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3.6. Of the food and diet of the English. Chap. 6.

Of the food and diet of the English. Chap. 6.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _THe situation of our region, li|eng néere vnto the north, dooth cause the heate of our sto|maches to be of somewhat greater force: therefore our bodies doo craue a little more ample nourishment, than the inhabitants of the hotter re|gions are accustomed withall, whose digestiue force is not altogither so vehement, bicause their internall heat is not so strong as ours, which is kept in by the coldnesse of the aire, that from time to time (special|lie in winter) dooth enuiron our bodies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 It is no maruell therefore that our tables are of|tentimes more plentifullie garnished than those of o|ther nations, and this trade hath continued with vs euen since the verie beginning. For before the Romans found out and knew the waie vnto our countrie, our predecessors fed largelie vpon flesh and milke, whereof there was great aboundance in this Ile, bicause they applied their chéefe studies vnto pa|sturage and féeding. After this maner also did our Welsh Britons order themselues in their diet so long as they liued of themselues, but after they be|came to be vnited and made equall with the English they framed their appetites to liue after our maner, so that at this daie there is verie little difference be|twéene vs in our diets.

In Scotland likewise they haue giuen themselues (of late yeares to speake of) vnto verie ample and large diet, wherein as for some respect nature dooth make them equall with vs: so otherwise they far ex|céed vs in ouer much and distemperate gorman|dize, and so ingrosse their bodies that diuerse of them doo oft become vnapt to anie other purpose than to spend their times in large tabling and bellie chéere. Against this pampering of their carcasses dooth He|ctor Boetius in his description of the countrie verie sharpelie inueigh in the first chapter of that treatise. Henrie Wardlaw also bishop of S. Andrewes, no|ting their vehement alteration from competent fru|galitie into excessiue gluttonie, to be brought out of England with Iames the first (who had béene long time prisoner there vnder the fourth & fift Henries, EEBO page image 166 and at his returne caried diuerse English gentle|men into his countrie with him, whome he verie ho|norablie preferred there) dooth vehementlie exclame against the same in open parlement holden at Perth 1433, before the three estats, and so bringeth his purpose to passe in the end by force of his learned persuasions, that a law was presentlie made there for the restreint of superfluous di [...]t, amongest other things baked meats (dishes neuer before this mans daies seene in Scotland) were generallie so proui|ded for by vertue of this act, that it was not lawfull for anie to eat of the same vnder the degrée of a gen|tleman, and those onelie but on high and festiuall daies, but alas it was soone forgotten.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In old time these north Britons did giue them|selues vniuersallie to great abstinence, and in time of warres their souldiers would often féed but once or twise at the most in two or thrée daies (especiallie if they held themselues in secret, or could haue no is|sue out of their bogges and marises, through the pre|sence of the enimie) and in this distresse they vsed to eat a certeine kind of confection, whereof so much as a beane would qualifie their hunger aboue common expectation. In woods moreouer they liued with hearbes and rootes, or if these shifts serued not tho|rough want of such prouision at hand, then vsed they to créepe into the water or said moorish plots vp vnto the chins, and there remaine a long time, onelie to qualifie the heats of their stomachs by violence, which otherwise would haue wrought and béene rea|die to oppresse them for hunger and want of susti|nance. In those daies likewise it was taken for a great offense ouer all, to eat either goose, hare, or henne, bicause of a certeine superstitious opinion which they had conceiued of those three creatures, howbeit after that the Romans (I saie) had once found an entrance into this Iland, it was not long yer open shipwracke was made of his religious obseruation, so that in processe of time, so well the north and south Britons as the Romans, gaue ouer to make such difference in meats, as they had doone before.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 From thencefoorth also vnto our daies, and euen in this season wherein we liue, there is no restreint of anie meat, either for religions sake or publike or|der in England, but it is lawfull for euerie man to féed vpon what soeuer he is able to purchase, except it be vpon those daies whereon eating of flesh is espe|ciallie forbidden by the lawes of the realme, which or|der is taken onelie to the end our numbers of cat|tell may be the better increased, & that aboundance of fish which the sea yeeldeth, more generallie recei|ued. Beside this there is great consideration had in making of this law for the preseruation of the nauie, and maintenance of conuenient numbers of sea fa|ring men, both which would otherwise greatlie de|caie, if some meanes were not found whereby they might be increased. But how soeuer this case stan|deth, white meats, milke, butter & cheese, which were neuer so deere as in my time, and woont to be accoun|ted of as one of the chiefe staies throughout the I|land, are now reputed as food appertinent onelie to the inferiour sort, whilest such as are more wealthie, doo féed vpon the flesh of all kinds of cattell accusto|med to be eaten, all sorts of fish taken vpon our coasts and in our fresh riuers, and such diuersitie of wild and tame foules as are either bred in our Iland or brought ouer vnto vs from other countries of the maine.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In number of dishes and change of meat, the no|bilitie of England (whose cookes are for the most part musicall headed Frenchmen and strangers) doo most exceed, sith there is no daie in maner that passeth o|uer their heads, wherein they haue not onelie béefe, mutton, veale, lambe, kid, porke, conie, capon, pig, or so manie of these as the season yeeldeth: but also some portion of the red or fallow déere, beside great varietie of fish and wild foule, and thereto sundrie o|ther delicates wherein the swéet hand of the seafa|ring Portingale is not wanting: so that for a man to dine with one of them, and to tast of euerie dish that standeth before him (which few vse to doo, but ech one feedeth vpon that meat him best liketh for the time, the beginning of euerie dish notwithstanding being reserued vnto the greatest personage that sit|teth at the table, to whome it is drawen vp still by the waiters as order requireth, and from whome it des|cendeth againe euen to the lower end, whereby each one may tast thereof) is rather to yéeld vnto a conspi|racie with a great deale of meat for the spéedie sup|pression of naturall health, then the vse of a neces|sarie meane to satisfie himselfe with a competent repast, to susteine his bodie withall. But as this large feeding is not séene in their gests, no more is it in their owne persons, for sith they haue dailie much resort vnto their tables (and manie times vnlooked for) and thereto reteine great numbers of seruants, it is verie requisit & expedient for them to be some|what plentifull in this behalfe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The chiefe part likewise of their dailie prouision is brought in before them (commonlie in siluer ves|sell if they be of the degrée of barons, bishops and vp|wards) and placed on their tables, wherof when they haue taken what it pleaseth them, the rest is reser|ued, and afterward sent downe to their seruing men and waiters, who féed thereon in like sort with con|uenient moderation, their reuersion also being be|stowed vpon the poore, which lie readie at their gates in great numbers to receiue the same. This is spoken of the principall tables whereat the noble|man, his ladie and guestes are accustomed to sit, be|side which they haue a certeine ordinarie allowance dailie appointed for their hals, where the chiefe offi|cers and household seruants (for all are not permit|ted by custome to wait vpon their master) and with them such inferiour guestes doo féed as are not of cal|ling to associat the noble man himselfe (so that be|sides those afore mentioned, which are called to the principall table, there are commonlie fortie or thrée score persons fed in those hals, to the great reliefe of such poore sutors and strangers also as oft be parta|kers thereof and otherwise like to dine hardlie. As for drinke it is vsuallie filled in pots, gobblets, iugs, bols of siluer in noble mens houses, also in fine Ue|nice glasses of all formes, and for want of these else|where in pots of earth of sundrie colours and moulds whereof manie are garnished with siluer) or at the leastwise in pewter, all which notwithstanding are seldome set on the table, but each one as necessitie vrgeth, calleth for a cup of such drinke as him listeth to haue: so that when he hath tasted of it he deliue|red the cup againe to some one of the standers by, who making it cleane by pouring out the drinke that remaineth, restoreth it to the cupbord from whence he fetched the same. By this deuise (a thing brought vp at the first by Mnesteus of Athens, in conseruati|on of the honour of Orestes, who had not yet made expiation for the death of his adulterous parents E|gistus and Clitemnestra) much idle tippling is fur|thermore cut off for if the full pots should continual|lie stand at the elbow or néere the trencher, diuerse would alwaies be dealing with them, whereas now they drinke seldome and onelie when necessitie vr|geth, and so auoid the note of great drinking, or of|ten troubling of the seruitours with filling of their bols. Neuerthelesse in the noble mens hals, this or|der is not vsed, neither in anie mans house com|monlie vnder the degrée of a knight or esquire of EEBO page image 167 great reuenues. It is a world to sée in these our daies, wherin gold and siluer most aboundeth, how that our gentilitie as lothing those mettals (bicause of the plentie) do now generallie choose rather the Ue|nice glasses both for our wine and béere, than anie of those mettals or stone wherein before time we haue béene accustomed to drinke, but such is the nature of man generallie that it most coueteth things difficult to be atteined; & such is the estimation of this stuffe, that manie become rich onelie with their new trade vnto Murana (a towne néere to Uenice situat on the Adriatike sea) from whence the verie best are dailie to be had, and such as for beautie doo well néere match the christall or the ancient Murrhina vasa, whereof now no man hath knowledge. And as this is séene in the gentilitie, so in the wealthie communaltie the like desire of glasse is not neglected, whereby the gaine gotten by their purchase is yet much more in|creased to the benefit of the merchant. The poorest al|so will haue glasse if they may, but sith the Uenecian is somewhat too déere for them, they content them|selues with such as are made at home of ferne and burned stone, but in fine all go one waie, that is, to shards at the last, so that our great expenses in glasses (beside that they bréed much strife toward such as haue the charge of them) are worst of all be|stowed in mine opinion, bicause their péeces doo turne vnto no profit. If the philosophers stone were once found, and one part hereof mixed with fortie of molten glasse, it would induce such a mettallicall toughnesse therevnto,Ro. Bacon. that a fall should nothing hurt it in such maner, yet it might peraduenture bunch or batter it, neuerthelesse that inconuenience were quickelie to be redressed by the hammer. But whither am I slipped?

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The gentlemen and merchants keepe much about one rate, and each of them contenteth himselfe with foure, fiue, or six dishes, when they haue but small re|sort, or peraduenture with one, or two, or thrée at the most, when they haue no strangers to accompanie them at their tables. And yet their seruants haue their ordinarie diet assigned, beside such as is left at their masters boordes, & not appointed to be brought thither the second time, which neuerthelesse is often séene generallie in venison, lambe, or some especiall dish, whereon the merchant man himselfe liketh to feed when it is cold, or peraduenture for sundrie cau|ses incident to the féeder is better so, than if it were warme or hot. To be short, at such time as the mer|chants doo make their ordinarie or voluntarie feasts, it is a world to see what great prouision is made of all maner of delicat meats, from euerie quarter of the countrie, wherein beside that they are often com|parable herein to the nobilitie of the land, they will seldome regard anie thing that the butcher vsuallie killeth, but reiect the same as not worthie to come in place. In such cases also geliffes of all colours mixed with a varietie in the representation of sun|drie floures, herbs, trees, formes of beasts, fish, foules and fruits, and therevnto marchpaine wrought with no small curiositie, tarts of diuerse hewes and sun|drie deuominations, conserues of old fruits forren and home-bred, suckets, codinacs, marmilats, marchpaine, sugerbread, gingerbread, florentines, wildfoule, venison of all sorts, and sundrie outlandish con [...]ections, altogither seasoned with suger (which Plinie calleth Mel ex arundinibus, a deuise not com|mon nor greatlie vsed in old time at the table, but onelie in medicine, although it grew in Arabia, In|dia & Sicilia) doo generallie beare the swaie, besides infinit deuises of our owne not possible for me to re|member. Of the potato and such venerous roots as are brought out of Spaine, Portingale, and the In| [...]ies to furnish vp our bankets, I speake not, wherin our Mures of no lesse force, and to be had about Cro|sbie Rauenswath, do now begin to haue place.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But among all these, the kind of meat which is ob|teined with most difficultie and cost, is commonlie taken for the most delicat, and therevpon each guest will soonest desire to feed. And as all estats doo excéed herin, I meane for strangenesse and number of cost|lie dishes, so these forget not to vse the like excesse in wine, in somuch as there is no kind to be had (neither anie where more store of all sorts than in England, although we haue none growing with vs but yeare|lie to the proportion of 20000 or 30000 tun and vp|wards, notwithstanding the dailie restreincts of the same brought ouer vnto vs) wherof at great mée|tings there is not some store to be had. Neither doo I meane this of small wines onlie, as Claret, White, Red, French, &c: which amount to about fiftie six sorts, according to the number of regions from whence they come: but also of the thirtie kinds of Italian, Grecian, Spanish, Canarian, &c: whereof Ueruage, Cate pument, Raspis, Muscadell, Romnie, Bastard Tire, Oseie, Caprike, Clareie & Malmeseie are not least of all accompted of, bicause of their strength and valure. For as I haue said in meat, so the stron|ger the wine is, the more it is desired, by means wher|of in old time, the best was called Theologicum, bi|cause it was had from the cleargie and religious men, vnto whose houses manie of the laitie would often send for bottels filled with the same, being sure that they would neither drinke nor be serued of the worst, or such as was anie waies mingled or brued by the vintener: naie the merchant would haue thought that his soule should haue gone streight|waie to the diuell, if he should haue serued them with other than the best. Furthermore when these haue had their course which nature yéeldeth, fundrie sorts of artificiall stuffe, as ypocras & wormewood wine must in like maner succéed in their turnes, beside stale ale and strong béere, which neuerthelesse beare the greatest brunt in drinking, and are of so manie sorts and ages as it pleaseth the bruer to make them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The béere that is vsed at noble mens tables in their fixed and standing houses,Béere. is commonlie of a yeare old, or peraduenture of two yeares tunning or more, but this is not generall. It is also brued in March and therefore called March béere, but for the household it is vsuallie not vnder a moneths age, ech one coueting to haue the same stale as he may, so that it be not sowre, and his bread new as is possible so that it be not hot.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The artificerArtificer. and husbandman make greatest ac|compt of such meat as they may soonest come by, and haue it quickliest readie, except it be in London when the companies of euery trade doo meet on their quar|ter daies, at which time they be nothing inferiour to the nobilitie. Their food also consisteth principallie in béefe and such meat as the butcher selleth, that is to saie, mutton, veale, lambe, porke, &c: whereof he fin|deth great store in the markets adioining, beside souse, brawne, bacon, fruit, pies of fruit, foules of sun|drie sorts, cheese, butter, egs, &c: as the other wanteth it not at home, by his owne prouision, which is at the best hand, and commonlie least charge. In feasting also this latter sort, I meane the husbandmen doo ex|céed after their maner: especiallie at bridales, puri|fications of women, and such od méetings, where it is incredible to tell what meat is consumed & spent, ech one bringing such a dish, or so manie with him as his wife & he doo consult vpon, but alwaies with this consideration, that the léefer fréend shall haue the bet|ter prouision. This also is commonlie séene at these bankets, that the good man of the house is not char|ged with any thing sauing bread, drink, sauce, house|roome EEBO page image 168 and fire. But the artificers in cities and good townes doo deale far otherwise, for albeit that some of them doo suffer their iawes to go oft before their clawes, and diuerse of them by making good cheere doo hinder themselues and other men: yet the wiser sort can handle the matter well inough in these iun|kettings, and therfore their frugalitie deserueth com|mendation. To conclude, both the artificer and the husbandman are sufficientlie liberall, & verie fréend|lie at their tables, and when they méet, they are so me|rie without malice, and plaine without inward Ita|lian or French craft and subtiltie, that it would doo a man good to be in companie among them. Herein onelie are the inferiour sort somewhat to be blamed, that being thus assembled, their talke is now and then such as sauoureth of scurrilitie and ribaldrie, a thing naturallie incident to carters and clownes, who thinke themselues not to be merie & welcome, if their foolish veines in this behalfe be neuer so little restreined. This is moreouer to be added in these méetings, that if they happen to stumble vpon a péece of venison, and a cup of wine or verie strong beere or ale (which latter they commonlie prouide a|gainst their appointed daies) they thinke their chéere so great, and themselues to haue fared so well, as the lord MaiorI haue dined so well as my lord maior. of London, with whome when their bel|lies be full they will not often sticke to make com|parison, because that of a subiect there is no publike officer of anie citie in Europe, that may compare in port and countenance with him during the time of his office.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 I might here talke somewhat of the great silence that is vsed at the tables of the honorable and wiser sort, generallie ouer all the realme (albeit that too much deserueth no cõmendation, for it belongeth to gests neither to be muti nor loquaces) likewise of the moderate eating and drinking that is dailie séene, and finallie of the regard that each one hath to keepe himselfe from the note of surffetting and dronken|nesse (for which cause salt meat, except béefe, bacon, and porke are not anie whit esteemed, and yet these thrée may not be much powdered) but as in rehear|sall thereof I should commend the noble man, mer|chant, and frugall artificer, so I could not cleare the meaner sort of husbandmen, and countrie inhabi|tants of verie much babbling (except it be here and there some od yeoman) with whome he is thought to be the meriest that talketh of most ribaldrie, or the wisest man that speaketh fasteth among them, & now and then surffetting and dronkennesse, which they rather fall into for want of héed taking, than wilfullie following or delighting in those errours of set mind and purpose. It may be that diuers of them liuing at home with hard and pinching diet, small drinke, and some of them hauing scarse inough of that, are soonest ouertaken when they come vnto such bankets, howbeit they take it generallie as no small disgrace if they happen to be cupshotten, so that it is a greefe vnto them though now sans remedie sith the thing is doone and past. If the freends also of the wealthier sort come to their houses from farre, they are commonlie so welcome till they depart as vpon the first daie of their comming, wheras in good townes and cities, as London, &c: men oftentimes complaine of little roome, and in reward of a fat ca|pon or plentie of béefe and mutton, largelie be|stowed vpon them in the countrie, a cup of wine or béere with a napkin to wipe their lips, and an You are hartelie welcome is thought to begreat inter|teinement, and therefore the old countrie clearkes haue framed this saieng in that behalfe, I meane vpon the interteinment of townesmens and Lon|doners after the daies of their aboad in this maner:

Primus incundus, tollerabilis est secundus,
Tertius est vanus, sed fetet quatriduanus.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The bread through out the land is made of suchBread. graine as the soile yéeldeth, neuerthelesse the genti|litie commonlie prouide themselues sufficientlie of wheat for their owne tables, whilest their household and poore neighbours in some shires are inforced to content themselues with rie, or barl [...]ie, yea and in time of dearth manie with bread made either of beans, peason, or otes, or of altogither and some a|cornes among, of which scourge the poorest doo soonest tast, sith they are least able to prouide themselues of better. I will not saie that this extremitie is oft so well to be seene in time of plentie as of dearth, but if I should I could easilie bring my triall. For albeit that there be much more ground eared now almost in euerie place, than hath beene of late yeares, yet such a price of corne continueth in each towne and market without any iust cause (except it be that land|lords doo get licences to carie corne out of the land onelie to kéepe vp the peeces for their owne priuate gaines and ruine of the common-wealth) that the artificer and poore laboring man, is not able to reach vnto it, but is driuen to content himselfe with horsse|corne,A famine at hand is first séene in the horsse man|ger when the poore doo fall to horssecorne. I meane, beanes, peason, otes, tares, and lin|tels: and theerfore it is a true prouerbe, and neuer so well verified as now, that hunger setteth his first foot into the horsse manger. If the world last a while after this rate, wheate and rie will be no graine for poore men to feed on, and some catterpillers there are that can saie so much alreadie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Of bread made of wheat we haue sundrie sorts, dailie brought to the table, whereof the first and most excellent is the mainchet, which we commonlie call white bread, in Latine Primarius panis, Primarius pa|nis. wherof Budeus also speaketh, in his first booke De asse, and our good workemen deliuer commonlie such proportion, that of the flower of one bushell with another they make fortie cast of manchet, of which euerie lofe weigheth eight ounces into the ouen and six ounces out, as I haue béene informed. The second is the cheat or whea|ton bread,Cheat bread. so named bicause the colour therof resem|bleth the graie or yellowish wheat, being cleane and well dressed, and out of this is the coursest of the bran (vsuallie called gurgeons or pollard) taken. The raueled is a kind of cheat bread also,Rauelled bread. but it retei|neth more of the grosse, and lesse of the pure sub|stance of the wheat: and this being more sleightlie wrought vp, is vsed in the halles of the nobilitie, and gentrie onelie,The size of bread is verie ill kept or not at all looked vnto in the countrie townes and markets. whereas the other either is or should be baked in cities & good townes of an appointed size (according to such price as the corne dooth beare) and by a statute prouided by king Iohn in that behalfe. The raueled cheat therfore is generallie so made that out of one bushell of meale, after two and twen|tie pounds of bran be sisted and taken from it (where|vnto they ad the gurgeons that rise from the man|chet) they make thirtie cast, euerie lofe weighing eightéene ounces into the ouen and sixteene ounces out: and beside this they so handle the matter that to euerie bushell of meale they ad onelie two and twen|tie or thrée and twentie pound of water, washing al|so in some houses there corne before it go to the mill, whereby their manchet bread is more excellent in co|lour and pleasing to the eie, than otherwise it would be. The next sort is named browne bread of the co|lour,Browne bread. of which we haue two sorts, one baked vp as it cõmeth from the mill, so that neither the bran nor the floure are anie whit diminished, this Celsus called Autopirus panis, lib. 2. and putteth it in the second place of nourishment. The other hath little or no floure left therein at all, howbeit he callech it Panem Ciba|rium, Panis Ciba|rius. and it is not onlie the woorst and weakest of all the other sorts, but also appointed in old time for ser|uants, slaues, and the inferiour kind of people to féed EEBO page image 169 vpon. Herevnto likewise, bicause it is drie and bric|kle in the working (for it will hardlie be made vp handsomelie into loaues) some adde a portion of rie meale in our time, whereby the rough drinesse or drie roughnes therof is somwhat qualified, & then it is na|med miscelin, that is, bread made of mingled corne, albeit that diuerse doo sow or mingle wheat & rie of set purpose at the mill, or before it come there, and sell the same at the markets vnder the aforesaid name.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In champeigne countries much rie and barleie bread is eaten,Summer wheat and win [...]er bar| [...]eie verie rare in England. but especiallie where wheat is scant and geson. As for the difference that is betwéene the summer and winter wheat, most husbandmen know it not, sith they are neither acquainted with summer wheat, nor winter barleie: yet here and there I find of both sorts, speciallie in the north and about Ken|dall, where they call it March wheat, and also of sum|mer rie, but in so small quantities as that I dare not pronounce them to be greatlie common among vs.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Our drinke,Drinke. whose force and continuance is part|lie touched alreadie, is made of barleie, water, and hops, sodden and mingled togither, by the industrie of our bruers, in a certeine exact proportion. But be|fore our barleie doo come vnto their hands, it sustei|neth great alteration, and is conuerted into malt, the making whereof, I will here set downe in such order, as my skill therein may extend vnto (for I am scarse a good malster) chiefelie for that forreine wri|ters haue attempted to describe the same,Malt. and the making of our beere, wherein they haue shot so farre wide, as the quantitie of ground was betwéene themselues & their marke. In the meane time beare with me, gentle reader (I beséech thée) that lead thee from the description of the plentifull diet of our coun|trie, vnto the fond report of a seruile trade, or ra|ther from a table delicatelie furnished, into a mustie malthouse: but such is now thy hap, wherfore I praie thée be contented.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Our malt is made all the yeare long in some great townes, but in gentlemens and yeomens houses,Making of malt. who commonlie make sufficient for their owne expenses onelie, the winter halfe is thought most méet for that commoditie: howbeit the malt that is made when the willow dooth bud, is common|lie worst of all, neuerthelesse each one indeuoureth to make it of the best barleie, which is steeped in a ce|sterne, in greater or lesse quantitie, by the space of thrée daies and three nights, vntill it be throughlie so|ked. This being doone, the water is drained from it by little and little, till it be quite gone. Afterward they take it out, and laieng it vpon the cleane floore on a round heape, it resteth so vntill it be readie to shoote at the root end, which maltsters call Com|ming. When it beginneth therefore to shoot in this maner, they saie it is come, and then foorthwith they spread it abroad, first thicke, and afterward thinner and thinner vpon the said floore (as it commeth) and there it lieth (with turning euerie daie foure or fiue times) by the space of one and twentie daies at the least, the workeman not suffering it in anie wise to take anie heat, whereby the bud end should spire, that bringeth foorth the blade, and by which ouersight or hurt of the stuffe it selfe the malt would be spoiled, and turne small commoditie to the bruer. When it hath gone or béene turned so long vpon the floore, they carie it to a kill couered with haire cloth, where they giue it gentle heats (after they haue spread it there verie thin abroad) till it be drie, & in the meane while they turne it often, that it may be vniformelie dried. For the more it be dried (yet must it be doone with soft fire) the swéeter and better the malt is, and the longer it will continue, whereas if it be not dried downe (as they call it) but slackelie handled, it will bréed a kind of worme, called a wiuell, which grow|eth in the floure of the corne, and in processe of time will so eat out it selfe, that nothing shall remaine of the graine but euen the verie rind or huske.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The best malt is tried by the hardnesse & colour, for if it looke fresh with a yellow hew, & thereto will write like a péece of chalke, after you haue bitten a kirnell in sunder in the middest, then you may assure your selfe that it is dried downe. In s [...] places it is dried at leisure with wood alone, or strawe alone, in other with wood and strawe togither, but of all the strawe dried, is the most excellent. For the wood dried malt when it is brued, beside that the drinke is higher of colour, it dooth hurt and annoie the head of him that is not vsed thereto, bicause of the smoake. Such also as vse both indifferentlie doo barke, cleaue, and drie their wood in an ouen, thereby to remooue all moisture that shuld procure the fume, and this malt is in the second place, & with the same likewise, that which is made with dried firze, broome, &c: whereas if they also be occupied gréene, they are in maner so preiudiciall to the corne, as is the moist wood. And thus much of our malts, in bruing where|of some grinde the same somewhat groselie, and in séething well the liquor that shall be put vnto it, they adde to euerie nine quarters of mault one of headcorne, which consisteth of sundrie graine, as wheate, and otes groond. But what haue I to doo with this matter, or rather so great a quantitie, wherewith I am not acquainted. Neuerthelesse, sith I haue ta|ken occasion to speake of bruing, I will exemplifie in such a proportion as I am best skilled in, bicause it is the vsuall rate for mine owne familie, and once in a moneth practised by my wife & hir maid seruants, who procéed withall after this maner, as she hath off informed me.

Hauing therefore groond eight bushels of goodBruing of beere. malt vpon our querne, where the toll is saued, she addeth vnto it halfe a bushell of wheat meale, and so much of otes small groond, and so tempereth or mix|eth them with the malt, that you cannot easilie dis|cerne the one from the other, otherwise these later would clunter, fall into lumps, and thereby become vnprofitable. The first liquor which is full eightie gal|lons, according to the proportion of our furnace, she maketh boiling hot, and then powreth it softlie into the malt, where it resteth (but without stirring) vntill hir second liquor be almost readie to boile. This doone she letteth hir mash run till the malt be left with|out liquor, or at the leastwise the greatest part of the moisture, which she perceiueth by the staie and soft issue thereof, and by this time hir second liquor in the furnace is ready to séeth, which is put also to the malt as the first woorst also againe into the furnace wherevnto she addeth two pounds of the best En|glish hops, and so letteth them seeth togither by the space of two houres in summer, or an houre and an halfe in winter, whereby it getteth an excellent colour, and continuance without impeachment, or a|nie superfluous tartnesse.Charwoore. But before the putteth hir first woort into the furnace, or mingleth it with the hops, she taketh out a vessell full, of eight or nine gallons, which she shutteth vp close, and suffereth no aire to come into it till it become yellow, and this she reserueth by it selfe vnto further vse, as shall appeare hereafter calling it Brackwoort or Char|woort, and as she saith it addeth also to the colour of the drinke, whereby it yeeldeth not vnto amber or fine gold in hew vnto the eie. By this time also hir second woort is let runne, and the first being taken out of the furnace and placed to coole, she returneth the middle woort vnto the furnace, where it is striken ouer, or from whence it is taken againe, when it be|ginneth to boile and mashed the second time, whilest the third liquor is heat (for there are thrée liquors) and EEBO page image 170 this last put into the furnace, when the second is ma|shed againe. When she hath mashed also the last liquor (and set the second to coole by the first) she letteth it runne, and then séetheth it againe with a pound and an halfe of new hops, or peraduenture two pounds as she séeth cause by the goodnesse or basenesse of the hops, & when it hath sodden in summer two houres & in winter an houre & an halfe, she striketh it also and reserueth it vnto mixture with the rest when time dooth serue therefore. Finallie when she setteth hir drinke togither, she addeth to hir brackwoort or char|woort halfe an ounce of arras, and halfe a quarterne of an ounce of baiberries finelie powdered, and then putting the same into hir woort with an handfull of wheat flowre, she procéedeth in such vsuall order as common bruing requireth. Some in stéed of arras & baies adde so much long pepper onelie, but in hir opi|nion and my liking it is not so good as the first, and hereof we make thrée hoggesheads of good beere, such (I meane) as is méet for poore men as I am to liue withall, whose small maintenance (for what great thing is fortie pounds a yeare Computatis computandis able to performe) may indure no déeper cut, the charges whereof groweth in this manner. I va|lue my malt at ten shillings, my wood at foure shil|lings which I buie, my hops at twentie pence, the spice at two pence, seruants wages two shillings six pence with meat and drinke, and she wearing of my vessell at twentie pence, so that for my twentie shil|lings I haue ten score gallons of béere or more, not|withstanding the losse in seething, which some being loth to forgo doo not obserue the time, and therefore spéed thereafter in their successe, and worthilie. The continuance of the drinke is alwaie determined af|ter the quantitie of the hops, so that being well hopped it lasteth longer. For it féedeth vpon the hop, and hol|deth out so long as the force of the same continueth, which being extinguished the drinke must be spent or else it dieth, and becommeth of no value.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In this trade also our bruers obserue verie dili|gentlie the nature of the water, which they dailie oc|cupie; and soile through which it passeth, for all wa|ters are not of like goodnesse, sith the fattest standing water is alwaies the best: for although the waters that run by chalke or cledgie soiles be good, and next vnto the Thames water which is the most excellent, yet the water that standeth in either of these is the best for vs that dwell in the countrie, as whereon the sunne lieth longest, and fattest fish is bred. But of all other the [...]ennie and morish is the worst, and the clée|rest spring water next vnto it. In this busines ther|fore the skilfull workeman dooth redeeme the iniqui|tie of that element, by changing of his proportions, which trouble in ale (sometime our onelie, but now taken with manie for old and sickmens drinke) is ne|uer séene nor heard of. Howbeit as the beere well sodden in the bruing, and stale, is cleere and well co|loured as muscadell or malueseie, or rather yellow as the gold noble as our potknights call it: so our ale which is not at all or verie little sodden, and without hops, is more thicke, fulsome, and of no such continu|ance, which are thrée notable things to be considered in that liquor. But what for that? Certes I know some aleknights so much addicted therevnto, that they will not ceasse from morow vntill euen to visit the same, clensing house after house, till they defile themselues, and either fall quite vnder the boord, or else not daring to stirre from their stooles, sit still pin|king with their narrow eies as halfe sleeping, till the fume of their aduersarie be digested that he may go to it afresh. Such slights also haue the alewiues for the vtterance of this drinke, that they will mixe it with rosen and salt: but if you heat a knife red hot, and quench it in the ale so neere the bottome of the pot as you can put it, you shall sée the rosen come foorth hanging on the knife. As for the force of salt, it is well knowne by the effect, for the more the drin|ker tipleth, the more he may, and so dooth he carrie off a drie dronken noll to bed with him, except his lucke be the better. But to my purpose.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 In some places of England, there is a kind of drinke made of apples, which they call ciderCider. or po|mage, but that of peares is named pirrie,Perrie. and both are groond and pressed in presses made for the nonce. Certes these two are verie common in Sussex, Kent, Worcester, and other stéeds, where these sorts of fruits doo abound, howbeit they are not their one|lie drinke at all times, but referred vnto the delicate sorts of drinke, as metheglinMetheglin. is in Wales, whereof the Welshmen make no lesse accompt (and not with|out cause if it be well handled) than the Gréekes did of their Ambrosia or Nectar, which for the pleasant|nesse thereof, was supposed to be such as the gods themselues did delite in. There is a kind of swish swash mad also in Essex, and diuerse other places, with honicombs and water, which the homelie coun|trie wiues, putting some pepper and a little other spice among, call mead,Mead. verie good in mine opinion for such as loue to be loose bodied at large, or a little eased of the cough, otherwise it differeth so much frõ the true metheglin, as chalke from cheese. Trulie it is nothing else but the washing of the combes,Hydromel. when the honie is wroong out, and one of the best things that I know belonging thereto is, that they spend but litle labour and lesse cost in making of the same, and therefore no great losse if it were neuer occu|pied. Hitherto of the diet of my countrimen, & some|what more at large peraduenture than manie men will like of, wherefore I thinke good now to finish this tractation, and so will I, when I haue added a few other things incident vnto that which goeth be|fore, wherby the whole processe of the same shall fullie be deliuered, & my promise to my fréend in this behalfe performed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Heretofore there hath béene much more time spent in eating and drinking than commonlie is in these daies,Lesse time spent in ea|ting than heretofore. for whereas of old we had breakefasts in the forenoone, beuerages, or nuntions after dinner, and thereto reare suppers generallie when it was time to go to rest (a toie brought into England by hardie Canutus and a custome whereof Athenaeus also spea|keth lib. 1, albeit Hippocrates speake but of twise at the most lib. 2. De rat. vict. in feb. ac.) Now these od re|pasts thanked be God are verie well left, and ech one in maner (except here and there some yoong hungrie stomath that cannot fast till dinner time) contenteth himselfe with dinner & supper onelie. The Normans misliking the gormandise of Canutus, ordeined af|ter their [...]rriuall, that no table should be couered a|boue once in the daie, which Huntingdon imputeth to their auarice: but in the end either waxing wea|rie of their owne frugalitie, or suffering the cockle of old custome to ouergrow the good corne of their new constitution, they fell to such libertie, Canutus a glutton, but the Normans at the last ex|céeded him in that vice. that in of|ten féeding they surmounted Canutus surnamed the hardie. For whereas he couered his table but thrée or foure times in the daie, these spred their clothes fiue or six times, and in such wise as I before rehear|sed. They brought in also the custome of long and statelie sitting at meat, whereby their feasts resem|bled those ancient pontificall bankets whereof Ma|crobius speaketh lib. 3. cap. 13. and Plin. lib. 10. cap. 10. and which for sumptuousnesse of fare, long sitting and curiositie shewed in the same, excéeded all other mens feasting, which fondnesse is not yet left with vs, notwithstanding that it proueth verie beneficiall for the physicians, who most abound, where most ex|cesse and misgouernement of our bodies doo appéere, EEBO page image 171 although it be a great expense of time, and worthie of reprehension. For the nobilitie, gentlemen, and merchantmen, especiallie at great méetings doo sit commonlie till two or three of the clocke at after|noone,Long sitting reprehended. so that with manie is an hard matter, to rise from the table to go to euening praier, and returne from thence to come time inough to supper. For my part I am persuaded that the purpose of the Nor|mans at the first was to reduce the ancient Roman order or Danish custome in féeding once in the daie, and toward the euening, as I haue red and noted. And indéed the Romans had such a custome, and like|wise the Grecians, as may appeere by the words of Socrates, who said vnto the Atheniens, Oriente sole consilium, occidente conuiuium est cogitandum, although a little something was allowed in the morning to yoong children which we now call a breakefast. Plato called the Siciliens monsters, for that they vsed to eat twise in the daie. Among the Persians onelie the king dined when the sunne was at the highest, and shadow of the stile at the shortest: the rest (as it is reported) went alwaies but once to meat when their stomachs craued it, as the Canariens and In|dians doo in my time (who if appetite serue refuse not to go to meat at anie houre of the night) and like|wise the ancient Caspians. Yet Arhianus noteth it as a rare thing li. 4. cap. 16. that the Tyrhenians had taken vp an ill custome to féed twise in a daie. How|beit at the last they fell generallie to allow of sup|pers toward the setting of the sunne in all places, bicause they would haue their whole familie to go to meat togither, and wherevnto they would appoint their guests to come at a certeine length of the sha|dow, to be perceiued in their dials. And this is more to be noted of antiquitie, that if anie man (as Plu|tarch saith) did féed before that time, he incurred a note of reprehension as if he had beene gluttonous and giuen vnto the bellie, 8. Sympos. 6. Their slaues in like sort were glad, when it grew to the tenth foot, for then were they sure soone after to go to meat. In the scripture we read of manie suppers & few dinners, onelie for that dining was not greatlie vsed in Christs time, but taken as a thing latelie sproong vp, when pampering of the bellie began to take hold, oc|castoned by idlenes and great abundance of riches. It is pretie to note in Iuuenal, how he taunteth Ma|rius for that he gaue himselfe to drinke before the That is at thrée of the clocke at af|ternoone. ninth houre of the daie: for thinking three houres to be too little for the filling of his bellie, he began com|monlie at eight, which was an houre too soone. Af|terwards when gurmandise increased yet more a|mongst the Romans, and from them was dispersed vnto all nations vnder their subiection, it came to passe that six houres onlie were appointed to worke and consult in, and the other six of the daie to feed and drinke in, as the verse saith:

Sex horae tantùm rebus tribuantur agendis,
Viuere post illas, littera Zetha monet.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Wherevnto Maximus Planudes (except my me|morie faile me) addeth this scholie after his maner, saieng that from morning vnto noone (which is six of the clocke after the vnequall accompt) each one dooth trauell about his necessarie affaires, that being doone, he betaketh himselfe to the refreshing of his bodie, which is noted and set downe by the Gréeke letters of the diall (wherewith the Romane horolo|gies were marked, as ours be with their numerall letters) whereby the time is described; for those which point 7, 8, 9 and 10 are written with [...], and be|ing ioined yéeld [...], which in English signifieth so much as liue, as if they should meane, eat that thou maist liue. But how Martial diuided his daie, and with him the whole troope of the learned & wiser sort, these verses following doo more euidentlie declare:

Prima salutantes, atque altera [...],Li. 4. epig. 8.
Exercet raucos tertia causidicos.
In quintam varios extendis Roma labores,
Sexta quies lassis, septima finis erit.
Sufficit in nonam nitidis octaua palestris,
Imperat extructos frangera nona thoros.
Hora libellorum decima est Eupheme meorum,
Temperat Ambrosias cum tua cura dapes.
Et bonus aethereo laxatur Nectare Caesar,
Ingentíque tenet pocula parca manu.
Tunc admitteiocos: gressu timet ire licenti,
Ad matutinum nostra Thaleia Iouem.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Thus we sée how the ancient maner of the Gen|tils was to féed but once in the daie, and that toward night, till gluttonie grew on and altered this good custome. I might [...] remember also their maner in pulling off their shooes when they sat downe to meat, whereof Martial saith:

Deposui soleas, affertur protinus ingens
Inter lactucas oxygarmú, liber, &c.
And Tullie also remembreth where he saith Seruum à pedibus ad te misi, which office grew of the said cu|stome, as Seruus ad limina did of kéeping the doore, though in most houses both these were commonlie one mans office, also Ad pocula of attending on the cup. But bicause the good writers of our time haue obserued these phrases and such like with their causes and descriptions, in their infinite and seuerall trea|tises, I shall not need to discourse anie farther vpon them. With vs the nobilitie, gentrie, and students, doo ordinarilie go to dinner at eleuen before noone, and to supper at fiue, or betweene fiue and six at after|noone. The merchants dine and sup seldome before twelue at noone, and six at night especiallie in Lon|don. The husbandmen dine also at high noone as they call it, and sup at seuen or eight: but out of the tearme in our vniuersities the scholers dine at ten. As for the poorest fort they generallie dine and sup when they may, so that to talke of their order of re|past, it were but a néedlesse matter. I might here take occasion also to set downe the varietie vsed by antiquitie in their beginnings of their diets, wherin almost euerie nation had a seuerall fashion, some be|ginning of custome (as we doo in summer time) with salets at supper, and some ending with lettice, some making their entrie with egs, and shutting vp their tables with mulberies, as we doo with fruit and con|ceits of all sorts. Diuerse (as the old Romans) began with a few crops of rue, as the Uenetians did with the fish called Gobius, the Belgies with butter (or as we doo yet also) with butter and egs vpon fish daies. But wheras we commonlie begin with the most grosse food, and end with the most delicate, the Scot thinking much to leaue the best for his meniall ser|uants maketh his entrance at the best, so that he is sure therby to leaue the worst. We vse also our wines by degrees, so that the hotest commeth last to the ta|ble, but to stand vpon such toies would spend much time, and turne to small profit, wherfore I will deals with other things more necessarie for this turne.

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