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3.13. Of cities and townes in England. Cap. 13.

Of cities and townes in England. Cap. 13.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _AS in old time we read thatSix and twentie cities in England. there were eight and twentie flamines and archflamines in the south part of this Ile, and so manie great cities vn|der their iurisdiction: so in these our daies there is but one or two fewer, and each of them also vnder the ecclesiasticall regiment of some one bishop or archbishop, who in spirituall cases haue the charge and ouersight of the same. So manie ci|ties therefore are there in England and Wales, as there be bishopriks & archbishopriks. For notwith|standing that Lichfield and Couentrie, and Bath and Welles, doo séeme to extend the aforesaid num|ber vnto nine and twentie: yet neither of these cou|ples are to be accounted, but as one entier citie and sée of the bishop, sith one bishoprike can haue rela|tion but vnto one sée, and the said see be situate but in one place, after which the bishop dooth take his name. It appeareth by our old and ancient histories, that the cities of this southerlie portion haue beene of excéeding greatnesse and beautie, whereof some were builded in the time of the Samotheans, and of which not a few in these our times are quite decaied, and the places where they stood worne out of all re|membrance. Such also for the most part as yet re|maine are maruellouslie altered, insomuch that whereas at the first they were large and ample, now are they come either vnto a verie few houses, or ap|peare not to be much greater in comparison than poore & simple villages. Antoninus the most diligent writer of the thorough fares of Britaine, noteth among other these ancient townes following, as Sitomagus, Sitomagus. Nouiomagus. Neomagus Niomagus. which he placeth in the waie from Nor|wich, as Leland supposeth (wherin they went by Col|chester) to London, Nouiomagus that lieth betwéene Carleill and Canturburie, within ten miles east of London, and likewise Neomagus and Niomagus which take their names of their first founder Magus, the sonne of Samothes, & second king of the Celtes that reigned in this Iland; and not A profunditate, onelie, as Bodinus affirmeth out of Plinie, as if all the townes that ended in Magus should stand in holes and low grounds: which is to be disprooued in diuerse cities in the maine, as also here with vs. Of these moreouer sir Thomas Eliot supposeth Neoma|gus to haue stood somewhere about Chester; & George Lillie in his booke of the names of ancient places, iudgeth Niomagus to be the verie same that we doo now call Buckingham, and lieth farre from the shore. And as these and sundrie other now perished tooke their denomination of this prince, so there EEBO page image 190 are diuerse causes,Salisburie of Sarron. which mooue me to coniecture, that Salisburie dooth rather take the first name of Sarron the sonne of the said Magus, than of Caesar, Caradoc or Seuerus (as some of our writers doo ima|gine) or else at the least wise of Salisburge of the maine, from whence some Saxons came to inhabit in this land. And for this later not vnlikelie, sith be|fore the comming of the Saxons, the king of the Suessionenses had a great part of this Iland in subiection, as Caesar saith; and in another place that such of Belgie as stale ouer hither from the maine, builded and called diuerse cities after the names of the same from whence they came, I meane such as stood vpon the coast, as he himselfe dooth witnesse. But sith coniectures are no verities,Sarronium. Sarrous burg. and mine opi|nion is but one mans iudgement, I will not stand now vpon the proofe of this matter, least I should séeme to take great paines in adding new coniec|tures vnto old, in such wise to deteine the heads of my readers about these trifles, that otherwise perad|uenture would be farre better occupied in matters of more importance. To procéed the refore. As soone after the first inhabitation of this Iland, our cities began no doubt to be builded and increased, so they ceased not to multiplie from time to time, till the land was throughlie furnished with hir conuenient numbers, whereof some at this present with their ancient names, doo still remaine in knowledge, though diuerse be doubted of, and manie more peri|shed by continuance of time, and violence of the eni|mie. I doubt not also but the least of these were comparable to the greatest of those which stand in our time, for sith that in those daies the most part of the Iland was reserued vnto pasture,Greater ci|ties in times past when husbandmen also were ci|tizens. the townes and villages either were not at all (but all sorts of people dwelled in the cities indifferentlie, an image of which estate may yet be seene in Spaine) or at the lestwise stood not so thicke, as they did afterward in the time of the Romans, but chéefelie after the com|ming of the Saxons,The cause of the increase of villages. and after them the Normans, when euerie lord builded a church neare vnto his owne mansion house, and thereto imparted the greatest portion of his lands vnto sundrie tenants, to hold the same of him by coppie of court roll, which rolles were then kept in some especiall place indif|ferentlie appointed by them and their lord, so that the one could haue no resort vnto them without the o|ther, by which means the number of townes and vil|lages was not a little increased. If anie man be de|sirous to know the names of those ancient cities, that stood in the time of the Romans, he shall haue them here at hand, in such wise as I haue gathered them out of our writers, obseruing euen their man|ner of writing of them so neare as to me is possible, without alteration of anie corruption crept vp into the same.

    Compare 1577 edition: 1
  • 1. London otherwise called
    • Trenouanton.
    • Cair Lud.
    • Londinum or Longidinium.
    • Augusta of the legion Augusta that soiourned there, when the Ro|mans ruled here.
  • 2 Yorke o|therwise called
    • Cairbranke.
    • Vrouicum or Yurewijc.
    • Eorwijc or Eoforwijc.
    • Yeworwijc.Leouitius pla|ceth yorke in Scotland de eclipsibus.
    • Eboracum.
    • Victoria of the legion victrix that laie there sometime.A legion con|teined sixtie centuries, thirtie ma|nipuli, thrée cohortes.
  • 3 Cantur|burie
    • Duroruerno aliàs Duraruenno.
    • Dorobernia.
    • Cantwarbirie.
  • 4 Colche|ster
    • Cair Colon.
    • Cair Colden.
    • Cair Colkin of Coilus.
    • Cair Colun, of the riuer that runneth thereby.
    • Colonia, of the colonie planted there by the Romans.
    • Coloncester.
    • Camulodunum.
      • Plin. lib. 2. ca. 75.
      • Tacitus.
      • Ptolome.
  • 5 Lincolne
    • Cair Lud Coit, of the woods that stood about it.
    • Cair Loichoit, by corruption.
    • Lindum.
    • Lindocollinum.
  • 6 Warwijc had some|time 9 pa|rish chur|ches.
    • Cair Guttelin.
    • Cair Line or Cair Leon.
    • Cair Gwair.
    • Cair Vmber.
    • Cair Gwaerton.
  • 7 Chester vpon Vske was a fa|mous vniuersi|tie in the time of Arthur.
    • Cair legion.
    • Carlheon.
    • Cairlium.
    • Legecester.
    • [...] legionum.
  • 8 Carleill
    • Cair Lueill.
    • Cair Leill.
    • Lugibalia.
    • Cair Doill.
  • 9 S. Albanes
    • Cair Maricipit.
    • Cair Municip.
    • Verolamium.
    • Verlamcester.
    • Cair Wattelin, of the street wheron it stood.
  • 10 Win|chester.
    • Cair Gwent.
    • Cair Gwin.
    • Cair Wine.
    • Venta Simenorum.
  • 11 Cisce|ter.
    • Cair Churne.
    • Cair Kyrne.
    • Cair Kery.
    • Cair Cery.
    • Cirnecester.
    • Churnecester.
  • 12 Silce|ster.
    • Cair Segent.
    • Selecester. Cair Segent stood vpon the Thames, not farre from Reding.
  • 13 Bath.
    • Cair Badon.
    • Thermae.
    • Aquae solis.
  • 14 Shaftes|byry
    • Cair Paladour.
    • Septonia.
  • 15 Worce|ster.
    • Wigornia.
    • Cair Gworangon.
    • Brangonia.
    • Cair Frangon.
    • Woorkecester.
  • 16 Chiche|ster.
    • Cair Key or Kair Kis.
    • Cair Chic.
  • 17 Bristow
    • Cair Odernant Badon.
    • Oder.
    • Cair Bren.
    • Venta Belgarum.
    • Brightstow.
  • EEBO page image 191 18 Ro|chest.
    • Durobreuis, corruptlie
    • Rofcester.
    • Roffa.
      • Durobrouis.
      • Dubobrus.
      • Durobrius.
  • 19 Portche|ster.
    • Cair Peris.
    • Cair Poreis.
  • 20 Cair|marden
    • Cair Maridunum.
    • Cair Merdine.
    • Maridumum.
    • Cai [...] Marlin.
    • Cair Prid [...]in.
  • 21 Glocester
    • Cair Clowy.
    • Cair Glow.
    • Claudiocestria.
  • 22 Leir|cester.
    • Cair Beir.
    • Cair Leir.
    • Cair Lirion.
    • Wirall, teste. Matth. West. 895.
  • 23 Cam|bridge.
    • Grantabric.
    • Cair Graunt.
  • 24 Cair Vrnach, peraduenture Burgh castell.
  • 25 Cair Cucurat.
  • 26 Cair Draiton, now a slender village.
  • 27 Cair Celennon.
  • 28 Cair Megwaid.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 As for Cair Dorme (another whereof I read likewise) it stood somewhere vpon the Nene in Hun|tingdon shire, but now vnknowne, fith it was twise raced to the ground, first by the Saxons, then by the Danes, so that the ruines thereof are in these daies not extant to be séene. And in like sort I am igno|rant where most of them stood, that are noted with the sta [...]. I find in like sort mention of a noble citie called Alcluid ouer and beside these afore mentio|ned, sometime builded by Ebracus of Britaine, as the fame goeth, and finallie destroied by the Danes, about the yeare of Grace 870. It stood vpon the banks of the riuer Cluda, to wit, betwéene it and the blanke on the north, and the Lound lake on the west, and was sometime march betwéene the Bri|tons and the Picts, and likewise the Picts and the Scots; neuerthelesse, the castell (as I heare) dooth yet remaine, and hath béene since well repared by the Scots, and called Dombrittain or Dunbritton, so that it is not an hard matter by these few words to find where Alcluid stood. I could here, if leisure ser|ued, and hast of the printer not require dispatch, de|liuer the ancient names of sundrie other townes, of which Stafford in time past was called Stadtford, and therfore (as I gesse) builded or the name altered by the Saxons, Kinebanton now Kimbalton. But if anie man be desirous to sée more of them, let him resort to Houeden in the life of Henrie the second, and there he shall be furthor satisfied of his desire in this behalfe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 It should séeme when these ancient cities flouri|shed, that the same towne,When Albane was martyred Asclepiodotus was legat in Britaine. which we now call saint Albons, did most of all excell: but chéefelie in the Romans time, and was not onelie nothing inferior to London it selfe, but rather preferred before it, bi|cause it was newer, and made a Municipium of the Romans, whereas the other was old and ruinous, and inhabited onelie by the Britons, as the most part of the Iland was also in those daies. Good no|tice hereof also is to be taken by Matthew Paris, and others before him, out of whose writings I haue thought good to note a few things, whereby the ma|iestie of this ancient citie may appeare vnto poste|ritie, and the former estate of Uerlamcester not lie altogither (as it hath doone hitherto) raked vp in for|getfulnes, through the negligence of such as might haue deserued better of their successours, by leauing the description thereof in a booke by it selfe, sith ma|nie particulars thereof were written to their hands, that now are lost and perished. Tacitus in the foure|teenth booke of his historie maketh mention of it, shewing that in the rebellion of the Britons, the Ro|mans there were miserablie distressed, Eadeth clades (saith he) municipio Verolamio fuit. And herevpon Nen|nius in his catalog of cities casteth it Cair municip, as I before haue noted. Sullomaca and Barnet all one, or not far in sunder. Ptolonie speaking of it, dooth place it among the Catye [...]chlanes, but Anto [...]|nus maketh it one end twentie Italian miles from London, placing Sullomaca nine mile from thence, whereby it is euident, that Sullomaca stood neere to Barnet, if it were not the verie same. Of the old compasse of the walles of Verolamlum there is now small knowledge to be had by the ruines, but of the beautie of the citie it selfe you shall partlie vnder|stand by that which followeth at hand, after I haue told you for your better intelligence what Municipi|um Romanorum is: for there is great difference be|tweene that and Colonia Romanorum, sith Colonia alio traducitur a ciuitate Roma, but Municipes aliundè in ciui|tatem veniunt, suis, iuribus & legibus viuuni: moreouer their soile is not changed into the nature of the Ro|mane, but they liue in the stedfast fréendship and pro|tection of the Romans, as did somtime the Ceretes who were the first people which euer obteined that priuilege. The British Verolamians therefore, ha|uing for their noble seruice in the warres deserued great commendations at the hands of the Romans, they gaue vnto them the whole fréedome of Ro|mans, whereby they were made Municipes, and be|came more frée in truth than their Colonies could be. To conclude therefore, Municipium is a citie in fran|chised and indued with Romane priuileges, without anie alteration of hir former inhabitants or priui|leges; whereas a Colonie is a companie sent from Rome into anie other region or prouince, to possesse either a citie newlie builded, or to replenish the same from whence hir former citizens haue beene ex|pelled and driuen out. Now to proceed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the time of king Edgar it fell out, that one Eldred was abbat there; who being desirous to in|large that house, it came into his mind to search a|bout in the ruines of Verolamium (which now was ouerthrowne by the furie of the Saxons & Danes) to sée if he might there come by anie curious peeces of worke, wherewith to garnish his building taken in hand. To be short, he had no sooner begun to dig among the rubbis, but he found an excéeding num|ber of pillers, péeces of antike worke, thresholds, doore frames, and sundrie other peeces of fine ma|sonrie for windowes and such like, verie conueni|ent for his purpose. Of these also some were of por|phyrite stone, some of diuerse kinds of marble, touch, and alabaster, beside manie curious deuises of hard mettall, in finding whereof he thought himselfe an happie man, and his successe to be greatlie guided by S. Albane. Besides these also he found sundrie pil|lers of brasse, and sockets of latton, alabaster and touch, all which he laid aside by great heaps, deter|mining in the end (I saie) to laie the foundation of a new abbaie, but God so preuented his determinati|on, that death tooke him awaie, before his building was begun. After him succéeded one Eadmeerus, who followed the dooings of Eldred to the vttermost: and therefore not onlie perused what he had left with great diligence, but also caused his pioners to search EEBO page image 192 yet further, within the old walles of Verolamium, where they not onelie found infinite other péeces of excellent workemanship, but came at the last to cer|teine vaults vnder the ground, in which stood diuers idols, and not a few altars, verie superstitiouslie and religiouslie adorned, as the pagans left them be|like in time of necessitie. These images were of sundrie mettals, and some of pure gold, their altars likewise were richlie couered, all which ornaments Edmerus tooke awaie, and not onelie conuerted them to other vse in his building, but also destroied an innumerable sort of other idols, whose estimati|on consisted in their formes, and substances could doo no seruice. He tooke vp also sundrie curious pots, iugs, and cruses of stone and wood most artificiallie wrought and carued, and that in such quantitie, be|sides infinite store of fine houshold stuffe, as if the whole furniture of the citie had beene brought thi|ther of purpose to be hidden in those vaults. In pro|ceeding further, he tooke vp diuerse pots of gold, sil|uer brasse, glasse and earth, whereof some were filled with the ashes and bones of the gentils, the mouths being turned downewards (the like of which, but of finer earth, were found in great numbers also of late in a well at little Massingham in Norffolke, of six or eight gallons a péece, about the yeare 1578, and also in the time of Henrie the eight) and not a few with the coines of the old Britons and Romane emperours. All which vessels the said abbat brake into péeces, and melting the mettall, he reserued it in like sort for the garnishing of his church.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 He found likewise in a stone wall two old bookes, whereof one conteined the rites of the gentils, about the sacrifices of their gods, the other (as they now saie) the martyrdome of saint Albane,This soun|deth like a lie. both of them written in old Brittish letters, which either bicause no man then liuing could read them, or for that they were not woorth the keeping, were both consumed to ashes, sauing that a few notes were first taken out of this later, concerning the death of their Albane. Thus much haue I thought good to note of the former beautie of Verolamium, whereof infinite other to|kens haue beene found since that time, and diuerse within the memorie of man, of passing workeman|ship, the like whereof hath no whers else béene séene in anie ruines within the compasse of this Ile, either for cost or quantitie of stuffe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Furthermore, whereas manie are not afraid to saie that the Thames came sometimes by this citie, indeed it is nothing so; but that the Uerlume (after|ward called Uere and the Mure) did and dooth so still (whatsoeuer Gildas talketh hereof, whose books may be corrupted in that behalfe) there is yet euident proofe to be confirmed by experience. For albeit that the riuer be now growne to be verie small by reason of the ground about it, which is higher than it was in old time; yet it kéepeth in maner the old course, and runneth betwéene the old citie that was, and the new towne that is standing on Holmehirst crag, as I beheld of late. Those places also which now are me|dow beneath the abbaie, were sometimes a great lake, mere, or poole, through which the said riuer ran, and (as I read) with a verie swift and violent course, wheras at this present it is verie slow, and of no such deapth as of ancient times it hath beene. But heare what mine author saith further of the same. As those aforsaid workemen digged in these ruines, they hap|pened oftentimes vpon Lempet shels, péeces of ru|stie anchors, and kéeles of great vessels, wherevpon some by and by gathered that either the Thames or some arme of the sea did beat vpon that towne, not vnderstanding that these things might aswell hap|pen in great lakes and meres, wherof there was one adioining to the north side of the citie, which laie then (as some men thinke) vnwalled, but that also is false. For being there vpon occasion this summer passed, I saw some remnant of the old wals standing in that place, which appeared to haue béene verie substanti|allie builded; the ruines likewise of a greater part of them are to be séene running along by the old chap|pell hard by in maner of a banke. Whereby it is eui|dent that the new towne standeth cleane without the limits of the old, and that the bridge whereof the histo|rie of S. Albane speaketh, was at the nether end [...] Halliwell stréet or there about, for so the view of the place doth inforce me to coniecture. This mere (which the Latine copie of the description of Britaine, writ|ten of late by Humfrey Lhoid our countrie man cal|leth corruptlie Stagnum enaximum for Stagnum maxi|mum) at the first belonged to the king, and there|by Offa in his time did reape no small commodi|tie. It continued also vntill the time of Alfrijc the seuenth abbat of that house, who bought it outright of the king then liuing, and by excessiue charges drai|ned it so narrowlie, that within a while he left it drie (sauing that he reserued a chanell for the riuer to haue hir vsuall course, which he held vp with high bankes) bicause there was alwaies contention be|twéene the moonks and the kings seruants, which fi|shed on that water vnto the kings behoofe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In these daies therefore remaineth no maner mention of this poole, but onelie in one stréet, which yet is called Fishpoole stréet, wherof this may suffice for the resolution of such men, as séeke rather to yéeld to an inconuenience, than that their Gildas should seeme to mistake this riuer.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Hauing thus digressed to giue some remembrance of the old estate of Verolamium, it is now time to re|turne againe vnto my former purpose. Certes I would gladlie set downe with the names and num|ber of the cities, all the townes and villages in Eng|land and Wales, with their true longitudes and lati|tudes, but as yet I cannot come by them in such or|der as I would: howbeit the tale of our cities is soone found by the bishoprikes, sith euerie sée hath such prerogatiue giuen vnto it, as to beare the name of a citie, & to vse Regaleius within hir owne limits. Which priuilege also is granted to sundrie ancient townes in England, especiallie northward, where more plentie of them is to be found by a great deale than in the south. The names therefore of our cities are these:

    Compare 1577 edition: 1
  • London.
  • Yorke.
  • Canturburie.
  • Winchester.
  • Cairleill.
  • Durham.
  • Elie.
  • Norwich.
  • Lincolne.
    Compare 1577 edition: 1
  • Worcester.
  • Glocester.
  • Hereford.
  • Salisburie.
  • Excester.
  • Bath.
  • Lichfield.
  • Bristow.
  • Rochester.
    Compare 1577 edition: 1
  • Chester.
  • Chichester.
  • Oxford.
  • Peterborow.
  • Landaffe.
  • S. Dauids.
  • Bangor.
  • S. Asaph.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Whose particular plots and models with their de|scriptions shall insue, if it may be brought to passe, that the cutters can make dispatch of them before this chronologie be published. Of townes and villa|ges likewise thus much will I saie, that there were greater store in old time (I meane within three or foure hundred yeare passed) than at this present. And this I note out of diuerse records, charters, and do|nations (made in times past vnto sundrie religious houses, as Glassenburie, Abbandon, Ramseie, Elie, and such like) and whereof in these daies I find not so much as the ruines. Leland in sundrie places com|plaineth likewise of the decaie of parishes in great cities and townes, missing in some six, or eight, or twelue churches and more, of all which he giueth par|ticular notice. For albeit that the Saxons builded manie townes and villages, and the Normans well EEBO page image 193 more at their first comming, yet since the first two hundred yeares after the latter conquest, they haue gone so fast againe to decaie, that the ancient num|ber of them is verie much abated. Ranulph the moonke of Chester telleth of generall surueie made in the fourth, sixtéenth, & nineteenth of the reigne of William Conqueror, surnamed the Bastard, where|in it was found, that (notwithstanding the Danes had ouerthrow [...]e a great manie) there were to the number of 52000 townes, 45002 parish churches, and 75000 knights fées, whereof the cleargie held 28015. He addeth moreouer that there were diuerse other builded since that time, within the space of an hundred yeares after the comming of the Bastard, as it were in lieu or recompense of those that Wil|liam Rufus pulled downe for the erection of his new forrest. For by an old booke which I haue, and sometime written as it seemeth by an vndershiriffe of Nottingham, I find, euen in the time of Edw. 4. 45120 parish churches, and but 60216 knights fées, whereof the cleargie held as before 28015, or at the least 28000: for so small is the difference which he dooth séeme to vse. Howbeit if the assertions of such as write in our time concerning this matter, either are or ought to be of anie credit in this behalfe, you shall not find aboue 17000 townes and villages, and 9210 in the whole, which is little more than a fourth part of the aforesaid number, if it be through|lie scanned.

Certes this misfortune hath not onelie happened vnto our Ile & nation, but vnto most of the famous countries of the world heretofore, and all by the grée|die desire of such as would liue alone and onelie to themselues. And hereof we may take example in Candie of old time called Creta, which (as Homer writeth) was called Hetacompolis, bicause it contei|ned an hundred cities, but now it is so vnfurnished that it may hardlie be called Tripolis. Diodorus Si|culus saith, that Aegypt had once 18000 cities, which so decaied in processe of time, that when Ptolomeus Lagus reigned, there were not aboue 3000: but in our daies both in all Asia & Aegypt this lesser num|ber shall not verie readilie he found. In time past in Lincolne (as the fame goeth) there haue beene two and fiftie parish churches, and good record appeareth for eight and thirtie: but now if there be foure and twentie it is all. This inconuenience hath growen altogither to the church by appropriations made vn|to monasteries and religious houses, a terrible can|ker and enimie to religion.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But to leaue this lamentable discourse of so notable and gréeuous an inconuenience, grow|ing (as I said) by incroching and ioining of house to house, and laieng land to land, whereby the inha|bitants of manie places of our countrie are deuou|red and eaten vp, and their houses either altogither pulled downe or suffered to decaie by litle and litle, although sometime a poore man peraduenture dooth dwell in one of them, who not being able to repare it, suffereth it to fall downe, & thereto thinketh him|selfe verie friendlie dealt withall, if he may haue an acre of ground assigned vnto him whereon to kéepe a cow, or wherein to set cabbages, radishes, parsneps, carrets, melons, pompons, or such like stuffe, by which he and his poore household liueth as by their princi|pall food, sith they can doo no better. And as for whea|ten bread, they eat it when they can reach vnto the price of it, contenting themselues in the meane time with bread made of otes or barleie: a poore estate God wot! Howbeit what care our great incrochers? But in diuers places where rich men dwelled some|time in good tenements, there be now no houses at all, but hopyards, and sheads for poles, or peraduen|ture gardens, as we may sée in castell Hedingham, and diuerse other places. But to procéed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 It is so, that our soile being diuided into cham|paine ground and woodland, the houses of the first lie vniformelie builded in euerie towne togither with stréets and lanes, wheras in the woodland coun|tries (except here and there in great market townes) they stand scattered abroad, each one dwelling in the midst of his owne occupieng. And as in manie and most great market townes, there are commonlie thrée hundred or foure hundred families or man|sions, & two thousand communicants, or peraduen|ture more: so in the other, whether they be woodland or champaine, we find not often aboue fortie, fiftie, or thrée score households, and two or thrée hundred communicants, whereof the greatest part neuerthe|lesse are verie poore folkes, offentimes without all maner of occupieng, sith the ground of the pa [...]ish is gotten vp into a few mens hands, yea sometimes in|to the tenure of one, two or thrée, whereby the rest are compelled either to be hired seruants vnto the other, or else to beg their bread in miserie from doore to doore.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There are some (saith Leland) which are not so fa|uourable when they haue gotten such lands, as to let the houses remaine vpon them to the vse of the poore; but they will compound with the lord of the soile to pull them downe for altogither, saieng that if they did let them stand, they should but toll beggers to the towne, therby to surcharge the rest of the parish, & laie more burden vpon them. But alas these pitifull men sée not that they themselues hereby doo laie the greatest log vpon their neighbors necks. For sith the prince dooth commonlie loose nothing of his duties accustomable to be paid, the rest of the parishioners that remaine must answer and beare them out: for they plead more charge other waies, saieng; I am charged alreadie with a light horsse, I am to answer in this sort and after that maner. And it is not yet al|togither out of knowledge, that where the king had seuen pounds thirteene shillings at a taske gathered of fiftie wealthie householders of a parish in Eng|land: now a gentleman hauing three parts of the towne in his owne hands, foure housholds doo beare all the aforesaid paiment, or else Leland is deceiued in his Commentaries lib. 13. latelie come to my hands, which thing he especiallie noted in his trauell ouer this Ile. A common plague & enormitie, both in the hart of the land and likewise vpon the coasts. Certes a great number complaine of the increase of pouertie, laieng the cause vpon God, as though he were in fault for sending such increase of people, or want of wars that should consume them, affirming that the land was neuer so full, &c: but few men doo sée the verie root from whence it dooth procéed. Yet the Romans found it out, when they florished, and there|fore prescribed limits to euerie mans tenure and oc|cupieng. Homer commendeth Achilles for ouer|throwing of fiue and twentie cities: but in mine opi|nion Ganges is much better preferred by Suidas for building of thrée score in Inde, where he did plant himselfe. I could (if néed required) set downe in this place the number of religious houses and monaste|ries, with the names of their founders that haue béene in this Iland: but sith it is a thing of small im|portance, I passe it ouer as impertinent to my pur|pose. Yet herein I will commend sundrie of the mo|nasticall votaries, especiallie moonkes, for that they were authors of manie goodlie borowes and end|wares, néere vnto their dwellings, although other|wise they pretended to be men separated from the world. But alas their couetous minds one waie in inlarging their reuenues, and carnall intent an o|ther, appéered herin too too much. For being bold from time to time to visit their tenants, they wrought oft EEBO page image 194 great wickednesse, and made those endwares little better than brodelhouses, especiallio where nunries were farre off, or else no safe accesse vnto them. But what doo I spend my time in the rehearsall of these filthinesses? Would to God the memorie of them might perish with the malefactors! My purpose was also at the end of this chapter to haue set downe a ta|ble of the parish churches and market townes tho|rough out all England and Wales: but sith I can not performe the same as I would, I am forced to giue ouer my purpose: yet by these few that insue you shall easilie see what order I would haue vsed ac|cording to the shires, if I might haue brought it to passe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1

Shires. Market townes. Parishes.
Middlesex. 3 73
London within the walles, and without.   120
Surrie. 6 140
Sussex. 18 312
Kent. 17 398
Cambridge. 4 163
Bedford. 9 13
Huntingdon. 5 78
Rutland. 2 47
Barkeshire. 11 150
Northhampton. 10 326
Buckingham. 11 196
Oxford. 10 216
Southhampton. 18 248
Dorset. 19 279
Norffolke. 26 625
Suffolke. 25 575
Essex. 18 415

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