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3.24. Of antiquities found. Chap. 24.

Of antiquities found. Chap. 24.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _HAuing taken some occasion to speake here and there in this treatise of antiquities, it shall not be amis to deale yet more in this chapter, with some of them apart, & by themselues, whereby the secure authoritie of the Romans ouer this I|land EEBO page image 217 maie in some cases more manifestlie appeare. For such was their possession of this Iland on this side of the Tine, that they held not one or two, or a few places onelie vnder their subiection, but all the whole countrie from east to west, from the Tine to the British sea, so that there was no regi|on void of their gouernance: notwithstanding that vntill the death of Lucius, and extinction of his issue, they did permit the successors of Lud and Cimbalme to reigne and rule amongst them, though vnder a certeine tribute, as else-where I haue declared. The chéefe cause that vrgeth me to speake of antiquities, is the paines that I haue taken to gather great numbers of them togither, intending (if euer my Chronologie shall happen to come abroad) to set downe the liuelie porfraitures of euerie emperour ingrauen in the same: also the faces of Pompeie, Crassus, the seuen kings of the Romans, Cicero, and diuerse other, which I haue prouided readie for the purpose, beside the monuments and liuelie images of sundrie philosophers, and kings of this Iland, since the time of Edward the Confessor. Wherof although presentlie I want a few, yet I doo not doubt but to obteine them all, if friendship at the leastwise procu|red for monie shall be able to preuaile. But as it hath doone hitherto, so the charges to be emploied vpon these brasen or copper images, will hereafter put by the impression of that treatife: whereby it maie come to passe; that long trauell shall soone proue to be spent in vaine, and much cost come to verie small successe. Whereof yet I force not greatlie, sith by this means I haue reaped some commoditie vnto my selfe, by searching of the histories, which often minister store of examples readie to be vsed in my function, as oc|casion shall mooue me. But to procéed with my pur|pose.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Before the comming of the Romans, there was a kind of copper monie currant here in Britaine, as Caesar confesseth in the fift booke of his Commenta|ries, but I find not of what maner it was. Hereto he addeth a report of certeine rings, of a proportionate weight, which they vsed in his time, in stead likewise of monie. But as hitherto it hath not bene my lucke (I saie) to haue the certeine view of anie of these, so after the comming of the Romans, they inforced vs to abandon our owne, and receiue such imperiall mo|nies or coines, as for the paiment of their legions was dailie brought ouer vnto them. What coines the Romans had, it is easie to be knowne, and from time to time much of it is found in manie places of this Iland, as well of gold and siluer, as of copper, brasse, and other mettall, much like stéele, almost of e|uerie emperour. So that I account it no rare thing to haue of the Roman coine, albeit that it still repre|sent an image of our captiuitie, and maie be a good admonition for vs, to take heed how we yéeld our selues to the regiment of strangers. Of the store of these monies, found vpon the Kentish coast, I haue alreadie made mention in the description of Richbo|row, and chapter of Iles adiacent vnto the British Albion, and there shewed also how simple fishermen haue had plentie of them, and that the conies in ma|king profers and holes to bréed in, haue scraped them out of the ground in verie great abundance. In speaking also of S. Albans, in the chapter of townes and villages, I haue not omitted to tell what plentie of these coines haue bene gathered there: wherfore I shall not néed here to repeat the same againe. How|beit this is certeine, that the most part of all these an|tiquities, to be found within the land, & distant from the shore, are to be gotten either in the ruines of an|cient cities and townes decaied, or in inclosed bur|rowes, where their legions accustomed sometime to winter, as by experience is dailie confirmed. What store hath béene séene of them in the citie of London, which they called Augusta, of the legion that soiour|ned there, & likewise in Yorke named also Uictrix, of the legion Victoria, or Altera Roma (because of the beautie and fine building of the same) I my selfe can partlie witnesse, that haue séene, & often had of them, if better testimonie were wanting. The like I maie affirme of Colchester, where those of Clau|dius, Adrian, Traian, Vespasian, and other, are often|times plowed vp, or found by other means: also of Cantorburie, Andredeschester (now decaied) Roche|ster, then called Durobreuum, Winchester, and di|uerse other beyond the Thames, which for breuitie sake I doo passe ouer in silence. Onelie the chiefe of all and where most are found in deed, is néere vnto Car|leon and Cairgwent in Southwales, about Kenche|ster, thrée miles aboue Hereford, Aldborow, Anca|ster, Bramdon, Dodington, where a spurre and péece of a chaine of gold were found in king Henrie the eight his daies, besides much of the said Roman coine, Binchester, Camalet, Lacocke vpon A|uon, and Lincolne, Dorchester, Warwike, and Che|ster, where they are often had in verie great abun|dance. It seemeth that Ancaster hath beene a great thing, for manie square & colored pauements, vaults, and arches are yet found, and often laid open by such as dig and plow in the fields about the same. And a|mongst these, one Uresbie or Roscbie, a plowman, did ere vp not long since a stone like a trough, coue|red with another stone, wherein was great foison of the aforesaid coines. The like also was séene not yet fortie yeares agone about Grantham. But in king Henrie the eight his daies, an husbandman had far better lucke at Harleston, two miles from the afore|said place, where he found not onelie great plentie of this coine, but also an huge brasse pot, and therein a large helmet of pure gold, richlie fretted with pearle, and set with all kind of costlie stones: he tooke vp al|so chaines much like vnto beads of siluer, all which, as being (if a man might ghesse anie certeintie by their beautie) not likelie to be long hidden, he presen|ted to quéene Katharine then lieng at Peterborow, and therewithall a few ancient rolles of parchment written long agone, though so defaced with mouldi|nesse, and rotten for age, that no man could well hold them in his hand without falling into péeces, much lesse read them by reason of their blindnesse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the beginning of the same kings daies also at Killeie a man found as he eared, an arming girdle, harnessed with pure gold, and a great massie pomell with a crosse hilt for a sword of the same mettall, be|side studs and harnesse for spurs, and the huge long spurs of like stuffe, whereof one doctor Ruthall got a part into his hands. The boroughs or buries, wher|of I spake before, were certeine plots of ground, wherin the Romane souldiers did vse to lie when they kept in the open fields as chosen places, from whence they might haue easie accesse vnto their aduersa|ries, if anie outrage were wrought or rebellion moo|ued against them. And as these were the vsuall a|boads for those able legions that serued dailie in the wars, so had they other certeine habitations for the old and forworne souldiers, whereby diuerse cities grew in time to be replenished with Romane colo|nies, as Cairleon, Colchester, Chester, and such o|ther, of which, Colchester bare the name of Colonia long time, and wherein A. Plautius builded a temple vnto the goodesse of Uictorie (after the departure of Claudius) which Tacitus calleth Aram sempiternae do|minationis, a perpetuall monument of that our Bri|tish seruitude. But to returne vnto our borowes, they were generallie walled about with stone wals, and so large in compasse that some did conteine thir|tie, fourtie, three score, or eightie acres of ground EEBO page image 218 within their limits: they had also diuerse gates or ports vnto each of them, and of these not a few re|maine to be seene in our time, as one for example not far from great Chesterford in Essex, néere to the li|mits of Cambridgshire, which I haue often viewed, and wherein the compasse of the verie wall with the places where the gates stood is easie to be discerned: the like also is to be séene at a place within two miles south of Burton, called the Borow hils. In these therefore and such like, and likewise at Euols|burg, now S. Neots, or S. Needs, and sundrie other places, especiallie vpon the shore and coasts of Kent, as Douer, Rie, Romneie, Lid, &c: is much of their coine also to be found, and some péeces or other are dailie taken vp, which they call Borow pence, Dwarfs monie, Hegs pence, Feirie groats, Iewes monie, & by other foolish names not woorthie to be re|membred. xsAt the comming of the Saxons, the Bri|tons vsed these holds as rescues for their cattell in the daie and night, when their enimies were abroad; the like also did the Saxons against the Danes, by which occasions and now and then by carieng of their stones to helpe forward other buildings néere at hand) manie of them were throwne downe and defaced, which otherwise might haue continued for a longer time, and so your honour would saie, if you should happen to peruse the thickenesse and maner of building of those said wals and borowes. It is not long since a siluer saucer of verie ancient making was found néere to Saffron Walden, in the open field among the Sterbirie hils,Sterbirie a place where en armie hath lien. and eared vp by a plough, but of such massie greatnesse, that it weighed better than twentie ounces, as I haue heard repor|ted. But if I should stand in these things vntill I had said all that might be spoken of them, both by expe|rience and testimonie of Leland in his Commenta|ries of Britaine, and the report of diuerse yet liuing, I might make a greater chapter than would be ei|ther conuenient or profitable to the reader: where|fore so much onelie shall serue the turne for this time as I haue said alreadie of antiquities found within our Iland, especiallie of coine, whereof I purposed chiefelie to intreat.

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