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3.5. Of degrees of people in the common|wealth of England. Chap. 5.

Of degrees of people in the common|wealth of England. Chap. 5.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _WE in England diuide our people commonlie into foure sorts, as gentlemen, citizens or burgesses, yeomen, which are artificers, or laborers. Of gentlemen the first and chéefe (next the king) be the prince, dukes, marquesses, earls, vis|counts, and barons: and these are called gentlemen of the greater sort, or (as our common vsage of spéech is) lords and noblemen: and next vnto them be knights, esquiers, and last of all they that are simplie called gentlemen; so that in effect our gentlemen are diuided into their conditions, whereof in this chapi|ter I will make particular rehearsall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 EEBO page image 157 The title of prince dooth peculiarlie belong with vs to the kings eldest sonne, who is called prince of Wales, and is the heire apparant to the crowne; as in France the kings eldest sonne hath the title of Dolphine, and is named peculiarlie Monsieur. So that the prince is so termed of the Latine word Prin|ceps, sith he is (as I may call him) the cheefe or prin|cipall next the king. The kings yoonger sonnes be but gentlemen by birth (till they haue receiued crea|tion or donation from their father of higher estate, as to be either visconts, earles, or dukes) and called after their names, as lord Henrie, or lord Edward, with the addition of the word Grace, properlie assig|ned to the king and prince, and now also by custome conueied to dukes, archbishops, and (as some saie) to marquesses and their wiues.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The title of duke commeth also of the Latine word Dux, à ducendo, Duke. bicause of his valor and power o|uer the armie: in times past a name of office due to the emperour, consull, or chéefe gouernour of the whole armie in the Romane warres: but now a name of honor, although perished in England, whose ground will not long beare one duke at once; but if there were manie as in time past, or as there be now earles, I doo not thinke but that they would florish and prosper well inough.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In old time he onelie was called marquesse,Marquesse. Qui habuit terram limitaneam, a marching prouince vpon the enimies countries, and thereby bound to kéepe and defend the frontiers. But that also is changed in common vse, and reputed for a name of great honor next vnto the duke, euen ouer counties, and some|times small cities, as the prince is pleased to be|stow it.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The name of earle likewise was among the Ro|mans a name of office,Earle. who had Comites sacri palatij, comites aerarij, comites stabuli, comites patrimonij, largitionum, scholarum, commerciorum, and such like. But at the first they were called Comites, which were ioined in com|mission with the proconsull, legate, or iudges for counsell and aids sake in each of those seuerall char|ges. As Cicero epistola ad Quintum fratrem re|membreth, where he saith; Atque inter hos quos tibi comi|tes, & adiutores negotiorum publicorum dedit ipsa respublica duntaxat finibus his praestabis, quos ante praescripsi, &c. After this I read also that euerie president in his charge was called Comes, but our English Saxons vsed the word Hertoch and earle for Comes, and indifferentlie as I gesse, sith the name of duke was not in vse be|fore the conquest. Goropius saith, that Comes and Graue is all one,Uiscont. to wit the viscont, called either Procomes, or Vicecomes: and in time past gouerned in the countie vnder the earle, but now without anie such seruice or office, it is also become a name of dig|nitie next after the earle, and in degrée before the ba|ron. His reléefe also by the great charter is one hun|dred pounds, as that of a baronie a hundred marks, and of a knight flue at the most for euerie fée.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The baron,Baron. whose degrée answered to the dignitie of a senator in Rome, is such a frée lord as hath a lord|ship or baronie, whereof he beareth his name, & hath diuerse knights or fréeholders holding of him, who with him did serue the king in his wars, and held their tenures in Baronia, that is, for performance of such seruice. These Bracton (a learned writer of the lawes of England in king Henrie the thirds time) tearmeth Barones, quasi robur belli. The word Baro in|déed is older than that it may easilie be found from whence it came: for euen in the oldest histories both of the Germans and Frenchmen, written since the conquest, we read of barons, and those are at this daie called among the Germans Liberi vel Ingenui, or Freihers in the Germane toong as some men doo coniecture, or (as one saith) the citizens and burgesses of good townes and cities were called Barones. Ne|uerthelesse by diligent inquisition it is imagined, if not absolutelie found, that the word Baro and Filius in the old Scithian or Germane language are all one; so that the kings children are properlie called Barones, from whome also it was first translated to their kindred, and then to the nobilitie and officers of greatest honour indifferentlie. That Baro and Filius signifieth one thing, it yet remaineth to be séene, although with some corruption: for to this daie, euen the common sort doo call their male chil|dren barnes here in England, especiallie in the north countrie, where that word is yet accustomablie in vse. And it is also growne into a prouerbe in the south, when anie man susteineth a great hinderance, to saie, I am beggered and all my barnes. In the Hebrue toong (as some affirme) it signifieth Filij so|lis, and what are the nobilitie in euerie kingdome but Filij or serui regum? But this is farre fetched, wherefore I conclude, that from hensefoorth the ori|ginall of the word Baro shall not be anie more to seeke: and the first time that euer I red thereof in a|nie English historie, is in the reigne of Canutus, who called his nobilitie and head officers to a coun|cell holden at Cirnecester, by that name, 1030, as I haue else-where remembred. Howbeit the word Baro dooth not alwaies signifie or is attributed to a noble man by birth or creation, for now and then it is a title giuen vnto one or other with his office, as the chéefe or high tribune of the excheker is of cu|stome called lord chéefe baron, who is as it were the great or principall receiuer of accounts next vnto the lord treasuror, as they are vnder him are called Tribuni aerarij, & rationales. Hervnto I may ad so much of the word lord, which is an addition going not sel|dome and in like sort with sundrie offices, and to continue so long as he or they doo execute the same, and no longer.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Unto this place I also referre our bishops,Bishops. who are accounted honourable, called lords, and hold the same roome in the parlement house with the barons, albeit for honour sake the right hand of the prince is giuen vnto them, and whose countenances in time past were much more glorious than at this present it is, bicause those lustie prelats sought after earthlie e|stimation and authoritie with farre more diligence than after the lost shéepe of Christ, of which they had small regard, as men being otherwise occupied and void of leisure to attend vpon the same. Howbeit in these daies their estate remaineth no lesse reuerend than before, and the more vertuous they are that be of this calling, the better are they estéemed with high and low. They reteine also the ancient name (lord) still, although it be not a littie impugned by such as loue either to heare of change of all things, or can a|bide no superiours. For notwithstanding it be true, that in respect of function, the office of the eldership is equallie distributed betwéene the bishop and the minister,1. Sam. b 15. 1. Reg. a 7. yet for ciuill gouernements sake, the first haue more authoritie giuen vnto them by kings and princes, to the end that the rest maie thereby be with more ease reteined within a limited compasse of vniformitie, than otherwise they would be, if ech one were suffered to walke in his owne course. This also is more to be maruelled at, that verie manie call for an alteration of their estate, crieng to haue the word lord abolished, their ciuill authoritie taken from them, and the present condition of the church in other things reformed; whereas to saie trulie, few of them doo agrée vpon forme of discipline and gouerne|ment of the church succedent: wherein they re [...]ena|ble the Capuans, of whome Liuic dooth speake in the slaughter of their senat. Neither is it possible to frame a whole monarchie after the patterne of one EEBO page image 158 towne or citie, or to stirre vp such an exquisite face of the church as we imagine or desire, sith our corrup|tion is such that it will neuer yéeld to so great perfec|tion: for that which is not able to be performed in a priuat house, will much lesse be brought to passe in a common-wealth and kingdome, before such a prince be found as Xenophon describeth, or such an orator as Tullie hath deuised. But whither am I digressed from my discourse of bishops, whose estates doo daily decaie, & suffer some diminution? Herein neuerthe|lesse their case is growne to be much better than be|fore, for whereas in times past the cleargie men were feared bicause of their authoritie and seuere gouern|ment vnder the prince, now are they beloued gene|rallie for their painefull diligence dailie shewed in their functions and callings, except peraduenture of some hungrie wombes, that couet to plucke & snatch at the loose ends of their best commodities; with whom it is (as the report goeth) a common guise, when a man is to be preferred to an ecclesiasticall liuing, what part thereof he will first forgo and part with to their vse. Finallie, how it standeth with the rest of the clergie for their places of estate, I neither can tell nor greatlie care to know. Neuerthelesse with what degrées of honour and worship they haue béene matched in times past Iohannes Bohemus in his De omnium gentium moribus, De Asia, cap. 12 and others doo expresse; and this also found beside their reports, that in time past euerie bishop, abbat, and pelting prior were placed before the earles and barons in most statutes, char|ters, and records made by the prince, as maie also appeare in the great charter, and sundrie yeares of Henrie the third, wherein no duke was heard of. But as a number of their odious comparisons and ambitious titles are now decaied and worthilie shroonke in the wetting, so giuing ouer in these daies to mainteine such pompous vanitie, they doo thinke it sufficient for them to preach the word, & hold their liuings to their sées (so long as they shall be able) from the hands of such as indeuour for their owne preferrement to fléece and diminish the same. This furthermore will I adde generallie in commendati|on of the cleargie of England, that they are for their knowledge reputed in France, Portingale, Spaine, Germanie and Polonia, to be the most learned di|uines, although they like not anie thing at all of their religion: and thereto they are in deed so skilfull in the two principall toongs, that it is accounted a maime in anie one of them, not to be exactlie seene in the Greeke and Hebrue,No Gréeke, no grace. much more then to be vt|terlie ignorant or nothing conuersant in them. As for the Latine toong it is not wanting in anie of the ministerie, especiallie in such as haue beene made within this twelue or fourtéene yeares, whereas be|fore there was small choise, and manie cures were left vnserued, bicause they had none at all. And to saie truth, our aduersaries were the onelie causers hereof. For whilest they made no further accompt of their priesthood, than to construe, sing, read their ser|uice and their portesse, it came to passe that vpon ex|amination had, few made in quéene Maries daies, andBene con, be|ne can, bene le. the later end of king Henrie, were able to to doo anie more, and verie hardlie so much, so void were they of further skill, and so vnapt to serue at all.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Dukes,Duke, mar|quesse, earle, viscont. marquesses, earles, visconts, and barons, either be created of the prince, or come to that honor by being the eldest sonnes or highest in succession to their parents. For the eldest sonne of a duke during his fathers life is an erle, the eldest sonne of an erle is a baron, or sometimes a viscont, according as the creation is. The creation I call the originall donati|on and condition of the honour giuen by the prince for good seruice doone by the first ancestor, with some aduancement, which with the title of that honour is alwaies giuen to him and his heires males onelie. The rest of the sonnes of the nobilitie by the rigor of the law be but esquiers: yet in common spéech all dukes and marquesses sonnes, and earles eldest sonnes be called lords, the which name commonlie dooth agrée to none of lower degrée than barons, yet by law and vse these be not esteemed barons.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The baronie or degrée of lords dooth answer to the degree of senators of RomeBarons. (as I said) and the title of nobilitie (as we vse to call it in England) to the Ro|mane Patricij. Also in England no man is com|monlie created baron, except he maie dispend of yearelie reuenues a thousand pounds, or so much as maie fullie mainteine & beare out his countenance and port. But visconts, erles, marquesses, and dukes excéed them according to the proportion of their de|grée & honour. But though by chance he or his sonne haue lesse, yet he kéepeth this degrée: but if the decaie be excessiue and not able to mainteine the honour, as Senatores Romani were amoti à senatu: so sometimes they are not admitted to the vpper house in the parlement although they keepe the name of lord still, which can not be taken from them vpon anie such occasion. The most of these names haue descended from the French inuention, in whose histories we shall read of them eight hundred yeares passed.

This also is worthie the remembrance, that Otto the first emperour of that name,Of the second degrée of gen|tlemen. indeuouring to re|store the decaied estate of Italie vnto some part of hir pristinate magnificence, did after the French ex|ample giue Di gnitates & praedia to such knights and souldiers as had serued him in the warres, whom he also adorned with the names of dukes, marquesses, earles, valuasors or capteins, and valuasines.

His Praedia in like maner were tributes,Praedia. tolles, portage, bankage, stackage, coinage, profits by salt|pits, milles, water-courses (and whatsoeuer emolu|ments grew by them) & such like. But at that present I read not that the word Baro was brought into those parts. And as for the valuasors, it was a denomina|tion applied vnto all degrées of honor vnder the first three (which are properlie named the kings capteins) so that they are called Maiores, minores, & minimi val|uasores. This also is to be noted, that the word capteine hath two relations, either as the possessor therof hath it from the prince, or from some duke, marquesse, or earle, for each had capteins vnder them. If from the prince,Valuasores. then are they called Maiores valuasores, if from anie of his thrée péeres, then were they Minores val|uasores: but if anie of these Valuasors doo substitute a deputie, those are called Minimi valuasores, and their deputies also Valuasini, without regard vnto which de|grée the valuasor dooth apperteine: but the word Val|uasor is now growne out of vse, wherefore it sufficeth to haue said thus much of that function.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Knights be not borne,Knights. neither is anie man a knight by succession, no not the king or prince: but they are made either before the battell, to incourage them the more to aduenture & trie their manhood: or after the battell ended, as an aduancement for their courage and prowesse alreadie shewed (& then are they called Milites;)Milites. or out of the warres for some great seruice doone, or for the singular vertues which doo appeare in them, and then are they named Equites aurati, as com|mon custome intendeth. They are made either by the king himselfe, or by his commission and roiall autho|ritie giuen for the same purpose: or by his lieute|nant in the warres. This order seemeth to answer in part to that which the Romans called Equitum Ro|manorum. For as Equites Romani were chosen Ex cen|su, that is,Equite [...] aurati. according to their substance and riches; so be knights in England most commonlie accor|ding to their yearelie reuenues or aboundance of riches, wherewith to mainteine their estates. Yet all EEBO page image 159 that had Equestrem censum, were not chosen to be knights, and no more be all made knights in Eng|land that may spend a knights lands, but they onelie whome the prince will honour. Sometime diuerse ancient gentlemen, burgesses, and lawiers, are cal|led vnto knighthood by the prince, and neuerthelesse refuse to take that state vpon them, for which they are of custome punished by a fine, that redoundeth vnto his cofers, and to saie truth, is oftentimes more pro|fitable vnto him than otherwise their seruice should be, if they did yeeld vnto knighthood. And this also is a cause, wherfore there be manie in England able to dispend a knights liuing, which neuer come vnto that countenance, and by their owne consents. The num|ber of the knights in Rome was also vncerteine: and so is it of knights likewise with vs, as at the pleasure of the prince. And whereas the Equites Roma|ni had Equum publicum of custome bestowed vpon them, the knights of England haue not so, but beare their owne charges in that also, as in other kind of furniture, as armorie méet for their defense and ser|uice. This neuerthelesse is certeine, that who so may dispend 40 pounds by the yeare of frée land, either at the coronation of the king, or mariage of his daugh|ter, or time of his dubbing, may be inforced vnto the taking of that degrée, or otherwise paie the reue|nues of his land for one yeare, which is onelie fortie pounds by an old proportion, and so for a time be ac|quited of that title. We name him knight in Eng|lish that the French calleth Cheualier, and the Latins Equitem, or Equestris ordinis virum. And when any man is made a knight, he knéeling downe is striken of the king or his substitute with his sword naked vp|on the backe or shoulder, the prince, &c: saieng, Soyes cheualier au nom de Dieu. And when he riseth vp the king saith Aduances bon cheualier. This is the maner of dubbing knights at this present, and the tearme (dubbing) is the old tearme for that purpose and not creation, howbeit in our time the word (making) is most in vse among the common sort.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 At the coronation of a king or queene,Knights of the bath. there be o|ther knights made with longer and more curious ceremonies, called knights of the bath. But how soeuer one be dubbed or made knight, his wife is by and by called madame or ladie, so well as the ba|rons wife; he himselfe hauing added to his name in common appellation this syllable Sir, which is the ti|tle whereby we call our knights in England. His wife also of courtesie so long as she liueth is called my ladie, although she happen to marie with a gen|tleman or man of meane calling, albeit that by the cõmon law she hath no such prerogatiue. If hir first husband also be of better birth than hir second, though this later likewise be a knight, yet in that she pre|tendeth a priuilege to loose no honor through courte|sie yéelded to hir sex, she will be named after the most honorable or worshipfull of both, which is not séene elsewhere.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The other order of knighthood in England,Knights of the garter. and the most honorable is that of the garter, instituted by king Edward the third, who after he had gained ma|nie notable victories, taken king Iohn of France, and king Iames of Scotland (and kept them both prisoners in the Tower of London at one time) ex|pelled king Henrie of Castile the bastard out of his realme, and restored Don Petro vnto it (by the helpe of the prince of Wales and duke of Aquitaine his eldest sonne called the Blacke prince) he then inuen|ted this societie of honour, and made a choise out of his owne realme and dominions, and throughout all christendome of the best, most excellent and renow|med persons in all vertues and honour, and adorned them with that title to be knights of his order, gi|uing them a garter garnished with gold and preti|ous stones, to [...]eare [...] on the left leg onlie: also a kirtic, gowne, cloke, chaperon colla [...], and other so|lemne and magnifi [...] apparell, both of stuffe and fashion exquisite & here [...]call to weare at high feasts & as to so high and princelie an order apperteineth. Of this companie also he and his successors kings and queenes of England, be the souereignes, and the rest by certeine statutes and lawes amongst them|selues be taken as brethren and fellowes in that or|der, to the number of six and twentie, as I find in a certeine treatise written of the same, an example whereof I haue here inserted word for word, as it was deliuered vnto me, beginning after this maner.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 I might at this present make a long tractatio [...] of the round table and estate of the knights there|of,Round table. erected sometimes by Arthur the great monarch, of this Iland; and therevnto intreat of the number of his knights, and ceremonies belonging to the or|der, but I thinke in so dooing that I should rather set downe the latter inuentions of other men, than a true description of such ancient actions as were per|formed in deed. I could furthermore with more faci|litie describe the roialtie of Charles the great & his twelue péeres, with their solemne rites and vsages: but vnto this also I haue no great deuotion, conside|ring the truth hereof is now so stained with errours and fables inserted into the same by the lewd religi|ous sort, that except a man should professe to lie with them for companie, there is little sound knowledge to be gathered hereof worthie the remembrance. In like maner diuerse aswell subiects as princes haue attempted to restore againe a round table in this land (as for example Roger lord Mortimer at Kil|lingworth)Roger Mor|timer. but such were the excesiue charges apper|teining therevnto (as they did make allowance) and so great molestation dailie insued therevpon, beside the bréeding of sundrie quarrels among the knights, and such as resorted hitherto from forreine coun|tries (as it was first vsed) that in fine they gaue it o|uer, and suffered their whole inuentions to perish and decaie, till Edward the third deuised an other order not so much pestered with multitude of knights as the round table, but much more honorable for prince|lie port and countenance, as shall appeare hereafter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The order of the garter therefore was deuised in the time of king Edward the third,The occasion of the deuise. and (as some write) vpon this occasion. The quéenes maiestie then liuing, being departed from his presence the next waie toward hir lodging, he following soone after happened to find hir garter, which slacked by chance and so fell from hir leg, vnespied in the throng by such as attended vpon hir. His groomes & gentlemen also passed by it, disdaining to stoope and take vp such a trifle: but he knowing the owner, commanded one of them to staie and reach it vp to him. Why and like your grace (saieth a gentleman) it is but some wo|mans garter that hath fallen from hir as she follow|ed the quéenes maiestie. What soeuer it be (quoth the king) take it vp and giue it me. So when he had re|ceiued the garter, he said to such as stood about him: You my maisters doo make small account of this blue garter here (and therewith held it out) but if God lend me life for a few moneths,Peraduen|ture but a blue ribben. I will make the proudest of you all to reuerence the like. And euen vpon this slender occasion he gaue himselfe to the deuising of this order. Certes I haue not read of a|nie thing, that hauing had so simple a beginning hath growne in the end to so great honour and estimati|on. But to proceed. After he had studied awhile about the performance of his deuise, and had set downe such orders as he himselfe inuented concerning the same, he proclamed a roiall feast to be holden at Windsore, whither all his nobilitie resorted with their ladies, where he published his institution, and EEBO page image 160 foorthwith inuested an appon [...]d number into the a|fore said fellowship, whose names insue, himselfe be|ing the souereigne and principall of that companie. Next vnto himselfe also he placed.

  • Edward prince of Wales.
  • Henrie duke of Lan|caster.
  • N. earle of Warw.
  • N. capt. de Bouche.
  • N. earle of Stafford.
  • N. earle of Sarum.
  • N. lord Mortimer.
  • Sir Iohn Lisle.
  • Sir Bartholomew
  • Burwash.
  • N. sonne of sir Iohn Beauchamp.
  • Sir N. de Mahun.
  • S. Hugh Courtneie.
  • S. Thomas Holland.
  • Sir Iohn Graie.
  • Sir Rich. Fitzsimon.
  • Sir Miles Stapleton.
  • Sir Thomas Wale.
  • Sir Hugh Wrotesley.
  • Sir Neale Lording.
  • Sir Iohn Chandos.
  • S. Iames Dawdleie.
  • Sir Otho Holland.
  • Sir Henrie Eme.
  • Sir Sanchet Dambri|court.
  • Sir Walter Pannell
  • aliàs Paganell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 What order of election,Election. and what estatutes were prescribed vnto the elected at this first institution, as yet I can not exactlie vnderstand; neither can I learne what euerie prince afterward added therevn|to before the six and thirtith yeare of king Henrie the eight, and third of king Edward the sixt: wherefore of necessitie I must resort vnto the estate of the said order as it is at this present, which I will set downe so brieflie as I may. When anie man therefore is to be elected (vpon a roome found void for his admissi|on) into this fellowship, the king directeth his letters vnto him, notwithstanding that he before hand be nominated to the same, to this effect. Right trustie and welbeloued we gréete you well, asserteining you, that in consideration aswell of your approoued truth and fidelitie, as also of your couragious and valiant acts of knighthood, with other your probable merits knowne by experience in sundrie parties and behalfes: we with the companions of the noble or|der of the Garter, assembled at the election holden this daie within our manour of N. haue elected and chosen you amongst other to be one of the compani|ons of the said Order, as your deserts doo condigne|lie require. Wherefore we will that with conuenient diligence vpon the sight herof, you repaire vnto our presence, there to receiue such things as to the said order apperteineth. Dated vnder our signet at our maner of N. &c. These letters are the exemplifi|cation of certeine, which (as it should séeme) were written An. 3. Edwardi fexti at Gréenewich Aprilis 24, vnto the earle of Huntingdon, & the lord George Cobham your lordships honorable father, at such time as they were called vnto the aforesaid compa|nie. I find also these names subscribed vnto the same.

  • Edward duke of Summerset vn|cle to the king.
  • The marq. of North|hampton.
  • Earle of Arundell L. Chamberleine.
  • Earle of Shrewes|burie.
  • L. Russell lord priuie seale.
  • L. S. Iohn lord great master.
  • Sir Iohn Gage.
  • S. Anthonie Wing|field.
  • Sir William Paget.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Being elected,Admission. preparation is made for his instal|ling at Windsore (the place appointed alwaies for this purpose) whereat it is required that his banner be set vp, of two yardes and a quarter in length, and thrée quarters in bredth, besid [...] [...]he fringe. Second|lie his sword of whatsoeuer length him séemeth good. Thirdlie his helme, which from the charnell vpwards ought to be of thrée inches at the least. Fourthlie the crest; with mantels to the helme belonging, of such conuenient stuffe and bignesse, as it shall please him to appoint.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Item a plate of armes at the backe of his sta [...], and crest with mantels and beasts supportant, to be grauen in the mettall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Item lodging scutcheons of his armes, inuiron|ned with a garter, and painted in paper or cloth of buckram, which when he trauelleth by the waie are to be fixed in the common Ins where he dooth lodge, as a testimonie of his presence and states from time to time as he did trauell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Item two mantels, one to remaine in the college at Windsore, the other to vse at his pleasure, with the scutcheon of the armes of S. George in the gar|ter with laces, tasselets, and knops of blue silke and gold belonging to the same.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Item a surcote or gowne of red or crimosine vel|uet, with a whood of the same, lined with white sarce|net or damaske.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Item a collar of the garter of thirtie ounces of gold Troie weight.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Item a tablet of S. George, richlie garnished with precious stones or otherwise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Item a garter for his (left) leg, hauing the buckle and pendant garnished with gold.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Item a booke of the statutes of the said order.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Item a scutcheon of the armes of S. George in the garter to set vpon the mantell. And this furni|ture is to be prouided against his installation.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 When anie knight is to be installed, he hath with his former letters,Installation. a garter sent vnto him, and when he commeth to be installed, he is brought into the chapter house, where incontinentlie his commission is read before the souereigne, or his deputie, and the assemblie present: from hence he is lead by two knights of the said order, accompanied with the o|ther of the nobilitie, and officers towards the chappell, hauing his mantell borne before him, either by a knight of the order, or else the king at armes, to whome it secondarilie apperteineth to beare it. This mantell shall be deliuered vnto him for his habit,Mantell. af|ter his oth taken before his stall, and not before: which doone, he shall returne vnto the chapter house, where the souereigne, or his deputie, shall deliuer him his collar, and so he shall haue the full possession of his ha|bit. As for his stall, it is not giuen according vnto the calling and countenance of the receiuer,Stall. but as the place is that happeneth to be void, so that each one called vnto this knighthood (the souereigne, and em|perours, and kings, and princes alwaies excepted) shall haue the same seat, which became void by the death of his predecessor, howsoeuer it fall out: wher|by a knight onlie oftentimes dooth sit before a duke, without anie murmuring or grudging at his roome, except it please the souereigne, once in his life onelie to make a generall alteration of those seats, and to set each one according to his degrée.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Now as touching the apparell of these knights, it remaineth such as king Edward, the first deuiser of this order left it, that is to saie, euerie yeare one of the colours, that is to say, scarlet, sanguine in grain, blue and white. In like sort the kings grace hath at his pleasure the content of cloth for his gowne and whood, lined with white satine or damaske, and multi|tude of garters with letters of gold.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The prince hath fiue yardes of cloth for his gowne and whood,A timber con|teineth fortie skins, peltes, or felles. and garters with letters of gold at his pleasure, beside fiue timber of the finest miueuer.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 A duke hath fiue yardes of woolen cloth, fiue tim|ber of mineuer, 120 garters with title of gold.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 A marques hath fiue yards of woollen cloth, fiue timber of mineuer, 110 garters of silke.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 An earle fiue yardes of woollen cloth, fiue timber of mineuer, and 100 garters of silke.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 A viscount fiue yardes of woollen cloth, fiue tim|ber EEBO page image 161 of mineuer, 90 garters of silke.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 A baron fiue yardes of woollen cloth, three tim|ber of mineuer gresse, 80 garters of silke.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 A banneret fiue yards of woollen cloth, thrée tim|ber of mineuer, 70 garters of silke.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 A knight fiue yards of woollen cloth, thrée timber of mineuer, 60 garters of silke.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The bishop of Winchester chapleine of the garter, hath eight and twentie timber of mineuer pure, ninetéene timber gresse, thrée timber and a halfe of the best, and foure & twentie yards of woollen cloth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The chancellor of the order fiue yards of woollen cloth, thrée timber of mineuer pure.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The register of the order fiue yardes of woollen cloth, three timber of mineuer pure. And this order to be holden generallie among the knights of this companie, which are six and twentie in number, and whose patrone in time of superstition was supposed to be S. George, of whome they were also called S. Georges knights as I haue heard reported. Would to God they might be called knights of honor, or by some other name, for the title of saint George argu|eth a wrong patrone.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Furthermore at his installation he is solemnelie sworne,Installation. the maner whereof I haue thought good also to annex, in this maner. You being chosen to be one of the honorable companie of the order of the Garter, shall promise and sweare vpon the holie e|uangelies by you bodilie touched, to be faithfull and true to the kings maiestie, and to obserue and kéepe all the points of the statutes of the said order, and e|uerie article in them conteined, the same being a|gréeable and not repugnant to the kings highnesse other godlie procéedings, so far as to you belongeth & apperteineth, as God you helpe, &c. And thus much haue I thought good to note touching the premisses.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 As touching the estatutes belonging to this or|der they are manie,Estatutes. and therefore not to be touched here. Howbeit if anie doubt doo arise aboue the in|terpretation of them, the king who is the perpetuall souereigne of that order hath to determine and re|solue the same. Neither are anie chosen therevnto vnder the degree of a knight, and that is not a gen|telman of bloud and of sound estimation.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And for the better vnderstanding what is meant by a gentleman of bloud,Gentleman of bloud. he is defined to descend of thrée descents of noblenesse, that is to saie, of name and of armes both by father and mother.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There are also foure degrées of reproch,Degrées of reproch which may inhibit from the entrance into this order: of which the first is heresie lawfullie prooued, the second high treason, the third is flight from the battell, the fourth riot and prodigall excesse of expenses, where|by he is not likelie to hold out, and mainteine the port of knight of this order, according to the dignitie thereof.Apparell. Moreouer touching the wearing of their a|foresaid apparell, it is their custome to weare the same, when they enter into the chappell of S. George or be in the chapter house of their order, or finallie doo go about anie thing apperteining to that companie. In like sort they weare also their mantels vpon the euen of S. George, and go with the souereigne, or his deputie in the same in maner of procession from the kings great chamber vnto the chappell, or vnto the college, and likewise backe againe vnto the afor|said place, not putting it from them, vntill supper be ended, and the auoid doone. The next daie they resort vnto the chappell also in the like order, & from thence vnto diner, wearing afterward their said apparell vnto euening praier, and likewise all the supper time, vntill the auoid be finished. In the solemnitie like|wise of these feasts, the thirtéene chanons there, and six and twentie poore knights haue mantels of the order, whereof those for the chanons are of Murreie with a roundell of the armes of S. George, the other of red, with a scutcheon onelie of the said armes.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 If anie knight of this order be absent from this solemnitie vpon the euen and daie of S. George,Sicke or ab|sent. and be inforced not to be present either through bodilie sickenesse, or his absence out of the land: he dooth in the church, chappell, or chamber where he is remai|ning, prouide an honorable stall for the kings maie|stie in the right hand of the place with a cloth of e|stat, and cushions, and scutchion of the garter, and therein the armes of the order. Also his owne stall of which side soeuer it be distant from the kings or the emperours in his owne place, appointed so nigh as he can, after the maner and situation of his stall at Windsore, there to remaine, the first euening praier on the euen of S. George, or thrée of the clocke, and likewise the next daie during the time of the diuine seruice, vntill the morning praier, and the rest of the seruice be ended: and to weare in the meane time his mantell onelie, with the George and the lace, without either whood, collar or surcete. Or if he be so sicke that he doo kéepe his bed, he dooth vse to haue that habit laid vpon him during the times of diuine seruice aforesaid.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 At the seruice time also vpon the morrow after S. George,Offering. two of the chiefe knights (sauing the depu|tie of the souereigne if he himselfe be absent) shall of|fer the kings banner of armes, then other two the sword with the hilts forwards, which being doone the first two shall returne againe, and offer the helme and crest, hauing at each time two heralds of armes going before, according to the statutes. The lord de|putie or lieutenant vnto the kings grace, for the time being, alone and assisted with one of the chiefe lords, dooth deliuer at his offering a péece of gold, and ha|uing all the king of armes and heralds going before him, he so procéedeth to the offering. When he hath thus offered for the prince, he returneth with like so|lemnitie vnto his stall, and next of all goeth againe with one herald to offer for himselfe, whose oblation being made, euerie knight according to their stals, with an herald before him procéedeth to the offering.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 What solemnitie is vsed at the buriall of anie knight of the Garter,Buriall. it is but in vaine to declare: wherefore I will shew generallie what is doone at the disgrading of one of these knights, if through a|nie grieuous offense he be separated from this com|panie. Whereas otherwise the signe of the order is neuer taken from him vntill death doo end & finish vp his daies. Therfore when anie such thing is doone, pro|mulgation is made therof after this maner insuing.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Be it knowne vnto all men that N. N. knight of the most noble order of the Garter, is found giltie of the abhominable and detestable crime of high trea|son,Disgrading. for he hath most traitorouslie conspired against our most high and mightie prince souereigne of the said order, contrarie to all right, his dutie, and the faithfull oth, which he hath sworne and taken. For which causes therefore he hath deserued to be depo|sed from this noble order, and fellowship of the Gar|ter. For it may not be suffered that such a traitor and disloiall member remaine among the faithfull knights of renowned stomach & bountifull prowes, or that his armes should be mingled with those of no|ble chiualrie. Wherefore our most excellent prince and supreme of this most honorable order, by the ad|uise and counsell of his collegues, willeth and com|mandeth that his armes which he before time hath de|serued shall be from hencefoorth be taken awaie and throwne downe: and he himselfe cleane cut off from the socieitie of this renowmed order, and neuer from this daie reputed anie more for a member of the same, that all other by his example may hereafter beware how they commit the like trespasse, or fall in|to EEBO page image 162 such notorious infamie and rebuke. This notice being giuen, there resorteth vnto the partie to be dis|graded certeine officers with diuerse of his late fel|lowes appointed, which take from him his George, and other inuestiture, after a solemne maner.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And hitherto of this most honorable order, hoping that no man will be offended with me, in vttering thus much. For sith the noble order of the Toison Dor or golden fléese, with the ceremonies appertei|ning vnto the creation and inuestiture of the six and thirtie knights thereof: and likewise that of saint Michaell and his one and thirtie knights, are discour|sed vpon at large by the historiographers of their owne countries, without reprehension or checke, especiallie by Vincentius Lupan. lib. 1. de Mag. Franc. cap. de equitibus ordinis, where he calleth them Cheualliers sans reproche, and thereto addeth that their chaine is commonlie of two hundred crownes at the least, and honour thereof so great, that it is not lawfull for them to sell, giue, or laie the same to morgage (would to God they might once brooke their name, Sans re|proche, but their generall deling in our time with all men, will not suffer some of the best of their owne countries to haue that opinion of them) I trust I haue not giuen anie cause of displeasure, briefelie to set foorth those things that apperteine vnto our re|nowmed order of the Garter, in whose compasse is written commonlie,Some think that this was the answer of the quéene, when the king asked what men would thinke of hir, in lo|sing the gar|ter after such a maner. Honi soit qui mal y pense, which is so much to saie, as, Euill come to him that euill thinketh: a verie sharpe imprecation, and yet such as is not contrarie to the word, which promiseth like measure to the meter, as he dooth mete to others.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 There is yet an other order of knights in Eng|land called knights Bannerets,Bannerets. who are made in the field with the ceremonie of cutting awaie the point of his penant of armes, and making it as it were a banner, so that being before but a bacheler knight, he is now of an higher degree, and allowed to displaie his armes in a banner as barrons doo. Howbeit these knights are neuer made but in the warres, the knigs standard being vnfolded.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Esquire (which we call commonlie squire) is a French word,Esquire. and so much in Latine as Scutiger vel armiger, and such are all those which beare armes, or armoires, testimonies of their race from whence they be descended. They were at the first costerels or bearers of the armes of barons, or knights, & thereby being instructed in martiall knowledge, had that name for a dignitie giuen to distinguish them from common souldiers called Gregarij milites when they were togither in the field.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Gentlemen be those whome their race and bloud,Gentlemen. or at the least their vertues doo make noble and knowne. The Latines call them Nobiles & generosos, as the French do Nobles or Gentlehommes. The e|tymologie of the name expoundeth the efficacie of the word: for as Gens in Latine betokeneth the race and surname: so the Romans had Cornelios, Ser|gios, Appios, Curios, Papyrios, Scipiones, Fabios, Ae|milios, Iulios, Brutos, &c: of which, who were Agnati, and therefore kept the name, were also called Gen|tiles, gentlemen of that or that house and race.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Moreouer as the king dooth dubbe knights, and createth the barons and higher degrees, so gentle|men whose ancestors are not knowen to come in with William duke of Normandie (for of the Saxon races yet remaining we now make none accompt, much lesse of the British issue) doo take their begin|ning in England, after this maner in our times. Who soeuer studieth the lawes of the realme,Lawiers stu|dents in vni|uersities. who so abideth in the vniuersitie giuing his mind to his booke, or professeth physickePhysicians. and the liberall sciences, or beside his seruice in the roome of a capteineCapteins. in the warres, or good counsell giuen at home, whereby his common-wealth is benefited, can liue without manuell labour, and thereto is able and will beare the port, charge, and countenance of a gentleman, he shall for monie haue a cote and armes bestowed vpon him by heralds (who in the charter of the same doo of custome pretend antiquitie and seruice, and manie gaie things) and therevnto being made so good cheape be called master, which is the title that men giue to esquiers and gentlemen, and reputed for a gentleman euer after. Which is so much the lesse to be disalowed of, for that the prince dooth loose nothing by it, the gentleman being so much subiect to taxes and publike paiments as is the yeoman or husbandman, which he likewise dooth beare the glad|lier for the sauing of his reputation. Being called also to the warres (for with the gouernment of the common-wealth he medleth litle) what soeuer it cost him, he will both arraie & arme himselfe according|lie, and shew the more manly courage, and all the to|kens of the person which he representeth. No man hath hurt by it but himselfe, who peraduenture will go in wider buskens than his legs will beare, or as our prouerbe saith, now and then beare a bigger saile than his boat is able to susteine.

Certes the making of new gentlemen bred great strife sometimes amongst the Romans, I meane when those which were Noui homines, were more allow|ed of for their vertues newlie séene and shewed, than the old smell of ancient race, latelie defaced by the cowardise & euill life of their nephues & defendants could make the other to be. But as enuie hath no affi|nitie with iustice and equitie, so it forceth not what language the malicious doo giue out, against such as are exalted for their wisdomes. This neuerthelesse is generallie to be reprehended in all estates of genti|litie, and which in short time will turne to the great ruine of our countrie, and that is the vsuall sending of noblemens & meane gentlemens sonnes into I|talie, from whence they bring home nothing but meere atheisme, infidelitie, vicious conuersation, & amibitious and proud behauiour, wherby it commeth to passe that they returne far worsse men than they went out. A gentleman at this present is newlie come out of Italie, who went thither an earnest pro|testant, but comming home he could saie after this maner: Faith & truth is to be kept, where no losse or hinderance of a further purpose is susteined by hol|ding of the same; and forgiuenesse onelie to be shew|ed when full reuenge is made. Another no lesse for|ward than he, at his returne from thence could ad thus much; He is a foole that maketh accompt of any religion, but more foole that will loose anie part of his wealth, or will come in trouble for constant leaning to anie: but if he yéeld to loose his life for his possessi|on, he is stark mad, and worthie to be taken for most foole of all the rest. This gaie bootie gate these gentle|men by going into Italie, and hereby a man may see what fruit is afterward to be looked for where such blossoms doo appéere. I care not (saith a third) what you talke to me of God, so as I may haue the prince & the lawes of the realme on my side. Such men as this last, are easilie knowen; for they haue learned in Italie, to go vp and downe also in England, with pa|ges at their héeles finelie apparelled, whose face and countenance shall be such as sheweth the master not to be blind in his choise. But least I should offend too much, I passe ouer to saie anie more of these Italio|nates and their demeanor, which alas is too open and manifest to the world, and yet not called into que|stion.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Citizens and burgesses haue next place to gentle|men,Citizens and burgesses. who be those that are free within the cities, and are of some likelie substance to beare office in the same. But these citizens or burgesses are to serue EEBO page image 163 the common wealth in their cities and boroughs, or in corporat townes where they dwell. And in the common assemblie of the realme wherein our lawes are made, for in the counties they beare but little swaie (which assemblie is called the high court of par|lement) the ancient cities appoint foure, and the bo|roughs two burgesses to haue voices in it, and giue their consent or dissent vnto such things as passe or staie there in the name of the citie or borow, for which they are appointed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In this place also are our merchantsMerchants. to be instal|led, as amongst the citizens (although they often change estate with gentlemen, as gentlemen doo with them, by a mutuall conuersion of the one into the other) whose number is so increased in these our daies, that their onelie maintenance is the cause of the exceeding prices of forreine wares, which other|wise when euerie nation was permitted to bring in hir owne commodities, were farre better cheape and more plentifullie to be had. Of the want our com|modities here at home, by their great transportati|on of them into other countries, I speake not, sith the matter will easilie bewraie it selfe. Certes among the Lacedemonians it was found out, that great numbers of merchants were nothing to the furthe|rance of the state of the commonwealth: wherefore it is to be wished that the huge heape of them were somewhat restreined, as also of our lawiers, so should the rest liue more easilie vpon their owne, and few honest chapmen be brought to decaie, by breaking of the bankerupt. I doo not denie but that the nauie of the land is in part mainteined by their traffike, and so are the high prices of wares kept vp now they haue gotten the onelie sale of things, vpon pretense of better furtherance of the common-wealth into their owne hands: whereas in times past when the strange bottoms were suffered to come in, we had su|gar for foure pence the pound, that now at the wri|ting of this treatise is well worth halfe a crowne, raisons or corints for a penie that now are holden at six pence, and sometime at eight pence and ten pence the pound: nutmegs at two pence halfe penie the ounce: ginger at a penie an ounce, prunes at halfe penie farding: great raisons three pound for a penie, cinamon at foure pence the ounce, cloues at two pence, and pepper at twelue, and sixteene pence the pound. Whereby we may sée the sequele of things not alwaies but verie seldome to be such as is pre|tended in the beginning. The wares that they carrie out of the realme, are for the most part brode clothes and carsies of all colours, likewise cottons, fréeses, rugs, tin, wooll, our best béere, baies, bustian, mocka|does t [...]fted and plaine, rash, lead, fells, &c: which be|ing shipped at sundrie ports of our coasts, are borne from thence into all quarters of the world, and there either exchanged for other wares or readie monie: to the great gaine and commoditie of our merchants. And whereas in times past their cheefe trade was in|to Spaine, Portingall, France, Flanders, Danske, Norwaie, Scotland, and Iseland onelie: now in these daies, as men not contented with these iour|nies, they haue sought out the east and west Indies, and made now and then suspicious voiages not one|lie vnto the Canaries, and new Spaine, but like|wise into Cathaia, Moscouia, Tartaria, and the re|gions thereabout, from whence (as they saie) they bring home great commodities. But alas I sée not by all their trauell that the prices of things are anie whit abated. Certes this enormitie (for so I doo ac|compt of it) was sufficientlie prouided for, An. 9. Ed|ward 3. by a noble estatute made in that behalfe, but vpon what occasion the generall execution thereof is staied or not called on, in good sooth I cannot tell. This onelie I know, that euerie function and seuerall vo|cation striueth with other, which of them should haue all the water of commoditie run into hir owne ce|sterne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 YeomenYeomen. are those, which by our law are called Le|gales homines, free men borne Euglish, and may dis|pend of their owne frée land in yearelie reuenue, to the summe of fortie shillings sterling, or six pounds as monie goeth in our times. Some are of the opini|on by Cap. 2. Rich. 2. an. 20. that they are the same which the French men call varlets, but as that phrase is vsed in my time it is farre vnlikelie to be so. The truth is that the word is deriued from the Saxon terme Zeoman or Geoman, which signifieth (as I haue read) a settled or staid man, such I meane as be|ing maried and of some yeares, betaketh himselfe to staie in the place of his abode for the better mainte|nance of himselfe and his familie, whereof the single sort haue no regard, but are likelie to be still fleeting now hither now thither, which argueth want of stabi|litie in determination and resolution of iudgement, for the execution of things of anie importance. This sort of people haue a certeine preheminence, and more estimation than labourers & the common sort of artificers, & these commonlie liue wealthilie, kéepe good houses, and trauell to get riches. They are also for the most part farmers to gentlemen (in old time called Pagani, & opponuntur militibus, and therfore Per|sius calleth himselfe Semipaganus) or at the leastwise artificers, & with grasing, frequenting of markets, and kéeping of seruants (not idle seruants as the gentlemen doo, but such as get both their owne and part of their masters liuing) do come to great welth, in somuch that manie of them are able and doo buie the lands of vnthriftie gentlemen, and often setting their sonnes to the schooles, to the vniuersities, and to the Ins of the court; or otherwise leauing them suf|ficient lands wherevpon they may liue without la|bour, doo make them by those means to become gen|tlemen: these were they that in times past made all France afraid. And albeit they be not called master as gentlemen are, or sir as to knights apperteineth, but onelie Iohn and Thomas, &c: yet haue they beene found to haue doone verie good seruice: and the kings of England in foughten battels,Englishmen on foot and Frenchmen on horsse|backe best. were woont to remaine among them (who were their footmen) as the French kings did amongst their horssemen: the prince thereby shewing where his chiefe strength did consist.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The fourth and last sort of people in England areCapite censi or Proletarij. daie labourers, poore husbandmen, and some retai|lers (which haue no frée land) copie holders, and all ar|tificers, as tailers, shomakers, carpenters, brickma|kers,No slaues nor bondmen in England. masons, &c. As for slaues and bondmen we haue none, naie such is the priuilege of our countrie by the especiall grace of God, and bountie of our princes, that if anie come hither from other realms, so soone as they set foot on land they become so frée of condition as their masters, whereby all note of ser|uile bondage is vtterlie remooued from them, where|in we resemble (not the Germans who had slaues al|so, though such as in respect of the slaues of other countries might well be reputed frée, but) the old In|dians and the Taprobanes, who supposed it a great iniurie to nature to make or suffer them to be bond, whome she in hir woonted course dooth product and bring foorth frée. This fourth and last sort of people therefore haue neither voice nor authoritie in the common wealth, but are to be [...]uled, and not to rule other: yet they are not altogither neglected, for in ci|ties and corporat townes, for default of yeomen they are faine to make vp their inquests of such ma|ner of people. And in villages they are commonlie made churchwardens, sidemen, aleconners, now and then constables, and manie times inioie the name EEBO page image 164 of hedboroughes. Unto this sort also may our great swarmes of idle seruing men be referred, of whome there runneth to prouerbe; Yoong seruing men old beggers, bicause seruice is none heritage. These men are profitable to none, for if their condition be well perused, they are enimies to their masters, to their freends, and to themselues: for by them oftentimes their masters are incouraged vnto vnlawfull exac|tions of their tenants, their fréends brought vnto po|uertie by their rents inhanced, and they themselues brought to confusion by their owne prodigalitie and errors, as men that hauing not wherewith of their owne to mainteine their excesses, doo search in high waies, budgets, cofers, males, and stables, which way to supplie their wants. How diuerse of them also co|ueting to beare an high saile doo insinuate them|selues with yoong gentlemen and noble men newlie come to their lands, the case is too much apparant, whereby the good natures of the parties are not one|lie a little impaired, but also their liuelihoods and re|uenues so wasted and consumed, that if at all yet not in manie yeares they shall be able to recouer them|selues. It were verie good therefore that the super|fluous heapes of them were in part diminished. And sith necessitie inforceth to haue some, yet let wisdome moderate their numbers, so shall their masters be rid of vnnecessarie charge, and the common wealth of manie théeues. No nation cherisheth such store of them as we doo here in England, in hope of which maintenance manie giue themselues to idlenesse, that otherwise would be brought to labour, and liue in order like subiects. Of their whoredomes I will not speake anie thing at all, more than of their swea|ring, yet is it found that some of them doo make the first a cheefe piller of their building, consuming not onlie the goods but also the health & welfare of manie honest gentlemen, citizens, wealthie yeomen, &c: by such vnlawfull dealings. But how farre haue I wa|ded in this point, or how farre may I saile in such a large sea? I will therefore now staie to speake anie more of those kind of men. In returning therefore to my matter, this furthermore among other things I haue to saie of our husbandmen and artificers, that they were neuer so excellent in their trades as at this present. But as the workemanship of the la|ter sort was neuer more fine and curious to the eie, so was it neuer lesse strong and substantiall for con|tinuance and benefit of the buiers. Neither is there anie thing that hurteth the common sort of our arti|ficers more than hast, and a barbarous or slauish de|sire to turne the penie, and by ridding their worke to make spéedie vtterance of their wares: which infor|ceth them to bungle vp and dispatch manie things they care not how so they be out of their hands, where|by the buier is often sore defrauded, and findeth to his cost, that hast maketh wast, according to the pro|uerbe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Oh how manie trades and handicrafts are now in England, whereof the common wealth hath no néed? how manie néedfull commodities haue we which are perfected with great cost, &c: and yet may with farre more ease and lesse cost be prouided from other countries if we could vse the meanes. I will not speake of iron, glasse, and such like, which spoile much wood, and yet are brought from other coun|tries better chéepe than we can make them here at home, I could exemplifie also in manie other. But to leaue these things and procéed with our purpose, and herein (as occasion serueth) generallie by waie of conclusion to speake of the common-wealth of Eng|land, I find that it is gouerned and mainteined by thrée sorts of persons.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 1 The prince, monarch, and head gouernour, which is called the king, or (if the crowne fall to the wo|man) the quéene: in whose name and by whose autho|ritie all things are administred.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The gentlemen, which be diuided into two sorts, as the baronie or estate of lords (which conteineth ba|rons and all aboue that degree) and also those that be no lords, as knights, esquiers, & simple gentlemen, as I haue noted alreadie. Out of these also are the great deputies and high presidents chosen, of which one serueth in Ireland, as another did sometime in Calis, and the capteine now at Berwike; as one lord president dooth gouerne in Wales, and the other the north parts of this Iland, which later with certeine councellors and iudges were erected by king Hen|rie the eight. But forsomuch as I haue touched their conditions elsewhere, it shall be mough to haue re|membred them at this time.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 3 The third and last sort is named the yeomanrie, of whom & their sequele, the labourers and artificers, I haue said somewhat euen now. Whereto I ad that they be not called masters and gentlemen, but good|men, as goodman Smith, goodman Coot, goodman Cornell, goodman Mascall, goodman Cockswet, &c: & in matters of law these and the like are called thus, Giles Iewd yeoman, Edward Mountford yeoman, Iames Cocke yeoman, Herrie Butcher yeoman, &c: by which addition they are exempt from the vulgar and common sorts. Cato calleth them Aratores & op|timos ciues rei publicae, of whom also you may read more in the booke of common wealth which sir Thomas Smith sometime penned of this land.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Of gentlemen also some are by the prince chosen, and called to great offices in the common wealth, of which said offices diuerse concerne the whole realme; some be more priuat and peculiar to the kings house. And they haue their places and degrées, prescribed by an act of parlement made An. 31 Henr. octaui, after this maner insuing.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 These foure the lord Chancellor, the lord Treasu|ror (who is Supremus aerarij Anglici quaestor or Tribunus ae|rarius maximus) the lord President of the councell, and the lord Priuie seale, being persons of the degrée of a baron or aboue, are in the same act appointed to sit in the parlement and in all assemblies or councell a|boue all dukes, not being of the bloud roiall, Videli|cet the kings brother, vncle, or nephue.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And these six, the lord great Chamberleine of En|gland: the lord high Constable of England: the lord Marshall of England: the lord Admirall of Eng|land: the lord great master or Steward of the kings house: and the lord Chamberleine: by that act are to be placed in all assemblies of councell, after the lord priuie seale, according to their degrées and estats: so that if he be a baron, then he is to sit aboue all ba|rons: or an earle, aboue all earles.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And so likewise the kings secretarie, being a ba|ron of the parlement, hath place aboue all barons, and if he be a man of higher degrée, he shall sit and be placed according therevnto.

3.5.1. The rehearsall of the temporall nobili|tie of England, according to the anciencie of their creations, or first calling to their degrees, as they are to be found at this present.

The rehearsall of the temporall nobili|tie of England, according to the anciencie of their creations, or first calling to their degrees, as they are to be found at this present.
    Compare 1577 edition: 1
  • The Marquise of Winchester.No duke in England. Earles.
  • The earle of Arundell.
  • The earle of Oxford.
  • The earle of Northumberland.
  • The earle of Shrewesburie.
  • The earle of Kent.
  • The earle of Derbi [...].
  • The earle of Worcester.
  • EEBO page image 165 The earle of Rutland.
  • The earle of Cumberland.
  • The earle of Sussex.
  • The earle of Huntingdon.
  • The earle of Bath.
  • The earle of Warwike.
  • The earle of Southampton.
  • The earle of Bedford.
  • The earle of Penbrooke.
  • The earle of Hertford.
  • The earle of Leicester.
  • The earle of Essex.
  • The earle of Lincolne.
    Compare 1577 edition: 1
  • The viscont Montague.Uisconts.
  • The viscont Bindon.
    Compare 1577 edition: 1
  • The lord of Abergeuennie.Barons.
  • The lord Awdeleie.
  • The lord Zouch.
  • The lord Barkeleie.
  • The lord Morleie.
  • The lord Dacres of the south.
  • The lord Cobham.
  • The lord Stafford.
  • The lord Greie of Wilton.
  • The lord Scroope.
  • The lord Dudleie.
  • The lord Latimer.
  • The lord Stourton.
  • The lord Lumleie.
  • The lord Mountioie.
  • The lord Ogle.
  • The lord Darcie of the north.
  • The lord Mountegle.
  • The lord Sands.
  • The lord Uaulx.
  • The lord Windsore.
  • The lord Wentwoorth.
  • The lord Borough.
  • The lord Mordaunt.
  • The lord Cromwell.
  • The lord Euers.
  • The lord Wharton.
  • The lord Rich.
  • The lord Willowbie.
  • The lord Sheffeld.
  • The lord Paget.
  • The lord Darcie of Chichester.
  • The lord Howard of Effingham.
  • The lord North.
  • The lord Chaundos.
  • The lord of Hunsdon.
  • The lord saint Iohn of Bletso.
  • The lord of Buckhirst.
  • The lord Delaware.
  • The lord Burghleie.
  • The lord Compton.
  • The lord Cheineie.
  • The lord Norreis.

3.5.2. Bishops in their anciencie, as they sat in parlement, in the fift of the Queenes maiesties reigne that now is.

Bishops in their anciencie, as they sat in parlement, in the fift of the Queenes maiesties reigne that now is.
    Compare 1577 edition: 1
  • The archbishop of Canturburie.Cleargie.
  • The archbishop of Yorke.
  • London.
  • Durham.
  • Winchester.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The rest had their places in senioritie of con|secration.

    Compare 1577 edition: 1
  • Chichester.
  • Landaffe.
  • Hereford.
  • Elie.
  • Worcester.
  • Bangor.
  • Lincolne.
  • Salisburie.
  • S. Dauids.
  • Rochester.
  • Bath and Welles.
  • Couentrie and Lichfield.
  • Excester.
  • Norwich.
  • Peterborough.
  • Carleill.
  • Chester.
  • S. Assaph.
  • Glocester.

And this for their placing in the parlement house. Howbeit, when the archbishop of Canturburie siteth in his prouinciall assemblie, he hath on his right hand the archbishop of Yorke, and next vnto him the bi|shop of Winchester, on the left hand the bishop of London: but if it fall out that the archbishop of Canturburie be not there by the vacation of his see, then the archbishop of Yorke is to take his place, who admitteth the bishop of London to his right hand, and the prelat of Winchester to his left, the rest sit|ting alwaies as afore, that is to saie, as they are el|ders by consecration, which I thought good also to note out of an ancient president.

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