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1.21. After what maner the souereigntie of this Ile dooth remaine to the princes of Lhoegres or kings of England. Chap. 22.

After what maner the souereigntie of this Ile dooth remaine to the princes of Lhoegres or kings of England. Chap. 22.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 _IT is possible that some of the Scotish nation, reading the former chapter, will take of|fense with me for meaning that the principalitie of the north parts of this Ile hath alwais belonged to the kings of Lhoegres.The Scots alwaies desi|rous to shake off ye English subiection, haue often made cruell & odious at|tempts so to doo, but in vaine. For whose more ample satisfaction in this behalfe, I will here set downe a discourse thereof at large, written by di|uerse, and now finallie brought into one treatise, suf|ficient (as I thinke) to satisfie the reasonable, al|though not halfe enough peraduenture to content a wrangling mind, sith there is (or at the leastwise hath beene) nothing more odious among some, than to heare that the king of England hath ought to doo in Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 How their historiographers haue attempted to shape manie coloured excuses to auoid so manifest a title, all men may see that read their bookes indiffe|rentlie, wherevnto I referre them. For my part there is little or nothing of mine herein, more than onelie the collection and abridgement of a number of fragments togither, wherein chéeflie I haue vsed the helpe of Nicholas Adams a lawier, who wrote EEBO page image 117 thereof (of set purpose) to king Edward the sixt, as Leland did the like to king Henrie the eight, Iohn Harding vnto Edward the fourth; beside thrée other, whereof the first dedicated his treatise to Henrie the fourth, the second to Edward the third, and the third to Edward the first, as their writings yet extant doo abundantlie beare witnesse. The title also that Le|land giueth his booke, which I haue had written with his owne hand, beginneth in this maner:

These re|membrances following are found in chronicles au|thorised, remaining in diuerse monasteries both in England and Scotland, by which it is euidentlie knowne and shewed, that the kings of England haue had, and now ought to haue the souereigntie ouer all Scotland, with the homage and fealtie of the kings there reigning from time to time, &c.
Herevn|to you haue heard alreadie, what diuision Brute made of this Iland not long before his death, wherof ech of his children, so soone as he was interred, tooke seisure and possession. Howbeit, after two yeares it happened that Albanact was slaine, wherevpon Lo|crinus and Camber raising their powers, reuenged his death: and finallie the said Locrinus made an entrance vpon Albania, seized it into his owne hands (as excheated wholie vnto himselfe) without yéelding anie part thereof vnto his brother Camber, who made no claime nor title vnto anie portion of the same. Hereby then (saith Adams) it euidentlie appeareth, that the entire seigniorie ouer Albania consisted in Locrinus, according to which example like law among brethren euer since hath continued, in preferring the eldest brother to the onelie benefit of the collaterall ascension from the youngest, as well in Scotland as in England vnto this daie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Ebranke the lineall heire from the bodie of this Locrine, that is to saie, the sonne of Mempris, sonne of Madan, sonne of the same Locrine builded in Al|bania the castell of Maidens, now called Edenbo|rough (so called of Aldan somtime king of Scotland, but at the first named Cair Minid Agnes. 1. the ca|stell on mount Agnes, and the castell of virgins) and the castell of Alcluith or Alclude, now called Dunbriton, as the Scotish Hector Boetius confes|seth: whereby it most euidentlie appeareth, that our Ebranke was then thereof seized. This Ebranke reigned in the said state ouer them a long time; after whose death Albania (as annexed to the empire of Britaine) descended to the onelie king of Britons, vntill the time of the two sisters sonnes, Morgan and Conedage, lineall heires from the said Ebranke, who brotherlie at the first diuided the realme betwéen them; so that Morgan had Lhoegres, and Conedage had Albania. But shortlie after Morgan the elder brother, pondering in his head the loue of his brother with the affection to a kingdome, excluded nature, and gaue place to ambition, and therevpon denoun|cing warre, death miserablie ended his life (as the reward of his vntruth) whereby Conedage obteined the whole empire of all Britaine: in which state he remained during his naturall life.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 From him the same lineallie descended to the onelie king of Britons, vntill (and after) the reigne of Gorbodian, who had issue two sonnes, Ferrex, and Porrex. This Porrex requiring like diuision of the land, affirming the former partitions to be rather of law than fauor, was by the hands of his elder brother (best loued of queene mother) both of his life and hoped kingdome beerea [...]ed at once. Wherevpon their vnnaturall mother, vsing hir na|turall malice for the death of hir one sonne (without regard of the loosing of both) miserablie slue the other in his bed mistrusting no such treason.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Cloten, by all writers, as well Scotish as other, was the next inheritour to the whole empire: but lacking power (the onelie meane in those daies to obteine right) he was contented to diuide the same among foure of his kinsmen; so that Scater had Albania. But after the death of this Cloten, his sonne Dunwallo Mulmutius made warre vpon these foure kings, and at last overcame them, and so recouered the whole dominion. In token of which victorie, he caused himselfe to be crowned with a crowne of gold, the verie first of that mettall (if anie at all were before in vse) that was worne among the kings of this nation. This Dunwallo erected tem|ples, wherein the people should assemble for praier; to which temples he gaue benefit of sanctuarie. He made the law for wager of battell, in cases of mur|der and felonie, whereby a théefe that liued and made his art of fighting, should for his purgation fight with the true man whom he had robbed, beléeuing as|suredlie, that the gods (for then they supposed manie) would by miracle assigne victorie to none but the in|nocent partie. Certes the priuileges of this law, and benefit of the latter, as well in Scotland as in England, be inioied to this daie, few causes by late positiue laws among vs excepted, wherin the benefit of wager of battell is restreined. By which obedi|ence to his lawes, it dooth manifestlie appéere, that this Dunwallo was then seized of Albania, now called Scotland. This Dunwallo reigned in this estate ouer them manie yeares.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Beline and Brenne the sonnes also of Dunwallo, did after their fathers death fauourablie diuide the land betweene them; so that Beline had Lhoegres, & Brenne had Albania: but for that this Brenne (a subiect) without the consent of his elder brother and lord, aduentured to marrie with the daughter of the king of Denmarke; Beline seized Albania into his owne hands, and thervpon caused the notable waies priuileged by Dunwallons lawes to be newlie wrought by mens hands, which for the length exten|ded from the further part of Cornewall, vnto the sea by north Cathnesse in Scotland. In like sort to and for the better maintenance of religion in those daies, he constituted ministers called archflamines, in sun|drie places of this Iland (who in their seuerall functi|ons resembled the bishops of our times) the one of which remained at Ebranke now called Yorke, and the whole region Caerbrantonica (whereof Ptolomie also speaketh but not without wresting of the name) whose power extended to the vttermost bounds of Albania, wherby likewise appeareth that it was then within his owne dominion. After his death the whole Ile was inioied by the onelie kings of Britaine, vn|till the time of Uigenius & Peridurus lineall heires from the said Beline, who fauourablie made partiti|on, so that Uigenius had all the land from Humber by south, and Peridurus from thence northwards all Albania, &c. This Uigenius died, and Peridurus suruiued, and thereby obteined the whole, from whom the same quietlie descended, and was by his posteri|tie accordinglie inioied, vntill the reigne of Coell the first of that name. In his time an obscure nation (by most writers supposed Scithians) passed by seas from Ireland, and arriued in that part of Britaine called Albania: against whome this Coell assembled his power, and being entred Albania to expell them, one Fergus in the night disguised, entered the tent of this Coell, and in his bed traitorouslie slue him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This Fergus was therfore, in reward of his great prowesse, made there king, whervpon they sat downe in that part, with their wiues and children, and called it Scotland, and themselues Scots: from the begin|ing of the world, foure thousand six hundred and sea|uentéene yeares after the Scotish accompt, which by iust computation and confession of all their owne writers, is six hundred yeares lacking ten, after that EEBO page image 118 Brutus had reigned ouer the whole Iland, the same land being inioied by him and his posteritie before their comming, during two and fiftie descents of the kings of Britaine, which is a large prescription. Cer|tes this intrusion into a land so manie hundred yeares before inhabited, and by so manie descents of kings quietlie inioied, is the best title that all their owne writers can alledge for them. But to proceed. Fergus herevpon immediatlie did diuide Albania also among his capteins and their souldiers: where|by it most euidentlie appeareth, that there were no people of that nation inhabiting there before, in proofe whereof the same partition shall follow.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The lands of Cathnes lieng against Orkneie, Out of He|ctor Boecius lib. 5. be|twéene Dummesbeie and the water of Thane, was giuen vnto one Cornath, a capteine and his people. The lands betwéene the water of Thane & Nes, now called Rosse, being in bredth from Cromart to the mouth of the water of Locht, were giuen to Lu|torke, another capteine and his people. The lands be|twéene Spaie and Nes, from the Almane seas to the Ireland seas, now called Murraie land, were gi|uen to one Warroch and his people. The land of Tha|lia, now called Boin Ainze, Bogewall, Gariot, For|martine, and Bowguhan, were giuen to one Thalis and his people. The lands of Mar Badezenoch, and Lochquhaber, were giuen to Martach and his peo|ple. The lands of Lorne and Kintier, with the hilles and mounteins thereof, lieng from Mar to the Ire|land seas, were giuen to capteine Nanance and his people. The lands of Athole were giuen to Atholus, another capteine and his people. The lands of Stra|braun, & Brawdawane lieng west from Dunkell, were giuen to Creones & Epidithes two capteins. The lands of Argile, were giuen to Argathelus a cap|teine. The lands of Linnox & Clidisdale were allot|ted to Lolgona a capteine. The lands of Siluria now called Kile, Carrike & Cuningham, were giuen to Silurth another capteine. The lands of Brigance now called Gallowaie, were giuen to the companie called Brigandes, which (as their best men) were ap|pointed to dwell next the Britons, who afterward ex|pelled the Britons from Annandale in Albanie, whereby it is confessed to be before inhabited by Bri|tons. The residue of the land now called Scotland, that is to saie: Meirnis, Angus, Steremond, Gow|rie, Strahern, Pirth, Fiffe, Striueling, Callender, Calderwood, Lougthian, Mers, Teuedale, with o|ther the Rement Dales, & the Sherifdome, of Ber|wicke, were then enioied by a nation mingled in marriage with the Britons,Berouicum po|tiùs à Berubio promontorio. and in their obedience, whose capteine called Beringer builded the castell and towne of Berwicke vpon Twede, & these peo|ple were called Picts, vpon whome by the death of this Coell, these Scots had oportunitie to vse wars, whereof they ceased not, vntill such time as it plea|sed God to appoint another Coell king of Britons, against whose name, albeit they hoped for a like vic|torie to the first, yet he preuailed and ceased not his warre, vntill these Scots were vtterlie expelled out of all the bounds of Britaine, in which they neuer da|red to reenter, vntill the troublesome reigne of Si|silt king of Britons, which was the twelft king af|ter this Coell. During all which time the countrie was reinhabited by the Britons. But then the Scots turning the ciuill discord of this realme, be|tweene this Sisilt and his brother Blede to their best aduantage, arriued againe in Albania, & there made one Reuther their king.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Upon this their new arriuall, new warre was made vpon them by this Sisilt king of Bri|tons, in which warre Reuther their new king died, and Thereus succéeded, against whome the warre of Britons ceased not, vntill he freelie submitted him|selfe to the said Sicill king of Britons at Ebranke, that is Yorke, where shortlie after the tenth yeare of his reigne he died. Finnane brother of Iosine succee|ded by their election to the kingdome of Scots, who shortlie after (compelled by the warres of the same Sicill) declared himselfe subiect, and for the better as|surance of his faith and obeisance to the king of Bri|tons, deliuered his sonne Durstus into the hands of this Sicill: who fantasieng the child, and hoping by his owne succession to alter their subtiltie (I will not saie duplicitie saith Adams) married him in the end to Agasia his owne daughter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This Durstus was their next king;Durstus. but for that he had married a Briton woman, (though indeed she was a kings daughter) the Scots hated him for the same cause, for which they ought rather to haue liked him the better, and therefore not onelie traito|rouslie slue him; but further to declare the end of their malice, dishinherited (as much as in them was) the issues of the same Durstus and Agasia. Herevpon new warre sproong betwéene them and vs, which ceased not vntill they were contented to receiue Edeir to their king, the next in bloud then liuing, descended from Durstus and Agasia, and thereby the bloud of the Britons, of the part of the mother, was restored to the crowne of Albania: so that nature, whose law is immutable, caused this bond of loue to hold. For shortlie after this Edeir attended vpon Cassibelane king of Britons, for the repulse of Iulius Caesar, as their owne author Boeti|us, confesseth, who commanded the same as his sub|iect But Iulius Caesar, after his second arriuall, by treason of Androgeus preuailed against the Bri|tons, and therevpon pursued this Edeir into Scot|land; and (as himselfe saith in his commentaries) subdued all the Ile of Britaine. Which though the liuing Scots denie it, their dead writers confesse that he came beyond Calender wood, and cast downe Camelon, the principall citie of the Picts. And in to|ken of this victorie, not farre from Carron, builded a round temple of stone, which remained in some per|fection vntill the reigne of our king Edward called the first after the conquest, by whome it was subuer|ted: but the monument thereof remaineth to this daie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Marius the sonne of Aruiragus,Marius. being king of all Britaine, in his time one Roderike a Scithian, with a great rabble of néedie souldiours, came to the water of Frith in Scotland, which is an arme of the sea, diuiding Pentland from Fiffe: against whome Marius assembled a power, by which he slue this Rodericke, and discomfited his people in Westmer|land: but to those that remained aliue, he gaue the countrie of Cathnesse in Scotland, which prooueth it be within his owne dominion.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Coell the sonne of this Marius had issue Lucius,Coelus. counted the first christian king of this nation: he conuerted the three archflamines of this land into bi|shopriks, and ordeined bishops vnto ech of them. The first remained at London, and his power extended from the furthest part of Cornewall to Humber wa|ter. The second dwelled at Yorke, and his power stretched from Humber to the furthest part of all Scotland. The third aboded at Caerleon vpon the riuer of Wiske in Glamorgan in Wales, & his power extended from Seuerne through all Wales. Some write that he made but two, and turned their names to archbishops, the one to remaine at Can|turburie, the other at Yorke: yet they confesse that he of Yorke had iurisdiction through all Scotland: either of which is sufficient to prooue Scotland to be then vnder his dominion.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Seuerus, by birth a Romane,Seuerus. but in bloud a Briton (as some thinke) and the lineall heire of the EEBO page image 118 bodie of Androge [...]s sonne of Lud, & nephue of Cassi|belane, was shortlie after emperour & king of Bri|tons, in whose time the people to whom his ancester Marius gaue the land of Cathnesse in Scotland, con|spired with the Scots, & receiued them from the Iles into Scotland. But herevpon this Seuerus came into Scotland, and méeting with their faith and false harts togither, droue them all out of the maine land into Iles, the vttermost bounds of all great Bri|taine. But notwithstanding this glorious victorie, the Britons considering their seruitude to the Ro|mans, imposed by treason of Androgeus, ancestor to this Seuerus, began to hate him, whome yet they had no time to loue, and who in their defense and suertie had slaine of the Scots and their confede|rats in one battell thirtie thousand: but such was the consideration of the common sort in those daies, whose malice no time could diminish, nor iust desert appease.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Antoninus Bassianus borne of a Briton woman,Bassianus. and Geta borne by a Romane woman, were the sonnes of this Seuerus, who after the death of their father, by the contrarie voices of their people, conten|ded for the crowne. Few Britons held with Bassia|nus, fewer Romans with Geta: but the greater number with neither of both. In the end Geta was slaine, and Bassianus remained emperour, against whom Carautius rebelled, who gaue vnto the Scots, Picts, and Scithians, the countrie of Cathnesse in Scotland, which they afterward inhabited, whereby his seison thereof appeareth.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Coill,Coill. descended of the bloud of the ancient kings of this land, was shortlie after king of the Britons, whose onelie daughter and heire called Helen, was married vnto Constantius a Romane, who daunted the rebellion of all parts of great Britaine; and after the death of this Coill was in the right of his wife king thereof, and reigned in his state ouer them thirtéene or fouretéene yeares.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Constantine the sonne of this Constance, and Helen,Constantine. was next king of Britons, by the right of his mother, who passing to Rome to receiue the empire thereof, deputed one Octauius king of Wales, and duke of the Gewisses (which some expound to be after|ward called west Saxons) to haue the gouernment of this dominion. But abusing the kings innocent goodnesse, this Octauius defrauded this trust, and tooke vpon him the crowne. For which traitorie albe|it he was once vanquished by Leonine Traheron, great vncle to Constantine: yet after the death of this Traheron, he preuailed againe, and vsurped o|uer all Britaine. Constantine being now emperor sent Marimius his kinsman hither (in processe of time) to destroie the same Octauius, who in singu|lar battell discomfited him. Wherevpon this Max|imius, as well by the consent of great Constantine, as by the election of all the Britons, for that he was a Briton in bloud, was made king or rather vicege|rent of Britaine. This Maximius made warre vp|on the Scots and Scithians within Britaine, and ceassed not vntill he had slaine Eugenius their king, and expelled and driuen them out of the whole limits and bounds of Britaine. Finallie he inha|bited all Scotland with Britons, no man, wo|man, nor child of the Scotish nation suffered to remaine within it, which (as their Hector Boetius saith) was for their rebellion; and rebellion properlie could it not be, except they had béene subiects. He suffered the Picts also to remaine his subiects, who made solemne othes to him, neuer after to erect anie peculiar king of their owne nation, but to remaine vnder the old empire of the onelie king of Bri|taine. I had once an epistle by Leland exemplified (as he saith) out of a verie ancient record which bea|reth title of Helena vnto hir sonne Constantine, and entreth after this manner; Domino semper Augusto filio Constantino, mater Helena semper Augusta, &c. And now it repenteth me that I did not exemplifie and conueigh it into this treatise whilest I had his books. For thereby I might haue had great light for the e|state of this present discourse: but as then I had no mind to haue trauelled in this matter; neuerthe|lesse, if hereafter it come againe to light I would wish it were reserued. It followeth on also in this maner (as it is translated out of the Gréeke) Verita|tem sapientis animus non recusat, nec fides recta aliquando patitur quamcunque iacturam, &c.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 About fiue and fourtie yeares after this (which was long time after the death of this Maximius) with the helpe of Gouan or Gonan and Helga, the Scots newlie arriued in Albania, and there created one Fergus the second of that name to be there king. But bicause they were before banished the conti|nent land, they crowned him king on their aduen|ture in Argile, in the fatall chaire of marble, the yéere of our Lord, foure hundred and two and twentie, as they themselues doo write.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Maximian sonne of Leonine Traheron, brother to king Coill,Maximian. and vncle to Helene, was by lineall succession next king of Britons: but to appease the malice of Dionothus king of Wales, who also clai|med the kingdome, he maried Othilia eldest daugh|ter of Dionothus, and afterwards assembled a great power of Britons, and entered Albania, inuading Gallowaie, Mers, Annandale, Pentland, Carrike, Kill, and Cuningham, and in battell slue both this Fergus then king of Scots, and Durstus the king of Picts, and exiled all their people out of the conti|nent land: wherevpon the few number of Scots then remaining a liue, went to Argile, and there made Eugenius their king. When this Maximian had thus obteined quietnesse in Britaine, he depar|ted with his cousine Conan Meridocke into Armo|rica, where they subdued the king, and depopulated the countrie, which he gaue to Conan his cousine, to be afterward inhabited by Britons, by the name of Britaine the lesse: and hereof this realme tooke name of Britaine the great, which name by consent of forren writers it keepeth vnto this daie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After the death of Maximian, dissention being moo|ued betweene the nobles of Britaine, the Scots swarmed togither againe, and came to the wall of Adrian, where (this realme being diuided in manie factions) they ouercame one. And herevpon their Hector Boetius (as an hen that for laieng of one eg, will make a great cakeling) solemnlie triumphing for a conquest before the victorie, alledgeth that here|by the Britons were made tributaries to the Scots, and yet he confesseth that they won no more land, by that supposed conquest, but the same portion be|twéene them and Humber, which in the old partiti|ons before was annexed to Albania. It is hard to be beléeued, that such a broken nation as the Scots at that time were, returning from banishment with|in foure yeares before, and since in battell loosing both their kings, and the great number of their best men, to be thus able to make a conquest of great Britaine; and verie vnlikelie if they had conquered it, they would haue left the hot sunne of the south parts, to dwell in the cold snow in Scotland. Incre|dible it is, that if they had conquered it, they would not haue deputed officers in it, as in cases of con|quest behooueth. And it is beyond all beliefe, that great Britaine, or any other countrie, should be woon without the comming of anie enimie into it: as they did not, but taried finallie at the same wall of A|drian, whereof I spake before.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 But what need I speake of these defenses, when EEBO page image 120 the same Boecius scantlie trusteth his owne beliefe in this tale. For he saieth that Galfride, and sundrie other authentike writers, diuerslie varie from this part of his storie, wherein his owne thought accuseth his conscience of vntruth: herein also he further for|getting how it behooueth a lier to be mindfull of his assertion, in the fourth chapter next following, wholie bewraieth himselfe, saieng that the confederat kings of Scots and Picts, vpon ciuill warres be|twéene the Britons (which then followed) hoped short|lie to inioie all the land of great Britaine, from be|yond Humber vnto the fresh sea, which hope had bene vaine, and not lesse than void, if it had béene their owne by anie conquest before.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Constantine of Britaine, descended from Conan king thereof, cousine of Brutes bloud to this Maxi|mian, and his neerest heire was next king of Bri|taine, he immediatlie pursued the Scots with wars, and shortlie in battell slue their king Dongard, in the first yeare of his reigne, whereby he recouered Scotland out of their hands, and tooke all the holdes thereof into his owne possessions. Uortiger shortlie after obteined the crowne of Britaine, against whom the Scots newlie rebelled: for the repressing whereof (mistrusting the Britons to hate him for sundrie causes, as one that to auoid the smoke dooth oft fall into the fire) receiued Hengest a Saxon, and a great number of his countriemen, with whom and a few Britons he entred Scotland & ouercame them, wherevpon they tooke the Iles, which are their com|mon refuge. He gaue also much of Scotland, as Gallowaie, Pentland, Mers and Annandale, with sundrie other lands to this Hengest and his people to inhabit, which they did accordinglie inioie. But when this Hengest in processe of time thirsted after the whole kingdome of the south, he was banished, and yet afterward being restored, he conspired with the Scots against Aurilambrose the sonne of Constan|tine, the iust inheritor of this whole dominion. But his vntruth and theirs were both recompensed togi|ther,Some thinke the Seimors to come from this man by lineall descent and I suppose no lesse. for he was taken prisoner by Eldulph de Samor a noble man of Britaine, and his head for his traito|rie striken off at the commandement of Aurilam|brose. In the field the Scots were vanquished: but Octa the sonne of Hengest was receiued to mercie, to whome and his people this Aurilambrose gaue the countrie of Gallowaie in Scotland, for which they became his subiects. And hereby appeareth that Scotland was then againe reduced into his hands.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Uter called also Pendragon, brother to Aurilam|brose was next king of the Britons, against whome, these sworne Saxons now foresworne subiects (con|federate with the Scots) newlie rebelled: but by his power assembled against them in Gallowaie in Scotland, they were discomfited, & Albania againe recouered vnto his subiection. Arthur the sonne of of this Uter, begotten before the mariage, but law|fullie borne in matrimonie, succéeded next to the crowne of great Britaine; whose noble acts, though manie vulgar fables haue rather stained than com|mended: yet all the Scotish writers confesse, that he subdued great Britaine, and made it tributarie to him, and ouercame the Saxons then scattered as far as Cathnesse in Scotland: and in all these wars against them, he had the seruice and obeisance of Scots and Picts. But at the last setting their féet in the guilefull paths of their predecessors, they rebel|led and besieged the citie of Yorke, Howell king of the lesse Britaine cousine to king Arthur being therein. But he with an host came thither and dis|comfited the Scots, chased them into a marsh, and besieged them there so long, that they were almost famished: vntill the bishops, abbats, and men of re|ligion (for as much as they were christened people) besought him to take them to his mercie and grace, and to grant them a portion of the same countrie to dwell in vnder euerlasting subiection. Upon this he tooke them to his grace, homage and fealtie: and when they were sworne his subiects and liegemen, he ordeined his kinsman Anguisan to be their king and gouernour, Urian king of Iland, and Mure|frence king of Orkeneie. He made an archbishop of Yorke also, whose authoritie extended through all Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Finallie, the said Arthur holding his roiall feast at Cairleon, had there all the kings that were sub|iects vnto him, among which, Angusian the said king of Scots did his due seruice and homage, so long as he was with him for the realme of Scotland, & bare king Arthurs sword afore him. Malgo shortlie af|ter succéeded in the whole kingdome of great Bri|taine, who vpon new resistance made, subdued Ire|land, Iland, the Orchads, Norwaie and Denmarke, and made Ethelfred a Saxon king of Bernicia, that is, Northumberland, Louthian, and much other land of Scotland, which Ethelfred by the sword obteined at the hands of the wilfull inhabitants, and continu|ed true subiect to this Malgo.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Cadwan succéeded in the kingdome of great Britaine, who in defense of his subiects the Scots, made warre vpon this Ethelfred, but at the last they agréed, and Cadwan vpon their rebellion gaue all Scotland vnto this Ethelfred, which he therevpon subdued and inioied: but afterward in the reigne of Cadwallo that next succeeded in great Britaine, he rebelled. Whervpon the same Cadwallo came in|to Scotland, and vpon his treason reseised the coun|trie into his owne hands, and hauing with him all the vicerois of the Saxons, which then inhabited here as his subiects, in singular battell he slue the same Ethelfred with his owne hands.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Oswald was shortlie after by Cadwallos gift made king of Bernicia, and he as subiect to Cad|wallo, and by his commandement discomfited the Scots and Picts, and subdued all Scotland. Oswie the brother of this Oswald, was by the like gift of Cadwallo, made next king of Bernicia, and he by like commandement newlie subdued the Scots and Picts, and held them in that obeisance to this Cad|wallo, during eight and twentie yeares. Thus Cad|wallo reigned in the whole monarchie of great Bri|taine, hauing all the seuen kings thereof, as well Saxons as others his subiects: for albeit the num|ber of Saxons from time to time greatlie increa|sed, yet were they alwaies either at the first expelled, or else made tributarie to the onelie kings of Bri|tons for the time being, as all their owne writers doo confesse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Cadwallader was next king of the whole great Britaine, he reigned twelue yeares ouer all the kings thereof, in great peace and tranquillitie: and then vpon the lamentable death of his subiects, which died of sundrie diseases innumerablie, he departed into little Britaine. His sonne and cousine Iuor and Iue, being expelled out of England also by the Sax|ons, went into Wales, where among the Britons they and their posteritie remained princes. Upon this great alteration, and warres being through the whole dominion betwéene the Britons and Saxons, the Scots thought time to slip the collar of obedi|ence, and therevpon entred in league with Charles then king of France, establishing it in this wise.

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1 The iniurie of Englishmen doone to anie of these people, shall be perpetuallie holden common to them both.

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2 When Frenchmen be inuaded by English|men, the Scots shall send their armie in defense of France, so that they be supported with monie and EEBO page image 121 vittels by the French.

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3 When Scots be inuaded by Englishmen, the Frenchmen shall come vpon their owne expenses, to their support and succour.

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4 None of the people shall take peace or truce with Englishmen, without the aduise of other, &c.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Manie disputable opinions may be had of warre without the praising of it,Nicholas Adams. as onlie admittable by in|forced necessitie, and to be vsed for peace sake onelie, where here the Scots sought warre for the loue of warre onelie. For their league giueth no benefit to themselues, either in frée traffike of their owne com|modities, or benefit of the French, or other priuilege to the people of both. What discommoditie riseth by loosing the intercourse and exchange of our commo|dities (being in necessaries more aboundant than France) the Scots féele, and we perfectlie know. What ruine of their townes, destruction of coun|tries, slaughter of both peoples, haue by reason of this bloudie league chanced, the histories be lamen|table to read, and horrible among christian men to be remembred: but God gaue the increase accor|ding to their séed, for as they did hereby sowe dissen|tion, so did they shortlie after reape a bloudie slaugh|ter and confusion. For Alpine their king, possessing a light mind that would be lost with a little wind, ho|ped by this league shortlie to subdue all great Bri|taine, and to that end not onelie rebelled in his owne kingdome, but also vsurped vpon the kingdome of Picts. Whervpon Edwine king of England, made one Brudeus king of Picts, whom he sent into Scot|land with a great power, where in battell he tooke this Alpine king of Scots prisoner, and discomfited his people. And this Alpine being their king found subiect and rebell, his head was striken off at a place in Scotland, which thereof is to this daie called Pa|salpine, that is to saie, the head of Alpine. And this was the first effect of their French league.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Osbright king of England, with Ella his subiect, and a great number of Britons and Saxons shortlie after, for that the Scots had of themselues elected a new king, entered Scotland, and ceassed not his war against them, vntill their king and people fled into the Iles, with whome at the last vpon their submissi|on, peace was made in this wise.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The water of Frith shall be march betwéene Scots and Englishmen in the east parts, and shall be named the Scotish sea.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The water of Cluide to Dunbriton, shall be march in the west parts betwéene the Scots and Britons. This castell was before called Alcluide, but now Dunbriton, that is to say, the castle of Britons, and sometimes it was destroied by the Danes. So the Britons had all the lands from Sterling to the Ireland seas, and from the water of Frith & Cluide to Cumber, with all the strengths and commodities thereof: and the Englishmen had the lands be|twéene Sterling and Northumberland. Thus was Cluide march betwéene the Scots and the Britons on the one side, and the water of Frith named the Scotish sea, march betwéene them and Englishmen on the other side, and Sterling common march to thrée people, Britons, Englishmen, and Scots, how|beit king Osbright had the castle of Sterling, where first he caused to be coined Sterling monie. The Englishmen also builded a bridge of stone, for pas|sage ouer the water of Frith, in the middest where|of they made a crosse, vnder which were written these verses:

I am free march, as passengers may ken,
To Scots, to Britons, and Englishmen.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Not manie yeares after this, Hinguar and Hub|ba, two Danes, with a great number of people, ar|riued in Scotland, and slue Constantine, whom Os|bright had before made king: wherevpon Edulfe or Ethelwulfe, then king of England, assembled his power against Hinguar and Hubba, and in one bat|tell slue them both; but such of their people as would remaine and become christians, he suffered to tarie: the rest he banished or put to death, &c.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This Ethelwulfe granted the Peter pence, of which albeit Peter & Paule had little need and lesse right: yet the paiment thereof continued in this realme euer after vntill now of late yeares. But the Scots euer since vnto this daie haue, and yet doo paie it, by reason of that grant, which prooueth them to be then vnder his obeisance.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Alured or Alfred succéeded in the kingdome of England, and reigned noblie ouer the whole monar|chie of great Britaine: he made lawes, that persons excommunicated should be disabled to sue or claime anie propertie; which law Gregour, whome this Alu|red had made king of Scots, obeied; and the same law as well in Scotland as in England is holden to this daie, which also prooueth him to be high lord of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This Alured constreined Gregour king of Scots also to breake the league with France, for generallie he concluded with him, and serued him in all his warres, as well against Danes as others, not reser|uing or making anie exception of the former league with France.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The said Alured, after the death of Gregour, had the like seruice and obeisance of Donald king of Scots with fiue thousand horssemen, against one Gurmond a Dane that then infested the realme, and this Donald died in this faith and obeisance with Alured.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Edward the first of that name called Chifod sonne of this Alured succéeded his father, and was the next king of England: against whome Sithrtic a Dane and the Scots conspired; but they were subdued, and Constantine their king brought to obeisance. He held the realme of Scotland also of king Edward, and this dooth Marian their owne countrieman a Scot confesse: beside Roger Houeden, and William of Malmesberie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the yeare of our Lord 923, the same king Ed|ward was president and gouernour of all the people of England, Cumberland, Scots, Danes, and Bri|tons.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 King Athelstane in like sort conquered Scotland, and as he laie in his tents beside Yorke, whilest the warres lasted, the king of Scots feined himselfe to be a minstrell, and harped before him onelie to espie his ordinance and his people. But being (as their writers confesse) corrupted with monie, he sold his faith and false heart together to the Danes, and ai|ded them against king Athelstane at sundrie times. Howbeit he met with all their vntruthes at Bron|ingfield in the west countrie, as is mentioned in the ninth chapter of the first booke of this description, where he discomfited the Danes, and slue Malcolme deputie in that behalfe to the king of Scots: in which battell the Scots confesse themselues to haue lost more people than were remembred in anie age be|fore. Then Athelstane following his good lucke, went throughout all Scotland and wholie subdued it, and being in possession thereof, gaue land there lieng in Annandale by his deed, the copie wherof dooth follow:

Compare 1577 edition: 1 I king Athelstane, giues vnto Paulam, Oddam and Roddam, als good and als faire, as euer they mine were, and thereto witnesse Mauld my wife.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 By which course words, not onelie appeareth the plaine simplicitie of mens dooings in those daies: but also a full proofe that he was then seized of Scot|land. At the last also he receiued homage of Mal|colme king of Scots: but for that he could not be re|stored EEBO page image 122 to his whole kingdome, he entered into religi|on, and there shortlie after died.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Then Athelstane, for his better assurance of that countrie there after, thought it best to haue two stringes to the bowe of their obedience, and therefore not onelie constituted on Malcolme to be their king, but also appointed one Indulph sonne of Con|stantine the third, to be called prince of Scotland, to whome he gaue much of Scotland: and for this Malcolme did homage to Athelstane.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Edmund brother of Athelstane succéeded next king of England, to whome this Indulph then king of Scots not onelie did homage, but also serued him with ten thousand Scots, for the expulsion of the Danes out of the realme of England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Edred or Eldred brother to this Edmund succée|ded next king of England:Some referre this to an Edward. he not onelie receiued the homage of Irise then king of Scots, but also the homage of all the barons of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Edgar the sonne of Edmund, brother of Athel|stane, being now of full age, was next king of Eng|land: he reigned onelie ouer the whole monarchie of Britaine, and receiued homage of Keneth king of Scots for the kingdome of Scotland, and made Malcolme prince thereof.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This Edgar gaue vnto the same Keneth the countrie of Louthian in Scotland, which was before seized into the hands of Osbright king of England for their rebellion, as is before declared. He inioi|ned Keneth their said king also once in euerie yéere at certeine principall feasts (whereat the king did vse to weare his crowne) to repaire vnto him into England for the making of lawes: which in those daies was doone by the noble men or péeres accor|ding to the order of France at this daie. He allow|ed also sundrie lodgings in England, to him and his successours, whereat to lie, and refresh themselues in their iourneies, whensoeuer they should come vp to doo their homages: and finallie a péece of ground lieng beside the new palace of Westminster, vpon which this Keneth builded a house, that by him and his posseritie was inioied vntill the reigne of king Hen|rie the second. In whose time, vpon the rebellion of William king of Scots, it was resumed into the king of Englands hand. The house is decaied, but the ground where it stood is called Scotland to this daie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Moreouer,Lawfull age and wardship of heires. Edgar made this law, that no man should succéed to his patrimonie or inheritance hol|den by knights seruice, vntill he accomplished the age of one and twentie yéeres: because by intend|ment vnder that age, he should not be able in person to serue his king and countrie according to the tenor of his deed, and the condition of his purchase. This law was receiued by the same Keneth in Scotland; and as well there as in England is obserued to this daie: which prooueth also that Scotland was then vnder his obeisance.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the yeere of our Lord 974, Kinald king of Scots, and Malcolme king of Cumberland, Macon king of Man and the Iles, Duuenall king of South|wales, Siferth and Howell kings of the rest of Wales, Iacob or Iames of Gallowaie, & Iukill of Westmerland did homage to king Edgar at Ches|ter. And on the morrow going by water to the mo|nasterie of saint Iohns to seruice, and returning home againe: the said Edgar sitting in a barge, and stirring the same vpon the water of Dée, made the said kings to row the barge, saieng that his succes|sors might well be ioifull to haue the prerogatiue of so great honour, and the superioritie of so manie mightie princes to be subiect vnto their monar|chie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Edward, the sonne of this Edgar, was next king of England, in whose time this Keneth king of Scots caused Malcolme king of Scotland to be poi|soned. Wherevpon king Edward made warre a|gainst him, which ceased not vntill this Keneth sub|mitted himselfe, and offered to receiue him for prince of Scotland, whome king Edward would appoint. Herevpon king Edward proclamed one Malcolme to be prince of Scotland, who immediatlie came in|to England, and there did homage vnto the same king Edward.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Etheldred, brother of this Edward succéeded next ouer England, against whome Swaine king of Denmarke conspired with this last Malcolme then king of Scots. But shortlie after, this Mal|colme sorrowfullie submitted himselfe into the de|fense of Etheldred: who considering how that which could not be amended, must onelie be repented, be|nignlie receiued him. By helpe of whose seruice at last Etheldred recouered his realme againe out of the hands of Swaine, and reigned ouer the whole monarchie eight and thirtie yéeres.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Edmund surnamed Ironside, sonne of this Ethel|dred, was next king of England, in whose time Ca|nutus a Dane inuaded the realme with much cruel|tie. But at the last he married with Emme some|time wise vnto Etheldred and mother of this Ed|mund. Which Emme, as arbitratrix betweene hir naturall loue to the one, and matrimoniall dutie to the other, procured such amitie betwéene them in the end, that Edmund was contented to diuide the realme with Canutus: and keeping to himselfe all England on this side Humber, gaue all the rest be|yond Humber, with the seigniorie of Scotland to this Canutus. Wherevpon Malcolme then king of Scots (after a little accustomable resistance) did ho|mage to the same Canutus for the kingdome of Scotland. Thus the said Canutus held the same o|uer of this Edmund king of England by the like seruices, so long as they liued togither. This Canu|tus in memorie of this victorie, and glorie of his seig|niorie ouer the Scots, commanded Malcolme their king to build a church in Buchquhan in Scotland, (where a field betweene him and them was fought) to be dedicated to Olauus patrone of Norwaie and Denmarke, which church was by the same Mal|colme accordinglie performed.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Edward called the Confessour, sonne of Ethel|dred, and brother to Edmund Ironside, was after|ward king of England: he tooke from Malcolme king of Scots his life and his kingdome, and made Malcolme soone to the king of Cumberland and Northumberland king of Scots, who did him ho|mage and fealtie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 This Edward perused the old lawes of the realme, and somewhat added to some of them: as to the law of Edgar for the wardship of the lands vntill the heire should accomplish the age of one and twen|tie yeeres. He added,To whome the marriage of the ward perteineth. that the marriage of such heire should also belong to the lord of whom the same land was holden. Also, that euerie woman marrieng a free man, should (notwithstanding she had no chil|dren by that husband) enioie the third part of his in|heritance during hir life: with manie other lawes which the same Malcolme king of Scots obeied, and which as well by them in Scotland, as by vs in Eng|land be obserued to this day, and directlie prooueth the whole to be then vnder his obeisance.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 By reason of this law, Malcolme the sonne of Duncane next inheritor to the crowne of Scotland, being within age, was by the nobles of Scotland deliuered as ward to the custodie also of king Ed|ward. During whose minoritie, one Makebeth a Scot traitorouslie vsurped the crowne of Scotland. Against whome the said Edward made warre, in EEBO page image 123 which the said Mackbeth was ouercome and slaine. Wherevpon the said Malcolme was crowned king of Scots at Scone, in the eight yeere of the reigne of king Edward aforesaid. This Malcolme also by tenor of the said new law of wardship, was married vnto Margaret the daughter of Edward sonne of Edmund Ironside and Agatha, by the disposition of the same king Edward, and at his full age did ho|mage to this king Edward the Confessour for the kingdome of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Moreouer,Edward the Confessour. Edward of England, hauing no is|sue of his bodie, and mistrusting that Harald the son of Goodwine, descended of the daughter of Harald Harefoot the Dane, would vsurpe the crowne, if he should leaue it to his cousine Edgar Eatling (being then within age) and partlie by the petition of his sub|iects, who before had sworne neuer to receiue anie kings ouer them of the Danish nation, did by his sub|stantiall will in writing (as all our clergie writers affirme) demise the crowne of great Britaine vnto William Bastard, then duke of Normandie, and to his heires, constituting him his heire testamentarie. Also there was proximitie in bloud betwéene them: for Emme daughter of Richard duke of Norman|die was wife vnto Etheldred, on whom he begat A|lured and this Edward: and this William was son of Robert sonne of Richard, brother of the whole bloud to the same Emme. Whereby appeareth that this William was heire by title, and not by con|quest, albeit that partlie to extinguish the mistrust of other titles, and partlie for the glorie of his victorie, he chalenged in the end, the name of a conquerour, and hath béene so written euer since the time of his arriuall.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Furthermore,William Bastard. this William, called the Bastard and the Conquerour, supposed not his conquest per|fect till he had likewise subdued the Scots. Wherfore to bring the Scots to iust obeisance after his coro|nation, as heire testamentarie to Edward the Con|fessour; he entred Scotland, where after a little re|sistance made by the inhabitants, the said Malcolme then their king did homage to him at Abirnethie in Scotland for the kingdome of Scotland, as to his superiour also by meane of his late conquest.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 William surnamed Rufus,William Rufus. sonne to this Wil|liam called the Conquerour, succéeded next in the throne of England, to whome the said Malcolme king of Scots did like homage for the whole king|dome of Scotland. But afterward he rebelled, and was by this William Rufus slaine in plaine field. Wherevpon the Scotishmen did choose one Donald or Dunwall to be their king. But this William Rufus deposed him, and created Dunkane sonne of Malcolme to be their king, who did like homage to him. Finallie, this Dunkane was slaine by the Scots, and Dunwall restored, who once againe by this William Rufus was deposed; and Edgar son of Malcolme, and brother to the last Malcolme, was by him made their king, who did like homage for Scotland to this William Rufus.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Henrie called Beauelerke the sonne of William called the Conqueour,Henrie 1. after the death of his brother William Rufus, succéeded to the crowne of Eng|land, to whome the same Edgar king of Scots did homage for Scotland: this Henrie Beauclerke ma|ried Mawd the daughter of Malcome II. of Scots, and by hir had issue Mawd afterward empresse.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Alexander the sonne of Malcolme brother to this Mawd was next king of Scots, he did like homage for the kingdome of Scotland to this Henrie the first, as Edgar had doone before him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Mawd called the empresse,Mawd. daughter and heire to Henrie Beauclerke and Mawd his wife, receiued homage of Dauid, brother to hir and to this Alexan|der next king of Scots, before all the temporall men of England for the kingdome of Scotland. This Mawd the empresse gaue vnto Dauid in the marri|age, Mawd the daughter and heire of Uoldosius earle of Huntingdon & Northumberland. And here|in their euasion appeareth, by which they allege that their kings homages were made for the earledome of Huntingdon. For this Dauid was the first that of their kings was earle of Huntingdon, which was since all the homages of their kings before recited, and at the time of this mariage, & long after the said Alexander his brother was king of Scots, doing the homage aforesaid to Henrie Beauclerke son to the aforesaid ladie, of whome I find this epitaph worthie to be remembred:

Ortu magna, viro maior, sed maxima partu,
Hic iacet Henrici filia, sponsa, parens.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the yeere of our Lord 1136, and first yeere of the reigne of king Stephan, the said Dauid king of Scots being required to doo his homage, refused it: for so much as he had doone homage to Mawd the empresse before time; notwithstanding the sonne of the said Dauid did homage to king Stephan.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Henrie called Fitz empresse,Henrie 2. the sonne of Mawd the empresse daughter of Mawd, daughter of Mal|colme king of Scots, was next king of England. He receiued homage for Scotland of Malcolme sonne of Henrie, sonne of the said Dauid their last king. Which Malcolme after this homage attended vpon the same king Henrie in his warres against Lewis then king of France. Whereby appeareth that their French league was neuer renewed after the last diuision of their countrie by Osbright king of England.

But after these warres finished with the French king, this Malcolme being againe in Scot|land rebelled: wherevpon king Henrie immediat|lie seized Huntingdon and Northumberland into his owne hands by confiscation, and made warres vpon him in Scotland: during which the same Malcolme died without issue of his bodie.

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William brother of this Malcolme was next king of Scots, he with all the nobles of Scotland (which could not be now for anie earledome) did ho|mage to the sonne of Henrie the second;
Because they were taken from him before. with a re|seruation of the dutie to king Henrie the second his father. Also the earledome of Huntingdon was (as ye haue heard) before this forfeited by Malcolme his brother, and neuer after restored to the crowne of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This William did afterward attend vpon the same Henrie the second, in his warres in Norman|die against the French king (notwithstanding their French league) and then being licenced to depart home in the tenth of this prince, and vpon the fif|téenth of Februarie he returned, and vpon the six|téenth of October did homage to him for the realme of Scotland. In token also of his perpetuall subiec|tion to the crowne of England, he offered vp his cloake, his faddle, and his speare at the high altar in Yorke: wherevpon he was permitted to depart home into Scotland, where immediatlie he mooued cruell warre in Northumberland against the same king Henrie, being as yet in Normandie. But God tooke the defense of king Henries part, and deliue|red the same William king of Scots into the hands of a few Englishmen, who brought him prisoner to king Henrie into Normandie in the twentith yeere of his reigne. But at the last, at the sute of Dauid his brother, Richard bishop of saint Andrews, and other bishops and lords, he was put to this fine for the amendment of his trespasse; to wit, to paie ten thousand pounds sterling, and to surrender all his title to the earldome of Huntingdon, Cumberland, & Northumberland into the hands of king Henrie, EEBO page image 124 which he did in all things accordinglie, sealing his charters thereof with the great seale of Scotland, and signets of his nobilitie yet to be seene: wherein it was also comprised, that he and his successours should hold the realme of Scotland of the king of England and his successours for euer. And herevp|on he once againe did homage to the same king Henrie, which now could not be for the earledome of Huntingdon, the right whereof was alreadie by him surrendred. And for the better assurance of this faith also, the strengths of Berwike, Edenborough, Roxborough, and Striueling were deliuered into the hands of our king Henrie of England, which their owne writers confesse. But Hector Boetius saith, that this trespasse was amended by fine of twentie thousand pounds sterling, and that the erle|dome of Huntingdon, Cumberland, and Northum|berland were deliuered as morgage into the hands of king Henrie, vntill other ten thousand pounds sterling should be to him paid, which is so farre from truth, as Hector was (while he liued) from well mea|ning to our countrie. But if we grant that it is true, yet prooueth he not that the monie was paid, nor the land otherwise redéemed, or euer after came to anie Scotish kings hands. And thus it appeareth that the earledome of Huntingdon was neuer oc|casion of the homages of the Scotish kings to the kings of England, either before this time or af|ter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This was doone 1175. Moreouer I read this note hereof gathered out of Robertus Montanus or Mon|tensis that liued in those daies, and was (as I take it) confessor to king Henrie.

The king of Scots dooth ho|mage to king Henrie for the kingdome of Scot|land, and is sent home againe, his bishops also did promise to doo the like to the archbishop of Yorke, and to acknowledge themselues to be of his prouince and iurisdiction. By vertue also of this composition the said Robert saith, that Rex Angliae dabat honores, e|piscopatus, abbatias, & alias dignitates in Scotia, vel saltem eius consilio dabantur, that is, The king of England gaue honors, bishopriks, abbatships, and other dig|nities in Scotland, or at the leastwise they were not giuen without his aduise and counsell.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 At this time Alexander bishop of Rome (supposed to haue generall iurisdiction ecclesiasticall through christendome) established the whole cleargie of Scot|land (according to the old lawes) vnder the iurisdicti|on of the archbishop of Yorke.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the yeare of our Lord 1185, in the moneth of August, at Cairleill, Rouland Talmant lord of Gal|waie, did homage and fealtie to the said king Henrie with all that held of him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the two and twentith yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the second, Gilbert sonne of Ferguse prince of Galwaie, did homage and fealtie to the said king Henrie, and left Dunecan his sonne in hostage for conseruation of his peace.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Richard surnamed Coeur de Lion, because of his stoutnesse, and sonne of this Henrie was next king of England, to whome the same William king of Scots did homage at Canturburie for the whole kingdome of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This king Richard was taken prisoner by the duke of Ostrich, for whose redemption the whole realme was taxed at great summes of monie, vnto the which this William king of Scots (as a subiect) was contributorie, and paied two thousand markes sterling.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the yeare of our Lord 1199, Iohn king of England sent to William king of Scots, to come and doo his homage, which William came to Lin|colne in the moneth of December the same yeare, and did his homage vpon an hill in the presence of Hubert archbishop of Canturburie, and of all the people there assembled, and therevnto tooke his oth and was sworne vpon the crosse of the said Hubert: also he granted by his charter confirmed, that he should haue the mariage of Alexander his sonne, as his liegeman, alwaies to hold of the king of Eng|land: promising moreouer that he the said king Wil|liam and his sonne Alexander, should keepe and hold faith and allegiance to Henrie sonne of the said king Iohn, as to their chiefe lord against all maner of men that might liue and die.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Also whereas William king of Scots had put Iohn bishop of saint Andrew out of his bishoprike, pope Clement wrote to Henrie king of England, that he should mooue and induce the same William; and if néed required by his roiall power and preroga|tiue ouer that nation, to compell him to leaue his rancor against the said bishop, and suffer him to haue and occupie his said bishoprike againe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the yeare of our Lord 1216, and fiue & twen|tith of the reigne of Henrie, sonne to king Iohn, the same Henrie and the quéene were at Yorke at the feast of Christmasse, for the solemnization of a mar|riage made in the feast of saint Stephan the martyr the same yeare, betwéene Alexander king of Scots, and Margaret the kings daughter, and there the said Alexander did homage to Henrie king of England for all the realme of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In buls of diuerse popes were admonitions gi|uen to the kings of Scots, as appeareth by that of Gregorie the fift and Clement his successor, that they should obserue and trulie kéepe all such appoint|ments, as had béene made betwéene the kings of England and Scotland. And that the kings of Scot|land should still hold the realme of Scotland of the kings of England, vpon paine of cursse and interdic|tion.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After the death of Alexander king of Scots, A|lexander his sonne, being nine yeares of age, was by the lawes of Edgar, in ward to king Henrie the third, & by the nobles of Scotland brought to Yorke, and there deliuered vnto him. During whose mino|ritie king Henrie gouerned Scotland, and to subdue a commotion in this realme, vsed the aid of fiue thou|sand Scotishmen. But king Henrie died during the nonage of this Alexander, whereby he receiued not his homage, which by reason and law was respited vntill his full age of one and twentie yeares.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Edward the first after the conquest, sonne of this Henrie was next king of England; immediatlie af|ter whose coronation, Alexander king of Scots, be|ing then of full age, did homage to him for Scotland at Westminster, swearing (as all the rest did) after this maner.

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I. D. N. king of Scots shall be true and faithfull vn|to you lord E. by the grace of God king of England, the noble and superior lord of the kingdome of Scot|land, and vnto you I make my fidelitie for the same, kingdome, the which I hold and claime to hold of you. And I shall beare you my faith and fidelitie of life and lim, and worldlie honour against all men, faithfullie I shall knowlege and shall doo you seruice due vnto you of the kingdome of Scotland afore|said, as God me so helpe and these holie euangelies.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This Alexander king of Scots died, leauing one onelie daughter called Margaret for his heire, who before had maried Hanigo, sonne to Magnus king of Norwaie, which daughter also shortlie after died, leauing one onelie daughter hir heire, of the age of two yeares, whose custodie and mariage by the lawes of king Edgar, and Edward the confessor, belonged to Edward the first: whervpon the nobles of Scot|land were commanded by our king Edward to send into Norwaie, to conueie this yoong queene into EEBO page image 125 England to him, whome he intended to haue mari|ed to his sonne Edward: and so to haue made a per|fect vnion long wished for betwéene both realmes. Herevpon their nobles at that time considering the same tranquillitie that manie of them haue since refused, stood not vpon shifts and delaies of minori|tie nor contempt, but most gladlie consented, and therevpon sent two noble men of Scotland into Norwaie, for hir to be brought to this king Edward, but she died before their comming thither, and there|fore they required nothing but to inioie the lawfull liberties that they had quietlie possessed in the last king Alexanders time.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After the death of this Margaret, the Scots were destitute of anie heire to the crowne from this Alex|ander their last king, at which time this Edward des|cended from the bodie of Mawd daughter of Mal|colme sometime king of Scots, being then in the greatest broile of his warres with France, minded not to take the possession of that kingdome in his owne right, but was contented to establish Balioll to be king thereof, the weake title betwéene him, Bruse, & Hastings, being by the humble petition of all the realme of Scotland cõmitted to the determi|nation of king Edward, wherein by autentike wri|ting they confessed the superioritie of the realme to remaine in king Edward, sealed with the seales of foure bishops, seuen earles, and twelue barons of Scotland, and which shortlie after was by the whole assent of the three estates of Scotland, in their so|lemne parlement confessed and enacted according|lie, as most euidentlie dooth appeare.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 The Balioll in this wise made king of Scotland, did immediatlie make his homage and fealtie at Newcastell vpon saint Stéeuens daie (as did like|wise all the lords of Scotland, each one setting his hand to the composition in writing) to king Edward of England for the kingdome of Scotland: but shortlie after defrauding the benigne goodnesse of his superiour, he rebelled, and did verie much hurt in England. Herevpon king Edward inuaded Scot|land, seized into his hands the greater part of the countrie, and tooke all the strengths thereof. Wher|vpon Balioll king of Scots came vnto him to Mauntrosse in Scotland with a white wand in his hand, and there resigned the crowne of Scotland, with all his right, title, and interest to the same, into the hands of king Edward, and thereof made his charter in writing, dated and sealed the fourth yeare of his reigne. All the nobles and gentlemen of Scot|land also repaired to Berwike, and did homage and fealtie to king Edward, there becomming his sub|iects. For the better assurance of whose oths also, king Edward kept all the strengths and holdes of Scotland in his owne hands; and herevpon all their lawes, processes, all iudgements, gifts of assises and others, passed vnder the name and authoritie of king Edward. Leland touching the same rehearsall, writeth thereof in this maner.

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In the yeare of our Lord 1295, the same Iohn king of Scots, contrarie to his faith and allegiance rebelled against king Edward, and came into Eng|land, and burnt and siue without all modestie and mercie. Wherevpon king Edward with a great host went to Newcastell vpon Tine, passed the water of Twéed, besieged Berwike, and got it. Also he wan the castell of Dunbar, and there were slaine at this brunt 15700 Scots. Then he proceeded further, and gat the castell of Rokesborow, and the castell of E|denborow, Striuelin and Gedworth, and his peo|ple harried all the land. In the meane season, the said king Iohn of Scots, considering that he was not of power to withstand king Edward, sent his letters and besought him of treatie and peace, which our prince benignlie granted, and sent to him againe that he should come to the towre of Brechin, and bring thither the great lords of Scotland with him. The king of England sent thither Antonie Becke bishop of Durham, with his roiall power, to con|clude the said treatise. And there it was agreed that the said Iohn and all the Scots should vtterlie sub|mit themselues to the kings will. And to the end the submission should be performed accordinglie, the king of Scots laid his sonne in hostage and pledge vnto him. There also he made his letters sealed with the common scale of Scotland, by the which he knowledging his simplenes and great offense doone to his lord king Edward of England, by his full power and frée will yeelded vp all the land of Scot|land, with all the people and homage of the same. Then our king went foorth to sée the mounteins, and vnderstanding that all was in quiet and peace, he turned to the abbeie of Scone, which was of chanons, regular, where he tooke the stone called the Regall of Scotland, vpon which the kings of that nation were woont to sit, at the time of their coronations for a throne,The Scots dreame that this was the stone whereon Iacob slept when he fled into Meso|potamia. & sent it to the abbeie of Westminster, com|manding to make a chaire therof for the priests that should sing masse at the high altar: which chaire was made, and standeth yet there at this daie to be séene.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the yeare of our Lord 1296, the king held his parlement at Berwike: and there he tooke homage singularlie of diuerse of the lords & nobles of Scot|land. And for a perpetuall memorie of the same, they made their letters patents sealed with their seales, and then the king of England made William War|reine earle of Surrie and Southsax lord Warden of Scotland, Hugh of Cressingham treasuror, and William Ormesbie iustice of Scotland, and foorth|with sent king Iohn to the Tower of London, and Iohn Comin, and the earle Badenauth, the earle of Bohan and other lords into England to diuerse pla|ces on this side of the Trent.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And after that, in the yeare of our Lord 1297, at the feast of Christmas, the king called before him the said Iohn king of Scots, although he had committed him to ward: and said that he would burne or de|stroie their castels, townes and lands, if he were not recompensed for his costs and damages susteined in the warres; but king Iohn and the other that were in ward, answered that they had nothing, sith their liues, their deaths, and goods were in his hands. The king vpon that answer mooued with pitie, granted them their liues; so that they would doo their ho|mage, and make their oth solemnelie at the high al|tar (in the church of the abbeie of Westminster) vpon the eucharist, that they and euerie of them should hold and keepe true faith, obedience, and allegiance to the said king Edward and his heires kings of England for euer. And where the said king of Scots saw the kings banner of England displaied, he and all his power should draw therevnto. And that nei|ther he or anie of his from thencefoorth should beare armes against the king of England or anie of his bloud. Finallie, the king rewarding with great gifts the said king Iohn and his lords, suffered them to depart. But they went into Scotland alwaie ima|gining (notwithstanding this their submission) how they might oppresse king Edward, and disturbe his realme. The Scots sent also to the king of France for succour and helpe, who sent them ships to Ber|wike furnished with men of armes, the king of En|gland then being in Flanders.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the yeare of our Lord 1298, the king went in|to Scotland with a great host, and the Scots also as|sembled in great number, but the king fought with them at Fawkirke on S. Marie Magdalens daie, where were slaine thréescore thousand Scots, & Wil|lain EEBO page image 126 Walleis that was their capteine fled, who be|ing taken afterward, was hanged, drawen, & quar|tered at London, for his trespasses.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After this the Scots rebelled againe, and all the lords of Scotland chose Robert Bruse to be king, except onelie Iohn Commin earle of Carrike, who would not consent thereto bicause of his oth made to the king of England.This was doone vpon the nine & twen|tith of Ianu|arie, 1306. Wherefore Robert Bruse slue him at Dumfrise, and then was crowned at Schone abbeie. Herevpon the king of England assembled a great hoast, and rode through all Scotland, discomfi|ted Robert Bruse, slue eight thousand Scots, & tooke the most part of all the lords of Scotland, putting the temporall lords to deth bicause they were forsworne.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Edward borne at Carnaruan sonne of this Ed|ward, was next king of England, who from the be|ginning of his reigne enioied Scotland peaceablie, dooing in all things as is aboue said of king Edward his father, vntill toward the later end of his reigne, about which time this Robert Bruse conspired a|gainst him, and with the helpe of a few forsworne Scots, forswore himselfe king of Scots. Herevpon this Edward with Thomas earle of Lancaster and manie other lords made warre vpon him, about the feast of Marie Magdalene, the said Bruse and his partakers being alreadie accurssed by the pope for breaking the truce that he had established betwixt them. But being infortunate in his first warres a|gainst him, he suffered Edward the sonne of Balioll to proclame himselfe king of Scots; and neuerthe|lesse held foorth his warres against Bruse, before the ending of which he died, as I read.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Edward borne at Windsore sonne of Edward the second was next king of England, at the age of fifteene yeares, in whose minoritie the Scots practi|sed with Isabell mother to this Edward, and with Roger Mortimer earle of the March to haue their homages released: whose good will therein they ob|teined, so that for the same release they should paie to this king Edward thirtie thousand pounds star|ling, in three yeares next following, that is to saie, ten thousand pounds starling yeerelie. But bicause the nobilitie and commons of this realme would not by parlement consent vnto it, their king being with|in age, the same release procéeded not, albeit the Scots ceased not their practises with this quéene and earle. But before those thrée yeares, in which their me|nie (if the bargaine had taken place) should haue béene paied, were expired, our king Edward inua|ded Scotland, and ceassed not the warre, vntill Da|uid the sonne of Robert le Bruse (then by their electi|on king of Scotland) absolutelie submitted himselfe vntohim. But for that the said Dauid Bruse had be|fore by practise of the quéene and the earle of March, married Iane the sister of this king Edward: he mooued by naturall zeale to his sister, was contented to giue the realme of Scotland to this Dauid Bruse, and to the heires that should be be gotten of the bodie of the said Iane (sauing the reuersion and meane ho|mages to this king Edward and to his owne chil|dren) wherewith the same Dauid Bruse was right well contented, and therevpon immediatlie made his homage for all the realme of Scotland to him.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Howbeit, shortlie after causelesse conceiuing cause of displeasure, this Dauid procured to dissolue this same estate tailée, and therevpon not onelie rebelled in Scotland, but also inuaded England, whilest king Edward was occupied about his wars in France. But this Dauid was not onelie expelled England in the end, but also thinking no place a sufficient de|fense to his vntruth, of his owne accord fled out of Scotland: whereby the countries of Annandale, Gallowaie, Mars, Teuidale, Twedale, and Ethrike were seized into the king of Englands hands, and new marches set betwéene England and Scotland at Cockbu [...]nes path & Sowtrie hedge. Which when this Dauid went about to recouer againe, his power was discomfited, and himselfe by a few Englishmen taken & brought into England, where he remained prisoner eleuen yeares after his said apprehension.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 During this time, king Edward enioied Scot|land peaceablie, and then at the contemplation and wearie suit of his sorowfull sister, wife of this Da|uid, he was contented once againe to restore him to the kingdome of Scotland. Wherevpon it was con|cluded, that for this rebellion Dauid should paie to king Edward, the summe of one hundred thousand markes starling, and there to destroie all his holdes and fortresses standing against the English borders, and further assure the crowne of Scotland to the children of this king Edward for lacke of heire of his owne bodie, all which things he did accordinglie. And for the better assurance of his obeisance also, he afterward deliuered into the hands of king Edward sundrie noble men of Scotland in this behalfe as his pledges. This is the effect of the historie of Dauid, touching his delings. Now let vs sée what was doone by Edward Balioll, wherof our chronicles doo report, that in the yéere of our Lord 1326, Edward the third, king of England, was crowned at Westminster, and in the fift yeare of his reigne Edward Balioll right heire to the kingdome of Scotland came in, and claimed it as due to him. Sundrie lords and gen|tlemen also, which had title to diuerse lands there, ei|ther by themselues, or by their wiues, did the like. Wherevpon the said Balioll and they went into Scotland by sea, and landing at Kinghorns with 3000 Englishmen, discomfited 10000 Scots, and flue 1200, and then went foorth to Dunfermeline, where the Scots assembled against them with 40000 men, and in the feast of saint Laurence, at a place called Gastmore (or otherwise Gladmore) were slaine fiue earls, thirtéene barons, a hundred and thrée score knights, two thousand men of armes, and ma|nie other; in all fortie thousand: and there were staine on the English part but thirtéene persons onelie, if the number be not corrupted.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the eight yeare of the reigne of king Edward, he assembled a great hoast, and came to Berwike vpon Twéed, and laid siege therto. To him also came Edward Balioll king of Scots, with a great power to strengthen & aid him against the Scots, who came out of Scotland in foure batels well armed & araied.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Edward king of England, and Edward king of Scots, apparrelled their people either of them in foure battels: and vpon Halidon hill, beside Ber|wike, met these two hoasts, and there were discomfi|ted of the Scots fiue and twentie thousand and sea|uen hundred, whereof were slaine eight earles, a thousand and thrée hundred knights and gentlemen. This victorie doone, the king returned to Berwike, & then the towne with the castell were yéelded vp vn|to him. In the eight yeare of the reigne of king Ed|ward of England, Edward Balioll king of Scots came to Newcastell vpon Tine, and did homage for all the realme of Scotland.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 In the yeare of our Lord 1346, Dauid Bruse by the prouocation of the king of France rebelled, and came into England with a great hoast vnto Neuils crosse: but the archbishop of Yorke, with diuerse temporall men, fought with him; and the said king of Scots was taken, and William earle of Duglas with Morrise earle of Strathorne were brought to London, and manie other lords slaine, which with Dauid did homage to Edward king of England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 And in the thirtith yeare of the kings reigne, and the yeare of our Lord 1355, the Scots woone the towne of Berwicke, but not the castell. Herevpon EEBO page image 127 the king came thither with a great hoast, and anon the towne was yéelded vp without anie resistance.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 Edward Balioll, considering that God did so ma|nie maruellous and gratious things for king Ed|ward, at his owne will gaue vp the crowne and the realme of Scotland to king Edward of England at Rokesborough, by his letters patents. And anon af|ter the king of England, in presence of all his lords spirituall and temporall, let crowne himselfe king there of the realme of Scotland, & ordeined all things to his intent, and so came ouer into England.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Richard the sonne of Edward, called the Blacke prince, sonne of this king Edward, was next king of England, who for that the said Iane, the wife of the said king Dauid of Scotland was deceassed without issue, and being informed how the Scots de|uised to their vttermost power to breake the limita|tion of this inheritance touching the crowne of Scotland, made foorthwith war against them, where|in he burnt Edenbrough, spoiled all their countrie, tooke all their holds, & held continuallie war against them vntill his death, which was Anno Dom. 1389.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Henrie the fourth of that name was next king of England, he continued these warres begun against them by king Richard, and ceassed not vntill Robert king of Scots (the third of that name) resigned his crowne by appointment of this king Henrie, and de|liuered his sonne Iames, being then of the age of nine yeares, into his hands to remaine at his custo|die, wardship and disposition, as of his superiour lord, according to the old lawes of king Edward the confessor. All this was doone Anno Dom. 1404, which was within fiue yeares after the death of king Ri|chard. This Henrie the fourth reigned in this estate ouer them fouretéene yeares.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Henrie the fift of that name, sonne to this king Henrie the fourth, was next king of England. He made warres against the French king, in all which this Iames then king of Scots attended vpon him, as vpon his superiour lord, with a conuenient num|ber of Scots, notwithstanding their league with France. But this Henrie reigned but nine yeares, whereby the homage of this Iames their king (ha|uing not fullie accomplished the age of one & twentie yeares) was by reason and law respited. Finallie the said Iames with diuerse other lords attended vpon the corps of the said Henrie vnto Westminster, as to his dutie apperteined.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Henrie the sixt, the sonne of this Henrie the fift, was next king of England, to whome the seigniorie of Scotland & custodie of this Iames by right, law, and reason descended, married the same Iames king of Scots to Iane daughter of Iohn earle of Sum|merset, at saint Marie ouer Ise in Southwarke, and tooke for the value of this mariage, the summe of one hundred thousand markes starling.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 This Iames king of Scots at his full age, did ho|mage to the same king Henrie the sixt, for the king|dome of Scotland at Windsore, in the moneth of Ianuarie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 Since which time, vntill the daies of king Henrie the seuenth, grandfather to our souereigne ladie that now is, albeit this realme hath béene molested with diuersitie of titles, in which vnmeet time neither law nor reason admit prescription to the preiudice of anie right: yet did king Edward the fourth next king of England, by preparation of war against the Scots in the latter end of his reigne, sufficientlie by all lawes induce to the continuance of his claime to the same superioritie ouer them.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 After whose death, vnto the beginning of the reigne of our souereigne lord king Henrie the eight, excée|ded not the number of seauen and twentie yeares, about which time the impediment of our claime of the Scots part, chanced by the nonage of Iames their last king, which so continued the space of one and twentie yeares. And like as his minoritie was by all law and reason an impediment to himselfe to make homage; so was the same by like reason an im|pediment to the king of this realme to demand anie, so that the whole time of intermission of our claime in the time of the said king Henrie the eight, is dedu|ced vnto the number of thirteene yeares. And thus much for this matter.

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