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5.100. Canute or Cnute.

Canute or Cnute.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 258]CAnute, or Cnute, whom the en|gliſh Chroni|cles doe name Knought,Cnute knought or Cnute af|ter the deathe of Kyng Ed|munde, tooke vpon hym the whole rule o|uer all the realme of Englande in the yeare of our Lord .1017. in the .xvij. yeare of the empe|ror Henry the ſeconde,1017. ſurnamed Claudus in EEBO page image 259 the .xx. yeare of the reigne of Roberte king of France, and aboute the .vij. yeare of the reigne of Malcolme king of Scotlande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Canute ſhortely after the death of king Ed|munde, aſſembled a Councell at London, in the whiche he cauſed all the nobles of the realme to do vnto him homage; in receiuing an othe of loy|all obeyſance. Hee deuided the realme into foure parts, aſſigning Northumberlande vnto the rule of Irke or Iricius, Mercia vnto Edrike, & Eaſt|angle vnto Turkyl, reſeruing the weſt part to his own gouernance. He baniſhed (as before is ſayd) Edwyn, the brother of king Edmunde, but ſuch as was ſuſpected to bee culpable of Edmundes death, he cauſed to be put to execution, wherof it ſhould appeare, that Edrick was not then in any wyſe detected or once thought to bee giltie.VV. Malm. The foreſayd Edwyn afterwards returned, and was then reconciled to the Kings fauour (as ſome do write) and was ſhortly after trayterouſly ſlaine by his owne ſeruants.Ran. Higd. He was called the king of Churles.King of Churles VVil. Mal. Other write that he came ſecretely in|to the realme after he had bin baniſhed, and kee|ping himſelfe cloſely out of ſighte, at length ended his lyfe, and was buried at Taueſtocke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Moreouer Edwyn and Edwarde the ſonnes of king Edmund were baniſhed the lande, and ſent firſt vnto Sweno king of Norway to haue bin made awaye:Ran. Higd. but Sweno vppon remorſe of conſcience ſent them into Hungarie, where they founde great fauour at the handes of king Sa|lomon, in ſo muche that Edmunde married the daughter of the ſame Salomon, but had no iſſue by hir. Edward was aduaunced to marry with Agatha, the daughter of the Emperour Henrye, and by hir had iſſue two ſonnes, Edmunde and Edgar, ſurnamed Adelyng, & as many daugh|ters, Margarete and Chriſtine, of the whiche in place conuenient more ſhall be ſayd.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 When Kyng Cnute hadde eſtabliſhed thyn|ges, as hee thoughte, ſtoode moſte to his ſuretie, he called to remembrance, that he had no iſſue but two baſtarde ſonnes Harrolde and Sweno, Polidore. K. Cnute mari|eth Queene Emme the vvi|dovv of Egel|red, in Iuly, an|no. 1017. begotten of his concubine Alwyne. Wherfore he ſent ouer vnto Richarde Duke of Normandie, requiring that he mighte haue Queene Emme, the widow of king Egelred in mariage, & ſo ob|teyned hir, not a little to the wonder of manye, which thought a great ouerſight both in the wo|man and in hir brother, that woulde ſatiſfye the requeſte of Cnute herein, conſidering hee hadde bin ſuch a mortall enimie to hir former huſbaũd. But Duke Richarde did not only conſent,Polidore. that hys ſayd ſiſter ſhould be maryed vnto Cnute, but alſo he hymſelfe tooke to wyfe the Lady Heſt [...]|tha, ſyſter to the ſayd Cnute.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Heere ye haue to vnderſtande, that this mari|age was not made without greate conſideration and large couenants granted on the part of king Cnute for before he could obtain queene Emme to his wife, it was fully condiſcended and agreed that after Cnutes deceaſſe, the crowne of Eng|lande ſhould remaine vnto the iſſue borne of this mariage betwixte hir and Cnute,The couenant made at the ma+riage betvvixt Cnute and Emme. whiche coue|nant although it was not perfourmed immedi|atly after the deceaſſe of kyng Cnute, yet in the ende it tooke place, ſo as the right ſeemed to bee deferred, and not to be taken awaye nor aboli|ſhed: for immediatly vpon Haroldes death that had vſurped; Hardicnute ſucceeded as right heire to the crown, by force of the agreement made at the tyme of the mariage ſolemniſed betwixt his father and mother, and being once eſtabliſhed in the Kingdome, hee ordeyned his brother Ed|warde to ſuccede hym, whereby the Danes were vtterly excluded from all ryghte that they hadde to pretende vnto the Crowne of this land, and the Engliſhe bloud reſtored thereto,The Englishe bloud reſtored The praiſe of Quene Emme for hir vviſe|dome. chiefly by that gracious concluſion of this mariage be|twixt king Cnute and Queene Emme: for the which no ſmall prayſe was thoughte to bee due vnto the ſayd Queene, ſith by hir politike gouer|nement, in making hir matche ſo beneficiall to hir ſelfe and hir lyne, the Crowne was thus re|couered out of the handes of the Danes, and re|ſtored againe in time to the right heire, as by an auncient treatiſe whiche ſome haue intitled En|comium Emmae, Encomium Emmae. and was written in thoſe dayes it doth and may appere. Whiche booke although there bee but fewe Copies thereof abroade, gy|ueth vndoubtedly greate light to the hiſtorie of that tyme.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But nowe to our purpoſe. Cnute the ſame yeare in whiche he was thus maryed,Mat. VVest. thorought perſwaſion of his wyfe Queene Emme, ſent a|way the Daniſhe nauie & armie home into Den|mark, giuing to them fourſcore and two thou|ſande poundes of ſiluer, whiche was leuied tho|roughout this lande for their wages.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the yeare a thouſande and eighteene,VVil. Mal. E|drycke de Streona Erle of Mercia, was ouer|throwen in his owne turne: for being called a|fore the King into his priuie chamber, and there in reaſoning the matter about ſome quarell that was piked to him, hee beganne very preſumptu|ouſly to vpbrayde the king of ſuche pleaſures as he had before tyme done vnto him: I did (ſayde he) for the loue which I bare towardes you, for|ſake my ſoueraigne Lorde king Edmunde, and at length for your ſake ſlewe him.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 At whiche wordes, Cnute beganne to change countenaunce, as one meruaylouſly abaſhed, and ſtreightwayes gaue ſentence againſt Edrike in this wiſe: Thou art worthy (ſaith he) of death, and dye thou ſhalte, whiche art giltie of treaſon both towardes God and me, ſith that thou haſt EEBO page image 260 ſlayne thyne owne ſoueraigne Lorde, and my deare alyed brother. Thy bloud therfore be vpon thyne owne head, fith thy toung hath vttered thy treaſon. And immediately hee cauſed his throate to be cut,Edrike put to death. and his bodie to be throwen out at the chamber windowe into the riuer of Thames.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This was the ende of Edryke, ſurname & de Stratten, or Streona, a man of greate infanie for his craftie diſſimulation, falſhod and treaſon, uſed by him to the ouerthrowe of the Engliſhe aſtate, as partly before is touched.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Simon Dun.But ther be that concerning that cauſe of this Edriks death, ſeeme partly to diſagree from that whyche before is recited, declaryng that Enute ſtanding in ſome doubt to be betrayed thorough the treaſon of Edricke,Encomium E [...]. ſoughte occaſions howe to rydde him and other (whome hee lykewyſe myſtruſted) out of the waye. And therfore one daye when Edryke craued ſome preferremente at Cnutes handes, and alledged that he had de|ſerued to be wel thought of, ſith by his flight from the battaile at Aſhendone, the victorie therby in|clined vnto Cnutes parte. Cnute hearing hym ſpeake theſe wordes, made this aunſwere: And canſt thou (quoth he) be true to me, that through fraudulent meanes diddeſt deceyue thy ſouerain Lorde and maiſter? but I will rewarde thee ac|cording to thy deſertes, ſo as from hencefoorth thou ſhalte not deceyne any other, and ſo forth|with cõmaunded Erick one of his chief captains to diſpatch him, who incõtinẽtly cut off his head with his are or halbert. Verly Simon Dunel|menſ ſayth, kyng Cnute vnderſtanding in what forte both king Egelred, and his ſonne king Ed|munde Ironſide had bin betrayed by the ſayde Edricke, he ſtoode in great doubt to be lykewyſe deceyued by him, and therfore was glad to haue ſome pretended quarrell, to diſpatche both hy [...] and other, whome he lykewyſe myſtruſted, as it well appeared. For at the ſame tyme there were put to death with Edricke Earle Norman the ſonne of earle Leofwyn, and brother to Earle Leofryke: alſo Adelwarde the ſonne of Earle Agelmare and Brightricke the ſonne of Alfegus gouernour of Deuonſhire (without all guilt or cauſe as ſome wryte.) And in place of Norman his brother Leofryke was made earle of Mercia by the king, and had in great fauour.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Leofricke is cõmonly alſo by writers named Earle of Cheſter.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After this, likewiſe Cnute baniſhed Iric and Turkyll, two Danes, the one (as before is reci|ted) gouernor of Northumberland, and the other of Norfolke and Suffolk, or Eaſtangle.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Then reſted the whole rule of the realme in the kings hands, whervpon he ſtudied to preſerue the people in peace, and ordeyned lawes accor|ding to the whiche, bothe Danes and Engliſh|menne ſhoulde bee gouerned in equall ſtate and degree.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Diuers greate lordes whome hee founde vn|faithfull or rather ſuſpected, he put to death,H. Hunt. Lordes put to death. as before ye haue hearde) beſyde ſuche s he bani|ſhed out of the Realme. He rayſed a tare or tribute of the people,A [...]. amounting to the ſumme of fourſcore & two thouſand pound, beſide. xj. M. pound which the Londoners payde towards the maintenance of the Daniſh Armie

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But wheras theſe things chaunced not all at one time, but in ſundry ſeaſons, we will retaurne ſomwhat backe to declare what other exploites were atchieued in the meane time by Cnute, not [figure appears here on page 260] onely in Englande, but alſo in Denmarke, and elſewhere.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the thirde yeare of his reigne hee ſayled with an armie of Engliſhemen and Danes into Denmarke to ſubdue the Vandals there,1019. King Cnute paſſeth into Denmarke. whiche then ſore annoyed and warred agaynſt his ſub|iectes of Denmarke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Erle Goodwyn which had the ſouerain conduct of the Engliſhmen,Erle Good|vvin his ſeruice in Denmarke. the night before the day ap|poynted for the battayle gote him foorthe of the campe with his people, & ſodeynly aſſaylyng the Vandals in their lodgings, eaſily diſtreſſed them ſleaing a great number of them, and cha [...]ing the reſidue. In the morning early when Cnute herd that the Engliſhemen were gone foorth of their lodgings, he ſuppoſed that they were eyther fled awaye, or elſe tourned to take part with the eni|mies. But as he approached to the enimies camp he vnderſtode howe the matter wente, for hee founde nothyng there but bloud, deade bodyes, and the ſpoyle.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 For thys good ſeruice, Cnute had the engliſh|men EEBO page image 261 in more eſtimation euer after,Cnute had the [...]nglishmen in eſtimation for their good ſe|ruice. and highely rewarded theyr leader the ſame Earle Goodw [...].

Compare 1587 edition: 1 When Cnute had ordered all things in Den|marke, as was thoughte [...]houefull, he [...]tansd agayne into Englande. And within a few days after, hee was aduertiſed that the S [...] were made warre againſt his ſubiectes of Denmarke;1028 vnder the leading of two greate Princes V [...]fe and E [...]r [...].

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Cnute therefore to defende his dominions in thoſe parties,Cnute paſſeth againe into Denmarke. paſſed agayne with an armie into Denmarke encountred with his enimies and receyued a greate ouer throwe, d [...]ſing a greate [...] both of his Danes and Engliſhemen. But gathering togither a nowe force of [...]ne,VV. Mal. he ſette agayne vpon his enimies, and [...] [figure appears here on page 261] them, conſtaryning the two foreſayd Princes to agree vpon reaſonable conditions of peace.Mat. West.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Mathewe Weſtm. recounteth, that at thys tyme Earle Goodwyn, and the Engliſhmenne wrought the enterpriſe aboue mentioned, of aſ|ſaultyng the enimies campe in the night ſeaſon, after Cnute had fyrſte loſte in the daye before no ſmall number of his people. And that then the foreſayde princes or kyngs, as hee nameth them Vlfus and Aulafus which latter he calleth Ei|glafe, were conſtrayned to agree vpon a peace.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Daniſh Chronicles alledge, that the oc|caſion of this warre roſe hereof:Albertus Crantz. This Olauus ayded Cnute (as the ſame writers reporte) a|gainſt kyng Edmunde and the Engliſhemenne. But when the peace ſhould be made betweene Cnute and Edmunde, there was no conſidera|tion had of Olauus: where as throught hym the Danes chiefly obteyned the victorie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Herevpon Olavus was fore offended in hys mynde againſte Cnute, and nowe vpon occaſi|on ſought to be reuenged. But what ſoeuer the cauſe was of this warre bewirte theſe two Princes, the ende was thus: That Olavus was expulſed out of his kingdome, and conſtrai|ned to flee to Ger. thaſlaus, a duke in the parties of Gaſtlande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And afterwarde retourning into Norwayt, was ſlayne by ſuche of his ſubiects, as tooke part with Cnute, in manner as in the hiſtorie of Norway, it appereth more at large, with the co|tratretie ſoud in the writing of them which haue recorded the hiſtories of thoſe North regions.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 But heer is to be remembred,Magnus Ola|vus. that the fame and glorie of the Engliſh nation was greately aduaunced in theſe warres, as well againſte the Swed [...]ers as the Norwegians:Fabian: Polyd. H. Hunt. ſo that Cnute began to loue and truſt the Engliſhmen muche better than it was thought he woulde euer haue owne. Shortly after that Cnute was retourned into Englande, that is to wi [...] (as ſome haue) in the .xv. yeare of his reigue,Other ſay, that he vvente forth of Denmark to Rome. he went to Rome to perform his vow which he had made to viſite the places where the Apoſtles Peter and Poule had their burial.Sim. Dunel. He was honorably receyued of Pope John the xx. that them held the ſea.An. 103 [...]. When he had vone his deuotion there hee retourned into Eng|lande. In the yeare following, 1032 VVil. Malm. Mat. VVest. he made a iour|ney againſt the Scottes, whiche as then had ri|belled. But by the princely power of Cnute, they were ſubdued and brought agayne to obedience:1033. Scots ſubdued. H. Hunt. A [...]no. 1035. VVil. Mal. ſo that not onely king Malcomie, but alſo two other kinges Melbeath and Ieohmare, became his ſubiects. Finally after that this noble prince king Cnute had reigned the tearme of .xx. yea|res currant, after the death of Ethelred,The death of king Cnute. hee died at Shafteſbury, as the engliſhe writers affirme, the .xij. daye of Nouember, and was buried at Wincheſter. But the Daniſh chronicle record, that he died in Normande,H. Hunt. Al. Grantz and was burryed at Roan (as in the ſame Chronic [...]rs ye maye reade [...]im [...] at large) This Cnute was the mighty eſt EEBO page image 262 prince that euer reigned ouer the Engliſh people:The large do|minion of king Cnute. H. Hunt. Albertus Crantz. for he had the ſoueraigne rule ouer al Denmark, Englande, Norway, Scotland, & part of Swe|den. Amongſt other of his royall actes, he cauſed ſuche tolles and tallages as were demaunded of waygoers at bridges & ſtreetes in the high waye betwixte Englande and Rome to be diminiſhed to the halfes, and agayne got alſo a moderation to be had in the payemente of the Archbiſhoppes ſets of his realme, whiche was leuied of them in the Court of Rome when they ſhoulde receyue their palles, as may appeare by a letter which he himſelfe being at Rome, directed to the Biſhops and other of the nobles of England. In the whi|che it alſo appeareth, that beſides the royal enter|taynment, which he had at Rome of pope Iohn, he had conference there with the Emperor Con|rade, & with Rafe king of Burgongne, and with many other great princes and noble men, which were preſent there at that time.Grauntes made to the benefite of Englishmen at the inſtance of king Cnute. Which at his re|queſt in fauor of thoſe Engliſhmẽ that ſhuld tra|uaile to Rome, graunted (as we haue ſaid) to di|miniſh ſuch dueties as were gathered of paſſin|gers. He receyued there many great giftes of the Emperor, and was highly honored of him, and likewiſe of the Pope,Fabian. & of al other the high princes at that tyme preſent at Rome: ſo that when hee came home (as ſome write) hee ſhoulde growe greatly into pride,Polidore. Mat. VVest. inſomuche that being neere to the Thames, or rather (as other write) vppon the ſea ſlronde, neere to Southhampton, and perceyuyng the water to ryſe, by reaſon of the tyde,He cauſed his cha [...] to bee ſet there, as Math. VVeſt. hath. Hen Hunt. hee caſte off his gowne, and wrappyng it rounde togither, threwe it on the ſandes verye neere the increaſing water, and ſate him downe vpon it, ſpeaking this or the lyke wordes to the ſea. Thou art (ſayth he) within the compaſſe of my dominion, and the grounde whereon I ſitte is myne, and thou knoweſt that no wyght dare diſobey my cõmandements, I therfore do now commaund thee not to ryſe vpon my grounde, nor to preſume to wet any part of thy ſoueraine Lorde and gouernour. But the ſea keeping hir courſe, roſe ſtill higher and higher, and ouerflo|wed not only the kings feete, but alſo flaſhed vp vnto his legs & knees. Wherwith the king ſtarte ſodenly vp, & withdrew from it, ſaying withal to his nobles that were about him:The ſaying of king Cnute. Behold you no|ble men, you cal me king, which can not ſomuch as ſtay by my cõmaundement this ſmal portion of water. But knowe ye for certaine, that there is no king but the father only of our Lord Ieſus Chriſte, with whome he reigneth, and at whoſe becke all things are gouerned, let vs therfore ho|nour him,Zealouſly y|nough, if it had bi [...] according to true knovv|ledge. let vs confeſſe and profeſſe him to bee the ruler of heauen, earth, and ſea and beſides him none other. From thence he went to Wincheſter and there with his own hands ſet his crown vpõ the head of the image of the Crucifix, [...]. Mat. VVe [...] which [...] there in the church of the Apoſtles Peter & P [...], and frõ thẽceforth he wold neuer weare ye [...]rn nor any other. Some write, that he ſpake, [...]the formes words to ye ſea vpon any preſumptuouſ|nes of mynd, but only vpon occaſion of the vain title,Polidor. which in his comendation one of his gẽtle|men gaue him by way of flatterie (as he rightly toke it) for he called him the moſt mightieſt king of all kings,Flatterie re|proued. which ruled moſt at large both then ſea and land. Therfore to reproue the vayn flat|terie of ſuch vain perſons, he deuiſed ſuch maner of mean as before is mencioned: wherby both to reproue ſuch flatterers, & alſo that men might be admoniſhed to conſider the omnipotencie of ye al|mightie God. He had iſſue by his wife Queene Emme a ſon, named by the Engliſh chronicles Hardiknought, but by ye Daniſh writers Knute,Polidore. or Knutte: alſo a daughter named Gonid [...]s, yt was after maryed to Henry the ſon of the empe|ror Conrade,Albert [...] Crantz. which alſo was afterward Empe|ror, & named Henry the third. By his concubine Alwynne, that was daughter to Alſelme, whom ſome name erle of Hampton: he had two baſtard ſons, Harold & Sweno. He was much giuen in his latter dayes to vertue, as hee that conſidered howe perfect felicitie reſted only in godlynes and true deuotion to ſerue the heauenly king and go|uernour of all things.Polidore Fabian.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 He repared in his time many churches, abbeis, and houſes of religion, whyche by occaſion of warres had bin ſore defaced by him and by hys father, but ſpecially he did greate coſte vpon the Abbey of ſaint Edmund, in the town of Bury, as before partely is mẽcioned. He buylt alſo two Abbeys from the foundation, as Sainct Benets in Norffolke, ſeuen myles diſtant from Nor|wyche, and an other in Norwaye.VVhich is ſup|poſed to bee Barclovve ſet Ashdo [...] a [...] is halfe a myl [...] from [...]. 1020. Sim. Dunel. He did alſo buylde a Churche at Aſhdowne in Eſſex, where he obteyned the victorie of king Edmund, and was preſente at the hallowing or conſecration thereof with a greate multitude of the Lordes and nobles of the Realme, bothe Engliſhe and Danes. He alſo holpe with his owne handes to remoue the body of the holy Archbiſhop Elphe|gus, when the ſame was tranſlated from Lon|don to Canterbury. The royall and moſte riche iewels whiche he and his wyfe Queene Emme gaue vnto the Churche of Wincheſter, mighte make the beholders to wonder at ſuch their exce|ding and bountiful muniſicence.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus did Cnute ſtriue to refourme all ſuche thyngs whiche hee and his aunceſters had done amiſſe, and to wype awaye the ſpot of euill do|ing, as ſurely to the outward ſight of the world he did in deed. He had the Archbiſhoppe of Can|terbury Archelnotus in ſingular reputation, and vſed his Counſell in matters of importaunce. EEBO page image 263 He alſo fauoured highly Leofrike Earle of Che|ſter,Leofrike Earle of Cheſter. ſo that the ſame Leofryke bare great rule in ordering of things touching the ſtate of the Cõ|mon wealth vnder hym as one of his chief coun|ſellours.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Diuers laws and ſtatutes he made for the go|uernment of the cõmon wealth,King Cnutes lavves. partly agreeable with the lawes of king Edgar, and other the kin|ges that were his predeceſſors, and partely tem|pered according to his owne liking, and as was thought to him moſt expediẽt: among the which there b. diuers that concerne cauſes as wel eccle|ſiaſticall as temporall. Wherby as M. For hath noted, it may be gathered, [...]hat the gouernement of ſpirituall matters dyd depend then not vpon ye Biſhop of Rome, but rather appertayned vnto the laufull authoritie of the temporall Prince, no leſſe than matters and cauſes temporall. But of theſe lawes and ſtatutes enacted by king Cnute ye maye reade more as ye finde them ſette foorth in the before remembred booke of Maſter Wil|liam Lambert, whiche for briefneſſe we heere o|mitte.

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