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5.50. Coyllus.


[figure appears here on page 73]

Compare 1587 edition: 1 COilus the Sonne of [...] after his fathers deceaſſe made Kyng of Britayn,Coyllus. [...]n the yere of our Lord .125.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Coyllus or Coyll was broughte vp [...]n his youth amongſt the Romaynes at Rome,125 where hee ſpente hys tyme not vnprofitably, EEBO page image 74 but applyed hymſelfe to learning and ſeruice in the warres, by reaſon whereof, hee was muche honored of the Romaynes and he likewiſe hono|red and loued them, ſo that hee payed his tribute truly all the tyme of hys raigne, and therefore ly|ued in peace and good quiet. He was alſo a Prince of muche bountie, and very liberall, whereby hee obteyned great loue both of his nobles and com|mons.Colcheſter builte. Some ſaye, that hee made the Towne of Colcheſter in Eſſex, but other write, that Coyll whych reigned next after Aſclepeodotus was the firſt, founder of that Towne, but by other it ſhuld ſeeme to be built long before, being called Cama|lodimum. Finally, when thys Coyll had raig|ned the ſpace of .54. yeares, hee departed this lyfe at Yorke, leauing after him a ſonne named Lu|cius, which ſucceeded in the Kingdome.

5.51. Lucius.


Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 74] LVcius the ſon of Coi|lus,Lucius. whoſe ſur|name (as ſayth William Har|riſon) is not ex|tant, began his raygne ouer ye Britaynes a|bout the yeare of oure Lorde .180. as Fabian following the authoritie of Pee|ter Pictanienſis hathe, although other writers ſeeme to diſagree in that accompt, as by the ſame Fabian in the table before his Booke partly ap|peareth, whereto Mathaeus VVeſt monasterienſi: af|firmeth, that this Lucius was borne in the yeare of our Lord .5. and was Crowned King in the yeare .124. as ſucceſſor to his father Coilus, which dyed the ſame ye [...]re, being of great age ere the ſaid Lucius was borne. William Harriſon in the ſe|cond part of his chronologie noteth his entraunce to be in the .1 [...]2. of the world .916. after the buyl|ding of Rome .220. after the comming of Ceſar into Britayne, and .165. after Chriſt,165 whoſe ac|comptes I followe (as before is ſayde) in this treatiſe.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Lucius is highly renowmed of the wri|ters, for that hee was the firſte King of the Bri|taynes that receyued the faith of Ieſus Chriſt: for being inſpired by the ſpirit of grace and truth euẽ from the beginning of hys raigne, he ſomewhat l [...]ned to the fauoring of Chriſtian Religion, being moued with the manifeſt miracles whyche the Chriſtians dayly wroughte in witneſſe and proofe of their ſound and perfect doctrine: for euen from the dayes of Ioſeph of Aramathia and hys fellowes, or what other godly men firſt taughte the Britaynes the Goſpell of our Sauiour, there remayned amongſt the ſame Britaynes ſome Chriſtians which ceaſſed not to teach & Preache the word of God moſt ſincerely vnto them: but yet no king amongſt them openly profeſſed that Religion, till at length this Lucius perceyuyng not only ſome of the Romayne Lieutenantes in Britayne as Trebellius and Pertinax, with o|ther, to haue ſubmitted themſelues to that pro|feſſion, but alſo the Emperour himſelfe to begin to be fauorable to them that profeſſed it, hee tooke occaſiõ by their good enſample to giue care more attentiuely to the Goſpell, and at length ſent vn|to Eleutherius Biſhop of Rome, two learned men of the Brittiſh nation, Eluane and Med|uin, requiring him to ſende ſome ſuche miniſters as might inſtruct him and his people in the true faith more plentifully, and to baptiſe them accor|ding to the rules of the Chriſtian Religion.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Herevpon were ſent from the ſayd Eleuthe|rius two godly learned mẽ, ye one named Fuga|trus and ye other Damianus, the which baptiſed the King with all his family and people. And [figure appears here on page 74] EEBO page image 75 therewith remoued the worſhipping of Idolles and falſe Gods, [...]ayne re| [...]eth the [...]. and taught the right meane and way howe to worſhippe the true and immortall God. There were in thoſe dayes within the boundes of Britayne .28. Flamynes, and three Archflamynes, which were as Biſhops & Arch|biſhops, or ſuperintendentes of the Pagane or Heathen religion, in whoſe place (they being re|moued) were inſtituted .28. Biſhops and three Archbiſhops of the Chriſtian Religion. One of the which Archbiſhops held his ſee at London, a|nother at Yorke, and the third at Caerleion, Ar|wiſke in Glamorgan ſhire. [...]ath. VVeſt. To the Archbiſhop of London was ſubiect Cornewall, and all the middle part of England, euen vnto Humber. To the Archbiſhop of Yorke all the North partes of Britayne from the Riuer of Humber vnto the furtheſt partes of Scotlande: and to the Archbi|ſhop of Caerleon was ſubiect all Wales, within whiche countrey as then were ſeuen Biſhops, where nowe there are but foure. The Riuer of Seuerne in thoſe dayes deuided Wales (then cal|led Cambria) from the other partes of Britayne. Thus Britayne partly by the meanes of Io|ſeph of Aramathia (of whome ye haue hearde be|fore) and partly by the wholeſome inſtructions & doctrine of Fugatius and Damianus, [...]ſephus of [...]amathia. was the firſt of all other regions that openly receyued the Goſpell, and continued moſt ſtedfaſtly in yt pro|feſſion, till the cruell furie of Diocletian perſecu|ted the ſame in ſuche ſorte, that as well in Bri|tayne as in all other places of ye world, the Chri|ſtian religion was in manner extinguiſhed, and vtterly deſtroyed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 [...]olidor. [...]eſtminſter [...]hurch built.Ther be that affirme, how this Lucius ſhould build the Church of Saint Peter at Weſtmin|ſter, though many attribute that acte vnto Si|bert King of the Eaſt Saxons, and write, howe the place was then ouergrowen with thornes & buſhes, and thereof tooke the name, and was cal|led Thorney. They adde moreouer (as Harriſon ſayeth) howe Thomas Archbiſhop of London preached, redde, and miniſtred the Sacraments there to ſuch as made reſorte vnto him. Howbeit by the tables hanging in the reueſtry of Sainte Paules at London, and alſo a table ſometyme hanging in Saint Peters Church in Cornehill, it ſhoulde ſeeme, that the ſayd Church of Saint Peter in Cornehill was the ſame that Lucius builded. But herein (ſayth Harriſon anno mundi 4174) doth lie a ſcruple, ſure Cornell might ſoone be miſtaken for Thorney, eſpecially in ſuch olde recordes, as time, age, euill handling, hath often|times defaced. But howſoeuer this caſe ſtãdeth, troth it is, that Lucius reioycing muche in that he had brought his people to the perfect light and vnderſtanding of the true God, that they needed not to bee deceyued any longer with the craftie temptations and feigned miracles of wicked ſpi|rites, he aboliſhed all prophane worſhippings of falſe Gods, and conuerted ſuche Temples as had bin dedicated to their ſeruice, vnto the vſe of the Chriſtian Religiõ: and thus ſtudying only how to aduance the glory of the immortall God, and the knowledge of his worde, without ſeeking the vayne glory of worldly triumph whiche is gote with ſlaughter and bloudſhed of many a giltleſſe perſon, hee lefte his kingdome (though not enlar|ged with broder dominion than hee receyued it,) yet greatly augmented and enriched with quiet reſt, good ordinances, and (that which is more to be eſteemed than all the reſt) adorned with Chri|ſtes religion, and perfectly inſtructed with hys moſt holy worde and doctrine. He raigned as ſome write .21. yeares,Polidor. Fabian. Iohn. Hard. though as other affirme but twelue yeares. Agayne, ſome teſtifie that he raigned .77. other ſay .54. & Harriſon .43. More|ouer, heere is to bee noted, that if he procured the faith of Chriſt to be planted within his Realme in the time of Eleutherius the Romayne Bi|ſhop, the ſame chanced in the dayes of the Em|perour Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. And about the time that Lucius Aurelius Commodus was ioyned & made partaker of the Empire wt his fa|ther, which was ſeuen yeres after ye death of Lu|cius Aelius Aurelius Verus, and in the .177. af|ter the birth of our Sauiour Ieſus Chriſt, as by Harriſons chronologie is eaſie to bee collected. For Eleutherius beganne to gouerne the ſea of Rome in the yeare .169. according to the opinion of ye moſt diligent chronogrophers of our time, & gouerned fifteene yeeres and thirteene days. And yet there are that affirme, howe Lucius dyed at Glowceſter in the yeare of our Lorde .156.Galfridus. Mat. VVeſt. other ſay that he dyed in the yeare .201. and other .208. So that the troth of this hiſtorie is broughte into doubt by the diſcorde of writers, concerning the time and other circumſtances, although they all agree that in this kings days the Chriſtian faith was firſt by publique conſent openly receyued & profeſſed in this lande, whiche as ſome affirme, ſhould chance in the twelfth yeare of his raigne,Polidor. and in the yeare of our Lord .177. Other iudge, that it came to paſſe in the eyght yeare of his re|giment, and in the yeare of our Lord .188. where other (as before is ſayd) alledge that it was in the yeare .179. Nauclerus ſayth, that this happened about the yeare of our Lord .156.Nauclerus Henricus de Herford. And Henricus de Erphordia ſuppoſeth, that it was in the yeare of our Lorde .169. and in the nineteenth yeare of the Emperour Marcus Antonius Verus: & af|ter other, about the ſixth yeare of the Emperoure Comodus. But to proceede: King Lucius dyed without iſſue, by reaſon whereof, after his deceſſe the Britaynes fell at variance,Fabian. whiche continued about the ſpace of fiftene yeares (as Fabian thin|keth) EEBO page image 76 howbeit, the olde engliſhe Chronicle affir|meth,Caxton. Iohn. Hard. that the contention betwixte them remai|ned .50. yeares, though Harding affirmeth but 4. yeares. And thus much of the Britaynes, and their kings Coylus and Lucius. Now it reſteth to ſpeake ſomewhat of the Romaynes whyche gouerned here in the meane while. After that A|gricola was called backe to Rome, the Britaines (& namely thoſe that inhabited beyond Twede) partly being weakened of their former ſtrength, and partly in conſideration of their pledges, whi|che they had deliuered to the Romaynes, remay|ned in peace certayne yeres.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Cn Trebelli|us Lieutenãt. [figure appears here on page 76] IN the meane time, the Romayne Lieu|tenant Cn. Trebellius that ſucceded Iulius Agricola, hee coulde not foreſee all things ſo preciſely, but that ye ſouldiers waxing vn|ruly by reaſon of long reſt, fell at variance a|mongſt themſelues, & would not in the ende obey the Lieutenante, but diſquieted the Britanes beyond meaſure. Wher|fore the Britaynes perceyuing themſelues ſore oppreſſed with intollerable bondage, & that dayly the ſame increaſed, they conſpire togither, vppon hope to recouer libertie, and to defende their coũ|trey by all meanes poſſible, and heerewith they take weapon in hand againſt the Romaines, and boldly aſſaile them: but this they did yet warely, and ſo, that they might flee vnto the Wooddes & bogges for refuge vpon neceſſitie, according to the manner of their countrey. Herevpon diuers ſlaughters were committed on both parties, and all the countrey was now ready to rebell: where|of, when the Emperour Adrian was aduertiſed from Trebellius the Lieutenant, with all conue|nient ſpeede he paſſed ouer into Britayne, & quie|ted all the Iſle, vſing great humanitie towardes the inhabitants, and making ſmall accompte of that part where the Scottes nowe inhabite, ey|ther bycauſe of the barrenneſſe thereof, or for that by reaſon of the nature of the coũtrey he thoughte it would be hard to be kept vnder ſubiection, hee deuiſed to deuide it from the reſidue of Britayne, and ſo cauſed a wall to be made from the mouth of Tyne vnto the water of Eſke,The wall of Adrian built. Spartianus. whyche wall conteyned in length .xxx. mile.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After this, the Britaynes bearing a malici|ous hatred towards the Romayne Souldiers, & repyning to be kepte vnder the bond of ſeruitude, eftſoones goe aboute to recouer libertie againe. Whereof aduertiſement being giuen, the Empe|rour Pius Antonius ſendeth ouer Lollius Vr|bicus as Lieutenant into Britaine,Lollius Vrbi|cus Lieutenãt who by ſun|dry battayles ſtryken, conſtreyned the Britaines to remaine in quiet, and cauſing thoſe that inha|bited in the North partes to remoue further off from the confines of the Romaine prouince,Iulius [...] An other [...] built. rey|ſed another wall beyond that whiche the Empe|rour Adrian had made, as is to be ſuppoſed, for ye more ſuretie of the Romayne ſubiectes agaynſte the inuaſion of the enimies. But yet Lollius dyd not ſo make an end of the war, but that the Bri|taynes ſhortly after attempted of newe, eyther to reduce their ſtate into libertie, or to bring the ſame into further daunger.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 76] WHerevpõ Mar|cus Antonius that ſucceeded Pius, Iulius C [...]tolinus. Of the [...] of this Cal|phurnius [...] Britaynes may [...] more in [...] Scotti [...]h [...]. ſendeth Calphurnius Agricola to ſucceede Lollius in the gouerne|mente of Britayne, the which eaſily ouercame and ſubdued all his eni|mies. After this, there chanced ſome trouble in the dayes of the Emperoure Commodus the ſonne of Marcus Antonius and his ſucceſſor in the Empire: for the Britaynes yt dwelled North wardes beyond Adrians wall, brake through the ſame, and ſpoyled a great part of the countrey, a|gainſt whom the Romayne Lieutenant for that time beeing come foorthe, gaue them battell:Dion [...] but both he and the Romayne Souldiers that were with him, were beaten downe and ſlayne.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 With whiche newes Commodus being ſore amaſed,Vlpius Mar|cellus Lieu [...]naunte. ſent againſt the Britaynes one Vlpius Marcellus, a man of great diligence & temperan|cy, but therwith rough & nothing gentle. He vſed the ſame kinde of diet that the common ſouldiers did vſe. He was a Captayne much watchfull, as one contented with very little ſleepe, & deſirous to haue his ſouldiers alſo vigilante and carefull to keepe ſure watch in the night ſeaſon. Euery eue|ning hee would write twelue tables, ſuch as they vſed to make of ye linde tree, & deliuering them to one of his ſeruants, appointed him to beare them at ſeueral houres of ye night to ſundry ſouldiers, wherby ſuppoſing that their Generall was ſtyll watching and not gone to bed, they might be in doubt to ſleepe. And although of nature he could wel abſteyne from ſleepe, yet to be the better able to forbeare it, he vſed a maruellous ſpare kinde of dyet: for to the end yt he would not fil hymſelfe too much with bread, he woulde eate none but ſuche as was brought to him frõ Rome, ſo that more than neceſſitie compelled him, he could not eate, by reaſon that the ſtalneſſe toke away ye pleaſant taſt therof, & leſſe prouoked his appetite. He was a maruellous cõtẽner of money, ſo yt bribes might not moue him to do otherwiſe thã dutie required.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 EEBO page image 77Thus Marcellus beeing of ſuch diſpoſition, ſore afflicted the Britaynes, and put them often|times to greate loſſes, through fame whereof, Commodus enuying his renoune, was after in minde to haue made him away, but yet ſpared him for a further purpoſe, and ſuffered hym to de|parte.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 After he was remoued from the gouernement of Britayne, [...]rhennis [...]ptayne [...] the Empe| [...]rs garde. one Perhennis Captayne of the Emperours garde (or Pretorian Souldiers, as they were then called) bearing all the rule vnder the Emperour Commodus, appoynted certaine Gentlemen of meane calling to gouerne the ar|my in Britaine. The Souldiers therefore in the ſame army repining to be gouerned by menne of baſe degree, [...]elius Lam| [...]dius. in reſpect of thoſe that had borne rule ouer them before, being honorable perſonages, as Senators, and of the conſuler dignitie, they fel at ſquare among themſelues, and about fifteene hũ|dred of them departed towardes Rome to exhi|bite their complaynte againſte Perhennis: for whatſoeuer was amiſſe, the blame was ſtill layd to him. They paſſed foorthe withoute impeach|mente at all, and comming to Rome, the Em|perour himſelfe came foorth to vnderſtande what they meant by this their comming in ſuche ſorte from the place where they were appoynted to ſerue. Their aunſwer was, that they were come to informe him of the treaſon which Perhennis had deuiſed to his deſtruction, that hee mighte make his ſonne Emperoure. To the whiche ac|cuſation, when Commodus too lightly gaue eare, and beleeued it to be true, namely, through the ſetting on of one Cleander, who hated Per|hennis, for that he brid led hym from doyng dy|uers vnlawfull actes, which he went about vpon a wilfull minde, (without all reaſon or modeſtie) to practiſe: The matter was ſo handled in the ende, that Perhennis was deliuered to the Soul|diers, who cruelly mangled him, and preſently put him to death.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 77] BVt nowe to the tu|multes in Britayne.Pertinax Lief|tenant of Britayne. It was thought nedeful to ſende ſome ſufficiente Captayne of authoritie thither, & therefore was one Pertinax that hadde bin Conſul and ruler o|uer foure ſeuerall conſu|ler prouinces, appointed by Commodus, to goe as Lieutenãt into that Ile, both for that he was thought a mã moſt meete for ſuch a charge, and alſo to ſatifie his credite, for that hee had bin diſ|charged by Perhennis of bearing any rule, & ſent home into Liguri [...] where hee was borne, & there appoynted to remayne.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This Pertinax comming into Britayne, pa|cifyed the army,The Lieute|nant in dan|ger. but not without danger to haue bin ſlayne by a mutinie reyſed by one of the Le|gions: for he was ſtriken downe, and left for dead [figure appears here on page 77] among the ſlayne carcaſſes. But he worthily re|uenged himſelfe of this iniurie. At length, hauing chaſtiſed the Rebels, and broughte the Ile into meetely good quiet, hee ſued and obteyned to bee diſcharged of that roomth, bicauſe as he alledged, the Souldiers could not brooke him, for that hee kept them in dutifull obedience, by corrrectyng ſuch as offended the lawes of Armes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 77] THen was Clodius Albinus appoynted to haue the rule of the Romayn army in Bri|tayne:Clodius Albi|nus Lieutenãt. whoſe deſtruction whẽ Seuerus the Em|peroure ſought, Albinus eſteemed it quickly: and therefore chooſing foorth a greate power of Bri|taynes, paſſed with the EEBO page image 78 ſame ouer into Fraunce to encounter with Se|uerus, who was come thither towards him, ſo that neere to the Citie of Lions, they ioyned in battell & fought right ſore, in ſo much that Seue|rus was at poynt to haue receyued ye ouerthrow by the high proweſſe and manhoode of the Bri|taynes: but yet in the ende, Albinus loſt ye fielde, & was ſlayne. Then Heraclitus as Lieutenant began to gouerne Britayne (as writeth Sparci|anus) being ſent thither by Seuerus for that pur|poſe before. And ſuch was the ſtate of this Iſle a|bout the yere of our Lord .195. In which ſeaſon, bycauſe that King Lucius was dead, and hadde left no iſſue to ſucceede him, the Britaynes (as before ye haue heard) were at variance amongſt themſelues, and ſo continued till the commyng of Seuerus, whom the Britiſh Chronographers affirme to raigne as King in this Iſle, and that by righte of ſucceſſion in bloud, as diſcended of Androgeus the Britaine, which went to Rome with Iulius Ceſar, as before ye haue heard.

5.52. Seuerus.


Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 78] THis Seue|rus as they Emperoure of Rome,Seuer [...] began to rule this Ile (as authors af|firme) in ye yere of oure Lorde 207. & gouer|ned the ſame [...] 4. yeres & odde moneths. At length, hearing that one Fulgẽtius as then a leader of the Pictes was entred into the bordures of his countrey on this ſyde Dur|ham, he rayſed an hoſt of Britaynes & Romans, with the which he marched towards his enimies: and meeting with the ſaid Fulgentius in a place neere vnto Yorke, in the ende after ſore fighte, Seuerus was ſlayne, when he hadde ruled thys [figure appears here on page 78] land for the ſpace almoſt of fiue yeeres as before is ſayd, and was after buried at Yorke, leauyng behinde him two ſonnes, the one named Geta, & the other Baſſianus. This Baſſianus beeyng borne of a Brittiſh woman, ſucceeded his father in the gouernemente of Britayne, in the yeare of the incarnation of our Lord .211.211 The Romanes would haue had Geta created King of Britaine, bearing more fauoure to him bycauſe he hadde a Romane Lady to his mother: but the Britaines moued with the like reſpect, helde with Baſſia|nus. And therevpon warre was rayſed betwixte the two brethren, & comming to trie their quar|rell by battell, Geta was ſlayne, and Baſſianus with ayde of the Britaynes, remayned victor, & ſo continued Kyng, till at length he was ſlayne by one Carauſius a Britaine, borne but of lowe birth, howbeit right valiant in armes, and there|fore well eſteemed: In ſomuch that obteynyng of the Senate of Rome the keeping of the coaſts of Britayne, that he might defend the ſame from the malice of ſtraungers as Pictes and other, he drew to him a great number of Souldiers & ſpe|cially of Britaines, to whome hee promiſed that if they would make him king, hee would cleerely deliuer them from the oppreſſion of the Romaine ſeruitude. Wherevpon the Britaynes rebellyng againſt Baſſianus, ioined themſelues to Carau|ſius, who by their ſupport, vanquiſhed and ſlewe the ſayd Baſſianus, after he had raigned ſixe, or as ſome affirme .xxx. yeares.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus farre out of the Engliſhe and Brittiſhe writers, the whiche howe farre they vary from a likelyhood of troth, yee ſhall heare what the ye ap|prooued hiſtoriographers, Greekes, and Latines, [...]. writing of theſe matters, haue recorded.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The Emperour Seuerus receiuing aduertiſe|ment from the Lieutenant of Britayne that the people there moued Rebellion, and waſted the countrey with roades & forrayes, ſo that it was needefull to haue the prince himſelfe to come thi|ther with a greate power to reſiſt ye enimies, he of an ambitious mind reioyced not a little for thoſe newes, bycauſe hee ſawe occaſion offered to ad|uãce his renoume and fame with increaſe of new victories nowe in the Weſt, after ſo many tri|umphes purchaſed & got by him in the Eaſt and North partes of the world. Herevpon though he was of great age, yet the deſire that he had ſtil to winne honor, cauſed him to take in hand to make a iourney into this land, and ſo being furniſhed of al things neceſſary, he ſet forwards, being carried EEBO page image 79 for the more part in a litter for his more eaſe: for yt beſide his feebleneſſe of age, he was alſo troubled with ye goute. [...]onius and [...]. He toke with him his two ſonnes, Antonius Baſſianus and Geta, vpon purpoſe as was thought, to auoyde occaſions of ſuche incõ|uenience as he perceyued might grow by diſcord, moued betwixte thẽ through flatterers and ma|licious ſycophants whiche ſoughte to ſet them at variance: whiche to bring to paſſe, he perceyued there ſhould want no meane whileſt they conti|nued in Rome, amid ſuch pleaſures and idle pa|ſtimes as were dayly there frequented: and ther|fore he cauſed them to attend him in this iour|ney into Britayne, that they mighte learne to liue ſoberly, and after the manner of menne of warre.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 [...]e Emperor [...]erus arri| [...] in Bri| [...]y [...]ne.Seuerus being thus on his iourney towardes Britayne, ſtayed not by the way, but with all diligence ſpedde him foorthe, and paſſing the Sea very ſwiftly, entred this Iſle, and aſſembled a mightie power togither, meaning to aſſayle hys enimies, and to purſue the warre againſte them to the vttermoſt. The Britaynes greatly ama|ſed with this ſodayne arriuall of the Emperoure, and hearing that ſuch preparation was made a|gainſt them, ſent Ambaſſadors to him to intreat of peace, & to excuſe their rebellious doings. But Seuerus delaying time for aunſwere, as he that was deſirous to atchieue ſome high enterpriſe a|gainſt the Britaines, for the which he might de|ſerue ye ſurname of Britannicus, which he great|ly coueted, ſtill was buſie to prepare all thyngs neceſſary for the warre, and namely, cauſed a great number of bridges to bee made to lay ouer the bogges and mariſhes, ſo that his ſouldiers might haue place to ſtand vppon, and not to bee encõbred for lacke of firme groũd whẽ they ſhuld cope with their enimies: [...]erodianus. for the more parte of Britaine in thoſe dayes (as Herodianus writeth) was full of fennes, and marres grounds, by rea|ſon of the often flowings and waſhing of the ſea tides: by the whiche marres grounds the enimies being therto accuſtomed, wold runne & ſwimme in the waters, [...]e meaneth the North [...]itaynes or [...]age Bri| [...]ynes as wee [...]y call them and wade vp to the middle at their pleaſure, going for the more parte naked, ſo that they paſſed not on the mudde and myres, for they knewe not the vſe of wearing clothes, but ware hoopes of Iron about their middles and neckes, eſteeming the ſame as an ornamente and token of riches, as other barbarous people did golde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Moreouer, they marked, or (as it were) payn|ted their bodies in diuers ſortes and with ſundry ſhapes and figures of beaſtes and foules, & there|fore they vſed not to weare any garmentes, that ſuche paynting of their bodyes mighte the more appearantly be ſeene, which they eſtemed a great brauerie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 They were as the ſame Herodianus wri|teth, a people giuen muche to the warre, and de|lighted in ſlaughter and bloudſhed, vſing none o|ther weapons or armure but a ſlender buckler, a Iaueline,The furniture of the ſauage Britaynes. and a ſworde tyed to their naked bo|dyes: for as for headpeece or Habergeon, they e|ſteemed not, bicauſe they thought the ſame ſhuld be an hinderance to them when they ſhould paſſe ouer any marres, or be driuen to ſwimme anye waters, or flee to the bogges.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Moreouer, to ſuffer hunger, colde, and trauell, they were ſo vſed and enured therwith, that they would not paſſe to lie in the bogges and myres coueted vp to the chynne, withoute caring for meate for the ſpace of diuers dayes togither: and in the wooddes they woulde liue vpon rootes and barkes of trees. Alſo they vſed to prepare for thẽ|ſelues a certayne kynde of meate, of the whiche if they receyued but ſo muche as amounted to the quantitie of a beane, they would thinke them ſelues ſatiſfyed, and feele neyther hunger nor thirſt.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The one halfe of the Ile or little leſſe was ſubiect vnto the Romaynes, the other were go|uerned of themſelues, the people for the moſt part hauing the rule in their handes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Seuerus therefore meaning to ſubdue the whole, and vnderſtandyng theyr nature, and the manner of their making warre, prouided him ſelfe of all things expedient for the annoyance of them and help of his own ſouldiers, and appoin|ting his ſonne Geta to remayne in that parte of the Iſle which was ſubiect to the Romaynes, he tooke with him his other ſonne Antoninus, and with his army marched foorthe, and entred into the confynes of the enimies, and there beganne to waſt and forrey the countrey, whereby there enſued diuers conflictes and ſkirmiſhes betwixte the Romaynes and the inhabitantes, the victory ſtill remayning with the Romaynes ſide: but the enimies eaſily eſcaped withoute any greate loſſe, vnto the wooddes, Mountaynes, bogges, and ſuch other places of refuge, as they knew to be at hand, whither the Romaynes durſt not followe, nor once approche, for feare to bee entrapped and encloſed by the Britaynes that were ready to returne and aſſayle their enimies vppon e|uery occaſion of aduauntage that myghte bee offered.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 This manner of dealing ſore troubled the Romaynes, and ſo hindred them in their pro|cedings,Dion Caſsius. that no ſpeedy ende coulde bee made of that war: the Britaynes woulde oftentimes of purpoſe lay their Cattell, as Oxen, Kyne, Sheepe, and ſuche like, in places conueniente, to bee as a ſtale to the Romaynes, and when the Romaynes ſhoulde make to them to fetche the ſame away, being diſtant from the reſidue of the army a good ſpace, they would fall vpõ them EEBO page image 80 and diſtreſſe them. Beſide this, the Romaynes were muche anoyed with the vnwhole ſomneſſe of the waters whiche they were forced to drinke, and if they chanced to ſtray abrode, they were ſnapped vp by ambuſhes which the Calidonians layde for them, and when they were ſo feeble that they could not through wante of ſtrength keepe pace with their fellowes as they marched in or|der of battell, they were ſlayne by their owne fel|lowes, leaſt they ſhould be left behinde for a pray to the enimies. Hereby there died in this iourney of the Romaine army, at the point of fiftie thou|ſand men: but yet woulde not Seuerus returned till he had gone through the whole Iſle, and [...]o came to the vttermoſt partes of all the Countrey now called Scotland, and finally came backe a|gayne to the other parte of the Iſle ſubiect to the Romaynes, the inhabitantes whereof, named by Dion Caſſius Meatae: but firſt he cõſtreyned the other whome the ſame Dion nameth Caledonij, to conclude a league with him, with ſuch condi|tions as they were compelled to departe with no ſmall portion of the countrey, and to deliuer vnto him their armour and weapons.

[figure appears here on page 80]

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the meane time, the Emperoure Seuerus being worne with age fell ſicke, ſo that hee was conſtreyned to abide at home within that part of the Ile which obeyed ye Romans, and to appoint his ſon Antoninus to take charge of the army a|brode. But Antoninus not regarding ye enimies, attempted little or nothing againſte them, but ſoughte wayes howe to winne the fauoure of the ſouldiers and men of war, that after his fathers death (for which he dayly looked) he mighte haue their aide & aſſiſtance to be admitted Emperoure in his place. Nowe when hee ſaw that his Father bare out his ſickneſſe longer time than he would haue wiſhed, he practiſed with Phiſitions and o|ther of his fathers ſeruaunts to diſpatche him by one meane or other.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Whileſt Antoninus thus negligẽtly looked to his charge, the Britaynes began a new Rebelli|on, not only thoſe yt were lately ioyned in league with the Emperoure, but the other alſo whiche were ſubiects to the Romane Empire. Seuerus tooke ſuche diſpleaſure, that he called togither the Souldiers, and commaunded them to inuade the countrey, and to kill al ſuch as they might meete with in any place withoute reſpect, and that hys cruell commaundement he expreſſed in theſe ver|ſes taken out of Homer.

Compare 1587 edition: 1
Nemo manus fugiat vestros, caedem cruentam, Iliadu [...]
Non foetus grauida mater quem geſsit in aluo,
Horrendam effugiat caedem.
Let none eſcape your bloudy handes,
nor direſome ſlaughter flie,
No not the babe vnborne, which in
the mothers wombe doth lie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But whileſt he is thus diſquieted with ye Re|bellion of the Britaynes, & the diſloyall practiſes of his ſon Antoninus, which to him were not vn|knowen. For the wicked ſonne had by diuers at|tempts diſcouered his trayterous and vnnatural meanings. At lẽgth, rather through ſorrow and griefe, than by force of ſickneſſe, he waſted away, [...] Dion Ca [...] & departed this life at Yorke the third day before ye Nones of February, after he had gouerned the Empire by the ſpace of .17. yeeres .8. moneths & . [...]. days. He liued .65. yeres .9. moneths & .17. days: he was borne the third Ides of April by that which before is recited out of Herodyan & Dion Caſſi|us of ye maners & vſages of thoſe people, agaynſt whome Seuerus helde war heere in Britayne: it may be coniectured, yt they were the Pictes, the whiche poſſeſſed in thoſe dayes a greate parte of Scotland, and with continual incurſiõs & rodes waſted & deſtroied ye bordures of thoſe countreys EEBO page image 81 which were ſubiect to the Romains. To kepe thẽ back therfore & to repreſſe their inuaſions Seue|rus (as ſome write) either reſtored ye former wall made by Adrian, [...]opius. [...]. or elſe newely buylt an o|ther ouerthwarte the yle from the eaſt ſea to the weſt, [...]. Caſsius. conteining in length .232. miles. This wall was not made of ſtone, but of turfe & earth ſup|ported with ſtakes & pyles of wood, [...]. and defended on the back with a deepe trenche or ditche, & alſo fortified with diuers toures & turrets buylt and erected vpon ye ſame wall or rampire ſo nere to|gither, [...] Boetius that the ſoũd of trumpets being placed in the ſame, might be hearde betwixte, and ſo war|ning giuen from one to an other vpon the fyrſte deſcrying of the enimies.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Seuerus being departed out of this life in the yere of our lord .211. [...]lidor. nus. [...]rodia 211. his ſon Antoninus otherwiſe called alſo Baſſianus, wold fayn haue vſurped ye whole gouernment into his own hands, attemp|ting with bribes & large promiſes, to corrrupt the mindes of the ſouldiors: but when he perceiued yt his purpoſe wold not forward as he wiſhed in yt behalf, he concluded a league with the enimies, & making peace with thẽ, returned back towardes Yorke, and came to his mother & brother Geta, with whom he took order for the burial of his fa|ther. And firſt his body being brent (as the maner was) the aſhes were put into a veſſel of gold, and ſo conueyed to Rome by the two brethren and the empreſſe Iulia, that was mother to Geta the yonger brother, & mother in law to the elder, An|toninus Baſſianus, and by all meanes poſſible ſought to mainteyn loue & concorde betwixt the brethren, which now at the firſt toke vpon them to rule the empire equally togither: but the am|bition of Baſſianus was ſuch, that finally vpon deſire to haue the whole rule himſelfe, he founde meanes to diſpatche his brother Geta, breaking one day into his chãber, & ſlaying him euẽ in his mothers lap, & ſo poſſeſſed the gouernmẽt alone, [figure appears here on page 81] til at lẽgth he was ſlain at Edeſſa a citie in Me|ſopotamia by one of his own ſoldiors, as he was about to vntruſſe his pointes to doe the of [...]e of nature, after he had reigned the ſpace of .vj.Sextus Au|relius. yeares as is aforeſayde.

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