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5.98. Egelredus.


Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 [figure appears here on page 237] EGelredus,Egel|red. or Ethel|dredus, the ſonne of king Edgar, and of his laſte wife Queene Al|frede, was or|deyned King in place of his brother Ed|warde, after that the ſame Edwarde was diſpat|ched out of the way, and beganne his raigne ouer this realme of Englande in the yeare of our lorde 979. 979 Simon Dun. which was in the ſeuenth yeare of the Em|perour Otho the ſecond, in the .xxiiij. of Lothaire king of Fraunce, and about the ſeconde or thirde yeare of Kenneth the thirde of that name King of Scotlande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Egelred, or Etheldred, was the .xxx. in number from Cerdicius the firſt King of the Weſt Saxons: through his negligente go|uernment, the ſtate of the common wealth fell in|to ſuch decay (as wryters doe report) that vnder him it may bee ſayde, howe the kingdome was come to the vttermoſt poynt or period of olde and feeble age. For whereas whileſt the Realme was deuided at the firſt by the Saxons into ſundrie dominions, it grew at length (as it were increa|ſing from youthfull yeares) to one abſolute Mo|narchie, which paſſed vnder the late remembred Princes, Egbert, Adelſtane, Edgar, and others, ſo that in their dayes it might be ſaid, how it was growne to mans ſtate, but now vnder this Egel|red, through famine, peſtilence, and warres, the ſtate thereof was ſo ſhaken, turned vpſide downe, and weakened on eche parte, that rightly might the ſeaſon be likened vnto the olde broken yeares of mans life, which through feebleneſſe is not a|ble to helpe it ſelfe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Dunſtan the Archbiſhop of Canterbury was thought to haue foreſeene this thing, and therfore refuſed to anoynt Egelred king, whiche by the murther of his brother ſhoulde atteyne to the go|uernment: but at length he was compelled to it, and ſo he ſacred him at Kingſton vpon Thames, as the maner then was, on the .xxiiij. day of A|prill, aſſyſted by Oſwalde Archbiſhop of Yorke, and ten other Biſhops.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 EEBO page image 238 VVil. Mal.But as hath beene reported, Dunſtan then ſayde that the Engliſh people ſhoulde ſuffer con|digne puniſhment generally with loſſe of aunci|ent liberties which before that tyme they had en|ioyed. Dunſtan alſo long before prophecied of the flouthfulneſſe that ſhould remaine in this Ethel|red. For at what time he miniſtred the ſacrament of Baptiſme vnto him, ſhortly after he came in|to this world, he defyled the Font with the ordure of his wombe (as hath beene ſayde) wherevppon Dunſtan beeing troubled in hys mynde: By the Lorde (ſayth he) and his bleſſed mother, this child ſhall proue to be a ſlouthfull perſon. It hath bene written alſo, that when he was but tenne yeares of age, and heard that his brother Edwarde was ſlaine, he ſo offended his mother with weeping, bycauſe ſhe coulde not ſtill him, that hauing no rodde at hande, ſhee tooke Tapers or Sizes that ſtoode before hir, and bet him ſo ſore with them, that ſhe had almoſt killed him, whereby he coulde neuer after abyde to haue any ſuch Candles ligh|ted before him.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Polidor.This Egelred (as writers ſay) was nothing giuen to warlike enterpriſes, but was ſlouthfull, a louer of ydleneſſe, and delyting in ryotous luſtes, which being knowne to all men, cauſed him to be euill ſpoken of amongſt his owne people, and no|thing feared amongſt ſtraungers. Herevpon the Danes that exerciſed roauing on the Seas, be|ganne to conceyue a boldeneſſe of courage to diſ|quiet and moleſt the Sea coaſtes of the realme, inſomuche that in the ſeconde yeare of this Egel|reds raigne,

Ran. Higd.


they came with ſeuen Shippes on the Engliſhe coaſtes of Kent, and ſpoyled the Iſle of Tennet, the Towne of Southampton, and in the yere following they deſtroyed S. Petrokes Abbay in Cornewall,Sim. Dunel. Porthlande in Deuon|ſhire, and dyuerſe other places by the Sea ſyde, ſpecially in Deuonſhire and Cornewall.Ran. Higd. Alſo a great part of Cheſſhire was deſtroyed by Pirates of Norway.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 982The ſame yeare by caſualtie of fire, a greate part of the Citie of London was burnt.

Compare 1587 edition: 1

983 Alfer or Elfer [...]uke of Mer|cia departed this life.

Alfrike or El|frike duke of Mercia. Fabian.

In the yeare of our Lorde. 983. Alfer Duke of Mercia departed this life, who was coſin to king Edgar, and his ſonne Alfrike tooke vpon him the rule of that Dukedome, and within three yeares after was baniſhed the lande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Aboute the eight yeare of his raigne, Egel|red maryed one Elgina, or Ethelginu, daughter of Earle Egbert.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the ninth yeare of his raigne, vpon occa|ſion of ſtrife betweene him and the Biſhoppe of Rocheſter, he made warre agaynſt the ſame By|ſhop, waſted his Lordſhips, and beſieged the citie of Rocheſter,VVil. Malm. Mat. VVeſt. till Dunſtan procured the Biſhops peace with paymẽt of an hundred pound in gold: and bycauſe the king woulde not agree with the Biſhop without money at the onely requeſt of Dunſtan, the ſaid Dunſtan did ſend him worde, that ſithence he made more account of golde than of God, more of money than of S. Andrew Pa|trone of the Church of Rocheſter, and more of co|uetouſneſſe than of him being the Archbiſhop, the miſchiefes which the Lord had threatned woulde ſhortly fal and come to paſſe, but the ſame ſhould not chance whileſt he was aliue, who died in the yere following, the .xxv. of May, on a Saturday.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Of this Dunſtan many things are recorded by wryters,Vita Dun|ſtane. that he ſhould be of ſuch holineſſe and vertue, that God wrought many myracles by him, both whiles he liued here on earth, and alſo after his deceaſe. He was borne in weſt Saxon,Iohn Capg. Osborne. Ran. Higd. his father was named Heorſtan, & his mother Ci|nifride, they in his youth ſet him to ſchole, where he ſo profited, that he excelled al his equals in age. Afterwarde he fell ſicke of an Ague, which vexed him ſo ſore that it draue him into a frenſie: & ther|fore his parents appoynted him to the cure and charge of a certain womã, where his diſeaſe grew ſo on him, that he fell in a trance as though he had bin dead, & after that he ſodenly aroſe, & by chance caught a ſtaffe in his hande, and ran vp & downe through hilles and dales, and layde about him as though he had bene afrayde of mad dogges. The next night (as it is ſayde) he gat him to the top of the church (by the help of certain ladders that ſtood there for workmen to mend the roof) and there ran vp and downe very daungerouſly, but in the ende came ſafely down, and layd him to ſleep betwene two men that watched the Church that night, & when he wakened, maruelled howe he came there. Finally recouering his diſeaſe, his parents made him a prieſt, and placed him in the Abbay of Gla|ſtenburie, where he gaue himſelfe to the reading of Scriptures and knowledge of vertue: But as well his kinſmen as certaine other did raiſe a re|port of him, that he gaue not himſelfe ſo muche to the reading of ſcriptures, as to charming, coniu|ring and ſorcery, which he vtrerly denied: howbeit learned he was in deed, and could do many pretie things both in handie worke & other deuices: he had good ſkill in muſicke and delited much therin.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 At length he grew in ſuch fauour, that he was aduaunced into the ſeruice of king Adelſtane. And on a time as he came to a Gentlewomans houſe with his harpe, and hung the ſame on the wall, while he ſhaped a prieſtes ſtoale, the Harpe ſoden|ly began to play a Pſalm, which draue the whole houſhold in ſuch feare, that they ran out and ſaid, hee was too cunning, and knewe more than was expedient: wherevpon he was accuſed of Nicro|mancie, and ſo baniſhed out of the Court.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And after this he began to haue a liking to wo|men, and when Elfheagus then Biſhop of Win|cheſter and his couſin, perſwaded him to become a EEBO page image 239 Monke, he refuſed it, for he rather wiſhed to haue maried a yong damoſell, whoſe pleaſant compa|nie he dayly enioyed. But being ſoone after ſtrikẽ with ſuch a ſwelling diſeaſe in his bellie, that all his bodie was brought into ſuch ſtate, as though he had bene infected with a foule leproſie, hee be|thought himſelfe, and vpon his recouerie ſent to the biſhop, who immediatly ſhore him a Monke, in which life he liued in ſo great opinion of holy|nes, as he in time became Abbot of Glaſtenbury: where on a time as hee was in his prayers before the aulter of S. George, he fell aſleepe: and ima|gining in his dreame, that an vgly rough Beare came towards him with open mouth, and ſet his forefeete vpon his ſhoulders ready to deuour him, he ſodenly waking for feare, caught his walking ſtaffe which he cõmonly went with, & layd about him, that all the Church rang thereof to the great wonder of ſuch as ſtood by.Po [...]trors. The common tale of his plucking the diuell by the noſe with a paire of pynſors, for tempting him with women, while he was making a Chalice: the great loue that the la|die Elfleda, nigh kinſwoman to K. Adelſtan bare to him to hir dying day, with a great meiny of o|ther ſuch like matters, I leaue as friuolous, and wholy impertinent to our purpoſe: onely this I reade, that through declaring of his dreames and viſions, he obteyned in the time of K. Edgar, firſt the Biſhoprike of Worceſter, after of London, & laſt of al the Archbiſhoprike of Canterburie. And now I will returne to the doings of Egelred, and to ſpeake of ſuch things as chaunced in his time.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Shortly after the deceaſe of Dunſtan, VVil. Malm. Mat. VVeſt. The Danes in|uade this land. ye Danes inuaded this Realme on eche ſide, waſting and ſpoyling the Countrey in moſte miſerable wiſe. They arryued in ſo manye places at once, that the Engliſhe men coulde not well deuiſe why|ther to goe to encounter firſt with them. Some of them ſpoyled a place or towne called Wiche|port,Alias Wece|derport. and from thence paſſing further into the Countrey,Hen. Hunt. Sim. Dunel. Danes vanqui|ſhed. were mette with by the Engliſhe men, who giuing them battayle, loſt theyr Cap|taine Goda: but yet they gotte the victorie, and beat the Danes oute of the fielde, and ſo that parte of the Daniſhe armie was brought to con|fuſion.

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Compare 1587 edition: 1 Simon Dun:Simon Dunel. ſayth that the Engliſh men in deede wanne the fielde here, but not withoute great loſſe.Goda Earle of Deuonſhire ſlaine. For beſyde Goda, (who by report of the ſame Authour was Earle of Deuonſhire) there dyed an other valyaunt man of warre na|med Strenwolde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the yeare. 991. Brightnod Earle of Eſſex, at Maldon gaue battaile to an armie of Danes, (which vnder their leaders Iuſtin & Guthmund,Mat. VVeſt. had ſpoyled Gipſwich) and was there ouercome & ſlaine with the moſt part of his people, and ſo the Danes obteyned in that place the victorie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 991The ſame yeare, and in the .xiij. yeare of king Egelreds raigne, when the land was on eche ſide ſore afflicted, waſted and haried by the Danes, which couered the ſame as they had beene Graſ|hoppers: by the aduiſe of the Archbiſhop of Can|terburie Siricius, (which was the ſecond of that Sea after Dunſtane,) a compoſition was ta|ken with the Danes,Ten thouſand pound payed to the Danes. ſo that for the ſumme of ten thouſand pound to them to be payde by the king, they ſhould couenant not to trouble his ſubiectes any further.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This money was called Danegylt,Dane gylt. or Dane money, and was leuyed of the people. Although other take that to bee Danegylte, whiche was gyuen vnto ſuche Danes as King Egelred af|terwardes reteyned in his ſeruice to defende the lande from other Danes and enimyes that ſought to inuade his Dominions. But by what name ſo euer thys money (whiche the Danes nowe receyued) was called, true it is that

Compare 1587 edition: 1 EEBO page image 240Herevpon they ceaſſed from their moſt cruell inuaſions for a time But ſhortly after they had refreſhed themſelues,VVil. Malm. 992 and recouered new ſtrength, they beganne to play theyr olde partes agayne, doing the lyke myſchiefe by theyr ſemblable inuaſions, as they hadde vſed before. By rea|ſon hereof ſuche feare came vppon the Engliſhe people, that they diſpayred to be able to reſiſt the enimies.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 H. Hunt. A nauie ſet forth.The king yet cauſed a Nauie to bee ſet forth at London, whereof hee appoynted Earle Alfride (whom before he had baniſhed, and lately reuoked home againe) to bee high Admyrall, adioyning with him Erle Turolde. This nauie did ſet for|warde from London towarde the enimies, who hauing warning giuen them from Alfrik, eſcaped away without hurt.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And ſhortly after a greater Nauye of the Danes came, and encountered with the kings flete, ſo that a great nũber of the Londoners were ſlaine, and all the kings ſhips taken.Alfrike [...] tour to hys Countrey. For Alfrike like a traytor turned to the Danes ſide.

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Compare 1587 edition: 1 Mat. VVeſt.Math. Weſtm. maketh other report of this matter, declaring that Alfrike in deede being one of the chiefe captaines of the fleet, aduertiſed them by forewarning of the daunger that was towarde them, and that when they ſhoulde come to ioy|ning, the ſame Alfrike like a traytor fledde to the Danes, and after vpon neceſſitie beeing putte to flight, eſcaped away with them: but the other Captaines of the kings fleete, as Theodred, El|ſtan, and Eſcwen, purſued the Danes, tooke one of theyr ſhips, and ſlue all thoſe that were founde therein.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Londoners alſo (as the ſame Mat. Weſt. ſayth) met with the nauie of the Daniſhe rouers as they fledde away, and ſlue a greate number, and alſo tooke the Shippe of the Traytour Al|frike with his ſouldiers and armour, but he him|ſelfe eſcaped, though with muche payne, hauing played the lyke trayterous part once before, and yet was reconcyled to the Kings fauour againe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Hen. Hunt. [...]he ſonne pu|niſhed for his others offence 993Vpon this miſchiefe wrought by the father, the king nowe tooke his ſonne Algar, and cauſed his eyes to be put out.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 About the ſame time was Bambrough de|ſtroyed by the Danes, whiche arryued after in Humber, and waſted the Countrey of Lyndſey and Yorkeſhyre, on either ſyde that Ryuer. And when the Engliſhe men were aſſembled to giue them battayle: before they ioyned, the Cap|taynes of the Engliſhe armie, Frena, Godwin,Simon Dun. Polidor. Mat. VVeſt. and Fredegiſt, that were Danes by theyr fa|thers ſide, beganne to flye awaye, and eſcaped, ſo gyuing the occaſion of the ouerthrowe that lighted on theyr people.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But by ſome wryters it ſhoulde appeare, that after the Danes had deſtroyed all the North partyes, as they ſpredde abroade without order and good array, the people of the Countrey fell vppon them, and ſlue ſome of them, and chaſed the reſidue.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Other of the Danes with a nauie of .94.Aulafe king of Norway, and Swein king of Denmark men captaines of this fleete, as hath Simon Dun. 994 ſhips entred the Thames, and beſieged London, a|boute our Ladie day in September. They gaue a right ſore aſſault to the Citie, and aſſayed to haue ſette it on fyre: But the Citizens ſo valy|antly defended themſelues, that the Danes were beaten backe and repulſed, greatly to their loſſe, ſo that they were conſtrayned to departe thence with diſhonour.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Then they fell to and waſted the Countreys of Eſſex, Kent, Suſſex, and Hamſhire,Henrie. Hunt. and ceaſ|ſed not till they had enforced the King to com|pounde with them for .xvj. M. pounde, VVil. Mal. The king cõ|poũdeth with the Danes for money. which hee was glad to pay to haue peace with them.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Moreouer, whereas they wintered that yeare at Southampton: the king procured Aulafe king EEBO page image 241 of the Norwegians to come vnto Andeuer (wher at that time he lay) vpon pledges receyued of the king for his ſafe returne.Mat. VVeſt. Simon Dun. Elphegus Biſhoppe of Wincheſter, and Duke Ethelwold were appoin|ted by king Egelred to bring Aulafe vnto him in moſt honourable wiſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Aulafe king of Norway bap|tiſed. His promiſe.The ſame time was Aulafe baptiſed, K. Egel|red receyuing him at the Font ſtone, and ſo hee promiſed neuer after to make any warre within this lande. And receyuing great gyftes of the King he returned into his Countrey, and kept his promiſe faythfully: But the euilles tooke not ſo an ende: for other of the Danes ſprang vp, as they had bene the heades of the Serpent Hydra, ſome of them euer being redie to trouble the quiet ſtate of the Engliſh nation.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Aboute this ſeaſon that is to witte, in the yeare of our Lorde .995.Iohn Leyland. Sim. Dunel. 995 Biſhop Aldayne whiche was fledde from Cheſter in the (Strete other|wiſe called Cuneceſter) with the bodie of Saint Cuthbert for feare of the inuaſion of Danes, vn|to Rippon, brought the ſame bodie now vnto Durhã,The Church of Durham buylded. & there began the fou [...]dation of a church: ſo that the Sea of that Biſhoprike was from thence forth there eſtabliſhed, and the Wooddes were there cutte downe, whiche before tyme co|uered and ouergrewe that place, wherevpon it began firſt to be inhabited.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Earle Vthred.Earle Vthred who gouerned that Countrey greatly furthered the Biſhop in this work ſo that all the people inhauting betweene the Ryuers of Coquid and Theis,Durham town and Mynſter built. came togither to ridde the wooddes, and to helpe towarde the buylding of the Church and town there.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the .xix. yeare of King Egelreds raigne, the Danes ſayled aboute Cornewall,997 The Danes in|uade the Weſt partes of this lande. and com|ming into the Seuerne ſea, they robbed and toke prayes in the coaſtes of Deuonſhire, and South|wales, and landing at Werheport, they burned vp the countrey, and came about vnto Pen with|ſtreete on the South coaſt, and ſo arriuing in the mouth of Tamee, water, came vnto Lydforde, and there waſted all afore them with force of fire. They burned amongeſt other places, the Mo|naſterie of Saint Ordulfe at Eſſyngſtocke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Taneſtocke.After this they came into Dorſetſhire, and paſſed through the countrey with flame and fire, not finding any that offred to reſiſt them.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 998The ſame yeare alſo they ſoiourned for a time in the Iſle of Wight, and lyued vpon ſpoyles and prayes whiche they tooke in Hampſhire,999 The Danes ar|riue in the Thames. and Suſſex: At length they came into the Thames, and ſo by the Ryuer of Medeway, arryued at Rocheſter. The Kentiſhmen aſſembled togither and fought with the Danes, but they were ouer|come, and ſo left the fielde to the Danes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 1000After this, the ſame Danes ſayled into Nor|mandie, and king Egelred went into Cumber|land where the Danes inhabited in great num|bers, whom he ouercame with ſore warre, and waſted almoſt al Cumberland, taking great ſpoi|les in the ſame.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 About the ſame time or ſhortly after,1001 the Da|nes with their nauie, returning out of Norman|die, came vnto Exmouth,Exmouth. and there aſſaulted the Caſtell, but they were repulſed by th [...] that kept it.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After this they ſpred abrode ouer all the coun|trey exerciſing theyr accuſtomed trade of deſtroy|ing all defo [...] them with fire and ſworde. The mẽ of Sõmerſetſhire fought with thẽ at Pentho,Pentho. but the Danes gate the vpper hand.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 Thus the ſtate of the realme in thoſe dayes was verie miſerable: for there wanted worthie Chieftains to rule the people, and to chaſtier them when they did amiſſe.Diſagreement with counſay|lers what fruit it bringeth. There was no truſt in the noble men, for euery one impugned others do|ing, and yet woulde not deuiſe whiche way to deale with better likelyhoope. When they aſſem|bled in Counſaile, and ſhould haue occupied their heades in dipiſing remedies for the interchiefe of the common wealth, they turned theyr purpoſe vnto altercation aboute ſuch ſtryles, contentions and quarelles as eche one had agaynſt other, and ſuffered the general caſe to lie ſtil in the duſt. And if at any time there was any good concluſion a|greed vpon, for the withſtanding of the enimie, & reliefe of the common wealth, anon ſhoulde the e|nimie be aduertiſed thereof by ſuch as were of ali|ance or conſanguinitie vnto them. For as Hari|ſon in his Chronologie gathereth out of Caxton, Polichron and others, the Engliſh bloud was ſo mixed with that of the Danes & Britains, who were like enimies to the Engliſhmen, that there was almoſt few of the nobilitie & cõmons which had not on the one ſide a parent of ſome of them. Whereby it came to paſſe, that neither the ſecrete purpoſes of the k. could be cõcealed til they might take due effect, neither their aſſemblies proue quiet without quareling & taking of partes. Many alſo being ſent forth with their powers one way whi|leſt the K. went to make reſiſtãce, another did re|uolt vnto his enimies & turn their ſwords againſt him (as you haue heard of Elfrik & his cõplices) & ſhall read of many others, ſo yt it was no maruell that Ethelred ſped no better & yet was he as vali|ant as any of his predeceſſors, although ye Mo [...] fauour him not in their writings, bicauſe he de|maũded ayd of thẽ toward his warres & was no|thing fauorable to their ſewd hipocriſie (as ye ſame houſe noteth:) but what is a king if his ſubiects be not loyall what is a realme, if the cõmon wealth be diuided: by peace & concord of ſmal beginnings great & famous kingdoms haue oft times procee|ded, wheras by diſcord ye greateſt kingdoms haue oftnes bin brought to mine: & ſo it proued here: for whileſt priuate quarels are purſued, the generall EEBO page image 242 affayres are vtterly neglected: and whileſt ech na|tion ſeeketh to preferre hir owne alliance, the I|land it ſelf is like to become a deſart. But to pro|ceede with our Monaſticall writers: certes they lay all the fault in the king, ſaying that he was a mã giuẽ to no good exerciſe, he delighted in fleſh|ly luſtes and riotous banketting, and ſtill ſought wayes how to gather of his ſubiectes what might be got,The miſgo|uernment of of the king. as wel by vnlawful meanes as otherwiſe. For he would for feyned or for very ſmall & light cauſes diſinherite his ſubiectes, and cauſe them to redeeme their owne poſſeſſions for great ſummes of money. Beſides theſe oppreſſions, diuerſe kinds of ſickneſſe vexed the people alſo, as the bloudie Flixe,Sickneſſes vexing the people. and hote burning Agues which then raged through the lande, ſo that many died thereof. By ſuch maner of meanes therfore, what through the miſgouernance of the king, the treaſon & diſloyal|tie of the nobilitie,Treaſon in the nobilitie. the lacke of good order and due correction amongſt the people, and by ſuch other ſcourges & miſhaps as afflicted the Engliſh na|tion in that ſeaſon, the lãd was broght into great ruine, ſo that, where by ſtrength the enimy coulde not be kept off, there was now no helpe but to ap|peaſe thẽ with mony. By reaſon wherof frõ time of the firſt agreement with the Danes for tenne thouſande pound tribute, it was inhanced to .xvj. thouſande pounde (as ye haue heard.) And after that to twentie thouſande pounde,The [...]|cing of the [...] p [...]yle [...] of the Danes. then to .xxiiij. thouſande pound, and ſo to .xxx. thouſand pound, and laſtlye to fortie thouſande pounde, till at length the Realme was emptied in maner of all that money and coyne that could in it be founde.The death of Queene Elgi [...] In this meane time died Elgiua or Ethelgiua ye Queene. Then ſhortly after it was deuiſed that ye king ſhould be a ſuter vnto Ri. Duke of Normã|die, for his ſiſter Emma,Emma. a lady of ſuch excellent beautie, that ſhe was named ye floure of Normã|die. This ſute was begon & toke ſuch good ſucces, that the king obteyned his purpoſe.Hen. Hunt. And ſo in the yere of our lord .1002. which was about the .xxiiij yere. of K. Egelreds raigne,1002 Emma a daugh|ter of Nor|mandie maried to K. Egelred. the ſame Egelred re|ceiued the foreſaid Emma, & maried hir wt great ſolemnitie. This mariage was thought to bee [figure appears here on page 242] right neceſſary, honorable & profitable for ye realm of Englande, bycauſe of the great puiſſance of the Norman princes in thoſe days: but as things af|terward came to paſſe, it turned to the ſubuerſiõ of ye whole Engliſh ſtate: for by ſuch affinitie & dea|ling as hapned hereby betwixt the Normãs and Engliſhmẽ, occaſion in ye end was miniſtred to ye ſame Normans to pretend a tytle to the crowne of Englãd, in proſecuting of which title, they ob|teyned and made the whole conqueſt of the land, as after ſhall appeare. Egelred being greatly ad|uaunced, as he thought, by reaſon of this mary|age deuiſed vpon preſumption thereof, to cauſe all the Danes within the lande to bee murthered in one day. Herevpon he ſent priuie Commiſſioners vnto all cities, boroughes and townes within his dominions, commaunding the rulers and officers in the ſame, to diſpatche and ſlea all ſuch Danes as remayned within theyr liberties,1012 The .xiii. of Nouember. at a certaine day prefixed, being Saint Bryces daye, in the yeare .1012. and in the .34. yeare of king Egelreds raigne.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Herevpon (as ſundrie wryters agree,The murther of the Danes.) in one day and houre this murther beganne, and was according to the commiſſion and inſtructions ex|ecuted. But where it firſt beganne, the fame is vncertaine: ſome ſay at Wellowyn in Herforiſh.Hownhill, or Houndhil, a place within Merchi [...] pariſh beſie the foreſt of Needwood, ſomewhat more thã two myles from V [...]o [...]ceſter. ſome at a place in Staffordſhire called Hownhil, and other in other places, as in ſuche doubtfull caſes it cõmonly happeneth. But whereſoeuer it began the doers ſhortly after repented it. But firſt ere we proceede any further, we will ſhewd what rule the Danes kept here in this Realme before they were thus murthered, as in ſome bookes we EEBO page image 243 find recorded. Where it is ſhewed that the Danes compelled the huſbandmen to till the ground,The miſerable ſtate of this realme vnder the thraldome of the Danes. and to doe all maner of labour and toyle to bee done aboute huſbandrie: and the Danes liued of the fruite and gaynes that came therof, and kept the huſbãdmens wiues, their daughters, maydes and ſeruaunts, vſing and abuſing them at theyr plea|ſures. And when the huſbandmen came home then coulde they vneth haue ſuch ſuſtenaunce of meates and drinkes as fell for ſeruantes to haue: ſo that the Danes had all at theyr commaunde|ments, eating and drinking of the beſt where the ſillie man that was the owner, could hardly come to his fill of the worſt.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 And beſides this, the common people were to oppreſſed by the Danes, that for feare and dread they called them in euerie ſuch houſe where anye of them ſoiourned, Lorde Dane. And if an Engliſhe man and a Dane chaunced to meete at any Bridge or ſtreyght paſſage,Hec. Boetius. the Eng|liſhe man muſt ſtaye till the Lorde Dane were paſſed. But in proces of time, after the Danes were voyded the lande, this worde Lorde Dane was in deriſionand diſpite of the Danes turned by Engliſh men into a name of reproche, as Lor|dane,Lordane whe [...]+of the worde came. which till theſe our dayes is not forgotten. For when the people in manye partes of thys Realme will note and ſignifie anye greate ydle lubber that will not labour nor take paine for his liuing, they will call him Lordane. But whe|ther the Danes vſed the Engliſh men in ſuch vile maner, and kept them in ſuch ſeruile thraldome or not, truth it is that vppon knowledge giuen into Denmarke of the cruell murther of the Danes here in Englande, the people of that Countrey were greatly kindled in malice, and ſet in ſuch a furious rage agaynſt the Engliſhmen, Hen. Hunt [...] Sim. Dun. The Danes re|turn to inuad [...] Englande. Exeter taken. that with all ſpeede they made forth a Nauie full fraught with menne of warre, the whiche in the yeare following came ſwarming aboute the coaſtes of Englande, and landing in the Weſt Coun|trey, tooke the Citie of Exeter, and got there a [figure appears here on page 243] riche ſpoyle.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 1003 Hugh a Nor|man conſpi|reth with the Danes.One Hugh a Norman borne, whom Queene Emma had placed in thoſe parties as gouernour or Sherife there, conſpired with the Danes, ſo that all the Countrey was ouerrunne and waſted.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The king hearing that the Danes were thus landed, and ſpoyled the weſt partes of the realme, hee ſente vnto Edricus to aſſemble a power to withſtande the enimies. Herevpon the people of Hampſhire and Wilſhire roſe and got togither: But when the armyes ſhoulde ioyne, Earle E|dricus ſurnamed de Streona, The counter|feyt ſickneſſe of duke Edrik. faigned himſelfe ſick, and ſo betrayed his people, of whome hee had the conduct, for they perceyuing the want in theyr leader, were diſcouraged, and ſo fled.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Wilton ſpoy|led.The Danes followed them vnto Wilton, whiche towne they rifled and ouercame. From thence they went to Saleſburie, & ſo taking theyr pleaſure there, returned to their ſhips, bycauſe (as ſome write) they were aduertiſed that the K. was comming towards them with an huge armie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the yeare next enſuing, that is to wit .1004 which was aboute the .xxiiij. yeare of King E|gelreds raigne, Sweyne, or Swanus, Simon Dun. 1004 Sweyn king of Denmarke. king of Denmarke, wyth a mightie Nauie of ſhippes came on the coaſt of Norffolke, and there lan|ding with his people, made towarde Norwiche,Norwich takẽ by the Danes. and comming thither tooke that Citie, and ſpoy|led it. Then went he vnto Thetford,Thetford burnt. and when hee had taken and ryfled that Towne, hee bur|ned it, notwythſtandyng a truce taken by Vikillus, or Wil [...]ketell gouernour of thoſe par|tyes wyth the ſame King Sweyne after the ta|king of Norwich.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In reuenge therefore of ſuch breache of truce, EEBO page image 244 the ſame Vſkellus, [...]kellus, or [...]lteketell [...]uernour of [...]rffolke. or Welfeketell, with ſuch po|wer as he coulde rayſe, aſſaulted the hoſte of Da|nes as they returned to their ſhippes, and ſlue a great number of them, but was not able to main|taine the fight, for his enimies ouermatched him in number of men.Hunt. And ſo he was conſtrayned in the ende to giue backe: and the enimies kept on their wayes to their ſhippes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [...]ein retur| [...]d into Den|marke. [...]m. Dunel. 1005In the yeare following king Sweyne retur|ned into Denmark with all his fleete, partly con|ſtrayned ſo to do (as ſome write) by reaſon of the great famin and want of neceſſarie ſuſtenaunce, which that yeare ſore oppreſſed this land.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 1006 [...]. Hunt. [...]weyn retur|ned into Eng|lande.In the yeare of our Lorde .1006. king Swein returned againe into Englande with a mightie huge Nauie arryuing at Sandwiche, and ſpoy|led all the Countrey neare vnto the Sea ſide. King Egelred rayſed all his power agaynſt him, and all the Harueſt time lay abroade in the fielde to reſiſt the Danes, which according to theyr woonted maner ſpared not to exerciſe their vn|mercifull crueltie, in waſting and ſpoyling the land with fire and ſworde, pilfering & taking of prayes in euery part where they came. Neyther coulde King Egelred remedie the matter, by|cauſe the enimies ſtyll conueyed themſelues with their ſhippes into ſome contrarie quarter, from the place where they knew him to be, ſo that his tra|uaile was in vaine.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Danes winter in the [...]le of Wight. They inuade Hampſhire, Barkſhire. &c.About the beginning of Winter they remay|ned in the Ile of Wight, and in the tyme of Chriſtmaſſe they landed in Hampſhire and paſ|ſed through that Countrey into Barkeſhire, and came to Reding. And from thence to Walling|forde, and ſo to Coleſey, and then approching neare to Eſſington, came to Achikelineſlawe, and in euery place whereſoeuer they came, they made cleane worke. For that which they coulde not cary with them, they conſumed with fire, burning vp theyr Iunes and ſleaing their hoſtes. In returning back, the people of the weſt Coun|trey gaue them battail, but preuayled not, ſo that they did but enriche theyr enimies with the ſpoyle of their bodies.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Wincheſter.They came faſt by the gates of Wincheſter, as it were in maner of tryumph, with theyr vyt|tayles and ſpoyles whiche they had fetched fiftie myles off from the ſea ſide.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the meane tyme King Egelred lay about Shrewſburie ſore troubled with the newes herof.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 1007 xxxvi thouſãd pound hath Simon Dun. In the yeare next enſuing, the king by the ad|uice of his Counſaile gaue to king Sweine for the redeeming of peace .xxx. M. pound.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The ſame yeare King Egelred created the traytor Edricus Earle of Mercia.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Edricke de Str [...]on [...] made Duke or Erle of MerciaThis Edricus although hee had maryed the kings daughter Edgita, was yet noted to be one of thoſe which diſcloſed the ſecretes of the realme, and the determinations of the Counſaile vnto the enimies. But he was ſuche a craftie diſſem|bler, ſo greatly prouided of ſleight to diſſemble and cloke his falſehoode, that the king beeing too muche abuſed by him, had him in ſingular fa|uour, where as hee vppon a malicious purpoſe ſtudyed dayly howe to bring the Realme into vtter ruine and deſtruction, aduertiſing the eni|mies from tyme to tyme howe the ſtate of thinges ſtoode, whereby they came to know|ledge where they ſhoulde giue place,VVil. Malm. and when they mighte ſafely come forwarde, Moreouer, beeing ſent vnto them oftentymes as a Com|miſſioner to treate of peace, hee perſwaded them to warre. But ſuche was the pleaſure of God, to haue him and ſuche other of lyke ſort aduaun|ced to honour in this ſeaſon, when by his diuine prouidence he ment to puniſhe the people of thys realme for theyr wickedneſſe and ſinnes, whereby they had iuſtly prouoked his wrathe and highe diſpleaſure. Hen. Hunt. Simon Dun. An hundreth actes as an [...] of lande 1008 Prouiſion for ſhippes and armour.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the .xxx. yeare of King Egelreds raigne, whiche fell in the yeare of oure Lorde .1008. hee looke order that of euery three hundred and tenne hydes of lande within this realme, there ſhoulde one ſhippe be buylded, and of euery .viij. hydes a complete armor furniſhed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the yeare following, the Kinges whole fleete was brought togither at Sandwiche, and ſuche ſouldiers came thither, as were appoynted to goe to Sea in the ſame fleete. There had not beene ſeene the lyke number of ſhippes ſo teim|ly rigged and furniſhed in all poyntes, in anye Kinges dayes before. But no greate profitable peece of ſeruice was wrought by them: For the King hadde aboute that tyme baniſhed a noble yong manne of Suſſex called Wilnote,Mat. VVeſt. who getting togither twentie ſayles, laye vppon the coaſtes, taking priſes where he might gette them.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Brithericke the brother of Earle Edricke, deſirous to wynne honour, tooke forth foure ſcore of the ſayde Shippes, and promiſed to bring in the enimie deade or aliue. But as hee was ſay|ling forwarde on the Seas, a ſore tempeſt with an outragious winde roſe with ſuche violence, that his ſhippes were caſt vppon the ſhore. And Wilnote comming vpon them, ſet them on fyre, and ſo burned them euery one. The reſidue of the ſhips when newes came to them of this miſhap, returned backe to London. And then was the ar|mie diſperſed, and ſo all the coſt and trauaile of the Engliſh men proued in vaine.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After this, in the Harueſt time a newe armie of Danes, vnder the conducte of three Cap|taynes, Turkell, Henning, and Aulafe,Danes land a Sandwich. lan|ded at Sandwiche,1009 Three thou [...] pound hath Simon Dun. and from thence paſſed forth to Canterburie, and had taken the citie, but that the Citizens gaue them a thouſande pounde EEBO page image 245 to depart from thence, and to leaue the Countrey in peace. Then went the Danes to the Ile of Wight,Suſſex and Hampſhire ſpoyled. and afterwardes landed and ſpoyled the Countrey of Suſſex and Hamſhire.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 King Egelred assembled the whole power of all his subiectes, and comming to giue them battaile, had made an ende of their cruell harrying the Countrey with the slaughter of them all, if Earle Edrike with forged tales (deuised onely to put him in feare) had not diswaded him from giuing battaile. The Danes by that meanes returning in safetie, The Danes re|turne into Kent. immediately after the feast of S.Martyn, returned into Kent, and lodged with theyr nauie in the Winter folowing in the Thames, and oftentymes assaulting the Citie of Lo(n)don, were still beaten backe to their losse.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 1010After the feaſt of Chriſtmaſſe they paſſed through the Countrey and Wooddes of Chil|terne vnto Oxforde,Oxford burnt. whiche Towne they bur|ned, and then returning backe they fell to wa|ſting of the Countrey on both ſides the Thames. But hearing that an armie was aſſembled at London to gyue them battaile, that parte of theyr Hoſte whiche kepte on the North ſyde of the Ryuer,Stanes. paſſed the fame Ryuer at Stanes, and ſo ioyning wyth theyr fellowes marched forth through Southerie, and comming backe to theyr Shippes in Kent, fell in hande to repayre and amende theyr ſhippes that were in any wiſe decayed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Gipſwich in Suffolke. Sim. Dunel. Then after Eaſter, the Danes ſayling about the coaſt, arryued at Gippeſwiche in Suffolke, on the day of the Aſcention of our Lorde: and in|uading the Countrey, gaue battayle at a place called Wigmere, or Rigmere, vnto Vikell, or Vlfeketell leader of the Engliſh hoſt in thoſe par|ties, the fifth of May.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The men of Norffolke and Suffolke fledde at the fyrſt onſet gyuen. But the Cambridge|ſhire men ſticked to it valiantly, wynning there|by perpetuall fame and commendation. There was no mindefulneſſe amongeſt them of run|ning awaye, ſo that a great number of the No|bilitie and other were beaten downe and ſlaine, tyll at the length one Turketell Mireneheved,Cepul for|mica. that had a Dane to hys father, fyrſt beganne to take his flight, and deſerued thereby an euerla|ſting reproch.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Danes obteyning the vpper hande, for the ſpace of three monethes togyther, went vppe and downe the Countreys, and waſted thoſe par|ties of the Realme, that is to ſay, Norffolke, and Suffolke, with the borders of Lincolnſhire, Hun|tingtonſhire, and Cambridgeſhire where the fennes are, gayning exceeding ryches by the ſpoile of the great and wealthie Abbayes and Churches which had their ſituation within the compaſſe of the ſame Fennes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 They alſo deſtroyed Thetforde,Thetforde, Cambridge. Hen. Hunt. and burnt Cambridge, and from thence paſſed through the pleaſant mountain countrey of Belleſham, cruel|ly murthering the people without reſpect to age, degree or ſexe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After this they entred into Eſſex,The Danes arriue in the Thames. 1011 and ſo came backe to theyr ſhips, whiche were then arriued in the Thames. But they reſted not any long time in quiet, as people that mynded nothing but the deſtruction of this Realme. So that ſhortly af|ter they had ſomewhat refreſhed them, forwarde they ſet again into the Country, paſſing through Buckinghamſhire and ſo into Bedſordſhire.Northampton burnt by Danes. And about S. Andrewes tide they turned toward Northampton, and comming thither, ſet fyre on that [...].

[figure appears here on page 245]

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And then returning through the weſt country, with fire and ſword waſted and deſtroyed a great part thereof, and namely Wilſhire, with other parties. And finally aboute the feaſt of Chriſt|maſſe they came againe to their ſhippes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus had the Danes waſted and deſtroyed the moſt part of .xvj. or .xvij.How many ſhires the Da|nes waſted. ſhires within this realm as Norff. Suff. Cambridgeſhire, Eſſex, Middle|ſex, Hartfortſhire, Oxfordſhire, Burkingbãſhire, and Bedfordſhire, with a part of Huntingdonſh. and alſo a great portion of Northamptonſhire.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 This was done in the Countreys that lie on the northſide the Riuer of Thames. And on the ſouthſide of the ſame Ryuer, they ſpoyled and waſted Kent, Southerie, Suſſex, Barkſh: Hãp|ſhire, and (as is before ſayd) a great part of Wil|ſhire.1111 The king and the peeres of the realme not knowing otherwiſe how to redreſſe the matter,The king ſen|deth to the Danes. Simon Dun. ſent Ambaſſadors vnto the Danes, offring them great ſummes of money to leaue off ſuche cruell waſting and ſpoyling of the lande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Danes were contented to retayne the money, but yet coulde not abſtayne from their cruell doyngs, neither was their greedie thyrſt of bloud and ſpoyle ſatiſfied with the waſting and deſtroying of ſo many Countieys and places as EEBO page image 246 they had paſſed through. Whervpon in the yeare of our Lorde. 1011. about the feaſt of Saint Ma|thew in September, they layde ſiege to the Citie of Canterburie, which by the Citizens was va|liantly defended by the ſpace of .xx. dayes. In the ende of which terme it was taken by the enimies, through the treaſon of a Deacon named A [...]|ricus, [...] wonne by [...] Danes. whome the Archbiſhop Elphegus had be|fore [figure appears here on page 246] that time preſerued from death.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Fabian ex Antonino.The Danes exerciſed paſſing great crueltie in the winning of that Citie (as by ſundrie Authors it doth and may appeare.)

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Archbi|ſhop Elphegus taken. Hen. Hunt. They ſlue of menne, women, and children a|boue the number of .viij. thouſand. They tooke the Archbiſhop Elphegus with an other Biſhop na|med Godwyn. Alſo Abbot Lefwyn & Alſeword the kings Baylif there. They ſpared no degree, in|ſomuch that they ſlue and tooke .900. prieſtes and other men of religion.Antoninus. Vincentius. And when they had taken their pleaſure of the Citie, they ſet it on fire, and ſo returned to their ſhips.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 VVil L [...]mb. ex Aſſerio Meneuenſi & alijs.There be that write that they tithed the people after an inuerted order, ſlaying the whole nines through the whole multitude, and reſerued the tenth: ſo that of all the Monkes there were but foure ſaued, and of the lay people .4800. whereby it followeth that there dyed .43200. perſons, and hereof is gathered that the citie of Canterburie, & the Countrey thereabouts (the people whereof be|like fled thither for ſuccor) was at that time verie well inhabited, ſo as there haue not wanted (ſayth Maſter Lambert) which affyrme that it had then more people than London it ſelfe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 1112 Hen. Hunt.But now to our purpoſe. In the yeare next enſuing, vpon the Saterday in Eaſter weeke, af|ter that the Biſhop Elphegus had bin kept priſo|ner with them the ſpace of .vj. or .vij. monethes, they cruelly in a rage led him fortb into the fields and daſhed out his braynes with ſtones,The Archbi|ſhop Alphegus murthered. bycauſe he would not redeeme his libertie with three. M. pound, which they demaunded to haue bin leuied of his farmers and tenants.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This cruell murther was cõmitted at Grene|wich foure miles diſtant from London, the .xix. of Aprill, where he lay a certaine time vnburied,Myracles. but at length through miracles ſhewed (as they ſay) for myracles are all wrought now by deade men, and not by the liuing: the Danes permitted that his bodie might be caried to London,Elphegus bu|ried in Lõdon. & there was it buried in the Church of S. Paule, where it reſted for the ſpace of ten yeares, till king Cnute or Knoght had the gouernment of this lande,Tranſlated to Canterburie. by whoſe appoyntment it was remoued to Canter|burie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Turkillus the leader of thoſe Danes by whom the Archbiſhop Elphegus was thus murthered helde Norffolke and Suffolke vnder his ſubiec|tion, VVil. Mal. Turkillus held Norffolk and Suffolke. and ſo continued in thoſe parties as chief L. and gouernor. But the reſidue of the Danes at length,xlviii. thouſãd pound as ſayth Simon Du. & Mat. VVeſt. compounding with the Engliſhmen for [...] tribute to be payed to them of .viij.M. pounde, ſpred abrode in the countrey ſoiourning in cities, townes and villages, where they mighte finde moſt conuenient Harbrough.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Moreouer fortye of their Shippes,H. Hunti [...] or ra|ther, (as ſome write) .xlv. were retayned to ſerue the king, promiſing to defende the Realme, with condition that the Souldiers and Mariners ſhould haue prouiſion of meate and drinke, with apparell, found them at the kings charges.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 As one Authour hath gathered, Sweyne king of Denmarke was in England at the con|cluding of this peace, which being cõfirmed with ſolemne othes and ſufficient Hoſtages, he depar|ted into Denmarke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Alſo the ſame Authour bringeth the gene|rall ſlaughter of Danes vppon Saint Bry [...]es daye,Mat. VVeſt. to haue chaunced in the yeare after the EEBO page image 247 concluſion of this agreement, that is to witte, in the yeare .1012. at what tyme Gunthildis the ſiſter of King Swaine was ſlaine,Gunthildis the ſiſter of K. Swaine mur|thered. with hir huſ|bande and ſonne, by the commaundement of the falſe traytour Edrike. But bycauſe all other Au|thours agree that the ſame murther of Danes was executed aboute tenne yeares before thys ſuppoſed tyme: wee haue made rehearſall there|of in that place. Howbeeit for the death of Gun|thilde, it maye bee, that ſhee became Hoſtage ey|ther in the yeare .1007. at what tyme King E|gelred payed thirtie thouſande pounde vnto king Swayne to haue peace (as before you haue hearde) or elſe myght ſhee bee delyuered in ho|ſtage, in the yeare .1011. when the laſt agree|ment was made with the Danes (as aboue is mẽtioned.) But when or at what time ſoeuer ſhe became hoſtage, this we finde of hir, that ſhe came hither into England with hir huſband Palingus,VVil. Mal. a mightie Earle, and receyued baptiſme here. Wherevpon ſhe earneſtly trauailed in treatie of a peace betwixt hir brother & king Egelred, whiche being brought to paſſe chiefely by hir ſuyte, ſhee was contented to become an Hoſtage for perfor|maunce thereof (as before is recyted.) And after by the commaundement of Earle Edricke ſhee was put to death, pronouncing that the ſhed|ding of hir bloude woulde cauſe all England one day fore to rue.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 She was a right beautifull Ladie, and tooke hir death without all feare, not once chaunging countenaunce, though ſhe ſaw hir huſbande and hir onely ſonne (a yong Gentleman of much to|wardneſſe) firſt murthered before hir face.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Turkillus diſ|cloſeth the ſe|cretes of the Realme to K. Swayne.Turkillus in the meane tyme had aduertiſed king Swayne in what ſtate things ſtoode here within the Realme: howe King Egelred was negligent, onely attending to the luſtes and pleaſures of the fleſhe: howe the Noble menne were vnfaythfull, and the Commons weake and feeble through wante of good and truſtye leaders.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Simon Dun.Some wryte yet that Turkyll, as well as other of the Danes whiche remayned here in Englande was in league with King Egelred, inſomuche that he was wyth him in London to helpe to defend the Citie agaynſt Sweyne when hee came to aſſault it, (as after ſhall appeare.) Whiche if it bee true, a doubt may riſe whether Sweine receyued any aduertiſement from Tur|kill to moue him the rather to inuade the realme: but ſuche aduertiſements might come from him before that he was accorded with Egelred.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Swaine prepa|reth an armie to inuade Eng|lande.Swayne therefore as a valiaunt Prince de|ſirous both to reuenge his ſiſters death, and win honour, prepared an huge armie, and a greate number of Shippes, with the whiche hee made towardes Englande, and firſte comming to Sandwiche, taryed there a ſmall while,He landeth at Sandwich. 1013 and ta|king eftſoones the Sea, compaſſed aboute the coaſtes of the Eaſt Angles, and arryuing in the mouth of Humber, ſayled vp the water, and en|tring into the Ryuer of Trent, he landed at Gayneſbourgh,Gaynesbourgh purpoſing to inuade the Nor|thumbers: But they as men brought into great feare, for that they had beene ſubiect to the Danes in tymes paſt, and thinking therefore not to re|uolte to enimyes, but rather to theyr olde ac|quaintaunce, if they ſhoulde ſubmitte themſel|ues to the Danes,The Northũ|bers yeeld to Swayne. ſtreyght wayes offered to be|come ſubiect vnto Swayne, togither with theyr Duke named Wighthred.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Alſo the people of Lyndeſey and all thoſe of the Northſyde of Watlingſtreete yeelded them|ſelues vnto him, and deliuered pledges.The people of Lyndſey yeeld themſelues to him. Sim. Dunel. Then he appoynted his ſonne Cnutus to haue the keping of thoſe pledges, and to remain vpon the ſafegard of his ſhips, whiles he himſelfe paſſed forward in|to the Countrey. Then marched he forwarde to ſubdue them of South Mercia:South Mercia and ſo came to Oxford, & to Wincheſter, making the countreys ſubiect to him throughout whereſoeuer he came.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 With this proſperous ſucceſſe, Swayne be|ing greatly encouraged, prepared to go vnto Lõ|don where king Egelred as then remayned, ha|uing with him Turkillus the Dane, which was retayned in wages with other of the Danes (as by report of ſome Authours it may appeare) and were nowe readie to defende the Citie agaynſte theyr Countrey men in ſupport of King Egel|red togyther wyth the Citizens.Simon Dun. Swayne by|cauſe hee woulde not ſteppe ſo farre oute of the way as to goe to the nexte bridge, loſt a greate number of his menne as hee paſſed through the Thames.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 At his comming to London, he beganne to aſſaulte the Citie right fiercely,Sweipe aſſaul|teth London. in hope eyther to put his enimie in ſuch feare that he ſhould diſpaire of all reliefe and comfort, or at the leaſt to trye what hee was able to doe. The Londoners on the other part, although they were broght in ſome feare by this ſodaine attempt of the enimyes, yet conſidering with themſelues, that the hazarde of all the whole ſtate of the Realme was annexed to theyrs, ſithe theyr Citie was the chiefe and Metropolitane of all the Kingdome,Polidor. they valy|antly ſtoode in defence of themſelues, and of their king that was preſent there with them, beating backe the enimies, chaſing them from the walles, and otherwiſe doing their beſt to keepe them of. At length although the Danes did moſt valiant|ly aſſault the Citie, the Engliſh men yet to de|fend their prince from all iniurie of enimies, did not ſhrinke, but boldly ſallied forth at ye gates in heapes togither, & encountered with theyr aduer|ſaries, and began to fight with thẽ right fiercely.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 EEBO page image 248Sweyn whileſt he goeth aboute to keepe his men in order, as one moſt deſirous to retayne the victorie nowe almoſte gotten, is compaſſed ſo aboute with the Londoners on eche ſyde, that after he had loſt a greate number of his men, he was conſtrayned for his ſafegarde to breake out through the myddeſt of his enimyes weapons, and was gladde that hee might ſo eſcape. And ſo with the reſidue of his armie ceaſſed not to iourney day and night tyll hee came to Bathe, VVil. Mal. Earle of Deuõ|ſhire as hath Mat. VVeſt. where Ethelmere an Earle of greate power in thoſe Weſt parties of the Realme, ſubmitted himſelfe wyth all hys people vnto him, who ſhortly after neuertheleſſe (Polidor. as ſome write) was compelled through want of vitayles to releaſe the tribute lately couenanted to bee payed vnto him for a certaine ſumme of money, which when hee had receyued, he returned into Denmarke,Swain run|neth Den|marke. mea|ning ſhortly to returne againe with a greater power.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 King Egelred ſuppoſed that by the payment of that money he ſhould haue beene rid out of all troubles of warre with the Danes. But the No|bles of the realme thought otherwiſe and therfore willed him to prepare an armie with al ſpeed that might be made. Sweyn taryed not long (to proue the doubt of the noble men to be grounded of fort|knowledge)Swain [...]|neth into Eng|land to make warre. but that with ſwift ſpeede be returned againe into Englande, and immediately vppon his arriuall was an armie of Engliſh men aſſem|bled and led agaynſt him into the field. Here vpon they ioyne in battaile, which was ſore foughten [figure appears here on page 248] for a time,King Egelred diſcomfited in battaile. til at length by reaſon of diuerſe Eng|liſhmen that turned to the enimies ſide, the diſ|comfiture fel with ſuch ſlaughter vpon the Eng|liſh hoſt, that king Egelred well perceyued the ſtate of his regall gouernment to be brought into vtter daunger. Wherevpon after the loſſe of this fielde, hee aſſembled the reſt of his people that were eſcaped, and ſpake vnto them after thys maner.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 The Oration of K. Egelred.I ſhoulde for euer bee put to ſilence, if there wanted in vs the vertue of a fatherly minde, in giuing good aduice and counſaile for the well or|dering the adminiſtration of things in the com|mon wealth, or if there lacked courage or might in our ſouldiers and men of warre to defende our Country. Truly to die in defence of the Country where we are borne, I [...]o eſſe it a worthie thing, and I for my part am readie to take vpon me to enter into the middeſt of the enimies in defence of my kingdome. But here I ſee our countrey and the whole Engliſh nation to be at a poynt to fall into vtter ruine. We are ouercome of the Danes, not with weapõ or force of armes, but with trea|ſon wrought by our owne people: wee did at the firſt prepare a nauie agaynſte the enimies, the which that falſe traytor Elfrik betrayd into their handes. Againe oftentymes haue we giuen bat|taile with euill ſucceſſe, and onely through the fault of our owne people that haue beene falſe and diſloyal, wherby we haue bene conſtrayned to agree with the enimies vpon diſhonorable condi|tions, euen as neceſſitie required, which to ouer|come reſteth only in God. Such kind of agreemẽt hath bin made in deed to our deſtruction, ſith the enimies haue not ſticked to breake it (they being ſuch a wicked kinde of people as neither regarde God nor man) contrarie to right & reaſon, and be|ſide all our hope & expectation. And ſo is the mat|ter come nowe to this paſſe, yt we haue not cauſe only to feare the loſſe of our gouerment out leaſt the name of the whole Engliſh natiõ be deſtroyed for euer. Therfore ſithence the enimies are at hãd and as it were ouer our heades, ye to whõ my cõ|mandemẽt hath euer bin had in good regard pro|uide take counſell, & ſee to ſuccor the ſtate of your cũtry now redy to decay & to fal into irrecouerable EEBO page image 249 ruine. Herevpon they fel in cõſultation euery one, alledging and bringing foorth his opinion as ſee|med to him beſt, but it appeared they hadde the Woolfe by the eare, for they wiſt not which way to turne them: If they ſhoulde gyue battayle it was to be doubted, leaſt through treaſon amõgſt themſelues, the armie ſhould be betrayed into the enimies hands, the which would not fayle to exe|cute all kinde of crueltie in the ſlaughter of the whole nation. And if they dyd not ſtand vali|antly to ſhewe themſelues ready to defende theyr countrey, there was no ſhifte but to yeeld them|ſelues, whiche though it were a thyng reproch|full and diſhonorable, yet ſhoulde it be leſſe euill as they tooke the matter, for thereby myght ma|ny bee preſerued from deathe, and in tyme to come, be able to recouer the libertie of their coun|trey againe when occaſion ſhoulde thereto be of|fered.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This poynt was allowed of them all, and ſo in the ende they reſted vpon that reſolution.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 King Egelred determineth to giue place vnto Sweyne.Kyng Egelred therefore determined to com|mitte hymſelfe into the hands of his brother in lawe Richarde Duke of Normandy, whoſe ſi|ſter (as ye haue hearde) he hadde married. But bycauſe he woulde not do this vnaduiſedly, firſte he ſent ouer hys Wife Queene Emme,He ſendeth his wife and ſonnes ouer into Nor|mandie. Richard Duke of Normãdie. with hys ſonnes which he hadde begotten of hir, Alfred and Edwarde, that by theyr entertaynemente hee might vnderſtande how hee ſhoulde be welcome. Duke Richarde receyued his ſiſter and hys Ne|phewes right ioyfully, and promiſed to ayde hys brother King Egelred in defence of his Kyng|dome. But in this meane while had Sueyne cõ|quered the more part of al England, and brought (by little and little) that whiche remayned, vnder his ſubiection. The people through feare ſubmit|ting themſelues on each hand, King Egelred in this meane time, (for the Londoners had ſubmit|ted themſelues to Sweyne) was firſt withdrawẽ vnto Greenewiche,Sim. Dunel. and there remayned for a tyme with the nauie of the Danes,Hen. Hunt. which was vnder the gouernemente of Earle Turkill,Turkill. and from thence ſayled vnto the Iſle of Wight, and there remayned a great part of the Winter, and finally after Chriſtmas,114 ſayled hymſelfe into Normandy,King Egelred paſſeth into Norma [...]y. and was of his brother in law ioy|fully receyued, and greatly comforted in that hys tyme of neceſſitie. Sweyne hauing now gote the whole rule of the lande, was reputed for Kyng, and ſo commanded that his army ſhoulde be pro|uided of wages and victuals to bee taken vp and leuied through the Realme. In like manner Turkill cõmanded that to his army whych lod|ged at Greenewhich, ſhoulde wages and victuals be deliuered ſufficiente for the finding and ſuſten|tation therof.Sweyne han|dleth the Eng|liſhmanne hardly. Sweyne vſed the victory very cru|elly againſt the Engliſhmen, oppreſſing them on each hand, to the intent that they being broughte lowe, he might gouerne in more ſuretie. The yere in which he obteined the rule thus of this Realm, and that Kyng Egelred was conſtreyned to flee into Normandy, was in the fiue and thirtith yere of the ſame Egelrede his raigne, and after the birth of our Lord. 114. Sweyne being once eſta|bliſhed in the gouernemente, dyd not onely vſe much crueltie, in oppreſſing the laitie, but alſo he ſtretched foorthe his hande to the Churche and to the Miniſters in the ſame, fleecing them and ſpoyling both Churches and Miniſters, without any remorce of conſcience, in ſo muche, that ha|uing a quarrell againſt the inhabitantes within the precinct of S. Edmonds land in Suffolke, he did not onely harry the countrey, but alſo ry|fled and ſpoyled the Abbey of Bury, where the body of Saint Edmond reſted.

[figure appears here on page 249]

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 Whervpõ ſhortly after as hee was at Gemeſ|borough or Thetforde (as ſome haue) Fabian. Saint Edmond figliteth for the wealth, but not for the ſlaughter of his people. Simon Dun. 115 and there in his iollitie talked with his Nobles of his good ſucceſſe in conquering of this lande, he was ſud|daynely ſtriken with a knife, as it is reported, mi|raculouſly, for no man wiſt how or by whome: and within three dayes after, to wit, on the thirde of February, hee ended his life with greenous payne and torment in yelling and roring, by rea|ſon of his extreme anguiſh beyonde all meaſure. There hathe ſproong a pleaſant tale amongſt the poſteritie of that age, how he ſhould be wounded with the ſame knife whiche King Edmonde in his life time vſed to weare. Thus haue ſome of our Writers reported,Albertus Crantz. Saxo Gram|maticus. but the Daniſhe Chro|nicles recorde a farre more happy ende whiche ſhould chaunce vnto this Sueyno, than is before mentioned, out of our Writers: for the ſayde Chronicles reporte, yt after he had ſubdued Eng|land, he tooke order with King Egelred, whome they name amiſſe Adelſtane, that he ſhoulde not ordeine any other ſucceſſor, but onely the ſame Sueno. Then after this, he returned into Den|marke, where vſing himſelfe like a righte godly EEBO page image 248 Prince, at length he there ended his life, beeing a very old man. But when, or how ſoeuer he dyed, immediately after his deceſſe, the Danes elected his ſon Cnute or Knought to ſucceede in his do|minions.VVil. Mal. Hen. Hunt. Canute or Cuate. But the Engliſhmen of nothing more deſirous than to ſhake the yoke of the Daniſhe thraldome beſides their neckes and ſhoulders, ſtraight wayes vpon knowledge had of Swey|nes deathe, with all ſpeede aduertiſed King E|gelred thereof,Egelred ſent for home. and that they were ready to receiue and aſſiſt him if he woulde make haſt to come o|uer to deliuer his countrey out of ye hands of ſtrã|gers. Theſe newes were right ioyful vnto Egel|red, who brenning in deſire to be reuenged on thẽ that had expulſed him out of his Kingdom, made no long tarriance to put that enterpriſe forward. But yet doubting ye incõſtancie of the people, ſent his elder ſon (named Edward) to trie the minds of them,Edward King Egelredes el|deſt ſonne. & to vnderſtand whether they were cõſtant or wauering in yt they had promiſed. The yong Gentleman haſting ouer into Englande, & with diligẽt enquirie perceyuing how they were bent, returned with like ſpeede as he came into Nor|mandie againe, declaring to his father, that all things were in ſafetie if hee would make haſt. K. Egelred then conceiued an aſſured hope to reco|uer his Kingdome,King Egelred ret [...]rnueth into England. ayded wt his brother in lawes power, & truſting vpon ye aſſiſtance of the Eng|liſhmẽ, returned into England in ye time of Lẽt. His returne was ioyfull & moſt acceptable to the Engliſh people, as to thoſe that abhorred the rule of ye Danes,Coutes ende|uor to eſta|bliſh himſelfe in the King|dome. which was moſt ſharp and bitter to them although Cnute did what he could by boũ|tifulneſſe and curteous dealings to haue reteyned thẽ vnder his obeiſance. And to ye intẽt to procure Gods fauour in the well ordering of things for ye adminiſtration in ye common wealth, he ſoughte firſt to appeaſe his wrath, & alſo to make amend [...] to S. Edmond for his fathers offence commit|ted (as was thought) againſt him: in ſo muche, yt after he had obteyned the Kingdome, he cauſede great ditche to be caſt round about the land of S. Edmond,S. Edmond ditche. & graunted many freedomes to the in|habitants, and acquit them of certain taſkes and payments, vnto ye which other of their neighbors were contributaries. He alſo builded a Church on ye place wher S. Edmond was buried, & ordeined an houſe of Monkes there, or rather remoued the Canons or ſecular Prieſts that were there afore, and put Monkes in their roomes. He offered vppe alſo hys Crowne vnto the ſame S. Edmonde,Polidor. Fabian. & redemed it again with a great ſumme of money, which maner of doing grewe into an vſe vnto o|ther kings yt folowed him. He adorned ye Church there with many riche iewels, and endowed the Monaſterie with greate poſſeſſions. But theſe things were not done nowe at the firſte, but after that he was eſtabliſhed in the Kingdome. For in the mean time, after that K. Egelred was retur|ned out of Normandie, Cnute as then ſoiour|ning at Eayneſbrough, remayned there till the feaſt of Eaſter, and made agreemente with there of Lindſey, ſo that they finding him horſes, they ſhould altogither goe foorth to ſpoyle their neigh|bours. King Egelred aduertiſed thereof, ſpedde him thither with a mighty hoſt, and with greate cruelty brenned vp the Countrey, and ſlewe the more part of the inhabitantes, bicauſe they hadde [figure appears here on page 248] takẽ part wt his enimies.

Cnute driuen to forſake the lande.

He was driuen thyther by force of con|trary windes as ſhould ap|pere by M. W.

Cnute as the was not of power able to reſiſt Egelred, and therefore ta|king his Ships whiche lay in Humber, fled from thence, & ſailed about ye coaſt, til he came to Sãd|wich, and there ſore greeued in his mind to remẽ|ber what miſchiefe was fallen & chanced to hys [...]s & [...]s of Lindſey, only for his [...]auie, he cõmanded yt ſuch pledges as had bin deliuered to his father by certaine noble men of this Realme,The cruell de|cree of Cnute againſt the Engliſh pled|ges. VVil. Malm. for aſſurance of theyr fidelities, ſhould haue their noſes ſlit, & their eares ſtoued, or as ſome write, their handes and theyr noſes cut off.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 EEBO page image 251When this cruell acte according to his com|mandement was done, he taking the Sea, ſayled into Denmarke, but yet he toke not al the Danes with him whiche his father broughte hither, for Earle Turkill perceyuing the welthineſſe of ye lande,This Turkil was reteyned in ſeruice with Egelred as I thinke. compounded with the Engliſhmen, and choſe rather to remayne in a region repleniſhed with all riches, than to returne home into hys owne countrey that wanted ſuche commodities as were here to be had. And yet as ſome thought, hee did not forſake his ſoueraigne Lorde Cnute for any euill meaning towards him, but rather to ayde him when time ſerued, to recouer the poſſeſ|ſion of Englãd againe, as it afterwards wel ap|peared: for notwithſtanding that he was now re|teyned by King Egelred with fortie ſhippes, and the floure of all the Danes that were menne of war, ſo as Cnute returned but with .60. Ships into his countrey, yet ſhortly after, Earle Tur|kill with nine of thoſe Ships ſailed into Den|marke, ſubmitted himſelfe vnto Cnute, coun|ſelled him to returne into Englande, and pro|miſed him the aſſiſtaunce of the reſidue of thoſe Daniſh Shippes whiche yet remayned in Eng|land,Encomium Emma. beeing to the number of thirtie, with all the Souldiers and mariners that to them belonged. To conclude, hee did ſo much by his earneſt per|ſwaſions, that Cnute (through ayde of his bro|ther Harrold Kyng of Denmarke) gote togither a nauie of two hundred Shippes, ſo royally dec|ked, furniſhed, and appoynted, both for braue ſhewe and neceſſary furniture of all manner of weapon, armour and munition, as it is ſtrange to conſider that whiche is written by them that liued in thoſe dayes, and tooke in hand to regiſter the doings of that time. But nowe to returne to our purpoſe, to ſhewe what chaunced in Eng|lande after the departure of Cnute. The ſame yeare vnto theſe accuſtomed miſchiefes an vn|wonted miſaduenture happened,Math. VVeſt. for the Sea roſe with ſuche high ſpring tydes, that ouerflowing the countreys nexte adioyning, diuers villages with the inhabitantes were drowned vp and de|ſtroyed.Simon Dun. Alſo to encreaſe the peoples miſerie, K. Egelred commaunded, that .xxx. thouſande. lb. ſhuld be leuied to pay the tribute due to ye Danes which lay at Greenewiche.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 This yere alſo, VVil. Mal [...] Mat. VVest A counſell at Oxforde Sigeferd and Morcade murthered. King Egelred held a counſell at Oxforde, at the whiche, a great number of no|ble men were preſent, both Danes and Engliſh|men, and there did the King cauſe Sigeferd and Morcade two noble perſonages of the Danes to bee murthered within his owne chamber, by the trayterous practiſe of Edericke de Streona, whi|che accuſed them of ſome conſpiracie, but the quarrell was onely as men ſuppoſed, for that the King had a deſire to their goodes and poſſeſſions. Their ſeruauntes tooke in hand to haue reuenged the death of their maſters, but were beaten barke, wherevppon, they fledde into the Steeple of S. Frifroyds Churche, and kepte the ſame, till fyre was ſet vpon the place, and ſo they were brenned to death. The wife of Sigeſferd was taken, and ſente to Malmeſbury, beeing a woman of hygh fame and greate worthineſſe, wherevppon the Kyngs eldeſt ſonne named Edmond, tooke occa|ſion vppon pretence of other buſineſſe to goe thy|ther, and there to ſee hir, with whome hee fell ſo farre in loue, that he tooke and married hir.Edmond the Kings eldeſt ſonne marri|eth the Wi|dow of Sige|ferd. That done, hee required to haue hir huſbandes landes and poſſeſſions, whiche were an Earles lyuing, and lay in Northumberland, and when the K. refuſed to graunt his requeſt, he goeth thither, and ſeaſed the ſame poſſeſſions and landes into hys hands, without hauing any commiſſion ſo to do, finding the farmours and tenauntes there ready to receiue him for their Lord. While theſe things were a doing, Cnute hauing made his prouiſion of Ships and men,Cnute retur|neth into England. with all neceſſary furniture (as before yee haue hearde) for his returne into England, ſet forward with full purpoſe, eyther to recouer the Realme out of Egelredes handes, or to die in the quarrell. Heerevpon he landed at Sandwich, and firſte Earle Turkill obteyned licence to goe againſt the Engliſhmen that were aſſembled to reſiſt the Danes,Encomium Emma. and finding them at a place called Scoraſtan, he gaue them the o|uerthrow, gote a great bootie, and returned there|with to the Ships. After this, Eric gouernor of Norway, made a roade likewiſe into another parte of the countrey, and with a rich ſpoyle, and many Priſoners, returned vnto the nauie.

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Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 EEBO page image 252After this iourney atchieued thus by Eric, Cnute commaunded that they ſhoulde not waſt the countrey any more, but gaue order to prepare all thyngs ready to beſiege London. But before hee attempted that enterpriſe,VVil. Malm. H. Huntin. Math. VVeſt. Simon Dun. as other write, hee marched foorth into Kent or rather ſailing round about that countrey, tooke his iourney Weſt|ward, and came to Fromundham, and after de|parting from thence, waſted Dorſetſhire, Som|merſetſhire, and Wiltſhire.King Egelred ſicke. Kyng Egelrede in this meane time lay ſicke at Coſſam. His ſonne Edmond had gote togither a mighty hoſt, how|beit,Mat. VVeſt. ere hee came to ioyne battayle with his eni|mies, he was aduertiſed, that Earle Edricke wẽt about to betray him, and therefore he withdrewe with the army into a place of ſurety. And E|dricke to make his traiterous purpoſe manifeſt to the whole world,Edricke [...] [...] to thẽ [...]. fled to the enimies with fortie of the Kings Shippes, fraughte with Daniſhe Souldiers. Herevpon, al the Weſt countrey ſub|mitted it ſelfe vnto Cnute, who receyued pledges of the chiefe Lords and Nobles, and then ſet for|ward to ſubdue them of Mercia.The [...] of Me [...] not yeelde. Mat. VVeſt. Hen. Hunt. 116 The people of that countrey woulde not yeelde, but determined to defend the quarrell and title of King Egelred ſo long as they mighte haue any Captayne that would ſtand with them, and help to order them.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the yere .116. in Chriſtmas, Cnute & Earle Edricke paſſed the Thames at Krikelade, and entring into Mercia, cruelly beganne with fire and ſword, to waſt and deſtroy the countrey,Warwikeſhire waſted by Danes. and namely Warwikeſhire.

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Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 King Egelred recouered of his ſickneſſe.In the meane time was King Egelred reco|uered of his ſickneſſe, and ſent ſommonance foorth to rayſe all his power, appoynting euery man to reſort vnto him, that he mighte encounter the e|nimies and giue them battaile.He aſſembleth an army in vayne. But yet when his people were aſſembled, hee was warned to take heede to himſelfe, and in any wiſe to beware how he gaue battayle, for his owne ſubiects were pur|poſed to betrary him. Herevpon, the armie brake vp, and King Egelrede withdrew to London, there to abide his enimies within walles, with whome in the fielde hee doubteth to trie the bat|tayle. VVil. Mal. Edmond king Egelredes ſonne. His ſonne Edmond gote him to Vtred, an Earle of great power, inhabiting beyond Hum|ber, and perſwading him to ioyne his forces with his, foorthe they wente to waſt thoſe countreyes that were become ſubiect to Cnute, as Stafford|ſhire, Leceſterſhire, and Shropſhire, not ſparing to exerciſe great cruelty vpon the inhabitants, as a puniſhmẽt for their reuolting, that other might take enſample thereof. But Cnute perceyuyng whereabout they went, politikely deuiſed to fru|ſtrate their purpoſe, and with doyng of like hurte in all places where he came, paſſed through Buc|kinghamſhire, Bedfordſhire, Huntingtonſhire, and ſo through the Fennes, came to Stamford,Cnute, whe [...] countreys [...]e paſſed th [...]gh. and then entred into Lincolnſhire, and from thence into Notinghamſhire, and ſo into York|ſhire, not ſparing to do what miſchiefe myght be deuiſed in all places where he came. Vthred ad|uertiſed hereof, was conſtreyned to departe home to ſaue his owne countrey from preſente deſtru|ction, and therefore comming backe into Nor|thumberlande, and perceyuing himſelfe not able to reſiſt the puiſſaunt force of his enimies, was conſtreyned to deliuer pledges,Earle Vthred deliuereth pledges to Cnute. and ſubmit hym|ſelfe vnto Cnute: but yet was hee not heereby warranted from danger, for ſhortly after he was taken, and put to death, and then were his lands giuen vnto one Iricke or Iricius,Alias Egri [...]s. whome after|ward Cnute did baniſhe out of the Realme, by|cauſe that he did attempt to chalenge like autho|ritie to him in all poynts, as Cnute himſelfe had.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 After that Cnute had ſubdued the Northum|bers, hee purſued Edmond till hee heard that hee had taken London for his refuge, and ſtayed there EEBO page image 253 with his father. Then didde Cnute take his Shippes,Cnute pre|pareth to be|ſiege London. King Egelred departed this life. Simon Dun. Mat. VVeſt. and came about to the coaſt of Hente, preparing to beſiege the Citie of London: but in the meanetime, King Egelred ſort worry with long ſickneſſe, departed this life the .23. of Aprill, being S. Georges daye, or as other haue, on S. Gregorſes day, being the twelfth of Marche, but I take this to be an error growen, by miſtakyng the feaſt day of S. Gregory for S. George. Hee raigned the tearme of . [...]7. yeres,He is buried in the Church of S. Paule at London. or little leſſe. His body was buryed in the Churche of S. Paule, in the North Ile beſides the Choyre, as by a me|moriall there in the wall it may appeare. He had two Wiues as before is mentioned, by Elgiua his firſt Wife, he had iſſue three ſonnes, Edmõd Edwine and Adelſtane, beſides one daughter na|med Edgi [...]a. By his ſecõd wife Emma, daugh|ter to Richarde the firſte of that name, Duke of Normandy, and ſiſter to Richard the ſecond, he had two ſonnes, Alfride and Edward. This E|gelfred as you haue heard, had euill ſucceſſe in his warres againſt the Danes, and beſides the cala|mitie that fell thereof to his people, many other miſeries oppreſſed this lande in his dayes, not ſo much through his lacke of courage and ſlothfull negligẽce,The pride of K. Egelred a|lienated the harts of his people. as by reaſõ of his preſumptuous price, wherby he alienated the hartes of his people from him. His affections he could not rule, but was led by them withoute order of reaſon, for hee did not only diſinherite diuerſe of his owne Engliſh ſub|iects without apparant cauſe of offence by plaine forged cauillatiõs, and alſo cauſed all the Danes to be murthered through his Realme in one day, by ſome lighte ſuſpition of their euill meanings, but alſo gaue himſelfe to lecherous luſt, in abu|ſing his body with naughty ſtrumpets, forſaking [figure appears here on page 253] the bedde of his owne lawfull wife, to his greate infamie and ſhame of that high degree of Maie|ſtie, whiche by his Kingly office hee bare and ſu|ſteyned. To conclude: he was from his tender youth, more apt to idle reſt, than to the exerciſe of warres, more giuen to pleaſures of the body, than to any vertues of the minde, although that toward his latter ende, beeing growen into age, and taught by long experiẽce of worldly affaires, and proofe of paſſed miſeries, hee ſoughte (though in vayne) to haue recouered the decayed ſtate of his common [...]wealth and countrey.

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7.5. King Egelred offereth the Danes great summes of moneie to desist from destroieng his countrie, their vnspeakable crueltie, bloud|thir stinesse, and insatiable spoiling of Canturbu|rie betraied by a churchman; their merciles murthe|ring of Elphegus archbishop of Canturburie, Turkillus the Dane chiefe lord of Norfolke and Suffolke, a peace concluded betweene the Danes and the English vpon hard conditi|ons; Gunthildis a beautifull Danish ladie and hir husband slaine, hir courage to the death. The fift Chapter.

King Egelred offereth the Danes great summes of moneie to desist from destroieng his countrie, their vnspeakable crueltie, bloud|thir stinesse, and insatiable spoiling of Canturbu|rie betraied by a churchman; their merciles murthe|ring of Elphegus archbishop of Canturburie, Turkillus the Dane chiefe lord of Norfolke and Suffolke, a peace concluded betweene the Danes and the English vpon hard conditi|ons; Gunthildis a beautifull Danish ladie and hir husband slaine, hir courage to the death. The fift Chapter.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 _THe king and the peeres of the realme, vnderstanding of the Danes dealing in such merciles maner (as is aboue mentioned) but not knowing how to redresse the matter, sent ambassadors vnto the Danes,The king sen|beth to the Danes. Simon Dun. offering them great summes of moneie to leaue off such cruell wasting and spoiling of the land. The Danes were contented to reteine the moneie, but yet could not absteine from their cruell dooings, neither was their greedie thirst of bloud and spoile satisfied with the wasting and destroieng of so manie countries and places as they had passed through. Wherevpon, in the yeere of our Lord 1011,1011 about the feast of S. Matthew in September, they laid siege to the citie of Canturbu|rie, which of the citizens was valiantlie defended by the space of twentie daies. In the end of which terme it was taken by the enimies, through the treason of a deacon named Almaricus,Canturburie woone by Danes whome the archbishop Elphegus had before that time preserued from death. The Danes exercised passing great crueltie in theFabian ex. An [...]o|nino. winning of that citie (as by sundrie authors it dooth and maie appéere.) For they slue of men, women, and children, aboue the number of eight thousand.The archbi|shop Elphe|gus taken. Hen. Hunt. They tooke the archbishop Elphegus with an other bishop named Godwine; also abbat Lefwin and Alseword the kings bailife there. They spared no degrée, in so|much that they slue and tooke 900 priests, and other men of religion. And when they had taken their plea|sure of the citie,Antoninus. Vincentius. they set it on fire, and so returned to their ships. There be some which write that they tithed the people after an inuerted order, Wil. Lamb. ex Asserio Me|neuensi, & alijs. slaieng all by nines through the whole multitude, and reserued the tenth: so that of all the moonks there were but foure saued, and of the laie people 4800, whereby it follow|eth that there died 43200 persons. Whereby is ga|thered that the citie of Canturburie, and the coun|trie thereabouts (the people whereof belike fled thi|ther for succor) was at that time verie well inhabi|ted, so as there haue no wanted (saith maister Lam|bert) which affirme that it had then more people than London it selfe.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 But now to our purpose.1112 Henr. Hunt. In the yéere next insu|ing, vpon the saturday in Easter wéeke, after that the bishop Elphegus had béene kept prisoner with them the space of six or seuen moneths, they cruellie in a rage led him foorth into the fields,The archbi|shop Elphe|gus murthe|red. and dashed out his braines with stones, bicause he would not re|déeme his libertie with thrée thousand pounds, which they demanded to haue beene leuied of his farmers and tenants. This cruell murther was committed at Gréenewich foure miles distant from London, the 19 of Aprill, where he lay a certeine time vnburied, but at length through miracles shewed (as they say,Miracles. for miracles are all wrought now by dead men, and not by the liuing) the Danes permitted that his bo|die might be caried to London,Elphegus bu|ried in Lon|don. and there was it bu|ried in the church of S. Paule, where it rested for the space of ten yeeres, till king Cnute or Knought had the gouernment of this land, by whose appointment it was remooued to Canturburie.Translated to Canturburie.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 3 Turkillus the leader of those Danes by whome the archbishop Elphegus was thus murthered, held Northfolke and Suffolke vnder his subiection, Wil. Malms. Turkillus held Norffolk and Suffolke. & so continued in those parties as chiefe lord and gouer|nor. But the residue of the Danes at length, com|pounding with the Englishmen for a tribute to be paid to them of eight thousand pounds,48 thousand pound as saith Sim. Dun. and M. West. Henr. Hunt. spred abroad in the countrie, soiorning in cities, townes and villa|ges, where they might find most conuenient har|bour. Moreouer, fortie of their ships, or rather (as some write) 45 were reteined to serue the king, pro|mising to defend the realme; with condition, that the souldiers and mariners should haue prouision of meate and drinke, with apparell found them at the kings charges. As one autor hath gathered Swaine king of Denmarke was in England at the conclu|ding of this peace, which being confirmed with so|lemne othes and sufficient hostages, he departed in|to Denmarke.

Compare 1577 edition: 1 2 The same author bringeth the generall slaughter of Danes vpon S. Brices day,Matth. West. to haue chanced in the yéere after the conclusion of this agréement, that is to say, in the yéere 1012, at what time Gunthildis the sister of king Swaine was slaine,Gunthildis the sister of K. Swaine mur|thered. with hir hus|band & hir sonne, by the commandement of the false traitor Edrike. But bicause all other authors agrée that the same murther of Danes was executed a|bout ten yéeres before this supposed time: we haue made rehearsall thereof in that place. Howbeit, for the death of Gunthildis, it maie be, that she became hostage either in the yéere 1007, at what time king Egelred paied thirtie thousand pounds vnto king Swaine to haue peace (as before you haue heard) or EEBO page image 171 else might she be deliuered in hostage, in the yéere 1011, when the last agréement was made with the Danes (as aboue is mentioned.) But when or at what time soeuer she became hostage, this we find of hir,Wil. Malm. that she came hither into England with hir hus|band Palingus, a mightie earle, and receiued bap|tisme héere. Wherevpon she earnestlie trauelled in treatie of a peace betwixt hir brother and king E|gelred: which being brought to passe chieflie by hir sute, she was contented to become an hostage for performance thereof (as before is recited.) And af|ter by the commandement of earle Edrike she was put to death, pronouncing that the shedding of hir bloud would cause all England one day sore to rue. She was a verie beautifull ladie, and tooke hir death without all feare, not once changing countenance, though she saw hir husband and hir onelie sonne (a yoong gentleman of much towardnesse) first mur|thered before hir face.