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5.45. Theomantius.


Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 45] AFter ye [...]eth of Caſſibe|lan.Theo|mãtius. Theomã|tius or Tenã|tius the yõgeſt [...] of [...]ud, was made K. of Britayne in the yeere of the World .3921. after the [...]uil|ding of Rome 706. and before the comming of Chriſt .45.Fabian. He is named alſo in one of the Engliſhe Chronicles Tormace: but in the ſame Chronicle it is con|teyned, that not hee, but his brother Androgius was King, where Geffrey of Mo [...]mouth & other teſtifie, that Androgius abãdoned the land clere|ly, and continued ſtill at Rome,Gal. M. bycauſe he knew the Britaynes hated him for the treaſon he hadde committed, in aiding Iulius Ceſar againſt Caſ|ſibellane. Theomantius ruled the land in good quiet, and paied the tribute to the Romanes whi|che Caſſibellane had graunted, and finally depar|ted this life after he had raigned . [...]. yeares, & was buried at London.

5.46. Kymbelyne or Cimbeline,

Kymbelyne or Cimbeline,

Compare 1587 edition: 1 THe ſonne of Theomantius was of the Bri|taynes made King after the deceſſe of his fa|ther,Kym|belyne. in the yere af the world .3944. after the buil|ding of Rome .728. and before the birthe of oure Sauioure .23. This man as ſome write, was EEBO page image 46 brought vp at Rome,Fabian out of Guido de Columna. and there made Knight by Auguſtus Ceſar, vnder whome hee ſerued in the warres, and was in ſuche fauour with him, that he was at libertie to pay his tribute or not.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Little other mention is made of his doyngs, except that during his raigne, the Sauiour of the world, our Lord Ieſus Chriſt, the only ſonne of God,Chriſt our Sa|uiour is borne was borne of a Virgin about the .23. yeare of the reygne of this Kymbalyne, and in the .42. of the Emperour Octauius Auguſtus, that is to witte,3966 in the yeare of the Worlde .3966. in the ſe|conde yeare of the .194. Olympiade, after ye buil|ding of the Citie of. Rome .750. nigh at an end, after the vniuerſal floud .2311. from the birth of A|braham .2019. after the departure of the Iſraelites out of Egipt .1513. after the captiuitie of Babylon 535. from the building of the Temple by Salo|mon .1034. and from the arriuall of Brute .1116. complete. Touching the continuance of ye yeares of Kymbelines raigne, is ſome diſcordaunce a|mongſt writers, but the beſt approued affirme, that he raigned .xxxv. yeeres, and then dyed, and was buried at London, leauing behind hym two ſonnes, Guiderius and Aruiragus.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But heere is to be noted, that although our hi|ſtories do affirme, that as well this Kymbeline, as alſo his father Theomantius, liued in quiet with the Romans, and continually to them pay|ed the tributes which the Britons had couenan|ted with Iulius Ceſar to pay. Yet wee finde in the Romane writers, that after Iulius Ceſars death, when Auguſtus had taken vppon him the rule of the Empire, the Britaynes refuſed to pay that tribute:Cor. Tacitus in vitae [...]. Agr. whereat as Cornelius Tacitus re|porteth, Auguſtus (being otherwiſe ocupied) was contented to winke, howbeit, through earneſt calling vpon to recouer his right by ſuch as were deſirous to ſee the vttermoſt of the Britiſh king|dome, at length, to witte, in the tenth yeere after the death of Iulius Ceſar, whiche was about the thirtenth yeere of the ſayd Theomantius, Augu|ſtus made prouiſion to paſſe with an army ouer into Britayne, [...] and was come forward vpon his iourney into Gallia Celtica: or as wee may ſay, [figure appears here on page 46] into theſe hit her partes of Fraunce.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 But here receiuing aduertiſements that ye Pa|nonians which inhabited the countrey now cal|led Hungarie, and the Dalmatians whome now we call Slauons had rebelled, he thoughte it beſt firſt to ſubdue thoſe Rebelles neere home, rather than to ſeeke newe countreys, and leaue ſuche in hazard whereof he had preſente poſſeſſion, and ſo turning his power againſt the Pannonians and Dalmatians, he left off for a time the warres of Britaine, whereby the lande remayned withoute feare of any inuaſion to be made by ye Romains, till the yere after the building of the citie of Rome 725. and about the .19. yere of king Theomantius raigne, yt Auguſtus with an army departed once gayne from Rome to paſſe ouer into Britayne, there to make warre, but after his commyng into Gallia, when the Britaynes ſent to him certaine Ambaſſadors to treate with him of peace, he ſtai|ed there to ſettle the ſtate of things among the Gaulles, for that they were not in very good or|der, & hauing finiſhed there, he wẽt into Spayne, and ſo his iourney into Britayne was put off til the next yeere, that is, the .726. after the buildyng of Rome, which fell before the birth of our Saui|our .25. about whiche time Auguſtus eftſoones meante the third time to haue made a voyage in|to Britayne, bycauſe they could not agree vppon couenaunts: But as the Pannonians and Dal|matians hadde afore time ſtayed him,He kept [...] promiſe [...] the Roma [...] when as before is ſayde, hee meante to haue gone againſte the Britaynes: ſo euen nowe the Sa|laſſia [...]s, (a people inhabiting betwixt Italy,Thoſe of [...]a|lice & [...] and Swetzerland,) the Cantabrians and Aſturians by ſuche rebellious ſturres as they reyſed, with|drewe him from his purpoſed iourney. But whe|ther this cõtrouerſie which appeareth to fal foorth betwixt the Britaynes and Auguſtus, was oc|caſioned by Kymbeline or ſome other Prince of the Britaynes, I haue not to auouch: for that by EEBO page image 47 our writers it is reported, that Kymbelyne being brought vp in Rome, and made Knighte in the Court of Auguſtus, euer ſhewed himſelfe a friẽd to the Romanes, and chiefly was loth to breake with them, bycauſe the youth of the Britayne nation ſhoulde not bee depriued of the benefite to bee trayned and broughte vp among the Ro|maynes, whereby they mighte learne both to be|haue themſelues lyke ciuill men, and to atteyne to the knowledge of feates of warre. But whe|ther for this reſpect, or for that it pleaſed the Al|mightie God ſo to diſpoſe the myndes of men at that preſent, not only the Britaynes, but in mã|ner all other nations were contented to be obe|dient to the Romayne Empire. That thys was true in the Britaynes, it is euidente ynough by Straboes wordes, [...]r. Geog. whiche are in effect as follo|weth. At this preſent (ſayth he) certayne princes of Britayne, procuring by Ambaſſadors and dutifull demeanors the amitie of the Emperoure Auguſtus, haue offered in the Capitoll vnto the Goddes preſentes or giftes, and haue ordeyned the whole Ile in a maner to be appertenant, pro|per and familiar to the Romaynes. They are burdened with ſore cuſtomes whiche they pay for wares, eyther to be ſent foorth into Gallia, or brought from thence, whiche are commonly iuo|rie veſſels, ſheares, ouches, or earering, and other conceytes made of ambre, and glaſſes, and ſuche like manner of merchandiſe: ſo that nowe there is no neede of any army or garriſon of menne of warre to keepe the Iſle, for there needeth not paſt one legion of footemen, or ſome wing of horſe|men, to gather vp and receyue the tribute: for the charges are rated according to the quantitie of the tributes: for otherwiſe it ſhoulde be needefull to abate the cuſtomes, if the tributes were alſo reyſed: and if any violence ſhoulde be vſed, it were daungerous leaſt they mighte be prouoked to re|bellion. Thus farre Strabo.

5.47. Guiderius.Guide|rius.


Compare 1587 edition: 1 [figure appears here on page 47] GViderius ye firſte ſon of Kymbaline (of whome Harri|ſon ſayeth no|thing,From hence|forth yee ſhall finde the yere of the Lord in the margente.) beganne his raigne in ye ſeuententh yere after the incar|natiõ of Chriſt. This Guider|us being a man of ſtout courage, gaue occaſiõ of breach of peace betwixt the Britaynes and Ro|maynes, denying to pay the tribute, and procu|ring the people to [...] inſurrections, the whyche by one meane or other made open rebellion,Caligula. as Gildas hath. Wherevpon, the Emperour Cali|gula (as ſome thinke,) tooke occaſion to leauie a power, and as one vtterly miſliking the negli|gence (as he called it) of Auguſtus & Tiberius his predeceſſors, he meant not only to reduce the I|land vnto the former ſubiection, but alſo to ſearch out the vttermoſt boundes thereof, to the behoofe of himſelfe, and of the Romayne Monarchie.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 Greate prouiſion therefore was made by the ſayde Caligula to performe that noble enter|priſe, and this was in the fourth yeare of hys raigne. The lyke preparation was made on the other ſide by Guiderius, to reſiſt the forayne ene|mies, ſo that hauing all things in a readineſſe, he ceaſſed not dayly to looke for the comming of the Emperour, whome hee meante to receyue with harde entertaynemente if hee durſt aduenture to ſet towarde Britayne. But ſee the ſequeale: the mayne army beeyng thus in a readineſſe,Dion Caſsius. lib. 59. de|parteth from Rome in the .79. yeare after the buylding of the Citie, and marching foorthe, [figure appears here on page 47] EEBO page image 48 at length commeth to the Belgique ſhore, from whence they mighte looke ouer, and beholde the cliffes and coaſt of Britaine, whiche Caligula & his men ſtood gaſing vpõ with great admiratiõ & wonder. Furthermore he cauſed them to ſtand in battel array vpon the coaſt, where he heard, howe the Britaynes were in a redineſſe to withſtande his entrãce: but he entring into his galley, as no|thing diſcouraged wt theſe newes, rowed a flight ſhot or two from the ſhore, and foorthwith retur|ned, & then going vp into an high place like a pul|pet, framed & ſet vp there for the nonce, he gaue ye token to fight vnto his ſouldiers by ſound of trũ|pet, and therewith was each man charged to ga|ther cockle ſhels vpõ the ſhore, which he called the ſpoyle of the Ocean,The ſpoyle of the Ocean. and cauſed them to be layde vp vntill a time cõueniente. With the atchieuing of this exployt (as hauing none other wherewith to beautifie his triumph) he ſeemed greatly exal|ted, thinking that now he had ſubdued the whole Ocean, and therefore highly rewarded his ſoul|diers for their paynes ſuſteyned in that collection of tockle ſhelles, as if they had done him ſome no|table peece of ſeruice. He alſo carried of the ſame ſhelles with him to Rome, to the ende he myghte there boaſt of his voyage, and bragge how well he had ſped: and required therefore very earneſtly to haue a triumph decreede vnto him for the ac|compliſhment of this enterpriſe. But whẽ he ſaw ſhe Senate grudge at the free and liberall graun|ting of a grace in that behalfe, and perceiued how they refuſed to attribute deuine honors vnto him, in recompence of ſo fooliſh an enterpriſe, it wan|ted little that he had not ſlayne them euery one. From thence therefore he wente vp into a throne or royall ſeate, and calling therewith the commõ people about him, he tolde them a long tale what aduentures had chanced to him in his conqueſt of the Ocean, and when hee perceyued them to ſhoute and crie, as if they had conſented that hee ſhould haue bin a God for this his greate trauell and valiant prowes, he to increaſe their clamour, cauſed great quantities of golde and ſiluer to bee ſcattered amongſt them, in the gathering where|of, many were preſſed to deathe, and diuers alſo ſtayne with ye inuenomed caltrops of iron, which he did caſt out with the ſayd money, of purpoſe to doe miſchiefe, the ſame caltrops beeing in forme ſmall and ſharp, ſo that by reaſon of the preaſſe of people, muche hurte was done by them ere they were perceyued. And this was the ende of the ri|diculous voyage of Caligula attempted againſt the Britaynes.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 But after the death of this Caligula,Suetonius. the Em|peroure Claudius (as Suetonius hath,) moued warre againſt the Britaynes, bycauſe of a ſturre and Rebellion reyſed in that lande, for that ſuche fugitiues as were fled from thence, were not a|gaine reſtored when requeſt was made for the ſame.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Dion Caſſius writeth, how one Beri [...]us,Dion [...] be|ing expelled out of Britayne, perſwaded ye Em|peroure Claudius to take the warre in hande at this time againſt the Britaynes, ſo that [...] Au|lus Plautius a Senator, and as then Preior, was appoynted to take the army that ſoiourned in Fraunce then called Gallia, and to paſſe ouer with the ſame into Britayne. The Souldyers hearing of thys voyage, were loth to goe with him, as men not willing to make warre in ano|ther worlde: and therefore delayed tyme, till at length one Narciſſus was ſente from Claudius (as it were) to appeaſe ye ſouldiers, & procure thẽ to ſet forward. But whẽ this Narciſſus wẽt vp into the tribunal throne of Plautius, to declare ye cauſe of his comming, ye Souldiers taking great indignation therewith cried, O Saturnalia, as if they ſhould haue celebrated their feaſt day ſo cal|led. When the ſeruants apparrelled in their mai|ſters robes, repreſented the roomth of their mai|ſters, and were ſerued by them, as if they hadde bin their ſeruants, and thus at length conſtrey|ned through very ſhame, they agreed to followe Plautius. Herevpon being embarqued, he deui|ded his nauie into three partes, in the ende, that if they were kept off from arriuing in one place, yet they might take land in another. The Shippes ſuffered ſome impeachment in their paſſage by a contrary winde that droue them backe againe: but yet the Marriners and men of warre takyng good courages vnto them, the rather bicauſe there was ſerue a fyery leame to ſhoote out of the Eaſt towardes the Weſt, which way their courſe lay, made forwarde againe with their Shippes, and landed without finding anye reſiſtaunce. For [figure appears here on page 48] the Britaynes looked not for their comming: wherefore, when they hearde howe their enimies were a lande, they gote them into the Wooddes and mariſſes, truſting that by l [...]ngering of tyme EEBO page image 49 the Romaynes would be conſtreyned to departe, as it had chanced in time paſt to Iulius Ceſar aforeſayd.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Plautius therefore had muche adoe to fynde them out, but after hee had found them, [...] hee vanquiſhed Cataratacus, and after Tog [...]dum|nus the ſonnes of Cynobellinus: for theyr father was dead not very long before. [...]. Theſe therefore fleeing their wayes, Plautius receyued parte of the people called Bodumni (which were ſubiects vnto them that were called Catuellani) into the obeyſance of the Romaynes: [...]ellani. and ſo leauing there a garriſon of Souldiers, he paſſed further till hee came to a riuer whiche coulde not well be paſſed without a bridge: wherevppon the Britaynes tooke ſmall regard to defend ye paſſage, as though they had bin [...]re inough. Put Pl [...]ntius [...] in|ted a dertai [...]e [...] of Germay [...] whyche he had there with him. (being vſed [...], although neuer ſo ſwift) to get ouer, whi|che they did, ſleaing & wounding the Britaynes Horſes whiche were faſtned to that w [...]ggens or Cha [...]rets, ſo that the Britaynes were not a|ble to doe anye peece of their accuſtomed ſeruice with the [...]ame.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 He [...]rewith alſo was [...] (that afterwards was Emperour) with his bro|ther S [...]inus [...] ouer that riuer, which beeyng gote to the further ſide, flewe a greate number of the enimies. The reſ [...]re of the Britaynes fled, but the nexte daye proffered [...] battell, in the which they alſo fought ſo ſtoutly, that the victo|ry [figure appears here on page 49] depended long in doubtfull ballance, till C. Sidius Geta being almoſt at poynt to be taken, did ſo handle the matter, that the Britaynes fi|nally were put to flight: for the whiche his vali|ant doings, triumphante honors were beſtowed vpon him although he was no Conſul.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 The Britaynes after this Battell, withdrew to the Riuer of Thames, nere to the place where it falleth into the Sea, and knowing the [...]l|lowes and firme places thereof, eaſily paſſed o|uer to the further ſide, whome the Romanes fol|lowing through lacke of knowledge in the na|ture of the places, they fel into ye mar [...]e groũds, and ſo came to loſe many of their men, namely of the Germaynes, which were the firſt that paſ|ſed ouer the Riuer to follow the Britaines, part|ly by a bridge whiche lay within the countrey ouer the ſayde Riuer, and partly by ſwimming, and other ſuch ſhift as they preſently made. The Britaynes hauing loſt one of theyr Rulers,Togodu [...]| [...]us. that is to witte, Togodumnus, of whome yet haue hearde before, were nothing diſcoraged, but ra|ther the more egrely ſet on reuenge. Plautius perceyuing their fierceneſſe, went no further, but ſtayed and placed garriſons in ſteedes, where neede required, to keepe thoſe places whiche hee had gotten, and with al ſpeede ſent aduertiſemẽt vnto Claudius, accordingly to that he hadde in commaundement, if any vrgent neceſſitie ſhould ſo moue him. Claudius therefore hauing all things before hand in a readinesse, streightwayes vpon the receyuing of the aduertisement, departed from Rome, and came by water vnto Ostia, and from thence vnto Massilia, & so through Fraunce, sped his iourneys till hee came to ye side of the Occean sea, and then embarquing hymselfe with his people, passed ouer into Britaine, & came to his army which abode his co(m)ing neere to ye Thames side, where being ioined, they passed the Riuer agayne, fought with the Britaines in a pight fielde, and getting the victory, toke the towne of Camalodunum, whiche was the chiefest Citie apperteyning vnto Cynobelinus. Hee reduced also many other people into his subiection, some by force, and some by surrender, wherof he was called oftentimes by the name of Emperour, which was against the ordinance of ye Romanes: for it was not lawfull to any to take yt name vppon him, oftner than once in any one voyage.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Moreouer, Claudius tooke from the Bri|taynes their armor and weapons, and commit|ted the gouernement of them vnto Plautius, cõ|maunding him to endeuor himſelfe to ſubdue the reſidue.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus hauing broughte vnder a parte of Britayne,Dion Caſsius. and hauing made his abode therein not paſt a ſixteene dayes, he departed, and came backe agayne to Rome with victory in ye ſixth moneth after his ſetting foorth from thence,Suetonius. gy|uing after his returne, to his ſon, the ſurname of Britannicus.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 EEBO page image 50This warre he finiſhed, in manner as before is ſayd, in the fourth yeare of his raigne, whyche fell in the yeare of the worlde .4011. and after the birth of our Sauioure .44. after the building of Rome .79.44

Compare 1587 edition: 1 There be that write, how Claudius ſubdu|ed and added to the Romaine Empire, the Iſles of Orkney, ſituate in the North Ocean beyonde Britayne, which might well be brought to paſſe eyther by Plautius, or ſome other his Lieute|nant: for Plautius indeede for his noble prowes and valiant actes atchieued in Britayne, after|wards triumphed. Titus the ſonne of Veſpaſian alſo wanne no ſmall prayſe for deliuering hys father out of daunger in his time, beeing be ſette with a company of Britaynes, whiche the ſayde Titus bare downe and put to flight with greate ſlaughter. Beda following ye authoritie of Sue|tonius, writeth briefly of this matter, and ſayth, that Claudius paſſing ouer into this Iſle, to the whiche neyther before Iulius Ceſar, nor after him any ſtraunger durſt come, within few days receyued the moſt part of the countrey into hys ſubiection without battell or bloudſhed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Gildas alſo writing of this reuolting of the Britaynes, ſayth thus, when information there|of was gyuen to the Senate, and that haſt was made with a ſpeedy army to reuenge the ſame, there was no warlike nauie prepared in the Sea to fyghte valiantly for defence of the countrey, no ſquare battell, no right wing, nor any other prouiſion appoynted on the ſhore to bee ſeene, but the backes of the Britaynes in ſteade of a ſhielde are ſhewed to the perſecuters, and their neckes ready to bee cutte off with the ſworde through [...] feare running through their bo [...]ies, whi|che ſtretched foorth their handes to be bound like womanly creatures, ſo that a common Pro|uerbe followed thereof, whiche was commonly vſed and ſpoken, that the Britaynes were ney|ther valiant in warre, nor faythfull in peace: and ſo the Romaynes ſleaing many of the Rebelles, reſeruing ſome, and bringing them to bondage, that the lande ſhoulde not lye altogither vntilled and deſert, returned into Italy out of that lande which was voyde of wine and oile, leauing ſome of their men there for gouernors to chaſtiſe the people, not ſo muche with an army of men, as with ſcourge and whippe, and if the matter ſo required, to apply the naked ſworde vnto theyr ſydes: ſo that it might be accompted Rome and not Britayne. And what coigne eyther of braſſe, ſiluer, or golde there was, the ſame to be ſtamped with the Image of the Emperoure. Thus farre Gildas.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In the Brittiſh hiſtorie we finde other report as thus,Gal. M [...]. Mat. VV [...] that Claudius at his comming a lande at Porcheſter, beſieged that towne, to the reſhew [figure appears here on page 50] whereof came Guinderius, and giuing battell to the Romaynes, put them to the woorſe, till at length, one Hamo, beeyng on the Romaynes ſyde, chaunged hys ſhielde and armoure, appar|rellyng hymſelfe lyke to a Britayne, and ſo en|tring into the thickeſt preaſſe of the Brittiſhe hoſt, came at length to the place where the King was, and there ſlewe him. But Aruiragus per|ceyuing this miſchiefe, to the ende the Brytaines ſhoulde not be diſcouraged therewith, he cauſed himſelfe to be adorned with the Kings coate ar|mour, and other abiliments, and ſo as Kyng continued the fight with ſuch manhood, that the Romaynes were put to flighte. Claudius f [...]e|ing backe to hys Shippes, and Hamo to the nexte Wooddes, whome Aruiragus pur|ſued, and at length droue hym vnto the Sea ſyde, and there ſlewe hym ere hee coulde take EEBO page image 51 Hamo to the [...] wooddes, whome Aruiragus purſued, and at length, droue him vnto the Sea ſide, and there ſlewe hym ere hee coulde take the hauen which was there at hand, ſo that the ſame hauen tooke name of hym, and was called long tyme after Hamons hauen, and at lẽgth by corruption of ſpeeche, it was called Hampton, and ſo continueth vnto thys day commonly called Southampton.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Thus haue you hearde howe Guyderius or Guinderius (whether you will) came to his ende, which chanced (as ſome write) in the .28. yeare of his raigne.

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