Hector Boeti|us his fault. as of Hector Boetius, who coueting to haue all such valiant acts as were atchiued by the Britains to be ascribed to his coun|triemen the Scots, draweth both the Silures and Brigantes, with other of the Britains so farre north|ward, that he maketh them inhabitants of the Sco|tish countries. And what particular names soeuer they had, yet were they all Scots with him, and knowne by that generall name (as he would per|suade vs to beléeue) saieng that they entred into Britaine out of Ireland 330 yéeres before the incar|nation of our Sauiour.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Neuerthelesse, how generall soeuer the name of Scots then was, sure it is, that no speciall men|tion EEBO page image 24 of them is made by anie writer, till about 300 yeares after the birth of our sauiour. And yet the Romans, which ruled this land, and had so much adoo with the people thereof, make mention of [...]i|uerse other people, nothing so famous as Boetius would make his Scotish men euen then to be. But to leaue to the Scots the antiquitie of their originall beginning, as they and other must doo vnto vs our descent from Brute and the other Troians, sith the contrarie dooth not plainelie appeare, vnlesse we shall leane vnto presumptions: now are we come to the time in the which what actes were atchiued, there remaineth more certeine record, and therefore may we the more boldlie procéed in this our historie.More certein|tie from hence forth appea|reth in the historie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In this season that Cassibellane had roiall gouern|ment héere in Britaine, Caius Iulius CesarIulius Cesar being appointed by the senat of Rome to conquer Gallia, was for that purpose created consull, and sent with a mightie army into the countrie, where after he had brought the Galles vnto some frame,Caesar de bello Gall. lib. 4. he determined to assaie the winning of Britaine,Britains vn|knowne to the Romans. which as yet the Romans knew not otherwise than by report. The chiefest cause that mooued him to take in hand that enterprise,Caesar de bello Gal. lib. 4. was for that he did vnderstand, that there dailie came great succours out of that Ile to those Galles that were enimies vnto the Romans.Causes of the warre. And though the season of that yéere to make warre was farre spent (for summer was almost at an end) yet he thought it would be to good purpose, if he might but passe ouer thither,Cesars pur|pose. and learne what maner of people did inhabit there, and discouer the places, ha|uens, and entries apperteining to that Ile.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Héerevpon calling togither such merchants as he knew to haue had traffike thither with some trade of wares, he diligentlie inquired of them the state of the Ile: but he could not be throughlie satisfied in a|nie of those things that he coueted to know. There|fore thinking it good to vnderstand all things by view that might apperteine to the vse of that warre which he purposed to follow: before he attempted the same, he sent one Caius Uolusenus with a gallie or light pinesse to surucie the coasts of the Ile,Caius Uolu|senus sent o|uer into Bri|taine. commanding him (after diligent search made) to returne with spéed to him againe. He him selfe also drew downe|wards towards Bullenois, from whence the shortest cut lieth to passe ouer into Britaine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In that part of Gallia there was in those daies an hauen called Itius Portus (which some take to be Ca|lice)Iohn Leland. and so the word importeth,Polydor. an harbourgh as then able to receiue a great number of ships. Unto this hauen got Cesar all the ships he could out of the next borders & parties, and those speciallie which he had prouided and put in a readinesse the last yeare for the warres (against them of Uannes in Armo|rica, now called Britaine in France) he caused to be brought thither, there to lie till they should heare further.Uannes in Britane. In the meane time (his indeuour being knowne, and by merchants reported in Britaine) all such as were able to beare armour, were com|manded and appointed to repaire to the sea side, that they might be readie to defend their countrie in time of so great danger of inuasion.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 ¶Cesar in his commentaries agréeth not with our historiographers: for he writeth that immediatlie vpon knowledge had that he would inuade Bri|taine, there came to him ambassadours from diuers cities of the Ile to offer themselues to be subiects to the Romans, and to deliuer hostages. Whome af|ter he had exhorted to continue in their good mind, he sent home againe, and with them also one Co|mius gouernor of Artois,Comius. commanding him to repaire vnto as manie cities in Britaine as he might, and to exhort them to submit themselues to the Romans. He maketh no mention of Cassibel|lane, till the second iournie that he made into the Ile, at what time the said Cassibelane was chosen (as ye shall heare) to be the generall capteine of the Britains, and to haue the whole administration of the warre for defense of the countrie: but he nameth him not to be a king. Howbeit in the British histo|rie it is conteined, that Cesar required tribute of Cassibelane,Which is more likelie i [...] this behalfe, as appeared by the sequel. and that he answered how he had not learned as yet to liue in seruage, but to defend the libertie of his countrie, and that with weapon in hand (if néede were) as he should well perceiue, if (blinded through couetousnesse) he should aduenture to séeke to disquiet the Britains.

3.11. Caius Volusenus discouereth to Caesar his obseruations in the Ile of Britaine, he maketh haste to conquere it, the Britains de|fend their countrie against him, Caesar after consultation had changeth his landing place, the Romans are put to hard shifts, the Britains begin to giue backe, the courage of a Ro|man ensigne-bearer, a sharpe en|counter betweene both armies. The eleuenth Chapter.

Caius Volusenus discouereth to Caesar his obseruations in the Ile of Britaine, he maketh haste to conquere it, the Britains de|fend their countrie against him, Caesar after consultation had changeth his landing place, the Romans are put to hard shifts, the Britains begin to giue backe, the courage of a Ro|man ensigne-bearer, a sharpe en|counter betweene both armies. The eleuenth Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 _CAius Uolusenus within fiue daies after his departure from Cesar,Uolusenus returneth. returned vnto him with his gallie, and de|calred what he had séene tou|ching the view which he had taken of the coasts of Bri|tan. Cesar hauing got togi|ther so manie saile as he thought sufficient for the transporting of two legions of souldiers,Cesar with two legions of souldiers passeth ouer into Britan. after he had ordered his businesse as he thought expedient, and gotten a conuenient wind for his purpose, did embarke himselfe and his people, and departed from Calice in the night about the third watch (which is about three or foure of the clocke after mid|night) giuing order that the horssemen should take ship at an other place 8 miles aboue Calice, and follow him.The Britans readie to de|fend their countrie. Howbeit when they somewhat slacked the time, about ten of the clocke in the next day, hauing the wind at will, he touched on the coast of Britaine, where he might behold all the shore set and couered with men of warre. For the Britains hea|ring that Cesar ment verie shortlie to come against them, were assembled in armour to resist him: and now being aduertised of his approch to the land, they prepared themselues to withstand him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Cesar perceiuing this, determined to staie till the other ships were come, and so he lay at anchor till about 11 of the clocke,Cesar calleth a councell. and then called a councell of the marshals and chiefe capteines, vnto whome he declared both what he had learned of Uolusenus, and also further what he would haue doone, willing them that all things might be ordered as the reason of warre required. And because he perceiued that this place where he first cast anchor was not méete for the landing of his people, sith (from the heigth of the cliffes that closed on ech side the narrow créeke in|to the which he had thrust) the Britains might annoy his people with their bowes and dartes, before they could set foote on land, hauing now the wind and tide with him, he disanchored from thence, and drew alongst the coast vnder the downes,This was a [...]bout day. the space of 7 or 8 miles, and there finding the shore more flat and plaine, he approched néere to the land, determining to come to the shore.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Britains perceiuing Cesars intent, with all spéed caused their horssemen and charets or wagons, EEBO page image 25 which Cesar calleth Esseda, out of the which in those daies they vsed to fight, to march forth toward the place whither they saw Cesar drew, and after fol|lowed with their maine armie. Wherefore Cesar being thus preuented, inforced yet to land with his people, though he saw that he should haue much a doo. For as the Britains were in redinesse to resist him, so his great and huge ships could not come néere the shore, but were forced to kéepe the déepe, so that the Romane soldiers were put to verie hard shift;The Romans put to their [...] to wit, both to leape forth of their ships, and being pestered with their heauie armour and wea|pons, to fight in the water with their enimies, who knowing the flats and shelues, stood either vpon the drie ground, or else but a little waie in the shallow places of the water; and being not otherwise en|cumbred either with armour or weapon, but so as they might bestir themseues at will, they laid load vpon the Romans with their arrowes and darts, and forced their horsses (being thereto inured) to enter the water the more easilie, so to annoy and distresse the Romans, who wanting experience in such kind of fight, were not well able to helpe them|selues, nor to keepe order as they vsed to doo on land: wherfore they fought nothing so lustilie as they were woont to doo. Cesar perceiuing this, commanded the gallies to depart from the great ships, and to row hard to the shore, that being placed ouer against the open sides of the Britains, they might with their shot of arrows, darts, and slings, remoue the Bri|tains, and cause them to withdraw further off from the water side.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 This thing being put in execution (according to his commandement)The Britans astonied. the Britains were not a little a|stonied at the strange sight of those gallies, for that they were driuen with ores, which earst they had not séene, and shrewdlie were they galled also with the artillerie which the Romans discharged vpon them, so that they began to shrinke and retire some|what backe.She valiant courage of an ensigne bea|rer. Herewith one that bare the ensigne of the legion surnamed Decima, wherein the eagle was figured, as in that which was the chiefe ensigne of the legion, when he saw his fellowes nothing ea|ger to make forward, first beséeching the gods that his enterprise might turne to the weale, profit, and honor of the legion, he spake with a lowd voice these words to his fellowes that were about him;

Leape forth now euen you woorthie souldiers (saith he) if you will not betraie your ensigne to the enimies: for surelie I will acquit my selfe according to my duetie both towards the common wealth, and my generall:
and therewith leaping forth into the wa|ter, he marched with his ensigne streight vpon the enimies. The Romans douting to lose their ensigne, which should haue turned them to great reproch, leapt out of their ships so fast as they might, and fol|lowed their standard, so that there ensued a sore re|encounter: and that which troubled the Romans most, was because they could not keepe their order, neither find anie sure footing, nor yet follow euerie man his owne ensigne, but to put themselues vn|der that ensigne which he first met withall after their first comming forth of the ship.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Britains that were inured with the shelues and shallow places of the water, when they saw the Romans thus disorderlie come out of their ships, ran vpon them with their horsses, and fiercelie assai|led them,The fierce|nesse of the Britains. and now and then a great multitude of the Britains would compasse in and inclose some one companie of them: and other also from the most o|pen places of the shore bestowed great plentie of darts vpon the whole number of the Romans, and so troubled them verie sore.

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