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1.8. Of the great plenty of Hares, redde Dere, and o|ther wilde beaſtes in Scotland, of the ſtrange properties of ſundry Scottiſh Dogges, and of the nature of Salmon. Chap. 8.

Of the great plenty of Hares, redde Dere, and o|ther wilde beaſtes in Scotland, of the ſtrange properties of ſundry Scottiſh Dogges, and of the nature of Salmon. Chap. 8.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 EEBO page image 10HAuyng made this ſpeciall deſcription of the Realme of Scotland, now will I touche ſuch thinges as concerne the ſame in generall. Firſt of all therefore in the fieldes and wilde places of the countrey there is great plenty of Hares, red Dere, Fallow dere, Ro [...]s, wilde Horſes, Wolfes and Foxes. Theſe Horſes are not gotten but by great flight and pollicie: for in the winter ſeaſon the in|habitants turne certayne tame Horſes and Mares amongſt them, wherewith they growe in the ende to be ſo familiar, that afterward they go with them to and fro, and finally home into theyr Maiſters yardes, where they be taken & ſoone broken to their handes. The Wolues are moſt fierce and noyſome vnto the heardes and flockes in all partes of Scot|land, ſauing in one parcell of Angus, called Glen|nors dale, where theſe beaſtes do no maner of hurt vnto the domeſticall cattell, but pray onely vpon the wilde. Foxes do much miſchiefe generally in all ſteades, but chiefly in the Mountaynes, where they be very hardly hunted, howbeit arte hath deui|ſed a meane to preuent their malice, and to preſerue theyr pultrie. Certes there is almoſt no houſe that dothe not for certayne dayes cheriſhe vp a yong Foxe, which the Scottes do call a Todde, and then killing the ſame, they mince the fleſhe thereof a|mongſt ſuche meate, as they giue vnto their foules and other litle beſtial, and by this meanes ſo many foules and cattell as eate hereof are preſerued from daunger of the Foxe, almoſt by two monethes af|ter, ſo that they may wander whether they will, for the Fores as it were winding or ſmelling the fleſhe of their fellowes yet in their croppes, will in nowiſe meddle with them, but eſchew and knowe ſuche a one, although it were among an hundred of other. In Scotland moreouer are Dogs of meruailous condition: for beſide the common nature and vni|uerſall properties of Dogges of all other countries, there are three ſortes with vs, whiche are not ſeene elſwhere in any quarter of the worlde. The firſte is an Hounde of greate ſwiftneſſe, hardineſſe, and ſtrenght, fierce and cruell vpon all wilde beaſtes, & egre againſt theeues, that offer their Maiſters any violence. The ſecond is a rache or hound very ex|quiſite in followyng the foote (which we call draw|ing) whether it be of man or beaſt, yea he will pur|ſue any maner of foule, and finde out whatſoeuer fiſh is caſt vp, or lurketh among the rockes, by that excellent ſence of ſmelling wherewith he is indued. The thirde ſorte is no greater than that of Raches, in collour for the moſt parte red with blacke ſpots, or els blacke and full of redde markes. Theſe are ſo ſkilfull that they will purſue a theefe or theefe ſto|len goodes in moſte preciſe maner, and finding the treſpaſſer, with great aſſuraunce, they will make a rayſe vpon him. Or if it be ſo that he haue taken the water for his ſauegarde, he ſhrinketh not to follow him, and entring and iſſuyng at the ſame places where the partie went in and out, he neuer ceaſeth to raunge til he haue noſed his footing, and be come to the place wherein the theefe is ſhrowded. The Dogges of this kinde are called Sleuthoundes. Certes this report would ſeeme mere incredible, ex|cepte it were dayly had in experience vpon the bor|ders of Englande and Scotland, where pillage is good purchaſe indifferently on both ſides. There is a lawe alſo among the borderers in time of peace, that who ſo denieth entraunce or ſute of a Sleut|hound in purſuyte made after fellons and ſtolen goodes, ſhalbe holden as acceſſary vnto the theft or taken for the ſelfe theefe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 Of foules ſuche (as I meane) as liue by pray, there are ſundry ſortes in Scotlande, as Egles, Faucons, Goſhaukes, Sparhaukes, Marlions and ſuch like, but of water Foules there is ſo great ſtore that the report thereof may ſeeme to exceede all cre|dite. There are other kindes of birdes alſo in this countrey, the like of whiche is no where els to be ſeene, as the Caper [...]ailȝe or wilde Horſe greater in body than the Rauen, and liuing only by the [...] and barkes of the Pine trees. We haue in like ma|ner many More cockes and Hennes, whiche [...]|ſteyning from corne do feede vpon nought els, but the leaues of Cytiſus, whiche the Scottes do com|monly call Hadder. Theſe two are very delicate in Eating. The thirde ſorte is reddiſh blacke of co|lour, in quantitie comparable to the Pheſaunt, and no leſſe delicious in taſte and ſauour at the table, our countrey men call them wild Cockes, and their cheeſe ſuſtenaunce is by wheate. Beſide theſe, we haue moreouer another foule in Mers more ſtrãge and vncouth than all theſe afore mentioned, called a Guſtard, fully ſo great as a Swanne, but in co|lour of feathers and taſte of fleſhe, little differing from a Partriche, howbeit theſe byrdes are not ve|ry common, neyther to be ſeene in all places, ſuche alſo is their qualitie, that if they perceiue their egges to haue bene touched in theyr abſence by mans hãd (whiche lie commonly on the bare earth) they for|ſake thoſe neſtes and lay in other places. All other our foules are common to vs and other nations. Salmon is more plentifull in Scotland than in a|ny other region of the worlde, and bicauſe the na|ture of this fiſh is ſtrange, I wil ſet downe ſomuch as I do knowe hereof at this preſent time as fol|loweth. The Salmon in Harueſt time, commeth vp into the ſmall riuers, where the water is moſte ſhallow, and there the male & female rubbing their wombe one agaynſt another, they ſhedde theyr ſpawne, which forthwith they couer with ſand and grauell & ſo depart away, from henceforth they are gant & ſlẽder, & in apparance ſo leaue yt thei appeare nought els but ſkin & bone, & therfore worthely ſayd to be growne out of vſe and ſeaſon, it is ſayd alſo yt if they touche any of their full fellowes, during the time of this theyr leanneſſe, ye ſame ſide which they EEBO page image 11 touched will likewiſe become leane, whereby it cõmeth to paſſe, that a Salmõ is oft ſeene to be fat on the one ſide of ye chyne, & leane on ye other. But to proceede, the aforeſayd ſpawne & milte being hidden in the ſande (as you haue heard) in the next ſpring doth yeelde great numbers of li|tle frie, but ſo neſhe & tender, for a long time that till they come to be ſo great as a mans finger (if you catch any of thẽ) yon ſhal perceyue them to melt & their ſubſtance to diſſolue & fade euen as if it were gelly, or in ſayd foorth againſt ye ſunne. Frõ henceforth they go to the ſea, where within the ſpace of xx. dayes they grow to a maruey|lous greatneſſe, & then returning againe toward the place of their generation, they ſhew a nota|ble ſpectacle not vnworthy to be conſidered of. Certes in Scotlande there are many linnes or pooles, whiche being in ſome places among the rockes very ſhallow aboue, & yet deepe beneath, with the fall of the water, & thereto the Salmon not able to pearce thorow the Chanell, either for ſwiftneſſe of the courſe or depth of the diſcen [...], of ſuch water as cõmeth againſt him, he goeth ſo neare vnto the ſide of the rocke or damme, if I ſhall ſo call it, as he may, & there aduentureth to leape ouer & vp into the lin, if he leape well at the firſt, he abtaineth his deſire, if not he, aſſayeth eftſoones the ſecond or third time, till he returne now into his coũtry: a great fiſh able to ſwimme againſt the ſtreame, that before was a litle hod & ma [...]gre his reſiſtence, caried with the violent courſe of the water into the mayne Ocean, ſuch as aſſay often to leape, and cannot get ouer, do brooſe thẽſelues & become Meaſelled: others that happen to fal vpon dry land a thing often ſeene, are taken by the people (that watch their times) in cawdrons of hote water, which they ſet vpon the ſhallow & dry plottes with fire vnder them, in hope to catche the fatteſt, & ſuche as by reaſon of theyr weight do ofteneſt leape ſhorte. Cer|tes ye taſt of theſe is reputed to be moſt delicate, and therfore their price is cõmonly greater than of the reſt. It is inhibited in Scotland to take any Salmon from the eight of September, vn|till the xv. of Nouember. Finally there is no mã that knoweth readily whereon this fiſhe liueth, for neuer was any thing yet found in their bel|lies, other than a thicke ſlymy humour.

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