3.23. Of Engliſh weightes and their compa|riſon with others. Cap. 23.
Of Engliſh weightes and their compa|riſon with others. Cap. 23.
THe leaſt of our waightes is a grayne, betwéene which and the ounce we haue the halfe quarter, the half, and thrée quarters of the ounce. In olde tyme theſe ſmaller partes were commonlye reconed by péeces of coyne and not by quarter and halfe quar|ter as we doe nowe. As by the farding or fourth part of a peny, which waighed eyght graines, the halfepeny that peyſed ſixtéene, and peny that counterpeyſed 32. and was in [...]éede the 32. part of an ounce, ſo that for the halfe quarter we ſayd two pence halfepeny, for the quarter fiue pence, and halfe ounce tenne pence, which is nowe growne out of vſe, & our coine ſo inhaunced that 6.0. of our pence doe hardly make an ounce, and aleauẽ graines ſuffice with the more to counter|peyſe a peny.
The Athenien ounce was leſſe then ours by 64. graynes, and deuided into his partes after this maner following.
Lepta the ſeauenth part of two graynes.
Granum, A graine.
Chalcus two graines and ſeauen Leptae.
Siliqua foure graines.
Semiobolus ſixe graines or thrée Chalchi.
Obolus hath twelue graines.
Scriptulum two Obolos.
Drachma 3 Scriptula or 72. graines.
Vncia 8 Drachmes: 24. Scriptulas: 48. Ob: 576 graines, whereby they differed not al|ſo from the Romaines in their vncia who reconed their ſmall waightes after this ma|ner following.
A graine the leaſt of all.
Siliqua had 4. graines.
Semiobolus 6. graines.
Obolus 12. graines.
Victoriatus one thirtenth part of an ounce EEBO page image 130 or 41. graines and 1/14 of a graine.
Denarius the ſeauenth part of an ounce.
Sextula the ſixt part.
Sicilicus the fourth part.
Duella the thirde part.
Semuncia the ſecond part, or half an ounce otherwyſe called a Stater.
Vncia the ounce which had two Semuncias 3. Duellas: 4. Sicilicos: 6. Stextulas: 7. Dena|rios: 14. Victoriatus: and 576. graines, as they themſelues doe number them.
Epiphanius in his De menſuris & pon|deribus, ſpeaking of the ounce deuideth it in|to twoo Stateres, 4. Siclos, and 8. Drach|mes, whereby he maketh the Stater to con|taine halfe an ounce or two Didrachmas. And as he agréeth with vs in 8. Drachmes to the ounce, ſo he maketh the leſſe Holcen to counteruaile the Drachme, and the greater the Sicle: after which alſo the heare of Ab|ſolon was weighed and founde to haue Hol|cen ſiclorum 125. that is two pounde and an halfe as he maketh vp his reckening.
That the Siclus was once called [...]alen|tum I referre you to Euſebius his 9. booke De preparatione Euangelica, where he alled|geth the authoritie of Eupolemus, writing of Dauid, Salomon and the buylding of the Temple at large. In the 30. of Exodus wée finde the Iewiſh Sicle to containe 20. obolos, which Ioſephus expounding in the thirde of his Antiquities, ſayth that the Sicle of the Hebrues dyd counteruaile foure Drachmes of Athens. The like doeth Ierome affirme vpon the fourth of Ezechiel. Hereof alſo Eu|polemus gathereth manifeſtly that the 10. talentes of golde which Salomon gaue vnto eache of thoſe workemen that wrought vpon his Temple, were but ſo many Sicles yf his authoritie be ſounde. But to our owne.
We haue alſo a weight called the pounde, whereof are two ſortes the one taking name of Troy contayning twelue ounces (after which our liquide & drie meaſures are wei|ghed and our plat ſolde) the other commonly called Haberdupois, whereby our other arti|ficers and chapmen doe buye and ſell theyr wares. The firſt of theſe contayneth 7680. graines wheras the other hath 10240. Each of them alſo are deuided into the halfe quar|ter, quarter, and halfe pounde, & thrée quar|ters as we haue ſayde before in the deſcrip|tion of the ounce. Nowe in conference of the ſame with the Gréecian weightes if you re|ſpect the Mna commonly vſed amongeſt the Phiſitiõs and Surgeons (I meane for num|ber of ounces) you ſhall finde ſmall difference betwéene theſe and our Haberdupois, but yf you better cõſider of their difference in oun|ces, you ſhall ſée ſome oddes which I will hereafter ſette downe. Furthermore as we haue twoo ſortes of poundes in Englande, ſo the Gréekes [...]de the ſore alleadged, haue thrée kindes of Mnas, whereof the firſt called the greater or the newe, hath
- 12. ounces and foure Drachmes, or
- 100. Drachmes, or
- 600. Obolos, or Semiobolos. 1200.
- 3600. Calchos, or
- 25200. Leptas & of theſe Liuie ſpeaketh.
Their ſecond is called the olde Mna, whoſe proportion is giuen out after thys maner, and hath
- 9. ounces and thrée Drachmes, or
- 75. Drachmes, or
- 450. Obolos, or
- 900. Semiobolos, or
- 2700. Calchos
- 18900. Leptas.
As for theire Apothecary Mna, it conteined after their common accoupt,
- 15. ounces or
- 112. Drachmes, and an halfe, or
- 337. Scruptulas and an halfe, or
- 675. Obolos, whereof let this ſuffice.
In lyke ſort the Romaines hauing but one Libra, deuided it alſo into theſe euen partes inſuing,
- 12. ounces or 576. graines.
- 2. Semiſſes or 6. ounces.
- 3. Trientes, or 4. ounces.
- 4. Quadrantes, or 3. ounces.
- 6. Sextantes, or 2. ounces.
- 8. Seſcuncias or one ounce and an halfe.
Beſide theſe alſo they had certaine odde weightes (percelles of their Libra) which did hit in as it were betwéene theſe, and whoſe names for helpe of the diligent in hystoricall ſtudie I will ſet downe as thus,
- Denux of 11. ounces.
- Dextans of 10. ounces.
- Dodrans of 9. ounces.
- Bes of 8. ounces.
- Septunx of 7. ounces.
Quincunx of fiue ounces, whereby we ſée that the Romaine Libra is not all one with the Athenien Mna as may likewyſe be farther ſéene by this diuiſion inſuing for the Romaine Libra hath
- 12 Vncias.
- 24 Semuncias.
- 36 Duellas.
- 48 Sicilicos.
- 72 Sextulas.
- 84 Denarios.
- 168. Victoriatus & 288. Scriptula.
And as Libra ſurmounteth the olde Mna, ſo the new Mna excéedeth the Libra, and ſo dyd EEBO page image 121 alſo the Apothecarie weight as I haue ſayde before. But yet to ſay ſomewhat more of the Romaine Libra or pounde & other like poy|ſes, I thincke it very expedient for the helpe of ſuch as ſhall méete wyth the ſame in rea|ding of the Hyſtories, & better conference of their proportion with ours.
It is to be noted that As or Aſsis is a worde properly to be applyed vnto any thing that may be deuided into partes, wherby it com|meth to paſſe that as the foote is As vnto the ſmaller meaſure, and Libra vnto the ſmaller coyne, ſo Libra or Pondo is As or Aſsis, vnto the partes of hys diuiſion being left of the greateſt, & greateſt of the ſmalleſt weights.
Of Libra alſo the pound weight was ſome|tyme called Libralis, 2. pounde Bilibris, thrée pounde Trilibris &c. And in like ſort was Pondo vſed and alſo As, ſo that for the afore|ſayde poyſes we ſhall reade Pondo, dupon|dius, trepondius in the one: and for 3. pound, 4. pounde 9. pounde, and 10. pounde, Treſsis, Quadraſsis, Nonuſsis, and Decuſsis in the o|ther. Alſo for two Decuſses 3. Decuſses and 10. Decuſses: Viceſsis, Triceſsis, and Centuſ|sis, that is, 20. Aſſes, 30. Aſſes and 100. Aſſes or poundes as the authours doe expound it. In like ſorte Apondus or Aſsipondius is a pounde weight, Dua pondo, two pound, Tre|pondo thrée pounde, as by reading may be found out. Whenſoeuer you find Pondo put with an other worde of weight, it ſignifieth the worde ſimply whervnto it is referred, as Pondo, Libra a pound, Pondo vncia an ounce and ſo forth in the reſt. I might here ſay that the braſſe penny of the Romaines weight at the firſt wayed 10. pounde, of which Seſter|tius being the fourth parte contayned twoo pounde and an halfe: but when they begunne to coyne ſiluer money, the ſiluer denarius or Libra was valued after the eſtimation of the ſubſtaunce at 10. pounde of the braſen met|tall, and yet ye ſhall not reade that the Ro|maines did euer vſe the worde As, Aſsis at any time for the ſiluer coine, but Libella whi|che I doe take as a thing woorthie to be no|ted. In like ſort Quinarius was the halfe of the denarius, and Quadrans, a coyne of thrée ounces in braſſe, whereof this may ſuffice. Furthermore in obſeruation of the word Se|ſtertium. You ſhall vnderſtande that mille Seſtertium, mille Seſtertium numum, mille Numum and mille Seſtertij are all one. In like ſort Seſtertia in the Neuter gender, doe counteruaile mille Seſtertios in the Maſcu|line gender. But if any Aduerbe of number be added vnto them, it ſignifieth hundreds of thouſandes. Decem Seſtertia therefore are 10000. Seſtertium or Seſtertios. And decies Se|ſtertios, or Seſtertiũ is all one with 100000. Seſtertios or Seſtertium, as Budens Glarean and other haue ſet downe.
Thus it ſhall nowe be an eaſie matter to finde the difference betwéene theſe here re|membred our Engliſh poiſes, if the num|ber of odde graines be duely conſidered, and theſe reſolued into ounces or leſſe weight, as occaſiõ doth require. Hitherto alſo I haue ſpoken of ſmall weightes, nowe let vs ſée what they be that are of the greater ſort, but firſt of ſuch as are in vſe in Englande, reco|ning not after troye weight, but Haberdu|pois, whoſe pounde hath ſixtéene ounces, as I haue ſayde before. Of great waight ther|fore we haue
- The cl [...]ue weighing 7. pound or half a ſtone.
- The halfe quarterne of 14. pounde, in wooll a ſtone, whereof 26. do make a ſacke.
- The quarterne of 28. pound, in wool a Todde.
- The halfe hundred of [...]6. pounde.
- The hundred of 112. or 1792. ounces.
And theſe are vſually rec [...]ed next vnto the hundred weight, which is the greateſt of all that we doe commonly vſe, and of which dy|uers other are commonly made about the ſale of our Tinne, Leade, Flaxe, Spyce, and all kinde of marchaundize with others, whoſe quantities & names are vtterly vn|knowne vnto me. Béefe is eyther ſolde by y^{e} ſtone of eyght pounde or by the ſcore. Chéeſe by the weigh. And hereof we finde two ſeue|rall weightes, whereof one containeth 32 Cloues, eache cloue being of ſeauen pound, (although ſome Bookes haue one but of ſixe) whereby the one weigh hath 224. the other 256. pound, that is 36. cloues & foure pounde ouer weight. This is moreouer to be noted, that the worde hundred, is not alwayes vſed after one ſort in waight or tale, for as fiue ſcore are oft taken for an hundred in ſome reſpect as in money & men: ſo 120. do make but an hundred as in cattell. &c. after ano|ther accoũt. But if you deale by waight thẽ 112. is alwayes your iuſt number. And as the hundred is the greateſt here in England, ſo the talent was the greateſt in Grece & other countries. Howbeit as our hundredes in tale doe differ from our hundredes in waight, ſo did the talents differ one from another, and alſo from them ſelues, for
- The great talent of Athens weyghed 1000. of theyr ounces.
- The leſſe of Athens 750. ounces, or 6000. drachmes.
- That called Egyneũ 1250. ounces (of theirs) or 10000. drachmes.
- That of Syria 187. oũces, or 1500. drachms.
- That of Babylon 875. ounces, or 7000. EEBO page image 131 drachmes.
And all after the rate of the Athenian ounce, vnto whoſe talent alſo the Euboſke did ſéeme to come very neare, as may appeare by con|ference. Now to make ſome collation of our weightes and theſe afore remembred togi|ther, and ſo farre as ſhalbe neceſſary for the reading of forreine hyſtories.
¶ Of the Ounce.
You ſhall vnderſtand that our ounce excée|deth the ounce of the Romains or Grecians by 64. grains, as may eaſily be gathered by that whych is already ſet downe.
Out drachme therfore muſt néedes cõtaine 80. graines, which is 8. more then any of the other.
Our Scriptulum (if we had any) 26. grains, and a third part of two graines.
Our Obolus 13. graines and third part of a grain, ſo that in our mony after 5. ſhillings to the ounce 7. pence ob. is the iuſt waight of a drachme, wherby it is eaſie to caſt the true quantitie of the leſſe.
¶ Of the Mna.
The firſt alſo of the thrée Mnas afore re|membred called the greater, being caſt af|ter his proportion, hath 11. ounces and two drachmes, that is 56. ſhillings and 3. pence, whereby it wanteth ſomewhat of a pounde of Troy waight.
The olde Mna hath 67. drachmes and an halfe, that is 8. of our ounces, & thrée drams, or 42. ſhillings, and 2. pence ob. after our En|gliſh reckening.
The thirde Mna hath 13. ounces & a halfe, that is 3. pound Engliſh, 7. ſhillings 6. pence farding, and halfe farding.
The fourth Mna firſt of all remembred, (I meane of 16. ounces) hath in like ſort 14. ounces, 3. drachmes 16. graines or 3. pounde 12. ſhillings of currant money of Englande, after 5. ſhillings to the ounce.
¶ In lyke ſort of Talents.
The great talent of Athens hath 900. oun|ces, that is of our money 225. pound.
The ſmall talent of Athens, hath 671. oun|ces and 7. drachmes: or 167. pounde 19. ſhil|lings 4. pence ob. Engliſh.
The third talent of Aegyneũ 1156. ounces 2. drachmes, that is 289. pound Engliſh, one ſhilling and 3. pence.
The fourth of thoſe afore remembred 168. ounces 2. drachmes or 42. pound, one ſhilling 6. pence Engliſh.
The laſt, 787. ounces and 4. drachmes, or 196. pound, 17. ſhil. 6. pen. englyſh, as I haue truely caſt it, except I miſtake oughts in my reckening, whych is a thing ſoone done: only thys can not faile, that 3. pounde in coyne is one pound in waight, after 5. ſhillings to the ounce, wherof let thys ſuffice, for the tale [...] in waight. I ſay in waight, becauſe there was a péece of coyne called alſo a talent, as I haue noted out of Eupolemus before, [...] confoundeth it wyth a ſicle. And thereof [...] read furthermore that the Hebrues Tetr [...] drachma was ſuch a talent. As for that of the Athenienſes, it contained 3. Stateres and of thys alſo ynough.