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3.21. Of our accompt of time, and partes thereof. Cap. 21.

Of our accompt of time, and partes thereof. Cap. 21.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 AS Libra is As or Aſsis vnto ye Romains for theyr waight, & the foote in ſtandard meaſure: ſo in our accompt of the partes of time, we take the houre to be the greateſt of ye leaſt, and leaſt of the greateſt, wherby we kéepe our reckening. For my part I do not ſee any great difference vſed in the obſerua|tyon of tyme and hir partes betwéene oure owne and any other forreine nation, where|fore I ſhal not néede to ſtand long vpon this matter. Howbeit, to the ende our exact order héerein ſhall appeare vnto all men, I wil ſet downe ſome ſhort rehearſall therof, and that in ſo briefe maner as vnto me is poſſible. As for our Astronomicall practiſes, I meane not to meddle wyth them, ſith theyr courſe is v|niformely obſerued ouer all. Our common order therfore is to begin at the minute, as at the ſmalleſt part of time knowne vnto the people, notwythſtanding that in moſt places they deſcend no lower then the halfe quarter or quarter of the howre, and from whence they procéede vnto the houre, whych is the 24. part of that whych we call the common and naturall day, & doth begin at midnight. Of vnequall houres or dayes, our natiõ hath no regard, and therefore to ſhew theyr quan|tities EEBO page image 118 & differences, it ſhould be [...]t in value. In lyke ſort, whereas the Egyptiand, Itali|ans, Bohemians, and Iewes begin their day at the Sunne ſet ouer night i [...] the P [...]rſians, Babylonians, Grecians, and Northergians at the Sunne riſing (each of them accoũting theyr dayes and nights by vnequall houres) alſo the Athenienſes, Arabians, Dutchmen and Aſtronomers at hygh [...] W [...] after the Romain maner vſed in the Church there of long time choſe the very poynte of mid|night, from whence we accompt [...] 2. equall houres vnto midday enſuing, and other 12. againe vnto the aforeſaid poynt. And this is our generall order for the naturall day. Of the artificiall we make ſo farre account, as that we recken it to be day when the Sunne is vp, and nyght when it leaueth our Horri|zon: otherwyſe alſo we deuide it into two partes, that is to ſay, forenoone and after|noone, not regarding the ruddy, ſhining, bur|ning and warming ſeaſons (of thrée vnequal houres a péece,) whych other ſéeme to ob|ſerue, and wherof I read theſe verſes.

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Solis equi lucis dicuntur quatuor horae.
Haec rubet, haec ſplender, hae c [...]ilec, illa teper:

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In déede out Phiſitians haue another par|tition of the day, as men of no halfe learning no doubt then the beſt of for [...]ir countryes if we could ſo conceaue of them. And héerein they concurre wyth thoſe of other nations, who for diſtinction in regiment of our hu|mours, diuide the artificiall day and night in ſuch wiſe as theſe verſes doe import, and are in déede a generall rule whych each of them doth follow.

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Tres lucis primas, noctis tres ſanguinis imas.
Vis cholere medias lucis ſex vendicat horas.
Dat melam primas noctis, tres lucis & imas.
Centrales ponas ſex noctis phlegmatis horas.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Or thus, as Tanſteter hath geuen them forth in hys Prelections.

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A nona noctis donec ſit tertia lucis,
Eſt dominus ſanguis, ſex inde ſequẽtib horis
Eſt dominans ch [...]lera, dum lucis nona ſit hora
Poſt niger humid ineſt donec ſit tertia noctis.
Poſthaec phlegma venit, donec ſit nona quietis

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In Engliſh thus in effect.

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Three houres ere ſun do riſe, & ſo many after, Blud,
Frõ 9. to 3. at after none, hot choler beares the ſway,
Euen ſo to 9. at night, ſwart Choler hath to rule,
As Phlegme from thence to 3. at morne: 6. houres eache one I ſay.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 [...]ght.In like ſort for the nyght we haue none o|ther partes then the twylight, darkenyght, midnight, and cockes crowing. Wheras the Latines diuide the ſame into .7. partes, as Veſper the Euening, which is immediately after the ſetting of the Sunne. Crepuſculum the twylight, when it is betwéene day and night, lyght and darkneſſe or properly ney|ther day nor night. Conticirium the ſtill of the nyght when each one is layd to reſt. In|tempeſt [...] the [...] or dead of the night, when [...] in theyr firſt or dead ſléepe Gallicinium the [...]ch [...]s [...] r [...]wing. Matutinum the breache of the day: and Diliculum ſiue aurora, the rud|dy, orenge, golden or ſhining coloure, ſéene immediately before the riſing of the Sunne. Other there are whych doe recken by wat|ches, diuiding the nyght into 4. equal partes. Of whych the firſt beginneth at Euening;watche. called the firſt watch, and continueth by 3. vnequall [...]ras, and ſo forth vntill the ende of the nynth h [...]e, wherat the fourth watch entreth whych is called the morning watch, becauſe it partly concurreth with ye morning & breache of the day before the riſing of the Sunne.Houre. As for the originall of the worde houre, it is very auncient, but yet not ſo olde as that of the watch whych was deuiſed firſt among ſouldiers for theyr better ſafegarde and chaunge of watchmen in theyr campes, the lyke whereof is almoſt vſed among our ſeafaring men whych they call clearing of the g [...]affe, and performed from time to time wyth great héede and ſome ſolemnitie. Cer|teſſe the worde Hora among the Grecians, ſignified ſo well the 4. quarters of the yeare, as the 24. part of ye day, but what ſtand I vp|on theſe things to let my purpoſe ſtay. To procéede therefore.wéeke. Of naturall dayes is the wéeke compacted, which conſiſteth of 7. of them. The firſt entreth with Monday, wher|by it commeth to paſſe that we reſt vpon the Sunday, whych is the 7. in number, as al|mighty God hath commaunded in his word, The Iewes begin theyr weke vpon our Sa|terday at the ſetting of the Sunne, and the Turkes with the Saterday: wherby it com|meth to paſſe; that as the Iewes make our laſt day the firſt of theyr wéeke, ſo the Turks make the Iewiſh Sabaoth the beginning of theyr Hebdoma becauſe Mahomet theyr pro|phet (as they ſay) was borne & dead vpõ ye fri|day, & ſo he was in dede, except their Alcharõ deceaue me. The Iewes doe recken theyr dayes by theyr diſtance from theyr ſabaoth, ſo that the firſt day of theyr wéeke, is the firſt day of the ſabaoth, and ſo forth vnto the ſixte. The Latines accompted theyr dayes after the 7. Planets, choſing the ſame for the deno|minator of the daye, that entreth hys regi|ment wyth the firſt vnequall houre of the ſame after the Sunne be riſen. Howbeit, as thys order is not wholly reteined wyth vs, ſo the vſe of the ſame is not yet altogither a|bolyſhed, as may appeare by our Sonday, EEBO page image 128 Monday, and Saturday. The reſt were chã|ged by the Saxons, who in remembrance of Woden, Oth [...]n, or Oden, The [...] tſometime theyr prince called the ſecond day of ye wéeke Theweſday the iij. day Wodenſdach. Lyke|wiſe of Thor, they called the iiij day Thorſ|dach, and of Frea wyfe to Woden the v. was named Freadach. Albeit there are (and not amiſſe as I thinke) that ſuppoſe them to meane by Thor, Iupiter, by Woden Mercu|ry, by Frea Venus, and finally by Theut Mars: which if it be ſo, then it is an eaſie ma|ter to find out the Germaine Mars, Venus, Mercury and Iupiter, wherof you may read more héereafter in my Chronologie. The truth is, that Frea had 7. ſonnes by Woden, as Woden the firſt, father to Wecca, of whome deſcẽded thoſe that were afterwards kings of Kent, Fethelgeta was the ſeconde. and of hym came the kings of Mertia. Bal|day 3. father to the kings of the Weſtſaxõs. Beldagius 4. parent to the kings of Bren|nicia or Northumberland. Weogodach 5. author of the kings of Deyra. Caſer. 6. rote of the Eſtangle race, and Naſcad originall burgeaunt of the kings of Eſſex. As for the kings of Suſſex, although they were of the ſame people, yet were they not of the ſame ſtreigne, as our old monuments do expreſſe. But to procéede. Of wéekes, our monethes are made whych are ſo called of the Moone, each one conteing 28. dayes, or 4. wéekes, wythout any further curioſity. For we reckẽ not our time by the yeare of the Moone, as the Iewes, Grecians or Romains did at the firſt, or as the Turks, Arabians & Perſians do now: neyther any parcell therof by ye ſayd part as they do in ye Weſt Indies, wher they haue neither weke, moneth nor yere, but on|ly a general accoũt of hundreds & thouſands of Moones, wherfore if we ſay or wryte a mo|neth, it is to be expounded of 28. dayes or 4. wéekes only. Or if you take it at large for a moneth of the common Kalender, whych ne|uertheleſſe in plées and ſutes is nothyng at all allowed of, ſith the Moone maketh hir ful reuolutiõ in 28. dayes, that is, vnto the place where ſhe left the Sunne, notwythſtanding that he be now gone, and at hir returne not to be found where ſhée departed from hym.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 In olde time eche Moneth of the Romaine Calender, was reconed after the courſe of ye Moone, and theyr entraunces were incer|taine, as were alſo the changes of that Pla|net. But after Iulius Caeſar had once correc|ted the ſame, the ſeuerall beginninges of e|uerye one of them dyd not onely remayne fyxed, but alſo the olde order in the deuiſi|on of their partes continued ſtill vnaltered: ſo that the Moneth is yet deuided as before i [...] Calendes, Ides, and Nones, albeit that [...]+mydaies, the vſe of the ſame be but ſmall, & their order retained only in our Calenders for the better vnderſtanding of ſuch tymes as the hiſtoriographers and olde authors do remember. The reconing alſo of ech of the [...] goeth as you ſée after a prepoſterous order whereby the Romaynes dyd rather now howe many daies were to the next chaunge from the precedent then contraywyſe, as b [...] peruſall of ye ſame you ſhall more eaſily per|ceyue. The daies alſo of the change; of ye Mo|neth of ye Moone, called are Callendae, which in time of Paganiſme were conſecrated by Iuno, & ſacrifice made to that goddeſſe on ye ſame. On theſe daies alſo, and on ye Ides an Nones they would not marye. Likewiſe the morow after eche of thẽ, were called dies A|cri, blacke daies, as ſome bookes doe yet re|member. The word Calendae in Gréeke Ne|omenia, is deriued of the worde Calo, to call: for vpon the firſt daye of euery Moneth, the Prieſt vſed to call the people of the Citie & country togither, and ſhewe them by a cuſ|tome howe many daies were from the ſaide Calendes to the Nones, and what feaſts were to be celebrated betwéene that and the nexte chaunge. The Nones commonly are not a+boue 4. or 6. in euery Moneth, and ſo long as the Nones laſted, ſo long did the Mercates continue, & therfore they were called Nones quaſi Nundinae. In them alſo were neyther Hollydayes (more then at thys preſent ex|cept ye day of the Purification of our Lady) nor ſacrifice offred to the gods, but each one applied hys buſineſſe, and kept hys market, reckening the firſt day after the Calends or chaũge, to be the 4. or 6. day before the faire ended. Some thinke that they were called Nonae, of the word Non, quia in ijſdem dij non coluntur, or as Ouide ſayeth. Nonarum tutela deo caret. But howſoeuer it be, ſure it is that they were ye mart dayes of euery mo|neth wherein the people bought, ſolde, and dyd nothing elſe. The Idus are ſo named of the Hethruſcien word Iduare to deuide, and before that Ceſar altered the Calender, they deuided the moneth commonly by the myd|deſt. But afterward when he had added cer|taine dayes thereto, thereby to make it a|grée wyth the yeare of the ſunne (whych he intruded about the ende of euerye mo|neth, becauſe he woulde not alter the ce|lebration of theyr vſuall Feaſtes: then came they ſhorte of the myddeſt, ſome|time by two or thrée daies. In theſe theefore which alwaies are eyght, the Marchauntes had layſure to packe vp and conueigh them EEBO page image 119 marchaundiſe, to paye their creditors and make merry with their friendes. After the Idus do the Calendes followe, but in a decrea|ſing order, as the Moone doth in light when ſhée is paſt the full. But herein lyeth all the myſterie, if you can ſaye ſo many dayes be|fore the next chaunge or newe Moone, as the number there expreſſed doth betoken. As for 16. cal. ſo many dayes before the next con|iunctiõ. &c. Of theſe Calendes, I meane touch|ing their number in euery Moneth, I fynde theſe verſes inſuing.

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Ianus & Auguſtus denas nouem Decẽber,
Iunius, Aprilis, Septẽber & ipſe Nouember,
Ter ſenas retinent, Februus bis Oeto. Calẽdas
Iulius October Mars Mains Epadecem

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In Engliſhe thus,

December, Ian, and August moneth full nyneteene
Calendes haue.
September, Iune, Nouember and Aprill twyſe nine deſire,
Syxteene foule Februarie hath, no more can he well craue.
October, Maye and Iuly hote, but ſeauenteene doe require,

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In lyke maner of nones and Ides.

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Sex maius Nonas, October, Iulius & Mars;
Quatuor at reliqui, dabit Idus quilibet octo.
To Iuly, March, October, May, ſixe nones I hight,
The reſt but 4, as for your Ides they aske but eight

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Agayne touching the number of dayes in euery moneth.

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Iunius, Aprilis, Septem, Nouem tricenos
vnũ plus reliqui, Febru tenet octo vicenos,
At ſi biſſextus fuerit ſuper additur vnus.
Thirty dayes hath Nouember
Aprill, Iune and September,
Twentie and eyght hath February alone,
and all the reſt thirty and one,
But in the leape you muſt adde one.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 [...]re.Our yeare is accounted after the courſe of the ſunne, and although the church hath ſome vſe of that of the Moone for the obſeruation of certaine mooueable feaſtes, yet it is reduc|ted to that of the Sunne, which in our ci|uile dealinges is chiefly had in vſe. Herein onely I finde a ſcruple that the beginning thereof is not vniforme and certaine, for our recordes beare Date the 25. of March, and our Calenders of the firſt of Ianuary. Our ſundrie officers alſo haue ſundrie enteraun|ces into their charges of cuſtome, which bréedeth great confuſion, whereas if all theſe might be referred to one originall (and that to be the firſt of Ianuarie) I do not thincke but there would be more certaintie and leſſe trouble for our hiſtoriographers and offices in their account of the yeare. Furthermore, whereas our intercalation for the Leape yeare is ſomewhat to much by certayne mi|nutes (which in 309. yeares do amount vnto an whole day) yf one intercalation in [...]o ma|ny were o [...]ted, our Calender would be the more perfite: & I woulde wiſh that the ſame yeare wherein the ſaide intercalation ſhould be ouerpaſſed, might be called Annus mag|nus Elizabethae in perpetual remembrance, of our noble and ſoueraign princeſſe Certes the next [...] is to be performed yf all Princes woulde agree thereto in the Leape yeare that ſhall be about the yeare of grace 1700. If it ſhall pleaſe God that the worlde may laſt ſo long. Aboue the yeare we haue no mo partes of Time, that cary any ſeuerall names with them, except you will affirme the worde age, to be one which is taken for 100 yeares, & ſignifieth in Engliſhe ſo much as Seculum or Euum doth in latine, whereof this may ſuffice. But to conclude withal, you ſhall haue a table of the names of the dayes of the wéeke, after the olde Saxon and Scot|tiſh maner, which I haue borowed from a|mongeſt our auncient wryters.

The preſent names.

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  • Monday.
  • Tueſday.
  • Wedneſday.
  • Thurſday.
  • Fryday.
  • Saterday.
  • Sunday.

The olde Saxon names.

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  • Monendeg.
  • Tueſdeg.
  • Wodneſdeg.
  • Thunreſdeg.
  • Firgeſdeg.
  • Saterdeg.
  • Sunnandeg.

The Scottiſh vſage.

    Compare 1587 edition: 1
  • Diu Luna.
  • Diu Mart.
  • Diu Yath.
  • Diu Ethamon.
  • Diu Friach.
  • Diu Satur.
  • Diu Serol.

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