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5.88. Ethelbald and Ethelbright.

Ethelbald and Ethelbright.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Ethel|hald & Ethel|bright. [figure appears here on page 208] EThelbalde & Ethelbright deuiding theyr fathers Kyng|dome betwixte them, began to raigne, Ethel|balde ouer the Weſt Saxons, and the South Saxons, & E|thelbrighte ouer them of Kent and Eſſex, in the yere of our Lorde 857. which was in the ſecond yere of the Empe|rour Lewes the ſecõd,857 and the .17. of Charles ſur|named Calvus or the bald K. of Fraunce, and a|bout the firſt yere of Donald ye fifth of that name K. of the Scottes.The vnlawfull marriage of Ethelbalde. VVil. Malm. The ſaid Ethelbald greatly to his reproche tooke to wife his mother in lawe Q. Iudith, or rather as ſome write his own mother, whome his father had kept to concubine. He liued not paſt fiue yeres in gouernement of the Kyng|dome, but was taken out of this life, to the greate ſorow of his ſubiects, whome he ruled right wor|thily, and ſo as they had him in great loue and e|ſtimatiõ. Then his brother Ethelbright tooke vp|pon him the rule of the whole, gouerning as well ouer the Weſt Saxons and them of Suſſex, as ouer the Kentiſhmen and them of Eſſex.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In his dayes the Danes came a land, and de|ſtroyed the Citie of Wincheſter: Hen. Hunt. Wincheſter deſ [...]royed by Danes. but Duke Oſ|rike with them of Hamſhire, and Duke Adelwolf with the Barkſhire men gaue the enimies battel, and vanquiſhing them, [...]. ſlew of them a great nũ|ber. In the fifth yeare of Ethelbrightes raigne, a nauie of the Danes ariued at the Iſle of Tenet, vnto whome when the Kentiſhmen had promi|ſed a ſumme of money to haue a truce graunted for a time, the Danes one night before the tearme of that truce was expired, brake foorth and waſted all the Eaſt part of Kent: wherevppon the Ken|tiſhmen aſſembling togither, made towards thoſe tru [...]ebreakers, and cauſed them to depart out of ye countrey. The ſame yere, after that Ethelbrighte had ruled wel & peaceably the Weſt Saxons fiue yeres, and the Kentiſhmẽ ten yeres, he ended this life, and was buried at Shireborne, as his brother Ethelbald was before him.

5.89. Ethelred.


Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 208] AFter E|thelbrighte ſucceeded hys brother Ethel|red,Ethel|red. and began his raigne ouer the Weſt Sa|xons, and the more part of ye Engliſhe peo|ple, in the yere of our Lord .867. and in ye twelfth yere of ye Em|peroure Lewes,867 in the .27. yeare of the raigne of Charles Calvus K. of France, and about the .6. yeare of Conſtantine the ſeconde K. of Scottes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 This Ethelred was in tyme of peace a moſt curteous prince, and one yt by all kinde of meanes ſought to winne ye harts of his people: but abroade in the warres he was ſharp and ſterne, as he that vnderſtood what apperteined to good order, ſo that he would ſuffer no offence to eſcape vnpuniſhed. By whiche meanes he was famous both in peace and warre: but hee neither liued any long time in the gouernment, nor yet was ſuffered to paſſe the ſhort while that he raigned in reſt or quietneſſe: for wher as he raigned not paſt ſixe yeres,4. yeres fore monethes ſaith [...] VVil. Malm. Ethelred [...] fought with the Danes [...] times in one yeare. he was continually during that tearme vexed with the inuaſion of the Danes, and ſpecially towards the latter end, in ſo much, that as hath bin reported of writers, hee fought with them nine times in one yere: and although with diuers and variable for|tune, yet for the more part he went away with ye victory. Beſide that, he oftentimes lay in awayte for their forragers, and ſuch as ſtrayed abrode to robbe and ſpoile the countrey, whom he met with all, and ouerthrew. There were ſlayne in his time nine Earles of thoſe Danes, and one King, beſide other of the meaner ſort without number. But here is to be vnderſtoode, that in this meane tyme whileſt Ethelred was buſied in warre to reſiſt the inuaſions of the Danes in the South and Weſt EEBO page image 209 partes of this lande the kings and rulers of Mer|cia and Northumberland, taking occaſion ther|of,The kings of Mercia and Northumber|lande neglecte their duties. began to withdraw their couenanted ſubiecti|on from the Weſtſaxons, and tooke vpon them, as it were the abſolute gouernement and rule of their countreys without reſpect to ayde one ano|ther, but rather were contented to ſuſtein the eni|mies within their dominions than to preuent the iniurie with dutifull aſſiſting thoſe to whome by allegiance they were bounde to ſerue and obeye. By reaſon wherof,The Danes grovve in puiſ|ſance. the Danes without reſiſtance grew into greater power amongſt them whyleſt the inhabitantes were ſtill put in feare eche day [...] more than other, and euery late gotten victorie by the enimies by the increaſe of priſoners, mini|ſtred occaſion of ſome other conqueſt to followe. Euen about the beginning of kyng Ethelrede [...] reigne, there arriued vppon the Engliſh coaſtes an huge armie of the Danes, vnder the conducte of two renoumed capitaines Hungar and Hub|ba,Hungar and Vbba. men of meruailous ſtrengthe and valiancie, but bothe of them paſſing cruell of nature. They laye all the Winter ſeaſon in Eaſtangle,H. Hunt. com|pounding with them of the countreye for truce vpon certaine conditions, ſparing for a tyme to ſhewe theyr force for quietneſſe ſake.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the ſeconde yeare of king Etheldred the ſaid capitains came with their armie into York|ſhyre, finding the countrey vnprouided of neceſ|ſarie defence bicauſe of the ciuil diſcord that reig|ned amongſt the Northumbers, the whiche had lately expulſed king Oſbrighte,King Osbright depoſed and Ella placed. that had the go|uernement of thoſe parties, and placed one El|la in his roomth: but nowe they were conſtray|ned to reuoke him home agayne, and ſoughte to accorde him and Ella. But it was long ere that myght be brought to paſſe, notwithſtanding yet at lengthe they were made frendes by reaſon of this inuaſion attempted by forain enemies, and then reyſing their powers they came to Yorke, where the Danes, hauing waſted the countrey [...] euen to the ryuer of Tyne, were lodged.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Engliſh hoſte entryng the citie, beganne to fyghte wyth the Danes, by reaſon whereof a ſore battayle enſued betwixte them:Osbright and Ella kinges of Northumber|lande ſlayne. but in the ende the two kynges Oſbrighte and Ella were ſlayn, and a great number of the Northumbers what within the Citie, and what without, loſte theyr lyues at that tyme, the reſidue were con|ſtrayned to take truce with the Danes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 It muſt be vpõ the .10. calendes of April, or elſe it vvil not cõ|curie vvith Palmeſunday. Se Ma. VVeſt.Thys battayle was fought the .xxj. daye of Marche, on the Fryday before Palmeſundaye, in the yeare .657.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Some haue written otherwyſe of thys bat|tayle, reportyng that the Northumbers reuo|kyng home king Oſbright (whome before they hadde banyſhed) encounter wyth the Danes in the fielde, without the walles of Yorke, but they were eaſyly beaten backe, and chaſed into the Citie, the whyche by the Danes purſuyng the victorie, was ſette on fyre and brente,Yorke bren [...] by Danes. togyther with the king and people that were fledde into it for ſuccour.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Howe ſoeuer it came aboute, certayne it is, that the Danes gotte the victorie, and now ha|uyng ſubdued the Northumbers, appoynted one Egberte to reygne ouer them as kyng, vn|der their protection, whiche Egberte reigned in that ſorte ſixe yeeres ouer thoſe whyche inhabi|ted beyonde the riuer of Tyne.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The ſame yeare Adelſtane, the Biſhoppe of Shirborne departed this lyfe, hauyng gouerned that ſea the terme of fiftie yeares.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Adelſtane was a man of hyghe wyſe|dome,The cõmenda|tion of Adel|ſtan bishop of Shirborne. and one that had borne no ſmall rule in the kingdome of the Weaſtſaxons, as hereby it may be coniectured, that when kyng Ethelwolf returned from Rome, hee would not ſuffer him to bee admitted king, bycauſe he hadde doons in certayne poynts conttarie to the ordinance and lawes of the ſame kingdome, whervpon by this biſhops meanes Ethelbald the ſonne of the ſame king Ethelwolfe was eſtabliſhed Kyng, and ſo continued till by agreement the kingdome was deuided betwixte them, as beefore is mencio|ned.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 He greatly enriched the ſea of Shirborne,Bishop Adel|ſtan couetous. H. Hunt. and yet thoughe hee was feruentely ſette on coue|touſneſſe, hee was neuertheleſſe verye free and liberall.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the yeare followyng, that is to witte, in the thyrde yeare of Etheldredes reygne,Burthred king of Mercia. the ſame Ethelred, wyth hys brother Alvred, went to ayde Burthred Kyng of Mercia, agaynſte the two foreſayde Daniſh Capitaynes Hungar and Vbba, the whiche were entered into Mer|cia, and had wonne the towne of Notingham, and lodged within the ſame towne for the win|ter ſeaſon. Wherevppon the foreſayde Ethelred and Burthred with their powers came to No|tingham, and beſieged the Danes within it.Danes beſie|ged in Noting|ham.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Danes perceiuing themſelues in daun|ger, made ſuite for a truce and abſtinence of of warre, whiche they obteyned, and then de|parted backe to Yorke, where they ſoiourned the moſte parte of all that yeare.

In the fourthe yeare of kyng Ethelred, the Danes comming into Eaſtangle, cruelly ſlewe that bleſſed man king Edmunde, as after ſhall be ſhewed, 4. Nouemb. feria. 2.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the ſixte yeare of kyng Ethelreds reigne a newe armye of greate force and power came into the countrey of the Weaſtſaxons vnder two leaders or kyngs of Danes,Baſreeg and Halden. Baſreeg and Haldene.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 They lodged at R [...]ding wt their mayn army, & EEBO page image 210 within .iij. days after the Earle of Barrockſhire Edelwolf fought at Englefield with two earles of thoſe Danes,Edelvvolfe Erle of Barke| [...]hire fought at Englefielde vvith the Da|nes. vanquiſhed them, and ſlewe the one of thoſe Erles, whoſe name was Sidracke. After this king Ethelred and his brother Alvred came with a great hoſt vnto Reding, & ther gaue bataile vnto the armie of Danes, ſo that an huge number of people dyed on bothe partes, but the Danes had the victorie.The Danes vvan the vic|torie at Rea|ding.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After this alſo king Ethelred and his brother Alvred fought again with thoſe Danes at Aſch|don, where the armies on both ſides were diuided into .ij. parts, ſo yt the two Daniſh kings led the one part of their armie, & certain of their Earles led the other parte. Likewiſe on the Engliſhe ſide king Ethelred was placed with one parte of the hoſt againſt ye Daniſh kings, & Alvred with the other parte was appointed to encounter with the Erles. Herevpon they being on both parts ready to giue batail, the euening cõming on cauſed thẽ to deferre it till the morrow. And ſo early in the morning when the armies ſhoulde ioyne, Kyng Etheldred ſtayed in his tente to heare diuine ſer|uice, whyleſt his brother vpon a forwarde cou|rage haſted to encounter his enimies, the whiche receyued him ſo ſharply, and with ſo cruel fight, [figure appears here on page 210] that at length, the Engliſhmen were at poynte to haue turned their backes: but herewith came king Ethelred and manfully renued the battaile, ſtayed his people from renning away, and ſo en|couraged them, and diſcoraged the enimies, that by the power of God, (whõ as was thought in the morning he hadde ſerued) the Danes finally were chaſed and put to flight,The Danes diſcomfited. loſing one of their kings (that is to ſay) Baſreeg or Oſrec, and .v. Erles, Sidroc the elder, and Sidroc the yonger, Oſbern, Freyn, and Harold. This battayl was fore foughten and continued tyll night, with the ſlaughter of many thouſandes of Danes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 About .xiiij. days after, king Ethelred and his brother Alvred fought eftſoones with the Daniſh armie at Baſing, where the Danes hadde the victorie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Alſo two moneths after this, they lykewiſe fought with the Danes at Merton.A battayle at Merton. And there the Danes after they had bene put to the worſe, and purſued in chaſe a long tyme, yet at lengthe they alſo got the victorie,He vvas bi|shop of Shir|borne as Math. VVeſt. hath noted. in which battayle Ed|mund biſhop of Shirborne was ſlayn, and ma|ny other that were men of woorthye fame and good accompte.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In ſommer following, a mightie hoſte of the Danes came to Reding, and there ſoiorned for a tyme.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Theſe thinges agree not (I remember wel) with that whiche Polidore Vergile hathe writ|ten of theſe warres whiche king Ethelred hadde with the Danes:Polid. Verg. for he maketh mencion of one Ivarus a king of the Danes,Ivarus. who landed (as he writeth) at the mouthe of Humber, and lyke a ſtoute enimie inuadeth the countrey adioyning, Againſt whom Etheldred with his brother Al|vred came with an armie, and encountring the Danes, fought with thẽ by the ſpace of a whole day togither, and was in daunger to haue bin put to the worſſe, but that the nighte ſeuered them aſunder.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the morning they ioyned againe: but the death of Ivarus, who chaunced to be ſlayne in the begynnyng of the battayle, diſcouraged the Danes, ſo that they were eaſily put to flighte,Danes put to flight. of whome (before they coulde get out of danger) a great number were ſlayne.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But after that they had recouered themſelues togither, and found out a cõuenient place where to pitche theyr campe, they choſe to theyr Capi|pitaynes Agnerus, and Hubo, two bretherne,Agnerus and Hubo. whiche indeuoured them ſelues by all meanes poſſible to repayre theyr armie: ſo that within fifteene dayes after, the Danes eftſoones fought wyth the Engliſhmenne, and gaue them ſuche an ouerthrowe, that little wanted of makyng an ende of all encounters to bee attempted after by the Engliſhemen.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But yet within a fewe dayes after this, as the Danes attended theyr market to ſpoyle the countrey and raunge ſomewhat licenciouſly a|broade, they fell wythin the daunger of ſuche ambuſhes as were layd for them by king Ethel|dred, that no ſmalle ſlaughter was made of them, but yet not withoute ſome loſſe of the Engliſhmenne. Emongſt other, Ethelred him|ſelfe receyued a wounde, whereof he ſhortely af|ter dyed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 EEBO page image 211Thus hath Polyd. touching the warres which king Etheldred had wyth the Danes, who yet confeſſeth as the truth is, that ſuche Authors as he herein folowed, varie muche from that which the Daniſh writers do recorde of theſe matters, and namely touching the doings of Ivarus, as in the Danyſhe hiſtorye you maye ſee more at large.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But now to oure purpoſe touching the death of king Ethelred, whether by reaſon of hurt re|ceyued in fight againſt the Danes (as Polydore ſayth) or otherwiſe, certain it is, that Etheldred anone after Eaſter departed this lyfe, in the ſixte yeare of his reigne,VVynborne abbey. and was buried at Wyn|born abbey.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Agnere. Fabian. In the days of this Ethelred, the forſaid Da|niſhe capitaines, Hungar, otherwiſe called Ag|nerus, and Hubba returning from the Northe parties into the countrey of Eaſtangles,870. came vnto Thetford, wherof Edmunde, who reigned as king in that ſeaſon ouer the Eaſtangles, being aduertiſed,Edmund K. of the Eaſt angles. he rayſed an armie of men, and wente foorthe to giue battayle vnto this armie of the Danes.Framyngham caſtell. But he with his people was chaſed out of the fielde and fled to the caſtell of Framyng|ham, where being enuironed with a ſiege by his enimies, hee yelded him ſelfe vnto them. And bicauſe he would not renounce the chriſtian faith they bound him to a tree,King Edmund ſhot to death. & ſhot arrows at him til he dyed: & afterwards cut off his head from his bodie, and threw the ſame into a thicke groue of buſhes But afterwards his frẽds tooke the bodie with the head,Egleſdone. and buried the ſame at Egleſdon: where afterwarde alſo a faire monaſterie was buylded by one biſhop Aſwyn, and chaungyng the name of the place, it was after called Sainte Edmundeſbury. Thus was king Edmund put to death by the cruel Danes for his conſtant cõ|feſſing the name of Chriſte in the .xvj. yeare of his reigne, and fo ceaſed the kingdome of Eaſt|angles.VVil. Mal. For after that the Danes hadde thus ſlaine that bliſſed man, they conquered the hole countrey,Eaſtãgle vvith|out a gouernor and waſted it ſo that through their ty|rãnie it remayned without any gouernor by the ſpace of nine yeares, and then they appoynted a king to rule ouer it,Guthrun a Da|ne king of eaſt angle. whoſe name was Guthrun, one of their owne nation, who gouerned bothe the Eaſtangles and the Eaſtſaxons.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Ye haue heard how the Danes ſlew Oſryke & Ella kings of Northumberland. After which victorie by them obteyned, they did muche hurte in the north parties of this lande and amongeſt other cruell deedes,Polychron. they deſtroyed the Citie of Acl [...]yd, which was a famous Citie in the tyme of the olde Saxons, as by Beda and other wry|ters it dothe manifeſtly appeare.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Here is to be remembred, that ſome wryters reherſe the cauſe to be this:Caxton.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Oſbright or Oſricke king of Northumber|lande rauiſhed the wyfe of one Bearne that was a noble man of the countrey about Yorke, who tookeſuche great deſpite thereat, that hee fledde out of the lande, and went into Denmarke, and there complained vnto the king of Denmarke that was his couſin, of the [...] done to hym by king Oſbright. Whervpon the king of Den+mark glad to haue ſo iuſt a quarell againſt them of Northumberlande, furnyſhed foorthe an ar|mie, and ſente the ſame by Sea, (vnder the lea|dyng of hys two brethren Hungar and Hub|ba) into Northumberland, where they flew firſt the ſayd kyng Oſbrighte, and after king Ella, at a place beſides Yorke, whiche vnto thys daye is called Elles crofte, takyng that name of the ſayde Elle, beeing there ſlayne in defence of hys countrey againſt the Danes. Whyche Ella (as we fynde regiſtred by wryters) was elected king by ſuche of the Northumbers, as in fauour of Berne had refuſed to be ſubiect vnto Oſbright.

5.90. Alvred or Alfred.

Alvred or Alfred.

[figure appears here on page 211]

Compare 1587 edition: 1 AFter the deceaſe of King Ethelred, his bro|ther Alvred or Alfrede ſucceeded him,Alvred or Al|fred. and beganne hys reigne ouer the Weaſt Saxons, and other the more parte of the people of En|glande, in the yeare of our Lorde eyght hundred ſeuentie and two, whiche was in the ninteenth yeere of the Emperour Lewys the ſeconde,871. as Math. VVeſt. & Si [...] Duneſmen. do [...] note [...]. H. Hunt. and two and thirtieth yeare of the reigne of Char|les, ſurnamed Caluus or the balde Kyng of Fraunce, and about the eleuenth yeare of Con|ſtantine the ſeconde king of Scotland.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Although that this Alvred was ſacred King in his fathers lyfe tyme by Pope Leo (as before you haue heard,) yet was he not admitted king at home, till after the deceaſe of his three elder brethren: for he being the youngeſt, was kepte backe from the gouernement, though he were for his wiſedome and policie moſt highly eſteemed and had in all honour.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the beginning of his reigne he was wrap|ped in many great troubles and miſeries,Alvred perſe|cuted by Da|nes. ſpeci|ally by the perſecution of the Danes, whiche made ſore and gree [...]ous warres in ſundry parts of this lande, deſtroying the ſame in moſte EEBO page image 212 cruell wyſe. About a moneth after he was made kyng,Mat. VVeſt. he gaue battayl to the Danes at Wilton, hauing with him no great number of people, ſo that although in the beginning the Danes that day were put to the worſe,The Danes ob| [...]eyne the vic|torie. yet in the end they ob|teined the victorie. Shortly after, a truce was ta|ken betwixt the Danes and the Weſtſaxons. And the Danes that hadde lyen at Reading,The Danes [...]vintered at London. re|moued from thence vnto London, where they laye all the winter ſeaſon.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the ſeconde yeare of Alvred his reigne, the Danyſhe kyng Halden ledde the ſame armye from London into Lindſey, and there lodged all that Winter at Torkſey.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the yeare following, the ſame Halden in|uaded Mercia,874. [...]epton. and wintred at Ripingdon. Ther were come to him three other leaders of Danes, whiche our writers name to be kings, Godrun, Eſketell, and Ammond, ſo that their power was greatly increaſed.Burthred king Mercia.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Burthred king of Mercia whiche had gouer|ned that countrey by the ſpace of .xxij. yeres, was not able to withſtande the puiſſance of thoſe eni|mies. And ſo thervpon he was conſtrained to a|uoyde the countrey, & wente to Rome, where he departed this lyfe, and was buried in the Church of our Ladie, neere to the Engliſhe ſchoole.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 875.In the fourth yere of king Alvred the armie of the Danes deuided it ſelfe into two partes, ſo that king Halden with one parte therof went in|to Northumberlande,The Danes [...]vente into Northumber|lande. & lay in the winter ſeaſon nere to the riuer of Tyne, where hee deuided the countrey amongſt his men, and remayned there for the ſpace of two yeares, and oftentymes fet|ched thither booties and prayes out of the coun|trey of the Pictes The other part of the Daniſh army with the iij. aforſaid kings or leaders came vnto Cambridge,The Danes at Cambridge. & remained there a whole yere. And the ſame yeere king Alvred foughte by ſea with vij. ſhips of Danes, toke one of them, & cha|ſed the reſidue.876. In the yeare next enſuing, the [figure appears here on page 212] Danes came into the countreye of the Weaſt|ſaxons, and king Alvred tooke truce with them againe,The Dane tooke an [...] H. Hunt. and they ſware to him (whiche they had not vſed to doe to any afore that tyme) that they woulde departe the countrey.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Theyr armie by ſea ſaylyng from Warham towarde Exceſter,The Dane vvent to Ex|ceſter. ſuſteyned great loſſe by tem|peſte, for there peryſhed ſyxe ſcore ſhyppes at Swanewicke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Moreouer the armie of Danes by land went to Exceſter in breache of the truce, and Kyng Alvred followed them, but coulde not ouertake them tyll they came to Exceſter, and there he ap|proched them in ſuche wyſe, that they were glad to deliuer pledges for performaunce of ſuch co|uenauntes as were accorded betwixte him and them.H. Hunt. And ſo then they departed out of the coun|trey, and drewe into Mercia. But ſhortly after, when they had the whole gouernemente of the lande, from Thames northward, they thought it not good to ſuffer king Alvred to continue in reſt with the reſidue of the coũtreys beyõd the Tha|mes. And therefore the three aforeſayd rulers of Danes, Godrun, Eſketell, and Ammound, in|uading the countreye of Weaſtſaxons came to Chipnham, diſtant .xvij. myles from Briſtow,877. and there pitched their tentes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [Kyng Alvred aduertiſed heereof, Polyd. Of this ſpea|keth [...] ſo that all betvvine the hooked [...] is taken [...] of Polydore. haſted thy|ther, and lodging with his armie nere to the eni|myes, prouoked them to battayle. The Danes perceyuyng that eyther they muſte fyghte for theyr lyues, or dye wyth ſhame, boldely came foorthe, and gaue battayle. The Engliſhemen raſhely encounter with them, and thoughe that they were ouermatched with number, yet with ſuche violence they giue the onſette, that the eni|mies at the firſt were abaſhed of their hardie aſ|ſaultes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But when it was perceiued that theyr ſlen|der ranckes were not able to reſiſte the thycke leghers of the enimies, they beganne to ſhrinke and looke backe one for an other, and ſo of force were conſtrayned to retyre: And therewithall did caſte themſelues into a ryng, which though it ſeemed to bee the beſte waye that coulde bee deuyſed for theyr ſafetie, yet by the great force and number of theyr ennimies on eache ſyde aſſaylyng them, they were ſo thronged togy|ther on heapes, that they hadde not roome to ſturre theyr weapons. Whyche diſaduantage notwythſtandyng, they ſlewe a greate num|ber of the Danes, and amongeſt other, Hubba the brother of Agnere,Hubba [...]. with manye other of the Daniſhe capitaines.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 At length the Engliſhmen hauing valyant|ly foughten a long tyme wyth the enymies, whyche hadde compaſſed them aboute, at laſte they brake out and got them to theyr campe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 To bee briefe, this battayle was foughten with EEBO page image 213 with so equall fortune, The victorie [...]. that no man knewe to whether parte the victorie ought to be ascribed. But after that they were once seuered, they toke heed to cure their hurt menne, and to burye the dead bodies, namely the Danes enterred the bodie of their capitayn Hubba with greate funerall pompe & solemnitie: which done, they kept foorth theyr iorney till they came to Abingdon, Abingdon. whither the Englishe armie shortely after came also, and encamped fast by the enemies.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In this meane whyle, the rumor was spread abroade that the king Alvred had bin discomfited by the Danes, bycause that in the laste battayle hee withdrewe to his campe. This turned greatly to his aduantage: for therby a great number of englishmen hasted to come to his succour.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The morow after his comming to Abingdon he brought his armie ready to fight into the field, The Danes [...] Englishemen fight neere to Abingdon. neyther the enimies were slacke on their parts to receyue the battayle, and so the two armies ioyned & fought right sore on both sydes: so that it seemed the Englishmen had not to do with those Danes, whiche had bin diuers tymes before discomfited and put to flight, but rather with some newe people fresh and lustie: neyther the one part nor the other was mynded to giue it ouer: in so muche that the horsemen alyghting on foote, and puttyng their horses from them, entred the battayle [figure appears here on page 213] emongst the footmen, and thus they continued with equall aduantage till night came on, whiche parted the affray, being one of the sorest foughten fieldes that had bin hearde off in those days. To whether partie a man might iustly attribute the victorie, Vncertayne victorie. Th [...]s farre Po|lydore. it was vtterlye vncertayne, with so lyke losse and gayn the matter was tried and ended betwixt them.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 With the ſemblable chaunce of daunger and glorie .vij. times that yeare did the Engliſhe and Danes encounter in battail, as writers haue re|corded.

Ran. Higden. Se [...]en ſoughtẽ fieldes in one yeare betvvixt Danes and En|glishmen.

A peace agreed vpon.

And at lengthe when their powers on bothe partes were ſore diminiſhed, they agreed vppon a peace, with theſe conditions, That the Danes ſhoulde not attempte any further warre againſt the Engliſhmenne, nor bring into this lande any newe ſupplye of ſouldioures ou [...]e of Denmarke.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Danes ſo|iourned at Lõ|don.The ſame yeare the Danes ſoiourned in the winter ſeaſon at London, according as they had done often tymes before.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Aboute the ſame tyme or ſhortely after, there came into Englande one Rollo,An .876. ſayeth Sim. Dunelm. a noble man of Denmark or Norway, with a great armie, and (notwithſtanding the peace conclude [...] betweene the Engliſhmen and the Danes,) he beganne to waſt and deſtroy the countrey.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 King Alvred hearing theſe newes, wyth all ſpeede, thoughte beſte [...] the beginning to ſtoppe ſuche a common miſchiefe, and immediately aſſembling his people, [...] againſt the enimies, and gaue them battaile, in the which [...] a great number of men on both ſides, but the grea|ter [...]offe fel to Rollo his armie. Yet Matthewe Weſtin. ſayeth, that the Engliſhemen were put to flight.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After this, it chaunced, that Rollo beeing warned in a [...]reame, left Englande, and ſayled ouer into France, wher he [...] fortune ſo fauo|rable to him, that hee obteined in that region for him and his people a countrey, the whiche was afterwardes named Normandie,xxx. yeares af|ter this he vvas baptiſed. of thoſe Nor|therne people, whiche then began to inhabite the ſame, as in the hiſtorie [...] of Fraunce you may ſee more at large.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Danes which had [...] peace with king Alvred (as before you ha [...]e he [...]d) ſhortly af|ter, vpon the firſt occaſion, br [...]ke the [...], & by the often inuaſions whiche they made into the countrey of Weſtſaxons, brought the [...] to EEBO page image 214 that paſſe,King Alured driuen to his his shifte. that there remayned to king Alvred, but onely the three countreis of Hamſhire, Wil|ſhire, and Somerſetſhire, inſomuch that he was conſtrained for a time to kepe himſelf cloſe with|in the fennes and maeriffe groundes of Somer|ſetſhire, with ſuch ſmall companies as he had a|boute him, conſtreyned to get their liuing wyth fiſhing, hunting, and other ſuche ſhiftes. He re|mayned for the moſt part within an Iſle called Edelynſey,Edlingſey. that is to meane, the Ilande of no|ble menne, enuironed aboute with fennes and marriſſes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Whyles he was thus ſhut vp within this I|land, he was by dreame aduertiſed of better hap ſhortly to follow: For as it hath bene ſaid, Saint Cuthbert appeared to him as he lay in ſleepe,A viſion if is be true. and comforted him, declaring vnto him, that within a whyle Fortune ſhoulde ſo turne that he ſhoulde recouer againe his kingdome to the confuſion of his enimies: and to aſſure him, that this ſhould proue true, he told him that his men which were gone abroade to catche fiſhe, ſhould bring home great plentie, although the ſeaſon was agaynſte them, by reaſon that the waters were froſen, and that a colde time fell that morning, to the hin|derance of their purpoſe. His mother alſo at that tyme being in ſleepe, ſaw the like viſion. And as they had dreamed, ſo it came to paſſe: for being awakened of their ſleepe, in came his men with ſo great foyſon of fiſhe, that the ſame might haue ſuffized a great armie of men, for the victualling of them at that ſeaſon.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Shortly after, kyng Alvred tooke vpon hym the habite of a Minſtrell, and going foorth of his cloſure, repaired to the campe of the Danyſhe king,King Alvred diſguiſeth hym ſelfe. Polidore. only accompanied with one truſty ſeruant, and tarrying there certaine dayes togither, was ſuffered to goe into euery parte, and play on hys inſtrument, as well afore the king as others, ſo that there was no ſecrete,Fabian. but that hee vnder|ſtoode it.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After that he had ſeene and learned the demea|nour of his enimies, he returned againe to hys people at Edlingſey, and there declared to hys nobles what he had ſeene and heard, what negli|gence was amongſt the enimies, and howe eaſy a matter it ſhoulde bee for him to endomage them.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Heerevpon they conceyuing a meruaylous good hope, and enboldened wyth his wordes, a power was aſſembled togither, and ſpyes ſente foorth to learne and bring word where the Da|nes lodged: which being done, & certificat made accordyngly,H. Hunt. 878 877. Mat. VVest. Kyng Alvred commyng vppon them on the ſodayn, ſlew of them a great num|ber, hauyng them at great aduauntage.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Also about the same tyme the brother of king Halden came with thirtie and three ships out of Wales into the countreye of Westsaxons, on the coaste of Deuonshire, where the Deuonshire men gaue him battaile, and slewe him with 840. persons of his retinue. Other write, that Halden himself was present at this conflict, with Inguare, otherwise called Hungar, and that they were both slayne there, S. Dun. with twelue hundred of their companye (before a certayne castell called Kynwith) receyuing as they hadde deserued for their cruel dealing lately by them practised in the parties of Southwales, where they had wasted all afore them with fyre and sworde, not sparing Abbeys more than other common buyldings.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 King Alvred beeing with that goodlucke the more comforted, builded a fortreſſe in the Ile of Edlingſey, afterwardes called Athelney,Athelney. & brea|king out oftentymes vpon the enimyes, diſtreſ|ſed them at ſundrie tymes wyth the ayde of the Somerſetſhiremen, which were at hande.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Aboute the ſeuenth weeke after Eaſter, in the ſeuenth yeare of hys reigne, kyng Alvred went to Eglerighſton, on the Eaſt parte of S [...]|wood, where there came to him the people of So|merſetſhire, Wy [...]ſhyre, and Hamſhyre, reioy|cing greatly to ſee him abroade.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 From thence he wente to Edanton,Edanton and there fought againſt the armie of the Danes,This battayle should ſeene the [...] the Polydor ſpea|keth of [...] a [...] [...]. and ch [...]|ſed them vnto their ſtrength, where he remained afore them the ſpace of foureteene dayes: and then the armie of the Danes deliuered hym [...]|ſtages and couenaunts to departe out of his do|minions, and that their king ſhould be baptiſed,Polych [...]. l. Pike. which was accompliſhed: for Gurthrun whom ſome name Gurmound, a prince or king amon|geſt theſe Danes, came to Alvred,Gurthrun or Gu [...]mois bap|tiſed, and na|med Adelſtan, is made king of Eaſtangle. and was bap|tiſed, king Alvred receyuyng hym at the Font|ſtone, named hym Adelſtane, and gaue to [...] the countrey of Eaſtangle, whyche hee gouer|ned, (or rather ſpoyled,) by the ſpace of twelue yeares.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Dyuers other of the Daniſhe nobilitie to the number of thirtie, (as Simon Dunelmenſis hathe) came the ſame tyme in companye of theyr kyng Guthrun, and were lykewyſe bap|tyſed, on whome kyng Alvred alſo beſtowed many riche giftes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The ſame tyme (as is to bee thought) was the league concluded betwyxte kyng Alvred, and the ſayde Guthrun or Gythrun, in the whyche the boundes of kyng Alureds kyng|dome are ſette foorth thus:

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Fyrſte therefore lette the boundes or mar|ches of oure dominion ſtretche vnto the ryuer of Thames, and from thence to the water of Lee, euen vnto the head of the ſame water,Vſ [...]. and ſo foorth ſtreight vnto Bedforde: and finally go|ing alongſt by the riuer of Ouſe, lette them ende at Watlingſtreete.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 EEBO page image 215This league beeing made with the aduiſe of the ſage perſonages as well Engliſh as Danes that inhabited within Eſt England, is [...]et [...]oorth in maiſter Lamberts booke of the olde Engliſhe lawes, in the ende of thoſe lawes or ordinaun|ces whyche were eſtabliſhed by the ſame kyng Alvred, as in the ſame booke ye maye ſee more at large. But nowe to proceed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Here is to bee noted, that oure writers name dyuerſe of the Danyſh Capitaines kyngs, of the whyche no mention is made in the Danyſhe Chronicles, to reygne in thoſe parties.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But true it is, that in thoſe dayes, not one|ly the Danyſhe people, but alſo other of thoſe Northeaſt countreyes or Regyons, as Swe|daners, Norweygians, the Wenden, and ſuch other, whyche the Englyſhe people called by one generall name Danes, and the Frenchmen, Normans, vſed to roaue on the Seas, and to inuade forrayne Regions, as England, France, Flaunders, and others, as in conueniente pla|ces ye maye fynde, as well in oure Hyſtories as alſo in the writers of the Frenche Hyſtories, and lykewyſe in the Chronicles of thoſe North Re|gyons.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Wryters [...]eryly of the Daniſhe Chro|nicles, make mention of one Gurmo,Gurmo. whome they name Anglum; bycauſe hee was borne here in Englande, whiche ſucceeded his father Frotto in gouernemente of the kyngdome of Denmarke, whiche Frotto receyued baptiſme in Englande, as in their hiſtorie you may reade more at large.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the ryght yere of kyng Alvred his reigne,H. Hunt. 878. the armye of the Danes wyntered at C [...]ce|ſter, and the ſame yeare an other armie of [...]an|gers called VVinerg [...], lay at Fulham, and in the yeare following, departed foorth of Englande, and wente into Fraunce; and the armye of king Godrun or Gurmo departed from Cirenceſter, 879. Si. Dunel [...]. Mat. VVeſt. and came into Eaſt angle, and there deuidyng the countrey amongeſt them, beganne to inha|bite the ſame.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the .xiiij. yeare of king Alvred his reigne, parte of the Daniſhe armie whiche was gone o|uer into Fraunce, returned into England and beſieged Rocheſter.Rocheſter be|ſieged. 885. But when Alvred appro|ched to the reſk [...]e, the enimies fledde to theyr ſhippes, and paſſed ouer the ſea agayne.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 King Alvred ſente a nauie of his ſhippes well [figure appears here on page 215] furniſhed with menne of warre into Eaſtangle, the whyche at the mouthe of the Riuer called Sture, encountring with .xvj. ſhippes of Da|nes, ſet vpon them, and ouercame them in fight: But as they retourned with theyr pryſes, they encountred with an other myghtie armye of the enimies, and fighting wyth them, were ouer|come and vanquiſhed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the yeare folowing, king Alvred beſieged the Citie of London,886. London reco|uered out of the handes of the Danes. the Danes that wer with|in it, fledde from thence, and the Engliſhemen that were inhabitantes thereof, gladly receiued him, reioycing, that there was ſuche a Prince bredde of their nation that was of power able to reduce them into libertie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Citie being at that ſeaſon the chiefe of all Mercia, VV. Malmſ. Ethelfleda. he deliuered [...] he keeping of duke Eldred, whiche had maried his daughter Ethel|fleda, and held a great portion of Mercia,Colvvolphus. which Colwolphus before tyme poſſeſſed by graunt of the Danes, after they had ſubdued kyng Bur|thred, as before is mencioned.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 About the .xxj. yeare of king Alvred, a greate armie of thoſe Danes, or Normanes, whyche hadde ben in France, [...] into England,Lymen, novve. Rother. and arriued in the hauen or [...] or Lymene in the eaſt part of Kente, neere to the greate woodde called Andredeſley,Andredeſleg [...]. whyche dydde contyene in EEBO page image 216 tymes paſt .Cxx. myles in length, and thirtie in breadth. Theſe Danes landing with their people buylded a Caſtell at Appledore.A caſtel buylte at Apledore. 893. S. Dunel. at Milton.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Alſo in the meane tyme came Haſtyng wyth lxxx. ſhips into the Thames, and buylded a Ca|ſtell at Middleton, but hee was conſtrained by ſiege,

Haſtings the ca+pitain of the Danes beſie|ged.

He receyueth an othe.

whiche king Alured planted about him to receiue an othe that he ſhould not in any wyfe a|noy the dominion of king Alured, who vpon his promyſe to departe, gaue great rewards as well to him as to his wyfe and children. One of his ſonnes alſo king Allured helde at the Fontſtone, and to the other, Duke Eldred was godfather. (For as it were to winne credite, and to auoyde preſent daunger,) Haſting ſent vnto king Allu|red theſe hys two ſonnes, ſygnifying that if it ſtoode with his pleaſure, he coulde be content that they ſhoulde be baptiſed. But neuertheleſſe this Haſting was euer moſte vntrue of worde and deede,Beanfleet hath Math. VVeſt. he buylded a caſtell at Beamfield. And as he was going foorth to ſpoyle and waſt the kings countreys, Allured tooke that Caſtell wyth hys wyfe,

This enterpriſe vvas atchieued by Edeldred duke of Mercia [...]n abſence of the king as M. VVeſt. hathe noted.

Exceſter beſie|ged.

children, ſhippes, and goodes, which he had got togither of ſuche ſpoyles as he had purchaſed abroade: but he reſtored vnto Haſting his wyfe and children, bicauſe hee was their godfather.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Shortly after, newes came, that a great num|ber of other ſhippes of Danes were come out of Northumberlande, and had beſieged Exceſter: Whyleſt king Allured went then againſt them, the other armie whiche laye at Apledore inuaded Eſſex, and buylt a caſtell in that countrey, and after went into the borders of Wales, and buil|ded an other caſtell neere to the riuer of Seuerne:Seuerne. but being driuen oute of that countrey, they re|turned agayne into Eſſex.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thoſe that had beſieged Exceſter, vpõ know|ledge had of king Allureds comming, fledde to their ſhippes, and ſo remayning on the ſea, roa|ued abroade, ſeeking prayes. Beſides thys, other Armies there were ſent foorth, whiche comming out of Northumberlande, tooke the citie of Che|ſter,Cheſter taken by Danes. but there they were ſo beſette aboute with their enimies, that they were conſtrayned to eate their horſes.Great famine.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 At length in the .xxiiij. yeare of king Allured they lefte that citie, and fetched a compaſſe about Northwales, and ſo meaning to ſayle rounde aboute the coaſt to come into Northumberland, they ariued in Eſſex,H. Hunt. and in the winter folowing drew their ſhippes by the Thames into the wa|ter of Luye.The vvater of Luye, novve Lee. That armie of Danes whiche had beſieged Exceſter, tooke prayes aboute Chiche|ſter, and was mette with, ſo that they loſt many of their men, and alſo diuers of their ſhips.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the yeare folowing, the other armie which had broughte the ſhippes into the riuer of Luye, began to buylde a caſtell neere to the ſame riuer, twentie myles diſtaunt from London [...],H. Hunt. but the Londoners came thither, and giuing battayl to the Danes, ſlewe .iiij. of the chiefe Capitan [...],The Londo|ners [...] againſt the Danes. But by Simon Dunel and Mathew We [...], it ſhoulde ſeeme, that the Londoners were at thys time put to flighte, and that foure of the kinges Thanes or barons were ſlaine. Howbeit Henry of Huntington hath written as before I haue re|cited: And further ſayth, that when the Danes fled for their refuge to the Caſtell, king Alured cauſed the water of Luy to be deuided into three. Chanels, [...] ſo that the Danes ſhoulde not bryng backe their ſhippes oute of the place where they lay at ancker. When the Danes perceyued this, they lefte their ſhippes behynde them,Qua [...]bridge. or VV [...]|bridge. and wente into the borders of Wales, where at Cartbridge vpon Seuerne, they buylte an other caſſell, and lay there all the wynter following, hauing lefte their wiues and childrẽ in the countrey of Eaſt|angles. King Allured purſued them, but the Lõ|doners tooke the enimies ſhips, and brought ſome of them to the Citie, and the reſt they brent.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus for the ſpace of three yeeres after the ar|riuing of the mayne armie of Danes in the ha|uen of Luye, they ſore endomaged the Engliſhe people, although the Danes themſelues ſuſtey|ned more loſſe at the Engliſhmens handes than they did to them with all pilfering and ſpoyling.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the fourth yeare after their comming,The Danishe armie diuided into partes. the armie was deuided, ſo that parte of them wente into Northumberlande, part of them remayned in the countrey of the Eaſtangles, and an other parte went into Fraunce.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Alſo certain of their ſhips came vpon the coaſt of the Weſtſaxons, oftentymes ſettyng theyr men on lande to robbe and ſpoyle the countrey.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But king Allured tooke order in the beſt wiſe he might for defence of his countrey and people, and cauſed certaine mightie veſſels to be buylded which he appointed foorth to encounter with the enimies ſhippes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 And thus lyke a worthie Prince and politike gouernour, he preuented eche way foorth to reſiſt his enimies, and to ſauegarde his ſubiects.The death of king A [...]red. Final|ly after he had reigned .29. yeeres, and an halfe, he departed this lyfe the .28 day of October. His bo|die was buried at Wincheſter: He left behynde him iſſue by his wife Ethelwitha, the daughter of Earle Ethelred of Mercia,His iſſue. two ſonnes Ed|warde, ſurnamed the elder, which ſucceeded him, and Adelwolde. Alſo three daughters, Elfleda or Ethelfleda,Elfleda Ethelgeda or Elgiua and Ethel|witha. Elflede was maried (as ye haue hearde) vnto Duke Edelred, who left a notable example behinde hir of deſpiſing fleſhely pleaſure, for bea|ring hir huſbande one chylde, and fore handeled before ſhe coulde be delyuered, ſhe euer after for|bare to companie with hir huſbande, ſaying that EEBO page image 217 it was [...] ſuch pleſure which therwith would bring ſo great [...].The notable ſaying of El|fleda.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 To ſpeake ſufficiently of the worthie prayſe due to ſo noble [...] prince as Alured was, might re|quire eloquence, learning and a large voliant. He was of [...] and beautifull, & [...] beloued of his father and mother than his other brethren. And although he was as before is [...]u|ched,VV. Malmſ. greatly [...] with the inuaſion of fo|reyn enimies yet did he both [...] from time to tyme indeuour himſelfe [...] repulſe them, and alſo attẽpted to ſee his ſubiectes gouerned in good and vpright iuſtice.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 King Alured his [...]avves.And [...] that good lawes amongeſt the clin|king [...] of armour, are oftentymes put to ſi|lence, yet he perceiuing how his people were gre|ued with theeues and robbers whiche in tyme of warre grew and increaſed, deuiſed good ſtatutes and holſome ordinantes for punyſhing of [...] offenders.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Amongeſt other thinges he ordeyned, that the countreys ſhould be deuided into hundreds and tythings, that is to wit, quarters conteyning a certayne number of towneſhips, adioyning to|gither, ſo that euery Engliſheman liuing vnder preſcripte of lawes, ſhould haue both his hundred and tithing, that if any man were accuſed of a|ny offence, he ſhoulde fynde ſuretie for his good demeanour: and if he coulde not fynde ſuche as woulde anſwere for him, then ſhoulde hee taſte extremitie of the lawes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 And if any manne that was guiltie fled before hee founde suretie or after: all the inhabitants of the hundred or tithing where he dwelte should be put to their fyne. By this deuise hee brought his countrey into good tranquilitie, so that he caused bracelets of golde to he hanged up alofte on hilles, where any common ways laye to see if any durst to be so hardy to take them away by stealth. He was a liberall Prince namely in relieuing of the poore. To churches he confirmed suche priuiledges as his father had graunted before him, and he also sent rewardes by waye of deuotion vnto Rome, and to the bodie of Saint Thomas in India. Sighelmus the bishop of Shirborne bare the same, & brought from thence riche stones, and swete oyles of inestimable value. From Rome also he broughte a piece of the holy crosse, whiche Pope Maximus did send for a present vnto king Alured.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Moreouer king Allured founded three goodlie Monasteries, one at Edlingsey, Foundation [...] of monaſteries. where he liued sometyme when the Danes had bereaued hym almost of all his kyngdome, whiche was after called Athelney, distant from Taunton in Somersethire about fiue myles: the second he builded at Winchester, called the newe minster, and the thirde at Shaftsbury, whiche was an house of Nunnes, where he made his daughter Ethelgera, or Elgiua Abbesse. But the foundation of the vniuersitie of Oxford passed all the residue of his buyldings, whiche he began by the good exhortation and aduise of Neotus an Abbotte in those days highly estemed for his vertue and lerning with Alured.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This woorke he tooke in hande aboute the .23. yeare of his reigne,895. whiche was in the yeare of of out Lorde .895. So that the Vniuerſitie [...] [figure appears here on page 217] Cambridge was founded before thys other at Oxforde about .265. yeeres, Polydore. The vniuerſi|tie of Oxforde erected. as Polydore gathe|reth. For Sigebert king of the Eaſt angles be|gan to erecte that Vniuerſitie at Cambridge, [...]|bout the yeare of our Lorde .630.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 King Alured was learned himſelfe and giuen muche to ſtudie, in ſo muche that beſide dyuers good lawes whiche he tranſlated into the engliſh [...]oung gathered togither and publiſhed, he alſo tranſlated diuers other bookes out of Latin into EEBO page image 218 engliſh, as Oroſius, Paſtorale Gregorij, Beda de ge|ſtis Anglorũ, Boetius de conſolatione Philoſophiae, and the booke of Pſalms, but this he finiſhed not, being preuented by death.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 So this worthie Prince minding wel toward the common wealth of his people, in that ſeaſon when learning was little eſteemed amongeſt the Weaſt nations, dyd ſtudie by all meanes poſſi|ble,The vertuous [...]ele of Alured to bring his people to an honeſt trade of lyfe. to inſtructe his ſubiectes in the trade of lea|dyng an honeſt lyfe, and to encourage them ge|nerally to imbrace learnyng. He woulde not ſuf|fer any to be are office in the Courte, excepte hee were learned: and yet hee hymſelfe was twelue yeares of age before hee coulde reade a worde on the booke,He is perſvva|ded by his mo|ther, to applye himſelf to ler|ning. and was then trayned by his mothers perſwaſion to applye hymſelfe to ſtudy, promi|ſing to gyue hym a goodly fayre booke whyche ſhe had in hir handes, if he wold ſhortly lerne to reade it. Herevpon going to his booke in ſporte, he ſo earneſtly ſette his mynd thereto, that with|in a ſmall tyme hee profited maruellouſly, and became ſuche a fauourer of learned men, that he delyghted moſt in their companie, to haue conf [...]|rence wyth them, and allured dyuers to come vnto hym out of other countreyes,Aſſerius Me|neuenſ. VVerefridus. as Aſſerius Meneuenſ. biſhop of Shirborne, and Werefri|dus the byſhop of Worceſter, who by his com|maundemente tranſlated the Bookes of Grego|ries Dialogues into Engliſhe.Iohn Scot. Alſo Iohn Scot whyche whyles hee was in Fraunce, tranſlated the booke of Dionyſius Artopagita, entituled Hie|rarchi [...], out of Greeke into Latin, and after was Scholemaiſter in the Abbey of Malmeſburye, and there murthered by his Schollers with pen|kniues, hee had dyuers other aboute him, bothe Engliſhmenne and ſtraungers, as Pleymonde whyche afterwarde was made Archebiſhoppe of Canterbury,Grimbalde. Grimbalde, whome he appointed gouernour of the newe Monaſterie at Winche|ſter, with other.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But to conclude with this noble Prince king Alvred,Alured deui|ded the tyme for his neceſ|ſarie vſes. hee was ſo carefull in his office, that hee deuided the .xxiiij. houres which contayn the day and night in three partes, ſo that eight houres he ſpent in writing, reding and making his praiers, other eight hee employed in relieuing his bodye with meate, drinke, and ſlepe, and the other .viij. he beſtowed in diſpatching of buſineſſe cõcerning the gouernment of the realme. He had in his cha|pell a candell of .24. partes, whereof euery one la|ſted an houre: So that the Sexton to whome that charge was committed, by burning of that candell warned the king euer how the time paſ|ſed away. A little before his death, hee ordeined his laſt wil and teſtament,His laſt vvyll and teſtament. bequeathing halfe the portion of all his goodes iuſtly gotten, vnto ſuch Monaſteries as he had founded. All his rents and reuenues he deuided into two equall partes, and the firſt part he deuided into three, beſtowing the firſt vpon his ſeruants of houſholde, the ſeconde to ſuche laborers, and workmen as he kept in his workes of ſundrie newe buyldings, the thyrde part he gaue to ſtrangers. The ſecond whole part of his reuenues was ſo diuided, that the firſt por|tion thereof was beſtowed amongeſt the poore people of his countrey, the ſeconde to Monaſte|ries, the thirde to the findyng of poore ſchollers, and the .iiij. part to Churches beyonde the ſea: he was diligent in the enquirie how the Iudges of his land behaued themſelues in their iudgemẽts, and was a ſharpe correcter of them which tranſ|greſſed in that behalfe. To be brief, he liued ſo as he was had in greate fauoure of his neighbors, highly honored amongſt ſtrangers. He maryed his daughter Ethelſwida or rather Elſtride vn|to Baldwyn Erle of Flaunders, [...]ſt [...]ld, [...] you find in Iacob Meyer, if ye looke for [...]. of whome hee bega [...] two ſons Arnulfe and Adulfe, of the which the firſt ſucceded in the Erledome of Flaunders, and the yonger was made erle of Boloigne.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The bodie of king Alvred was firſte buried in the Biſhops churche: but afterwarde bicauſe the Canons rayſed a fond tale that the ſame ſhoulde walke a nightes, his ſonne king Edward remo|ued it into the newe monaſterie whiche he in his lyfe tyme had founded.

5.90.1. The ende of the kingdome of Mercia.

The ende of the kingdome of Mercia.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 IN the dayes of the forſayd king Alvred, the kyngdome of Mercia tooke ende. For after that ye Danes had expulſed king Burthred, whẽ he had reigned .22. yeares, he went to Rome, and there died, his wife alſo Ethelſwida, the daugh|ter of king Athulf that was ſonne to king Ecg|bert folowed him, and dyed in Pauia in Lum|bardie. The Danes hauyng got the countrey into their poſſeſſion,C [...]vvolfe. made one Ceolfe king ther|of, whome they bound with an othe and deliue|rie of pledges, that he ſhould not longer kepe the ſtate with their pleaſure, and further ſhoulde bee readie at all tymes to ayde them wyth ſuche power as he ſhould be able to make. Thys Ce|wolf was the ſeruant of king Burthred. Within foure yeres after the Danes returned, & tooke one part of that kingdome into their owne handes, & left the reſidue vnto Cewolfe. But within fewe yeres after, king Alvred obteined that parte of Mercia which Cewolf ruled, as he did all the re|ſidue of this land, except thoſe parcels which the Danes held, as Northumberland, the countreis of the Eaſtangles, ſome parte of Mercia, & other. The yere in the whiche king Alvred thus obtey|ned the dominion of that part of Mercia whiche Cewolf had in gouernãce, 886. Mat. VVeſt. was after the birth of our Sauior .886. ſo that the forſaid kingdom cõ|tinued the ſpace of .202. yeres vnder .22. kings frõ Crida to this laſt Cewolf. But ther be ye accõpt the continuance of this kingdome, only from the EEBO page image 219 beginning of Penda, vnto the [...] yere of [...], by which reckning [...] not [...] ye|res [...] rather [...] laſt Erwolf for none, [...] his [...] vn|der ſubiection of the Danes, [...] our Lord .8 [...]. whe [...] Penda begã his [...].

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 The Eaſtangles [...] the Northumbers a [...] days wer vnder ſubiection of the Danes, [...] may be perceued by that which before [...].Guthran king of the Eaſt an|gles died .890. After Guthrã ye [...] yt eaſtangles by [...] term of .xij. yeres, one [...] or [...] had the rule in thoſe parties, a Dane alſo, & reigned .xiiij. yeres, & was at length bereued of his [...] by king Edward the ſonne of K. Alvred, [...] ſhal appere.St. Dunelm. But now although that the North|umbers were brought greatly vnder foote by the Danes, yet could they not forget their old ac [...]|ſtomed maner to ſtirre tumultes and rebellion a|gainſt their gouernors,872 inſomuch that in the yere 872. they expulſed not onely Egbert,Ecgbert king of Northum|berland expel|led from his kingdome. whome the Danes had appointed king ouer one parte of the countrey (as before you haue heard) but alſo their archbiſhop Wilfhere. In the yere followng, the ſame Ecgbert departed this life,Egbert depar|ted this lyfe. Ricſig. after whom, one Rigſig or Ricſige ſucceeded as king, & the Arch|biſhop Wolfhere was reſtored home. In ye ſame yeare the armie of Danes which had wintered at London, came from thẽce into Northumberlãd, and wintred in Lindſey, at a place called Tork|ſey,The Danes vvinter in Lindſey. 975. and went the next yeere into Mercia. And in the yere .975. a part of them returned into Nor|thumberland, as before ye haue herd. In the yere following,Ricſig depar|ted this lyfe. Ricſig the king of Northumberlande departed this lyfe: After whom an other Egbert ſucceded. And in the yeare .983. the armie of the Danes meanyng to inhabite in Northumber|lande,983. Guthred ordei|ned K. of Nor|thumberland. and to ſettle themſelues there, choſe Gu|thryd the ſonne of one Hardicnute to their king, whome they had ſometyme ſolde to a certayne widowe at Witingham. But nowe by the ad|uiſe of an Abbot called Aldride, they redeemed his libertie, and ordeined him king to rule bothe Danes and Engliſhmen in that countrey.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 It was ſayd, that the ſame Aldrede being Ab|bot of holy Ilande, was warned in a viſion by Sainte Cuthbert, ſo giue counſell bothe to the Danes and Engliſhmen, to make the ſame Gu|thrid king. This chaunced about the .xiij yere of the reigne of Alvred king of Weſtſaxons.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Then after that Guthrid was eſtabliſhed king he cauſed the biſhops ſea to be remoued from holy Ilande vnto Cheſter in the ſtret,The bishoppes ſea remoued from holy Ilãd to Cheſter in the ſtreete. and for an aug|mentation of the reuenues and iuriſdiction belon|ging therto, he aſſ [...]gned and gaue vnto Saincte Cuthbert all that countrey which lyeth betwixt the riuers of Teyſe and Tyne.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Priuiledges graunted to S. Cuthbertes shrine. Moreouer this priuiledge was there graunted vnto S. Cuthberts shrine, That whosoeuer fledde into the same for succour & safegarde, should not be touched or troubled in any wise for the space of 37. dayes. And this freedom was confirmed not only by king Guthrid, but also by king Alvred. Finally king Guthrid departed this lyfe in the yeare of our Lord God .894. 894. Polydor. VV. Malmſ. after hee had ruled the Northumbers with much crueltie (as some say) by the terme of .11. yeres, or somwhat more: He is named by some writers Gurmond, and also Gurmo, and thought to bee the same whome king Alvred caused to be baptised. Where other affirme, that Guthred who ruled the Eastangles, was he that Alvred receiued at ye fontstone, VV. Malmſ. William Malmsbury taketh them to be but one man, whiche is not lyke to be true.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After this Guthred or [...] his ſonne Si|thrike ſucceded, and after hym other of that line,Sithrike. till king Athelſtane depriued them of the domi|nion, and [...] it into his owne hands.

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