The Holinshed Project

Holinshed Project Home

The Texts

Previous | Next

5.91. Edwarde the elder.

Edwarde the elder.

[figure appears here on page 219]

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 AFter the deceaſe of king Alvred,Edward the el|der. 901. his ſon Ed|warde, ſurnamed the elder began his reygne ouer the more parte of Englande in the yeare of our Lord 901. which was in the . [...]. yere of the em|perour Lewis in the eight yeare of the reigne of Charles, ſurnamed Simplex, king of France, and about the .8. yeare of Donald king of Scotland. He was ſacred after the maner of other kyngs his aunceſters by Athelrede the Archebiſhop of Canterburie. This Edward was not ſo learned as his father, but in princely power more high & honorable, for he ioyned the kingdome of Eaſt|angles and Mercia with other vnto his domini|on, as after ſhall he ſhewed, and vanquiſhed the Danes, Scots, & Welchmen, to his great glory and high cõmendation. In the beginning of his reign he was diſquieted by his brother. Adelwold, which toke the town of Winborn beſides Bath,VVinborn [...]. and maried a Nunne there, which he had deflou|red, and attempted many things againſt his bro|ther. Whervpõ the king came to Bath, & though Adelwold ſhewed a countenance as if he would haue abyd the chaunce of warre within Wyn|borne, yet he ſtale awaye in the night, H. Hunt. Adelvvolde fleeth to the Danes. & fled into Northũberland, wher of the Danes he was ioy|fully receiued. The king toke his wife being lefte behind, & reſtored hir to ye houſe from whence ſhe was taken. Some haue written,VV. Malm. that this Adel|wolde or Ethelwolde, was not brother vnto EEBO page image 220 king Edwarde, but his vncles ſonne.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After this king Edwarde prouiding for the ſuretie of his ſubiectes againſt the forrays which the Danes vſed to make, fortifyed diuers cities and townes, and ſtuffed them with great garri|ſons of ſouldiors, to defend the inhabitants, and to repulſe the enimies. And ſurely the engliſhmen were ſo invred with warres in thoſe dayes,The Englishe nation practi|ſed in vvarres, goe commonly avvay vvith the victorie. that the people being aduertiſed of the inuaſion of the enimies in any part of their countrey, would aſ|ſemble oftentymes without knowledge of king or capitayne, and ſetting vpon the enimies, went commonly awaye with victorie, by reaſon that they ouermatched them bothe in number & pra|ctiſe. So were the enimies deſpiſed of the eng|liſhe ſouldiours, and laughed to ſcorn of the king for their fooliſhe attempts.H. Hunt. Yet in the third yeare of king Edwards reigne, Ethelwolde his bro|ther came with a Nauie of the Danes into the parties of the eaſtangles,Eſſex yelded to Athelvvold. and euen at the firſt the Eſſex men yelded themſelues vnto him. In the yere folowing he inuaded the countrey of Mer|cia with a mightie armie, waſting and ſpoyling the ſame vnto Cry [...]de,Ran. Hig [...]. and there paſſing ouer the Thames, rod [...] foorth til he came to Baſing|ſtoke, (or as ſome bookes haue Bri [...]tenden, [...].) ha|rying the countrey on eche ſyde, and ſo returned back into Eaſt angles with great ioy & triumph.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 King Edwarde awakened heerewith,H. Hunt. aſſem|bled his people, & folowed the enimies, waſting all the countreye betwixt the riuer of Ouſe and S. Edmunds ditch. And when he ſhuld returne, he gaue cõmandement, that no man ſhould ſtay behinde him, but come backe togither for doubte to be forelayd by the enimies.The K [...]|men diſobey [...] the king [...], are [...] by the king Edvva [...] [...]. The Kentiſhmen notwithſtanding this ordinance & cõmandemẽt, remained behind, although the king ſent .7. meſ|ſengers for them. The Danes awayting theſe aduantage, came togither, and fiercely foughte with the Kentiſhmen, which a long tyme vali|antly [figure appears here on page 220] defended themſelues. But in the ende the Danes obteyned the victorie, although they loſte more people there than the Kentiſhmen did: and amongeſt other, there were ſlaine the forſaid A|thelwold, & diuers of the chief captains amongſt the Danes. Likewiſe of the engliſh ſide, ther died ij. dukes, Siwolf & Singlem, or Sigbelm, with ſundry other mẽ of name, both tẽporal & alſo ſpi|ritual lords & Abbots. In the .v. yere of his reign K. Edward cõcluded a truce with the Danes of Eaſtangle & Northumberlãd at Itingford. But in the yere folowing, he ſent an army againſt thẽ of Northumberlãd, which ſlew many of ye Da|nes,Fortie dayes hath S. Dunel. and took great booties both of people & cattel, remaining in the countrey the ſpace of .v. wekes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The yere next enſuing, the Danes with a great armie entred into Mercia, to rob & ſpoile ye coun|trey, againſt whom king Edward ſent a mightie hoſt, aſſembled togither of the Weſtſaxons and them of Mercia, the which ſet vpon the Danes, as they were returning homeward, & ſlew of thẽ an huge multitude, together with their chief ca|pitaines and leaders, as king Halden, and kyng Eolwils, erle Vther, erle Scurfa, & diuers other.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the yeare .912. (or as Simon Dunel. hath 908.) the Duke of Mercia Edrid or Etheldred,H. Hunt. departed this life, and then king Edward ſeyſed into his handes the Cities of London and Ox|ford, and all that part of Mercia which he helde. But afterwards he ſuffered his ſiſter Elflede to enioy the moſt part therof, except the ſayde cities of London and Oxford, whiche he ſtill retayned in his owne hande. This Elfleda was wyfe to the ſayd duke Edrid or Etheldred, as before you haue hearde: Of whoſe worthy actes more ſhall be ſayde hereafter.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the nynthe yeare of his reigne kyng Ed|warde buylt a caſtell at Hartforde, and likewiſe EEBO page image 221 he buylded a towne in Eſſex at Wightham,VVitham. and lay himſelf in the meane time at Maldon, other|wiſe Meauldun, bringing a great part of ye coun|trey vnder his ſubiection, which before was ſub|iect to ye Danes. In the yere folowing, the armie of the Danes departed frõ Northãpton & Che|ſter in breach of the former truce,Cheſter, or ra|ther Leyceſter, as I thinke. & ſlew a greate number of men at Hocehneretõ in Oxfordſhire. And ſhortly after their return home, an other cõ|panie of them wẽt foorth and came to Leighton, where the people of the countrey beeing aſſem|bled togither,Liget [...]ne. fought with them, and put them to flight, taking frõ them all the ſpoyle whiche they had got, and alſo their horſes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the .xj. yere of king Edw. a fleet of Danes compaſſed aboute the Weſt partes, and came to the mouth of Seuerne, & ſo toke prayes in Wa|les: They alſo tooke priſoner a Welche biſhop named Camelgaret,Irchenfielde. at Irchenfield, whome they led to their ſhips: but king Edward redemed him out of their hands, paying to them .xl. lb for his raunſom. After that the armie of Danes went foorth to ſpoyle the countrey about Irchingfield, but the people of Cheſter, Hereforde, and other townes and countreys therabout, aſſembled togi|ther, and giuing battayl to the enimies, put them to flight, and ſlewe one of their noble men called Earle Rehald,Danes diſcom|fited. and Geolcil the brother of Earle Vter, with a great part of their armie, and draue the reſidue into a Caſtell, whiche they beſieged till the Danes within it gaue hoſtages, and co|uenanted to depart out of the kings lande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The king cauſed the coaſts about Seuerne to be watched, that they ſhould not breake into his countrey: But yet they ſtale twice into the bor|ders: neuertheles they wer chaſed & ſlain ſo ma|ny as coulde not ſwim, and ſo get to their ſhips.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Then they remayned in the Ile of Stepen, in great miſerie for lacke of victuals,The yle of Stepen. De [...]omedun. Danes ſayle into Irelande. bycauſe they coulde not go abroade to get any. At length they departed into Northwales, & from thẽce ſayled into Ireland.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The ſame yeare king Edward came to Buc|kingham with an armie, and ther taried a whole moneth, building two caſtels, the one vpon the one ſide of the water of Ouſe, and the other vpon the other ſide of the ſame riuer. He alſo ſubdued Turketyllus an Erle of the Danes that dwelte in that countrey,Turketellus an earle. with all the reſidue of the noble men and barons of the ſhires of Bedforde and Northampton.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 In the .xij. yere of K. Edwards reigne, ye Ken|tiſhmen & Danes fought togither at Holme: but whether partie had the victorie, writers haue not declared.Si. Dunelm. Simon Dunelm. ſpeaketh of a batayle which the citizens of Canterbury fought ageinſt a number of Daniſh rouers at Holme, wher the Danes were put to flight, but that ſhould be (as he noteth an .8. yeres before this ſuppoſed time, as in the yere .904. whiche was aboute the thirde yere of king Edw. reigne. After this other of the Danes aſſembled thẽſelues togither,An. 912. Sim. Dun. & in Staf|fordſhire at a place called Tottẽhal, fought with the Engliſhmen, & after great ſlaughter made on bothe parties, the Danes were ouercome: and ſo likewiſe were they ſhortly after at Woodfield, or Wodenfield. And thus K. Edw. put the Danes to the worſe in eche place commonly where hee came, and hearing that thoſe in Northumberlãd ment to breake the peace: he inuaded the countrey and ſo afflicted the ſame, that the Danes whiche were inhabitants there, gladly continued in reſt and peace. But in this meane tyme, Polidore. Erick king of Eaſtangles. Ericke the king of thoſe Danes which helde the countrey of eaſtangle was about to procure new warre, and to allure other of the Danes to ioyn with him a|gainſt the Engliſhmen, that with cõmon agree|ment, they might ſette vpon the engliſhe nation, and vtterly ſubdue them.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 King Edw. hauing intelligence hereof,King Edvvard inuadeth the countrey of the Eaſtangles. purpo|ſed to preuent him, & therevpon entryng with an armie into his countrey, cruelly waſted & ſpoyled the ſame. K. Erick hauing alreadie his people in armour through diſpleſure conceiued hereof, and deſire to be reuenged, haſted foorthe to encounter his enimies: And ſo they met in the field & fierce|ly aſſayled eche other. But as the battaile was raſhly begon on king Ericks ſide, ſo was the end very harmeful to him:Ericke put to flight. for with ſmall a doe after great loſſe on his ſide, was he vanquiſhed and put to flight.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 And after his comming home, bycauſe of his great ouerthrowe and foule diſcomfiture, he be|gan to gouerne his people with more rigour and ſharp dealing thã before time he had vſed. Wher|by he prouoked the malice of the Eaſtangles ſo highly againſt him yt they fell vpon him & mur|thered him: yet did they not gain ſo much hereby as they looked to haue doone: for ſhortely after, they being brought lowe,The kingdome of the Eaſtan|gles ſubdued by K. Edvvard. and not able to defende their countrey, were compelled to ſubmit them ſelues vnto king Edw. And ſo was that king|dome ioyned vnto the other dominions of the ſame king Edwarde, who ſhortly after annexed alſo the kingdome of Mercia vnto other of his dominions, immediatly vpon the death of his ſi|ſter Elfleda, whome he permitted to gouern that countrey during hir lyfe. And not without good reaſon, for by hir wyfe & politike order vſed in all hir doings, he was greately furthered and aſſi|ſted. But namely in reparing and buyldyng of Townes and Caſtelles,H. Hunt. Mat. VVest. Sim. Dunel. ſhee ſhewed hir noble magnificence, in ſo muche that during the time of hir gouernaunce whiche continued an eyght yeares, it is recorded by wryters, that ſhe did buylde and repare theſe Townes, whoſe names EEBO page image 222 heere enſewe: [...] and VVarvvike. 91 [...]. Thamwoorth beſide Lichefielde, Stafford, Warwike, Shrewſburye, Waterſ|bury or Weddeſbury, Elileſbury or rather Ed|bury in the foreſt of De la mere beſides Cheſter, Brimſbery bridge vpon Seuerne, Rouncorn at the mouth of the riuer of Mercie with other.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Cheſter repa|red. 905. Sim. Dunel. Moreouer, by hir helpe the citie of Cheſter whiche by Danes had bin greately defaced, was newly repaired, fortified with walles and turrets and greatly enlarged. So that the caſtell whiche ſtoode without the walles before that tyme was now brought within compaſſe of the new wall.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Moreouer ſhe boldely aſſaulted hir enimyes whiche wente aboute to trouble the ſtate of the countrey as the Welchemen, and Danes. She ſent an armie into Wales,Queene of the VVelchmen taken. Brecanamere. Ran. Higd. H. Hunt. 918. Derby vvon from the Danes and tooke the towne of Brecknocke with the Queene of the Welch|men at Bricennamere. Alſo ſhe wan from the Danes the towne of Darby, and the countrey adioyning.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 In this enterpriſe ſhe put hir owne perſon in great aduẽture: for a great multitude of Danes, yt were withdrawen into Derby, valiãtly defen|ded the gates and entries, inſomuche that they ſlew foure of hir chief men of warre, which wer named Wardens of hir perſon, euen faſt by hir at the very entrie of the gates. But his notwith|ſtanding, with valiãt fight hir people entred, and ſo the towne was wonne: ſhe gotte diuers other places out of their handes, and conſtrained them of Yorkeſhire to agree with hir, ſo that ſome of them promiſed to become hir ſubiectes: Some promiſed to ayde hir, and ſome ſware to be at hir cõmaundement. Finally this martiall Lady and manly Elfleda,H. Hunt. the ſupporter of hir coũtrey|men and terrour of the enimies, Anno Chriſti 919. Mat. VVest. St. Dunelm. departed this life at Thamworth aboute the .xij. of Iune, in the xviij. or rather .xix. yeare of hir brother king Ed|wards reigne, as by Math. Weſt it ſhould ap|peare. But Simon Dunelm. writeth, that ſhe deceaſſed in the yeare of Chriſt .915. which ſhould be about the .xiiij. yeare of king Edwards reign. Hir bodie was conueyed to Glouceſter, and there buried within the monaſterie of S. Peter, which hir huſband and ſhe in their life tyme had buyl|ded, and tranſlated thither the bones of Sainct Oſwyll from Bardona.Ranul. The ſame monaſterie was after deſtroyed by Danes. But Aldredus the archbiſhop of Yorke, who was alſo biſhop of Worceſter, repared an other in the ſame Ci|tie, that was after the chiefe Abbey there.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After the deceaſe of Elfieda, king Edwarde toke the dominion of Mercia as before we haue ſayde) into his owne handes, and ſo diſinherited his neece Alfwen, or Elſwen, the daughter of Elfleda,This Alfvven vvas ſiſter to Edelfled, as H. Hunt. hath. takyng hir awaye wyth him into the countrey of Weſtſaxons. By thys meanes he ſo amplifyed the boundes of his kingdome, that he had the moſt parte of all this Ilande of Br [...]|tayne at his commaundement: [...]. for the [...] of the Welchmen (namely the kyng of [...], and of the Scots, acknowledging hym to be their chiefe ſoueraigne Lorde, and the Da|nes in Northumberland were kept ſo ſhort that they durſt attempt nothing againſte him in his latt [...]r dayes: ſo that he had tyme to applye the buildyng and reparing of Cities, townes,King [...] a great [...] and [...] Notingham bridge [...]. and caſtels wherin he ſo muche delighted. He buylded a newe towne at Notingham on the ſouthſyde of Trent, and made a bridge ouer that riuer be|twixt the olde towne and the newe. Mat. VVeſt. Mancheſter repared. An. 5 [...]6. Sim. Dun. He alſo re|pared Mancheſter beyonde the riuer of Mercie in Lancaſhire, accompted as then in the ſouthe ende of Northumberlande, & he buylt a Towne of auncient writers called Thilwall, nere to the ſame riuer of Mercie, and placed therin a garri|ſon of ſouldiers: diuers other townes and caſtels he buylt, as two at Buckingham on eyther ſide the water of Ou [...]e (as before is ſhewed and alſo one at the mouth of the riuer of Auon. Hee like|wiſe buylt or new repared the townes of [...]oce|tor and Wigmore, with diuers other,H. Hunt. as one at Glademuth, about the laſt yeare of his reigne. Some alſo he deſtroyed whiche ſeemed to ſerue the enimies turne for harbrough, as at Temneſ|forde, a Caſtell, whyche the Danes had buylded and fortifyed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 At lengthe after that this noble Prince king Edward had reigned ſomewhat aboue the terme of .xxiij. yeares, hee was taken out of this lyfe at Faringdon: His bodie was conueyed frõ thence vnto Wincheſter, and there buried in the newe Abbey. He hadde .iij. wyues, or (as ſome haue written) but two, affirming that Edgiua was not his wife, but his concubine, of whom he be|gat his eldeſt ſonne Adelſtane, Polid [...]re. A [...]. who ſucceded him in the kingdome. This Edgiua (as hathe bene reported) dreamed on a tyme, that there roſe a Moone out of hir belly, whiche with the brighte ſhine thereof gaue light ouer all Englande: and telling hir dreame to an ancient Gentlewoman, the ſame Gentlewoman coniecturyng by the dreame that whiche folowed, tooke care of hir, and cauſed hir to bee brought vp in good man|ners and lyke a Gentlewoman, though ſhe were borne but of baſe parentage.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Herevpon when ſhe came to ripe yeares, king Edwarde by chaunce commyng to the place where ſhe was remaynyng, vpon the firſt ſighte was ſtreight rauiſhed with hir beautie (whiche in deede excelled) that ſhe coulde not reſte till he had his pleaſure of hir, and ſo begat of hir the for|ſayde Adelſtane: By hir he had alſo a daughter that was maryed vnto Sithrike a Dane, and king of Northumberlande.Mat. VVeſt. Polyd. The Scottiſh wri|ters name hir Beatrice, but oure writers name EEBO page image 223 hir Editha. His ſeconde or rather his fyrſt wyfe if he were not maried to Eguina mother to A|delſtane, highte Elfleda, or Elfrida, and was daughter to one erle Ethelme: by hir he had iſſue two ſonnes Ethelward and Edwyn, which im|mediatly departed this life after their father:The iſſue of K. Edvvard. & vj. daughters Elfleda, Edgiua, Ethelhilda, Ethil|da, Egditha, & Elfgiua. Elfleda becam a Nũne [...] and Ethelhilda alſo liued in perpetuall virgini|tie, but yet in lay habite. Egditha was maried to the king of Fraunce Charles,Alias Edgiua. ſurnamed Sim|plex. VV. Malm. And Ethilda by help of hir brother Adelſtan was beſtowed vpon Hugh ſonne to Robert earle of Paris, for hir ſingular beautie moſte highly e|ſtemed: for nature in hir had ſhewed as it were hir whole cunning, in perfecting hir with all gifts and properties of a comely perſonage. Edgiua and Edgitha were ſent by their brother Adelſtan into Germanie, vnto the Emperour Henry, who beſtowed one of them vpon his ſonne Otho, that was after Emperor, the firſte of that name, and the other vnto a duke, inhabiting about ye Alpes: By his laſt wife named Edgiua, he had alſo two ſonnes, Edmunde and Eldred, the whiche both reigned after their brother Adelſtane ſucceſſiuely. Alſo he had by hir two daughters, Edburge that was made a Nunne, and Edgiue, a lady of ex|cellent beautie, whom hir brother Adelſtan gaue in mariage vnto Lewys king of Aquitayn.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Whyles this lande was in continuall trouble of warres againſte the Danes,Ran. Higd. VVil. Mal. Mat. VVest. as before is tou|ched, ſmall regarde was hadde to the ſtate of the Church, inſomuch that the whole country of the Weſtſaxons by the ſpace of .7. yeres together (in the days of this K. Edward) remained withoute any Biſhop, to take order in matters appertey|ning to the church.England firſt accurſed. Whervpon the Pope had ac|curſed the engliſh people, bicauſe they ſuffred the Biſhops ſeas to be vacant ſo long a time.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 King Edward to auoyd the curſſe, aſſembled a prouincial Coũcel .905.An. 9035 in the which the Arch|biſhop of Canterbury Pleymond was preſident. Wherein it was ordeyned, yt where the prouince of Weſtſaxõs in tymes paſt had but .ij. biſhops, now it ſhoulde be deuided into .v. dioceſſes, euery of them to haue a peculiar Biſhoppe. When all things were ordered and concluded in this Sy|node (as was thought requiſite,) the Archbiſhop was ſent to Rome with rich preſents, to appeaſe the Popes diſpleaſure. When the Pope had herd what order the king had taken, he was contented therewith. And ſo the Archebiſhop returned into his countrey, and in one day at Canterbury or|deined .vij. biſhoppes, as fiue to the Prouince of Weſtſaxons,VVincheſter. Cornevvall. Shirborne. VVelles. Kyrton. Mertis. that is to wit, Frideſtane to the ſea of Wincheſter, Adelſtanto S. German in Cor|newal, Werſtan to Shirborn, Adelme to Wel|les, and Edulfe to Kirton. Alſo to the prouince of Suſſex, hee ordeyned one Bernegus, and to Dorcheſter for the prouince of Mertia, one Ce|nulfe. Here muſt ye note,VVil Malmſ. ſaith that Pope Formoſus pro|nounced thys curſe. that where William Malmeſ. Polichro. and other do affirme, ye Pope Formoſus did accurſe K. Edward & the engliſhe nation for ſuffring the biſhops ſeas to be vacant, it cannot ſtand with the agreement of the tyme,904. vnleſſe that the curſe pronounced by Formoſus for this matter long afore was not regarded, till Edward tooke reſpect therto. For the ſame For|moſus began to gouerne the Romane ſea aboute the yeare of our Lord .892.892. Polidore. and liued in the papa|cie not paſt .vj. yeres, ſo that he was deade before king Edward came to the crowne. But how ſo euer this matter may fall out, this ye haue to cõ|ſider: Although that Pleymound was ſent vnto Rome to aduertiſe the Pope what the king had decreed and done, in the ordeyning of Biſhops to their ſeueral ſeas as before ye haue heard, yet (as Maſter Fore hath noted) the gouernaunce and direction of the Church depended chiefly vppon the kings of this lande in thoſe days, as it mani|feſtly appeareth, as wel by the decrees of K. Al|vred, as of this king Edward, whoſe authoritie in the election of Biſhops (as before ye haue herd) ſeemed then alone to be ſufficient.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Moreouer this I haue thought good to aduer|tiſe you of in this place, that this Pleymond Ar|chebiſhop of Canterbury (of whom ye haue herd before) was the .xix. in number from Auguſtine the firſt Archbiſhop there: for after Brightwold that was the .viij. in nũber, & firſt of the engliſhe nation that gouerned the ſea, ſucceeded Tadvyn, that ſat .iij. yeres: Notelyn .v. yeares: Cuthberte xviij. yeres, Brethwyn .3. yeres. Lãbert .27. yeres, Adelard .13. yeres Wilfred .xxviij. yeres, Theolo|gildus or Pleogildus .iij. yeares, Celuotus, or Chelutus .x. yeares. And after them ſucceeded Aldred, of whome King Edwarde receyued the crowne, and he was predeceſſour to Pleymond.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 A little before the death of king Edward,H. Hunt. Si|thrike the king of Northumberlande, killed his brother Nigellus, and then king Reynold con|quered the Citie of Yorke.

Previous | Next