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1.9. Of the ſundry kindes of Muſkles and Cockles in Scotland, and pearles gotten in the ſame: of the vncouth and ſtrange fiſh there to be ſeene, and of the nature of the herbe Cythiſus commonly called Hadder. Chap. 9.

Of the ſundry kindes of Muſkles and Cockles in Scotland, and pearles gotten in the ſame: of the vncouth and ſtrange fiſh there to be ſeene, and of the nature of the herbe Cythiſus commonly called Hadder. Chap. 9.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 HEre it reſteth that I ſhewe the nature of Muſkles & Cockles, wherof we haue many & ſundry kindes amongſt vs: of theſe alſo ſo [...]e are ſmall, and yet if they be eaten freſh, are not without a naturall delicacy in taſt. Others are greater & not vnlike in forme & quãtitie to thoſe that haue the purple: & albeit that they are vt|terly voyde thereof, yet is their meate and ſub|ſtance right pleaſant in the eating. There are of an other ſorte whiche are longer & greater, than either of theſe, called horſe Muſkles, to be had in the Dee & the Done, & in theſe are the pearles in|gendred. Certes they loue to be reſident in the deepeſt and cleereſt waters that are voyde of mudde & filth, & ſuch is their eſtimation among the deintieſt kindes of foode, that they were not vnworthely called of old time, widowes luſtes. Their ſhelles alſo are as it were wrought euen from the very toppes, and thereto ful of ſpottes wherein (as in yeld of gaine) they farre exceede al other. Theſe early in the morning, Cardane de|nieth this, lib. 7. de Sub|tilitate. in the gẽ|tle, cleere, & calme ayre, lift vp their vpper ſhel [...]s & mouthes, a litle aboue the water, and there re|ceiue of the fine & pleaſant breath or dew of hea|uen, & afterwardes according to the meaſure & quantitie of this vitall force receyued, they firſte conceyue then ſwell, and finally product the pearle. They are ſo ſenſible & quicke of hearing, yt although you ſtanding on the bray or banke aboue them, do ſpeake neuer ſo ſoftly, or throw neuer ſo ſmall a ſtone into the water, yet they wil deſcrie yo [...], and ſettle againe to the botome, without returne for that time. Doubtleſſe they haue as it were a naturall carefulneſſe of their owne commodity, as not ignorant, how great eſtimation wee mortall men make of the ſame amongſt vs, and therefore ſo ſoone as the fiſher men do catche them, they binde their ſhelles to|gither, for otherwiſe they would open, and ſhea [...] theyr pearles of purpoſe, for whiche they know themſelues to be taken and purſued. Their ma|ner of apprehenſion is this, firſt foure or fiue per|ſons go into the riuer togither, vp vnto the ſhoulders, and there ſtand in a compaſſe one by another with poles in their handes, wherby they reſt more ſurely, ſith they fixe thẽ in the ground, & ſtay with one hand vpon them: Then caſting their eyes downe to the botome of the water, they eſpie where they lie by their ſhinyng and cleereneſſe, and with their toes take them vp (for the deapth of the water will not ſuffer them to ſtoupe for them (& giue thẽ to ſuch as ſtand next them. The perles that are ſo gotten in Scotlãd, are not of ſmall value, they are very orient and bright, light & round, & ſomtimes of the quanti|tie of ye nayle of ones litle finger, as I haue had & ſeene by mine own experiẽce. Almoſt ſuch an|other muſkle found on the coaſt of Spaine, the ſhels whereof are gathered by ſuch as go in pil|grimage to S. Iames; & brought into Scot|lãd, but they are wtout perles, bicauſe thei liue in ſalt water, which is an enimy to ye Margarite: EEBO page image 12 but Cardane alſo denieth it. In all the ſea coaſtes alſo of Scotlãd are Cockles & M [...]ſkles of the ſame forme, but without this commo|dity. Many vncouth and ſtrange ſhapes of fiſh likewiſe are ſeene there, whereof ſome are ar|med with ſhelles, ſome with harde ſkales, and diuers round as a ball ſkinned like an Ircheon or Hedgehogge, hauing but one conduct bothe for purgation of their excrements, and reception of their ſuſtenaũce. To ſhew euery kinde of fiſh that is in Scotlãd, it were but a vaine, trauaile, ſith the ſame are knowẽ almoſt in euery region. In like ſorte we haue ſuch plenty of fiſhe vpon our ſeuerall coaſtes, that although Millions & infinite numbers of them be taken on the one day, yet on the next their loſſe wil ſo be ſupplied with new ſtore, that nothing ſhal be miſſing by reaſon of the yeſterfang: ſo bountifull is God in theſe his benefites vnto vs. Furthermore, there is another gift beſtowed vpon vs by the ſingu|lar prouidence of God. For the greater dearth and penury of fleſh and corne is ſeene in Scot|land, the greater ſtore of fiſhe is taken vpon our ſhores. In like ſorte in the deſertes and wilde places of this realme, there groweth an hearbe of it ſelf called Hadder or Hather very delicate, Galen lib. 1. de An [...] lo [...]is ſaith that Cytiſus is no hearbe but a ſhrubbe, and ſo dothe Pliny lib. 12. cap 3 lib. 13. cap 24 lib 16. cap: 38: And Columella in the end of his 5. boke, where he accompteth it amõg trees. as Columella lib. 9. cap. 4. ſayth, for Goates and all kinde of cattell to feede vpon, and likewiſe for diuers Foules, but Bees eſpecially. This herbe in Iune yeeldeth a purple floure, ſweete as bony, whereof the Pictes in time paſte did make a pleaſaunt drinke, and very wholeſome for the body: but for aſmuche as the maner of making hereof is periſhed in the hauocke made of the Pictes, when the Scottes ſubdued their countrey, it lieth not in me to ſet downe the or|der of it, neyther ſhewed they euer the learning hereof to any but to their owne nation. Final|ly there is no parte of Scotland ſo barren and vnprofitable, but it produceth eyther yron or ſome other kinde of mettall, as may be proued eaſely thorow out all the Iles that are annexed to the ſame.

1.10. Of the Iles of Scotland, and ſuch notable things as are to be found in them. Chap. 10.

Of the Iles of Scotland, and ſuch notable things as are to be found in them. Chap. 10.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 BEing fallen at the laſte into mention of our Iles, I wil addreſſe my ſelf to deſcribe the ſame, in maner and forme as followeth. In the Iriſhe ſea betwixt Ireland and Scotlande are forty and three Iles, whereof ſome are xxx. myles long, diuers xij. and others more or leſſe. Theſe are called by ſome writers Euboniae, and by other Hebrides. But the principall of them all is that of Man, whiche lieth ouer a|gainſt Galloway, and was ſometime the prin|cipall ſeate of the Driuydes, as Cornelius Taci|tus, Ceſar in his Cõmentaries, and other R [...]|mayne writers do teſtifie at large. North from the Ile of Man lieth Arran, otherwiſe named Botha, after S. Brandons time, who dwelled there in a little cottage, whiche (as all other the like were in thoſe dayes) was called Bothe. Frõ Arran wee go to Hellaw and Rotheſay, whiche later is ſo named of ye Scot, which brought the Scottes firſte out of Ireland into Brytaine. Not farre from this Ile is Ailſay, where there is ſuch ſtore of Soland geeſe as the ſayde before to be in Bas. Beyond Ailſay lie many other di|ſtinguiſhed by their ſeuerall names, but full of mynes, as of Iron, Tinne, Lead, and ſundry other mettals. Howbeit the moſte notable Ile belonging to Scotland is Ila, that lieth beyond the promontory of Nouant cliffe, (in Scottiſh the toũg of Lorue) within ſight of Lochquhabre. Certes it is a riche parcell, xxx. miles of length, and full of corne and mettall, if the people were cunning to finde and trimme the ſame. Not farre from thence is Cumbra, and Mula, fully ſo large as Ila both for length and breadth. In Mula is a fayre ſpring two miles from the ſea, from whence runneth a little brooke or ſtrippet, whereof you ſhall reade more in the deſcription of Brytaine, lib. 1. cap. 8. Neare vnto this is Iona, otherwiſe called Columkill, in whiche is an Abbay, wherein the Kings of Scotlande were commonly buried from the time of Fer|gus the ſecond, vnto Malcoline Cammor, who excited the Monaſtery of Dunfermelin, where ſithence that time the moſte parte of our Kings haue bene of cuſtome interred. Paſſing forward to ye Northnorthweſt ſeas, ouer agaynſt Roſſe is an Ile named Lewis .lx. myles in length, in this Ile is but one fiſhe riuer, and it is ſayd that if a womã wade thorow the ſame at the ſpring of the yere, there ſhall no Salmon be ſeene there for a twelf moneth after, wheras otherwiſe that fiſhe is knowen to abounde there in very great plenty. Beyonde Lewis lie the Sky and the Rona, in the later wherof, it is incredible to ſay what of Seale, of Pellock & Porpaſſe is to be ſeene, whiche are nothing abaſhed at the ſight of any man. The laſt and vttermoſt Ile is na|med Hirtha, where the eleuation of the pole, is lxiij. degrees, and ſithence the latitude of Man, is but lvij. I conclude, that from the Ile of Man the firſt Ile of Albion, to Hirtha the laſt Ile hereof are 377. myles, after 62. miles and an half to eche degree, as Ptholomy hath ſet down. It is named Hirtha, which in Iriſh ſoundeth ſo much as a Sheepe in Engliſh, for herein that kinde of cattell aboundeth, eche one being grea|ter than any Bucke, their Hornes longer and thicker than of the Bugle, and thereto they haue ſide tailes that reach vnto the earth. It is enui|rõned EEBO page image 13 on euery part with rochy or rocky cr [...]gs, whereby fewe veſſelles may lande there but at one place, where the working of the ſea is often times ſo terrible and rough, that no man days aduenture thither without daunger of his lyfe. They that go thither therefore, do watch theyr times when the ſea is calme and ſtill. In the moneth of Iune alſo, a Prieſt commeth vnto them out of Leuiſſa, and miniſtreth the ſacra|ment of Baptiſme to all the children that haue bene borne there ſithe that moneth in the yeare precedent: whiche beyng done, and a certayne number of Maſſes ſayde, he receyueth Tithes of all their commodities, & then returneth home againe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the Ile of Lewis are two Churches or Chappels, wherof one is dedicated to S. Peter, another to S. Clement. The fame is, that ſo ſoone as the fire goeth out in this Ile, the man that is holden of moſt cleane and innocent life, goeth to the Aultare with great ſolemnity, and there layeth a wiſpe of ſtraw, which being done they fall all to prayer, in the middeſt whereof fire commeth downe from Heauẽ and kindleth or ſetteth the ſame on fire.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Beyond this, is yet another Ile, but voyde of people and all other liuing Creatures, ſauing a certen kinde of beaſtes like vnto Sheepe, whoſe nature and forme I haue already touched in the deſcription of Brytaine, and therefore omitte it here, for haſte and breuitie ſake. Betwixt theſe Iles alſo is a right daungerous paſſage, ſith the ſea by working of oppoſite ſtreames hath in|gendred a goulf, whiche ſometime taketh in an incomprehenſible deale of water, and ſomtimes caſteth it foorth agayne, by meanes wherof ma|ny ſhippes that by rage of winde and weather are inforced to come that way, are eyther ſwal|lowed vp by the waues, or throwen againſt the rockes to their vtter daunger and ruine. The greateſt rage of this confluẽce is at a place cal|led Corebrecke, where it will eyther ſinke or at the leaſt wiſe draw any ſhip vnto it, though it be a full myle diſtant from the ſame.

1.11. Of the nature of the Claike geeſe, and ſundry maners of their procreation, and of the Ile of Thule. Chap. 11.

Of the nature of the Claike geeſe, and ſundry maners of their procreation, and of the Ile of Thule. Chap. 11.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 NOw it is come to hande that I entreate of thoſe Geeſe, which are ingendred by the ſea, whoſe procreatiõ hath hitherto bene thought to haue bene made vpon trees. But the opinion is falſe, and yet ſith theyr generation is ſtrange in deede, I haue not a litle trauayled, and with no ſmall diligence indeuoured to ſearch out the truth hereof, wherby I learne that their ingen|drure is rather to be referred to the ſea, than any+thing els, if my coniecture be oughtes: for al|though that they are in ſundry wiſe producted, yet I finde the ſame to be performed continu|ally in the ſea, and not elſwhere, as ſhal appeare hereafter. All trees caſt into the Element in proceſſe of tyme become worme eaten, & in the holes thereof are the ſayde wormes to be founde though very little and ſmall (in compariſon to that they be afterwarde) to be perceyued at the firſt. In the beginnyng, theſe wormes do ſhew their heades and feete, & laſt of all their plumes and winges. Finally when they are come to the iuſt meaſure and quantitie of Geeſe, they flye in the ayre as other foules do. This was notably proued in the yeare of grace 1490. in ſight of many people, beſide the Caſtell of Petſleg [...], whether the body of a greate tree was brought by working of the ſea. This tree beyng taken, it was caried to the Lord of the ſoyle, who ſone after cauſed it to be flitte in ſunder with a ſawe which being done, it is incredible to ſee, what a multitude of wormes came out of theſe holes. Of theſe alſo ſome appeared as if they had bene but newe ſhapen, diuerſe had head, foote and winges, but no fethers, the reſt were formed in|to perfite foules. At the laſt when the people had gazed thereon by the ſpace of an whole day, they caried it to S. Andrewes Churche beſide [...]ire, where the ſaide blocke remayneth ſtill to be ſeene. Within two yeares after there hapned ſuch another tree to come into the fyrth of Tay beſide Dundee, worme eaten and full of young ge [...]ſe after the ſame maner: the thirde was ſeene in the [...]auen of Leith beſide Edenborow: alſo within a fewe yeares, in like ſorte a ſhip named the Criſtopher, after ſhe had lien three yeares at [...] in one of theſe yles was brought to Leith where bycauſe hir timber was found to be rot|ten ſhee was taken in ſunder, and in hir keel [...] were found infinite holes as if they had bene ea|ten with wormes or bored with a wimble, and eche one of them filled with ſuch creatures as I haue ſayde before. Here if any man will al|ledge that the Chriſtopher was buylded of ſuch timber onely as grew in theſe Iles, and that all rootes & trees there growing, are of ſuch nature as in their corruptiõ do turne into theſe foules, I will diſproue his aſſertion by one notable ex|ample ſhewed before mine eyes. Maſter Alex|ander Galloway parſon of Kinkell, was with vs in theſe Iles, and giuing his minde with at|tentiue diligence to ſearche out a full reſolution with vs of theſe obſcure and hidden matters, it hapned on a tyme that he tooke vp a braunche of Alga, called in Scottiſhe, Seatangle, whiche hanged ful of muſkle ſhelles from the roote euen to the very to [...]. Being alſo deſirous to ſee what was in them, he grewe to be more aſtoniſhed EEBO page image 14 than before: for when he had opened one or two of them, he ſaw no fiſh but a foule perfitely ſha|ped, fully anſwering to the capacitie of the ſhell.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Finally, knowing that I was very inquiſi|tiue of theſe and the like rare nouelties, he came haſtily with the ſayde hearbe and ſhewed it vn|to me, who founde no leſſe by experience [...]an I before reported. By theſe and many other rea|ſons and examples I cannot beleeue that theſe Claikes or Barnacles as I call them) are pro|ducted eyther by the qualities of the trees or the rootes thereof, but only by the nature of the ſea, whiche is the cauſe and product [...] of ſo many wonderfull creatures. Furthermore, bycauſe the rude and ignoraunt people ſaw oftentimes the fruytes that fell from trees (which ſtoode ne|uer in the ſea, conuerted within ſhorte time into geeſe, they beleeued that theſe geeſe grewe vpon trees, hangyng by their nebbes as apples and other fruyte do by their ſtalkes, but their opi|nion is vtterly to be reiected. For ſo ſoone as theſe apples or fruyte fall from the tree into the Sea, they grow firſt to be worme eaten, and in proceſſe of time to be conuerted into geeſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus haue I ſpoken ſufficiently of the Iles of the Hebrides adiacent vnto the realme of Scotland, and therewith all would ſhut vp my diſcourſe of the ſame, were it not that I haue ſomwhat to ſay alſo of Thule, not vnknowen vnto the Romaynes, as may appeare by Taci|tus, who telleth how the Romaine nauy by the cõmaundement of Agricola, was ſent to dewe the coaſtes of the whole Iland of Brytaine, and in their returne reported how they had ſeene the Thule, with other Ilandes lying aboute the ſame. Ptholomy writeth that the Ile of Thule is one of the Shetland Iles, whiche lie neare vnto Norway, and beyond the Orchades, but this cannot be proued ſo by late experience: for Thule is many miles diſtant from Shetland. Some ſay that Thule is the ſame whiche wee call Iſland: other write that it is the laſt Ile of the Ocean ſea, and ſo is Iſland, which lieth in the colde froſty ſea, beyond the Artike circle to|ward the North pole. The people of Iſlande bycauſe no corne groweth among them, lyue onely by fiſhe, whiche they drie and powder ſo ſmall as meale doth come backe from the mill, afterward they mixe it with water, and worke it vp for bread.

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