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The contents of the third booke.

    Compare 1577 edition: 1
  • 1 Of cattell kept for profit.
  • 2 Of wild and tame foules.
  • 3 Of fish vsuallie taken vp on our coasts.
  • 4 Of sauage beasts and vermines.
  • 5 Of hawkes and rauenous foules.
  • 6 Of venemous beasts.
  • 7 Of our English dogs and their qua|lities.
  • 8 Of our saffron, and the dressing thereof.
  • 9 Of quarries of stone for building.
  • 10 Of sundrie minerals.
  • 11 Of mettals to be had in our land.
  • 12 Of pretious stones.
  • 13 Of salt made in England.
  • 14 Of our accompt of time and hir parts.
  • 15 Of principall faires and markets.
  • 16 Of our innes and thorowfaires.

5.1. Of cattell kept for profit. Chap. 1.

Of cattell kept for profit. Chap. 1.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _THere is no kind of tame cat|tell vsually to be séene in these parts of the world, wherof we haue not some, and that great store in England; as horsses, oxen, shéepe, goats, swine, and far surmounting the like in other countries, as may be prooued with ease. For where are oxen commonlie more large of bone, horsses more decent and pleasant in pase, kine more commodious for the pale, shéepe more profitable for wooll, swine more wholesome of flesh, and goates more gainefull to their kéepers, than here with vs in England? But to speke of them peculiarlie, I suppose that our kine are so abundant in yéeld of milke, wherof we make our butter & chéese, as the like anie where else, and so apt for the plough in diuerse places as either our horsses or oxen. And albeit they now and then twin, yet herein they séeme to come short of that commoditle which is looked for EEBO page image 220 in other countries, to wit, in that they bring foorth most commonlie but one calfe at once. The gaines also gotten by a cow (all charges borne) hath beene valued at twentie shillings yearelie: but now as land is inhanced, this proportion of gaine is much a|bated, and likelie to decaie more and more, if ground arise to be yet déerer, which God forbid, if it be his will and pleasure. I heard of late of a cow in War|wikshire, belonging to Thomas Bruer of Studleie, which in six yéeres had sixtéene calfes, that is, foure at once in three caluings and twise twins, which vnto manie may séeme a thing incredible.Oxen. In like maner our oxen are such as the like are not to be found in a|nie countrie of Europe, both for greatnesse of bodie and swéetnesse of flesh: or else would not the Ro|mane writers haue preferred them before those of Liguria. In most places our grasiers are now growen to be so cunning, that if they doo but sée an ox or bullocke, and come to the féeling of him, they will giue a ghesse at his weight, and how manie score or stone of flesh and tallow he beareth, how the butcher may liue by the sale, and what he may haue for the skin and tallow; which is a point of skill not common|lie practised heretofore. Some such grasiers also are reported to ride with veluet coats, and chaines of gold about them: and in their absence their wiues will not let to supplie those turnes with no lesse skill than their husbands: which is an hard worke for the poore butcher, sith he through this means can seldome be rich or wealthie by his trade. In like sort the flesh of our oxen and kine is sold both by hand and by weight as the buier will: but in yoong ware rather by weight, especiallie for the stéere and heighfer, sith the finer béefe is the lightest, wheras the flesh of buls and old kine, &: is of sadder substance and therefore much heauier as it lieth in the scale. Their hornes al|so are knowne to be more faire and large in Eng|land than in anie other places, except those which are to be séene among the Paeones, which quantitie albeit that it be giuen to our bréed generallie by nature, yet it is now and then helped also by art.Athenaeus lib. 10. cap. 8. For when they be verie yoong, manie grasiers will oftentimes an|noint their budding hornes, or tender tips with ho|nie, which mollifieth the naturall hardnesse of that substance, and thereby maketh them to grow vnto a notable greatnesse. Certes, it is not strange in En|gland, to sée oxen whose hornes haue the length of a yard or thrée foot betweene the tips, and they them|selues thereto so tall, as the heigth of a man of meane and indifferent stature is scarse equall vnto them. Neuerthelesse it is much to be lamented that our ge|nerall bréed of catell is not better looked vnto: for the greatest occupiers weane least store, bicause they can buie them (as they saie) far better cheape than to raise and bring them vp. In my time a cow hath risen from foure nobles to foure marks by this means, which notwithstanding were no great price if they did yearelie bring foorth more than one calfe a péece, as I heare they doo in other countries.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Our horsses moreouer are high,Horsses. and although not commonlie of such huge greatnesse as in other pla|ces of the maine: yet if you respect the easinesse of their pase, it is hard to saie where their like are to be had. Our land dooth yéeld no asses, and therefore we want the generation also of mules and somers; and therefore the most part of our cariage is made by these, which remaining stoned, are either reserued for the cart, or appointed to beare such burdens as are conuenient for them. Our cart or plough horsses (for we vse them indifferentlie) are commonlie so strong that fiue or six of them (at the most) will draw thrée thousand weight of the greatest tale with ease for a long iourneie, although it be not a load of common vsage, which consisteth onelie of two thousand, or fif|tie foot of timber, fortie bushels of white salt, or six and thirtie of baie, or fiue quarters of wheat, experi|ence dailie teacheth, and I haue elsewhere remem|bred. Such as are kept also for burden, will carie foure hundred weight commonlie, without anie hurt or hinderance. This furthermore is to be noted, that our princes and the nobilitie haue their ca|riage commonlie made by carts, wherby it commeth to passe, that when the quéenes maiestie dooth re|mooue from anie one place to another, there are vsu|allie 400 carewares, which amount to the summe of 2400 horsses, appointed out of the countries adioi|ning, whereby hir cariage is conueied safelie vnto the appointed place. Hereby also the ancient vse of somers and sumpter horsses is in maner vtterlie relinquished, which causeth the traines of our princes in their progresses to shew far lesse than those of the kings of other nations.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Such as serue for the saddle are commonlie gel|ded,Geldings. and now growne to be verie déere among vs, e|speciallie if they be well coloured, iustlie limmed, and haue thereto an easie ambling pase. For our countriemen, séeking their ease in euerie corner where it is to be had, delight verie much in these qua|lities, but chieflie in their excellent pases, which be|sides that it is in maner peculiar vnto horsses of our soile, and not hurtfull to the rider or owner sitting on their backes: it is moreouer verie pleasant and delectable in his eares, in that the noise of their well proportioned pase dooth yéeld comfortable sound as he trauelleth by the waie. Yet is there no greater deceipt vsed anie where than among our horssekee|pers, horssecorsers, and hostelers: for such is the sub|till knauerie of a great sort of them (without excepti|on of anie of them be it spoken which deale for pri|uat gaine) that an honest meaning man shall haue verie good lucke among them, if he be not deceiued by some false tricke or other. There are certeine no|table markets, wherein great plentie of horsses and colts is bought and sold, and wherevnto such as haue néed resort yearelie to buie and make their necessa|rie prouision of them, as Rippon, Newport pond, Wolfpit, Harborow, and diuerse other. But as most drouers are verie diligent to bring great store of these vnto those places; so manie of them are too too lewd in abusing such as buie them. For they haue a custome to make them looke faire to the eie, when they come within two daies iourneie of the market, to driue them till they sweat, & for the space of eight or twelue houres, which being doone they turne them all ouer the backs into some water, where they stand for a season, and then go forward with them to the place appointed, where they make sale of their infec|ted ware, and such as by this meanes doo fall into manie diseases and maladies. Of such outlandish horsses as are dailie brought ouer vnto vs I speake not, as the genet of Spaine, the courser of Naples, the hobbie of Ireland, the Flemish roile, and Scotish nag, bicause that further spéech of them commeth not within the compasse of this treatise, and for whose breed and maintenance (especiallie of the greatest sort) king Henrie the eight erected a noble studderie and for a time had verie good successe with them, till the officers waxing wearie, procured a mixed brood of bastard races, whereby his good purpose came to little effect. Sir Nicholas Arnold of late hath bred the best horsses in England, and written of the ma|ner of their production: would to God his compasse of ground were like to that of Pella in Syria, wher|in the king of that nation had vsuallie a studderie of 30000 mares and 300 stallions, as Strabo dooth re|member Lib. 16. But to leaue this, let vs sée what may be said of sheepe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Our shéepe are verie excellent,Shéepe. sith for sweetnesse EEBO page image 221 of flesh they passe all other. And so much are our woolles to be preferred before those of Milesia and o|ther places, that if Iason had knowne the value of them that are bred, and to be had in Britaine, he would neuer haue gone to Colchis, to looke for anie there. For as Dionysius Alexandrinus saith in his De situ orbis, it may by spinning be made comparable to the spiders web. What fooles then are our countri|men, in that they séeke to bereue themselues of this commoditie, by practising dailie how to transfer the same to other nations, in carieng ouer their rams & ewes to breed & increase among them? The first ex|ample hereof was giuen vnder Edward the fourth, who not vnderstanding the botome of the sute of sun|drie traitorous merchants, that sought a present gaine with the perpetuall hinderance of their coun|trie, licenced them to carie ouer certeine numbers of them into Spaine, who hauing licence but for a few shipped veris manie: a thing commonlie practised in other commodities also, whereby the prince and hir land are not seldome times defrauded. But such is our nature, and so blind are we in déed, that we sée no inconuenience before we féele it: and for a present gaine we regard not what damage may insue to our posteritie. Hereto some other man would ad also the desire that we haue to benefit other countries, and to impech our owne. And it is so sure as God liueth, that euerie trifle which commeth from beyond the sea, though it be not woorth thrée pence, is more estée|med than a continuall commoditie at home with vs, which far excéedeth that value. In time past the vse of this commoditie consisted (for the most part) in cloth and woolsteds: but now by meanes of strangers suc|coured here from domesticall persecution, the same hath béene imploied vnto sundrie other vses, as moc|kados, baies, vellures, grograines, &c: whereby the makers haue reaped no small commoditie. It is furthermore to be noted, for the low countries of Belgie know it, and dailie experience (notwithstan|ding the sharpenesse of our lawes to the contrarie) dooth yet confirme it: that although our rams & wea|thers doo go thither from vs neuer so well headed ac|cording to their kind:Shéepe with|out hornes. yet after they haue remained there a while, they cast there their heads, and from thencefoorth they remaine polled without any hornes at all. Certes this kind of cattell is more cherished in England, than standeth well with the commoditie of the commons, or prosperitie of diuerse townes, whereof some are wholie conuerted to their féeding: yet such a profitable sweetnesse is their fléece, such ne|cessitie in their flesh, and so great a benefit in the ma|nuring of barren soile with their doong and pisse, that their superfluous numbers are the better borne with|all. And there is neuer an husbandman (for now I speake not of our great shéepemasters of whom some one man hath 20000) but hath more or lesse of this cattell séeding on his fallowes and short grounds, which yéeld the siner fléece, as Virgil (following Var|ro) well espied Georg. 3. where he saith:

Si tibi lanicium curae, primùm aspera sylua,
Lappaequae tribulique absint, fuge pabula laeta.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Neuerthelesse the sheepe of our countrie are often troubled with the rot (as are our swine with the mea|sels though neuer so generallie) and manie men are now and then great losers by the same: but after the calamitie is ouer, if they can recouer and kéepe their new stocks sound for seauen yeares togither, the for|mer losse will easilie be recompensed with double commoditie. Cardan writeth that our waters are hurtfull to our shéepe, howbeit this is but his coniec|ture: for we know that our shéepe are infected by go|ing to the water, and take the same as a sure and cer|teine token that a rot hath gotten hold of them, their liuers and lights being alredie distempered through excessiue heat, which inforceth them the rather to séeke vnto the water. Certes there is no parcell of the maine, wherin a man shall generallie find more fine and wholesome water than in England; and therfore it is impossible that our shéepe should decaie by ta|sting of the same. Wherfore the hinderance by rot is rather to be ascribed to the vnseasonablenes & moi|sture of the weather in summer, also their licking in of mildewes, gossamire, rowtie fogs, & ranke grasse, full of superfluous iuice: but speciallie (I saie) to ouer moist wether, whereby the continuall raine pearsing into their hollow felles, soketh foorthwith into their flesh, which bringeth them to their baines. Being also infected their first shew of sickenesse is their desire to drinke, so that our waters are not vnto them Causa aegritudinis, but Signum morbi, what so euer Cardan doo mainteine to the contrarie. There are (& peraduen|ture no small babes) which are growne to be so good husbands, that they can make account of euerie ten kine to be cléerelie woorth twentie pounds in cõmon and indifferent yeares, if the milke of fiue shéepe be dailie added to the same. But as I wote not how true this surmise is, bicause it is no part of my trade, so I am sure hereof, that some housewiues can and doo ad dailie a lesse proportion of ewes milke vnto the chéese of so manie kine, whereby their cheese dooth the longer abide moist, and eateth more brickle and mel|low than otherwise it would.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Goats we haue p [...]ntie,Goats. and of sundrie colours in the west parts of England; especiallie in and to|wards Wales, and amongst the rockie hilles, by whome the owners doo reape no small aduantage: some also are cherished elsewhere in diuerse stéeds for the benefit of such as are diseased with sundrie maladies, vnto whom (as I heare) their milke, chéese, and bodies of their yoong kids are iudged verie profi|table, and therefore inquired for of manie farre and néere. Certes I find among the writers, that the milke of a goat is next in estimation to that of the woman; for that it helpeth the stomach, remooueth op|pilations and stoppings of the liuer, and looseth the bellie. Some place also next vnto it the milke of the ew: and thirdlie that of the cow. But hereof I can shew no reason; onelie this I know, that ewes milke is fulsome, sweet, and such in tast, as except such as are vsed vnto it no man will gladlie yéeld to liue and féed withall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 As for swine, there is no place that hath greater store,Swine. nor more wholesome in eating, than are these here in England, which neuerthelesse doo neuer anie good till they come to the table. Of these some we eat greene for porke, and other dried vp into bakon to haue it of more continuance. Lard we make some though verie little, because it is chargeable: neither haue we such vse thereof as is to be séene in France and other countries, sith we doo either bake our meat with swéet suet of beefe or mutton, and bast all our meat with sweet or salt butter, or suffer the fattest to bast it selfe by leisure. In champaine countries they are kept by herds, and an hogherd appointed to at|tend and wait vpon them, who commonlie gathereth them togither by his noise and crie, and leadeth them foorth to féed abroad in the fields. In some places al|so women doo scowre and wet their cloths with their doong, as other doo with hemlocks and netles: but such is the sauor of the cloths touched withall, that I cannot abide to weare them on my bodie, more than such as are scowred with the reffuse sope, than the which (in mine opinion) there is none more vnkindlie fauor.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Of our tame bores we make brawne,Bores. which is a kind of meat not vsuallie knowne to strangers (as I take it) otherwise would not the swart Rutters and French cookes, at the losse of Calis (where they EEBO page image 222 found great store of this prouision almost in euerie house) haue attempted with ridiculous successe to rost, bake, broile, & frie the same for their masters, till they were better informed. I haue heard moreouer, how a noble man of England, not long since, did send ouer an hogshead of brawne readie sowsed to a catholike gentleman of France, who supposing it to be fish, reserued it till Lent, at which time he did eat thereof with verie great frugalitie. Thereto he so well liked of the prouision it selfe, that he wrote ouer verie earnestlie & with offer of great recompense for more of the same fish against the yeare insuing: whereas if he had knowne it to haue beene flesh, he would not haue touched it (I dare saie) for a thousand crownes without the popes dispensation. A fréend of mine also dwelling sometime in Spaine, hauing certeine Iewes at his table, did set brawne before them, whereof they did eat verie earnestlie, suppo|sing it to be a kind of fish not common in those par|ties: but when the goodman of the house brought in the head in pastime among them, to shew what they had eaten, they rose from the table, hied them home in hast, ech of them procuring himselfe to vomit, some by oile, and some by other meanes, till (as they supposed) they had clensed their stomachs of that pro|hibited food. With vs it is accounted a great péece of seruice at the table, from Nouember vntill Febru|arie be ended; but chéeflie in the Christmasse time. With the same also we begin our dinners ech daie after other: and because it is somewhat hard of di|gestion, a draught of malueseie, bastard, or musca|dell, is vsuallie droonke after it, where either of them are conuenientlie to be had: otherwise the meaner fort content themselues with their owne drinke, which at that season is generallie verie strong, and stronger indéed than in all the yeare beside. It is made commonlie of the fore part of a tame bore, set vp for the purpose by the space of a whole yere or two,Brawne of the bore. especiallie in gentlemens houses (for the husband|men and farmers neuer franke them for their owne vse aboue thrée or foure moneths, or halfe a yéere at the most) in which time he is dieted with otes and pea|son, and lodged on the bare planks of an vneasie coat, till his fat be hardened sufficientlie for their purpose: afterward he is killed, scalded, and cut out, and then of his former parts is our brawne made,Baked hog. the rest is nothing so fat, and therefore it beareth the name of sowse onelie, and is commonlie reserued for the seruing man and hind, except it please the owner to haue anie part therof baked, which are then handled of custome after this manner. The hinder parts being cut off, they are first drawne with lard, and then sodden; being sodden they are sowsed in cla|ret wine and vineger a certeine space, and after|ward baked in pasties, and eaten of manie in stéed of the wild bore, and trulie it is verie good meat: the pestles may be hanged vp a while to drie before they be drawne with lard if you will, and thereby prooue the better. But hereof inough, and therefore to come againe vnto our brawne. the necke peeces being cut off round, are called collars of brawne, the shoulders are named shilds, onelie the ribs reteine the former denomination, so that these aforesaid péeces deserue the name of brawne: the bowels of the beast are commonlie cast awaie because of their ranknesse, and so were likewise his stones; till a foolish fantasie got hold of late amongst some delicate dames, who haue now found the meanes to dresse them also with great cost for a deintie dish, and bring them to the boord as a seruice among other of like sort, though not without note of their desire to the prouocation of fleshlie lust, which by this their fond curiositie is not a little reuealed. When the bore is thus cut out, ech peece is wrapped vp, either with bulrushes, ozier péeles, tape, inkle, or such like, and then sodden in a lead or caldron togither, till they be so tender that a man may thrust a brused rush or soft straw cleane through the fat: which being doone, they take it vp, and laie it abroad to coole: afterward putting it into close vessels, they powre either good small ale or béere mingled with veriuice and salt thereto till it be co|uered, and so let it lie (now and then altering and changing the sowsing drinke least it should wax sowre) till occasion serue to spend it out of the waie. Some vse to make brawne of great barrow hogs, and séeth them, and sowse the whole, as they doo that of the bore; and in my iudgement it is the better of both, and more easie of digestion. But of brawne thus much; and so much may seeme sufficient.

5.2. Of wild and tame foules. Chap. 2.

Of wild and tame foules. Chap. 2.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _ORder requireth that I speake somewhat of the foules also of England, which I may easilie diuide into the wild & tame: but alas such is my small skill in foules, that to say the truth, I can neither recite their numbers, nor well distin|guish one kind of them from another. Yet this I haue by generall knowledge, that there is no nation vnder the sunne, which hath alreadie in the time of the yere more plentie of wild foule than we, for so manie kinds as our Iland dooth bring foorth, and much more would haue, if those of the higher soile might be spa|red but one yeare or two, from the greedie engins of couetous foulers, which set onlie for the pot & purse. Certes this enormitie bred great trouble in K. Iohns daies, insomuch that going in progresse about the tenth of his reigne, he found little or no game where|with to solace himself, or exercise his falcons. Wher|fore being at Bristow in the Christmas insuing, be restreined all maner of hawking or taking of wild|foule throughout England for a season, whereby the land within few yeares was throughlie replenished againe. But what stand I vpon this impertinent dis|course? Of such therefore as are bred in our land, we haue the crane, the bitter, the wild & tame swan, the bustard, the herron, curlew, snite, wildgoose, wind or doterell, brant, larke, plouer of both sorts, lapwing, teele, wigeon, mallard, sheldrake, shoueler, pewet, seamew, barnacle, quaile (who onelie with man are subiect to the falling sickenesse) the notte, the oliet or olife, the dunbird, woodcocke, partrich and feasant, be|sides diuerse other, whose names to me are vtterlie vnknowne, and much more the taste of their flesh, wherewith I was neuer acquainted. But as these serue not at all seasons, so in their seuerall turnes there is no plentie of them wanting, whereby the ta|bles of the nobilitie and gentrie should séeme at anie time furnisht. But of all these the production of none is more maruellous in my mind, than that of the barnacle, whose place of generation we haue sought oft times so farre as the Orchades, whereas perad|uenture we might haue found the same neerer home, and not onelie vpon the coasts of Ireland, but euen in our owne riuers. If I should say how either these or some such other foule not much vnlike vnto them haue bred of late times (for their place of generation is not perpetuall, but as opportunitie serueth, and the circumstances doo minister occasion) in the Thames mouth, I doo not thinke that manie will beleeue me: yet such a thing hath there béene seene, where a kind of foule had his beginning vpon a short tender shrub standing néere vnto the shore, from whence when EEBO page image 223 their time came, they fell downe, either into the salt water and liued, or vpon the drie land and perished, as Pena the French herbarian hath also noted in the verie end of his herball. What I for mine owne part haue séene here by experience, I haue alreadie so tou|ched in the chapter of Ilands, that it should be but time spent in vaine to repeat it here againe. Looke therefore in the description of Man or Manaw for more of these barnacles, as also in the eleuenth chap|ter of the description of Scotland, & I doo not doubt but you shall in some respect be satisfied in the gene|ration of these foules. As for egrets, pawpers, and such like, they are dailie brought vnto vs from be|yond the sea, as if all the foule of our countrie could not suffice to satisfie our delicate appetites.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Our tame foule are such (for the most part) as are common both to vs and to other countries, as cocks, hens, géese, duckes, peacocks of Iude, pigeons, now an hurtfull foule by reason of their multitudes, and number of houses dailie erected for their increase (which the bowres of the countrie call in scorne al|mes houses, and dens of theeues, and such like) wherof there is great plentie in euerie farmers yard. They are kept there also to be sold either for readie monie in the open markets, or else to be spent at home in good companie amongst their neighbors without re|prehension or fines. Neither are we so miserable in England (a thing onelie granted vnto vs by the espe|ciall grace of God, and libertie of our princes) as to dine or sup with a quarter of a hen, or to make so great a repast with a cocks combe, as they doo in some other countries: but if occasion serue, the whole carcasses of manie capons, hens, pigeons, and such like doo oft go to wracke, beside béefe, mutton, veale, and lambe: all which at euerie feast are taken for ne|cessarie dishes amongest the communaltie of Eng|land.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The golding of cocks, whereby capons are made, is an ancient practise brought in of old time by the Romans when they dwelt here in this land: but the gelding of turkies or Indish peacocks is a newer deuise: and certeinlie not vsed amisse, sith the ranke|nesse of that bird is verie much abated thereby, and the strong taste of the flesh in sundrie wise amended. If I should say that ganders grow also to be gel|ded, I suppose that some will laugh me to scorne, neither haue I tasted at anie time of such a foule so serued, yet haue I heard it more than once to be vsed in the countrie, where their géese are driuen to the field like heards of cattell by a gooseheard, a toie also no lesse to be maruelled at than the other. For as it is rare to heare of a gelded gander, so is it strange to me to sée or heare of géese to be led to the field like shéepe: yet so it is, & their gooseheard carieth a rattle of paper or parchment with him, when he goeth a|bout in the morning to gather his gostings togither, the noise whereof commeth no sooner to their eares, than they fall to gagling, and hasten to go with him. If it happen that the gates be not yet open, or that none of the house be stirring, it is ridiculous to sée how they will peepe vnder the doores, and neuer leaue creaking and gagling till they be let out vnto him to ouertake their fellowes. With vs where I dwell they are not kept in this sort, nor in manie other places, neither are they kept so much for their bodies as their feathers. Some hold furthermore an opinion, that in ouer ranke soiles their doong dooth so qualifie the batablenesse of the soile, that their cattell is there|by kept from the garget, and sundrie other diseases, although some of them come to their ends now and then, by licking vp of their feathers. I might here make mention of other foules producted by the indu|strie of man, as betwéene the fesant cocke and doong|hill hen, or betwéene the fesant and the ringdooue, the peacocke and the turkie hen, the partrich and the pi|geon: but sith I haue no more knowledge of these, than what I haue gotten by mine care, I will not meddle with them. Yet Cardan speaking of the se|cond sort, dooth affirme it to be a foule of excellent beautie. I would likewise intreat of other foules which we repute vncleane, as rauens, crowes, pies, choughes, rookes, kites, iaies, ringtailes, starlings, woodspikes, woodnawes, rauens, &c: but sith they a|bound in all countries, though peraduenture most of all in England (by reason of our negligence) I shall not néed to spend anie time in the rehearsall of them. Neither are our crowes and thoughs cherished of purpose to catch vp the woormes that bréed in our soiles (as Polydor supposeth) sith there are no vplan|dish townes but haue (or should haue) nets of their owne in store to catch them withall. Sundrie acts of parlement are likewise made for their vtter destruction, as also the spoile of other rauenous fouls hurtfull to pultrie, conies, lambs, and kids, whose va|luation of reward to him that killeth them is after the head: a deuise brought from the Goths, who had the like ordinance for the destruction of their white crowes, and tale made by the becke, which killed both lambs and pigs. The like order is taken with vs for our vermines, as with them also for the rootage out of their wild beasts, sauing that they spared their greatest beares, especiallie the white, whose skins are by custome & priuilege reserued to couer those plan|chers wherevpon their priests doo stand at Masse, least he should take some vnkind cold in such a long péece of worke: and happie is the man that may prouide them for him, for he shall haue pardon inough for that so religious an act, to last if he will till doomes day doo approch; and manie thousands after. Nothing therefore can be more vnlikelie to be true, than that these noisome creatures are nourished amongst vs to deuoure our wormes, which doo not abound much more in England than elsewhere in other countries of the maine. It may be that some looke for a dis|course also of our other foules in this place at my hand, as nightingales, thrushes, blackebirds, maui|ses, ruddocks, redstarts or dunocks, larkes, tiuits, kingsfishers, buntings, turtles white or graie, linets, bulfinshes, goldfinshes, washtailes, cheriecrackers, yellowhamers, felfares, &c: but I should then spend more time vpon them than is conuenient. Neither will I speake of our costlie and curious auiaries dailie made for the better hearing of their melodie, and obseruation of their natures: but I cease also to go anie further in these things, hauing (as I thinke) said inough alreadie of these that I haue named.

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