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3.11. Of Hawkes and Rauenous foules. Cap. 11.

Of Hawkes and Rauenous foules. Cap. 11.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 I Can not make as yet any iuſt report howe many ſortes of Hawkes are bredde wyth|in this realme. Howbeit which of thoſe that are vſually had amongeſt vs are diſcloſed with this lande, I thincke it more eaſie and leſſe difficulte to ſet downe. Firſt of all ther|fore that we haue the Eagle, common expe|rience EEBO page image 111 doth euidently confirmed and diuers of our rockes whereon they brede, yf ſpeach did ſerue, could wel teſtifie the ſame. But the moſt excellent [...]ry of all is not much from Cheſter at a caſtle called D [...]s Br [...]n ſome|time buylded by Brennuis, as our writters do coniecture. Certes this caſtell is no great thing, but yet a pyle very ſtrong and in ac|ceſſible for enemyes, though nowe all rui|nous as many other are. It ſtandeth vpon a harde rocke in the ſide whereof an Eagle bréedeth euery yeare. Certes this is notable in the ouerthrow of hir neaſt (a thing oft at|tempted) that he which goeth thither muſt be ſure of two large baſkets, and ſo prouide to be let downe thereto, that he may ſitte in the one and be couered with the other: for other|wyſe the Egle would kill hym and teare the fleſhe from his bones with their ſharpe ta|lons though his apparell were neuer ſo good. Next vnto ye Egle we haue the Irõ or Erne (as the Scottes doe write) who call the E|gle by ye name. Certes it is a Rauenous bird & not much inferiour to the Egle in déede. For though they be black of colour & ſome|what leſſe of bodie, yet ſuch is their great|neſſe that they are brought by diuers into ſundrie partes of this realme and ſhewed as Egles onely for hope of [...]aine, which is got|ten by the ſight of thẽ. Their chiefe bréeding is in the Weſt country, where the commons complaine of great harme to be done by thẽ in their fieldes, for they are able to beare a yong lambe or kidde vnto their neaſtes, ther|with to feede their yong and come againe for more. Some call thẽ Gripes. We haue alſo the Lanner & the Lanneret: the Tercell and the Goſehawke: the Muſket and the Spar|hawke: the Iacke and the Hobby: and final|lye ſome though very fewe Marlions. And theſe are all the Hawkes that I doe here to be bredde within this Iſlande. Howbeit as theſe are not wanting with vs, ſo are they not very plentifull: wherfore ſuch as delite in Hawking doe make their chiefe prouiſion for the ſame out of Danſke, Germany, and the Eaſtcountries, from whence w [...] haue thẽ in great aboundaunce & at exceſſiue prices, whereas at home and where they be bredde they are ſolde for almoſt right [...]ght and vſually brought to the markets as chickins, pullets and Pigeons are with vs, and there bought vp to be eaten (as we doe the afore|ſayde foules) almoſt of euery man. But to procede with ye reſt. Other rauenous birdes we haue alſo in very great plentye, as the Buſſarde, the Kite, the Ringtaile Di [...]te, and ſuch as often annoye oure Countrie dames by ſpoyling of their yong broodes of chickins, Duckes and G [...]in [...] wherevn|to our very [...] and [...] and Cr [...]wes haue lear|ned alſo the way: and ſo much are [...] rauẽs giuen to this kinde of ſp [...]yle that ſome of ſet purpoſe haue [...] and vſed there in ſtéede of Hawkes, when other could [...] had. I haue ſéene Crowes ſo cunning alſo of theyr owne ſelues that they haue vſed to [...] great riuers (as the Thames for example) & ſodenly comming downe haue caught a ſmall fiſhe in their féete and gone away withall wtout wetting of their wings. And euen at this preſent the aforeſayde ry|u [...]r is not without ſome of them, a thing in my opiniõ not a litle to be wondred at. There is no cauſe wherfore I ſhoulde deſcribe the Cormorant amõgſt Hawkes (except I ſhold call him a Water Hawke) but ſith ſuch dea|ling is not conuenient, let vs nowe ſée what may be ſayde of our venemous Wormes, & how many kindes we haue of them within our realme and countrie.

3.12. ¶ Of venemous beaſtes. &c. Cap. 12.

¶ Of venemous beaſtes. &c. Cap. 12.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 IF I ſhoulde go about to make any long diſcourſe of venemous Beaſtes, or Wor|mes bredde in Englande, I ſhould attempt more then occaſion it ſelfe woulde offer, ſith wée haue very fewe Wormes but no Bea|ſtes at all, that are thought by nature to bée eyther venemous or hurtfull. Firſt of all therefore wée haue the Adder, which ſome men doe not raſhely take to bée the Vyper. Certes if it bée ſo, then is not the Vyper Authour of the death of hir Galenus de Theria|ca ad Piſo|nem. Plin. lib. 10. cap. 62. Parents, as ſome hyſtories affyrme. And it may well be, for I remember that I haue reade in Philoſtrate, howe he ſawe a Vyper lycking of hyr yong. I did ſée an Adder once my ſelf that laye as I thought ſléeping on a moule|hyll, out of whoſe mouth came aleuen yong Adders of twelue or thirtéene ynches in length a péece, which plaied to and fro in the Graſſe one wyth another, tyll ſome of thm [...] eſpyed me.Se Ariſto|tle, Anima|lium lib. 5. cap. vltimo & Theo|phraſt lib. 7 cap. 13. So ſoone therefore as they ſawe me, they ran againe into the mouth of theyr damme whome I kylled, and then founde eache of them ſhrowded in a [...]ſtinct celle, or pa [...]uirle in hyr belly, much like vnto a ſoft white tally, which maketh one to be of the o|pinion that out Adder [...] the Viper in dée [...]. Their colour is for ye moſt part ruddy blew, and their ſtinging bryngeth death wythout preſent remedie be at hand, the wounded ne|uer ceaſing to ſwell, neyther the venyme to worke till the ſkin of the one breake, and the other aſcende vpwarde to the hart, where it EEBO page image 121 finiſheth. The effect, the length of thẽ is moſt commonly twoo foote and ſomewhat more, but ſeldome doth it extende vnto twoo foote ſixe ynches, except it be in ſome rare and monſterous Adder: whereas our Snakes are much bygger and ſéene ſometymes to ſurmount a yarde, or thrée foote, although their poyſon be nothing ſo grieuous & deadly as ye others. Our Adders lie in winter vnder ſtones in wholes of the yearth, rotten ſtubs of trées, & amõgſt the dead leaues: but in the heate of the ſommer they come abroade, and lye eyther rounde in heapes, or at length vp|on ſome hillocke, or elſe where in the graſſe. They are found only in our woodland coun|tryes and higheſt groundes: as for our ſna|kes they commonlye are ſéene in moores, fennes, and low bottomes. And as we haue great ſtore of Todes where Adders cõmon|ly are found, ſo doe Frogges abound where Snakes doe kéepe their reſidence. We haue alſo the Sloworme, which is black & grayiſh of colour, and ſomewhat ſhorter then an Ad|der. We haue in lyke ſort Eftes, both of the land and water, & likewiſe Swiftes, wherof to ſay any more it ſhould be but loſſe of time, ſithe they are well knowne and no regyon voyd of many of them. As for flies (ſith it ſhal not be amyſſe a lyttle to touch them alſo) wée haue none that can doe hurt or hynderance naturally vnto any, for whether they be cut waſted, or whole bodyed, they are voyde of poyſon & all venimous inclination. The cut waſted, for ſo I Engliſhe the worde Inſecta are the Hornettes, Waſpes, Bées, and ſuch lyke whereof wée haue great ſtore, and of which an opinion is conceiued, that the firſt doe bréede of the corruption of deade horſes, the ſecond of Peares and Apples corrupted, and the laſt of Kine and Oxen: which maye be true, eſpecially the firſt and latter in ſome partes of the beaſt, and not their whole ſub|ſtaunces, as alſo in the ſeconde, ſith we haue neuer Waſpes, but whẽ our frute beginneth to waxe rype. In déede Virgill and others ſpeake of a generatiõ of Bées, by kyllyng or ſmouthering of a brouſed bullocke or calfe, and laying hys bowels or hys fleſhe wrap|ped vp in hys hyde in a cloſe houſe for a cer|taine ſeaſon, but how true it is as yet I haue not tryed. Yet ſure I am of thys that no one liuing creature corrupteth with out the pro|ductiõ of an other as we may ſée in ſhepe alſo for exceſſiue numbers of fleſh flies, if they be ſuffered to lye vnburyed or vneaten by the dogges and Swine, who often preuent ſuch néedeleſſe generations.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Thus much farder wyll I adde of Bées, that whereas ſome ancient wryters affirme thẽ to be a cõmodity wanting in our Iſ [...] it is nowe founde to be nothing ſo. In [...] time peraduenture we had none in déede, but in my dayes there is ſuch plenty of them [...] maner euery where, that in ſome vplandyſh Townes, there are one hundreth, or two hun|dreth hiues of them, although the ſaide hiues are not ſo huge as they of the eaſt countrey; but farre leſſe, as not able to containe aboue one buſhel of corne, or fiue peckes at ye [...] Our hony alſo is taken and reputed to be the beſt bycauſe it is harder, better wrought & clenlyer veſſelled vp, thẽ that which cõmeth from beyond the ſea, where they ſtampe and ſtraine their combes, Bées, & young Blow|inges altogither into the ſtuffe, as I haue béene informed. In vſe alſo of medicine our Phiſitions and Appothicaries eſchewe the forren, & chooſe the home made, as bréeding leſſe cholo [...], which is oftentimes (and I haue ſéene by experience) ſo white as ſuger, and corned as if it were ſalt. Our hiues are made commonly of Rye ſtraw, and wadled about with bramble quarters. But ſome make thẽ of wicker and caſt them ouer with clay. We cheriſh none in trées, but ſet our hiues ſome|where on the warmeſt ſide of the houſe, pro|uyding that they may ſtande drye and: with out daũger of the mouſe. This furthermore is to bée noted, that whereas in veſſelles of oyle, that which is néereſt the toppe is ac|counted the beſt, and of wine that in the m [...]|deſt, ſo of hony the beſt is alwaies next the bottome, which euermore caſteth and dry|ueth his dragges vpwarde toward the very top, contrary to the natures of other liquide ſubſtaunces, whoſe groundes and lies, doe generally ſettle downewardes. And thus much as by the waye of our Bées and Eng|liſhe Hony.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 As for the whole bodied, as the Cantharides and ſuch venymous creatures, we here not of them. Yet haue we Bettles, Horſeflyes, Turdbugges (called in latine Scarabei) the Locuſt or the Greſhopper and ſuch lyke, whereof let other intreate, that make an ex|erciſe in catching of Flyes, but a farre greater ſport in offering them to ſpyders as did Caligula ſometyme and an other Prince yet lyuing, who delyted ſo much to ſée the io|ly combattes betwixt a ſtout flye and an old Spider, that diuers men haue had great re|wardes giuen them for their paineful proui|ſion of flyes made onely for thys purpoſe, Some alſo in the time of Caligula coulde de|uyſe to ſet their Lorde on worke, by lettyng fleſhe flies into his chamber, which he forth|with: woulde egerly haue hunted all other buſineſſe ſet apart, & neuer ceaſed til he had EEBO page image 112 caught hir into his fingers. There are ſome Cockeſcombes here and there in England [...]eruing [...]broadde men [...]nfregi| [...]te. which make account alſo of this paſtime as of a notable matter, telling what a fight is ſéene betwéene thẽ, if either of them be luſty and couragious in his kinde. One alſo hath made a booke of the Spider & the Fly, wher|in he dealeth ſo profoundly and beyonde all meaſure of ſkill, that neyther he himſelf that made it, neither any one ſhal readeth it, can reache vnto the meaning therof. But if thoſe iolly fellowes in ſtéede of the ſtraw that they thruſt into the Flies tayle (a great iniurie no doubt to ſuch a noble champion) woulde beſtow the coſt to ſet a fooles cap vpon there owne heades: then might they with more ſe|curitie, and leſſe reprehenſion beholde theſe notable battayles.

3.13. Of Engliſhe Dogges. Cap. 13.

Of Engliſhe Dogges. Cap. 13.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 THere is no country that may (as I take it) compare with ours in number, excel|lencie, and diuerſitie of Dogges: all which the learned Doctour Caius in his Treatize vnto Geſnere de canibus Anglicis doth bring into thrée ſortes: that is, the gentle kinde ſer|uing for game: the homly kind apt for ſundry neceſſarie vſes: and the curriſh kinde, méete for many toyes. For my part I can ſaye no more of them then he hath done alreadie, wherfore I wil here ſet downe only a ſomme of that which he hath written of their names and natures, with the addicion of an example or twoo now lately had in experience, wher|by the courages of our Maſtiſſes ſhall yet more largely appeare.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The firſt ſort therefore he deuideth eyther into ſuch as rowſe the beaſt and continue the chaſe: or ſpringeth the Birde, and bewrayeth hir flyght by purſute. And as theſe are com|monly called Spanyels, ſo the other are na|med Hounds, wherof he maketh eight ſorts, of whych the foremoſte excelleth in perfite ſmelling, the ſeconde in quicke eſpying, the third in ſwiftneſſe and quickneſſe, the fourth in ſmelling and nimbleneſſe. &c. & the laſt in ſubtilty and deceitfulneſſe: The firſt kinde of theſe are alſo commonlye called Haryers, whoſe game is the Foxe, the Hare, Wolfe, (if we had any) Hart, Bucke, Badger, Ot|ter, Polcat, Lobſtart, Weſell, Conye. &c: the ſecond hight a Terrer, & it hũteth the Bad|ger ang Grey onely: the third a bloudhound, whoſe office is to follow the fierce, and nowe and then to purſue a théefe or beaſt by hys dry foote: the fourth a Gaſchounde, who hun|teth by the eye: the fifth a Greyhounde, che|riſhed for hys ſtrength and ſwiftneſſe: the ſixt a Lyei [...]er, that excelleth in ſmellyng and ſwift r [...]i [...]g: the ſeuenth a humbler, and the eight a théefe, whoſe offices (I meane of the l [...]r two) outline onely to deceite, wherein they are oft [...]o ſkilfull, that fewe men woulde thinke ſo miſcheuous a witte to remayne in ſuch two treatur [...]s. Hauing made thys enu|meration of Dogges which ſerue for ye chaſe and Hunting he commeth next to ſuche as ſerue the Falcons in theyr times, whereof he maketh alſo two ſortes. One that findeth hys gaine on the lande an other that putteth vp ſuch Fowle as kéepeth the water. And of theſe thys [...] commonly moſte vſuall for the nette or traine, the other for the Hawke, as he doeth ſhewe at large. Of the firſt, he ſay|eth that they haue no peculiar names aſſig|ned vnto them ſeuerally, but eache of them is called after the birde whych by naturall appoyntmẽt he is allotted to hunt: for which conſideration ſome be named Dogges for the Feaſant, ſome for the Falcon, and ſome for the Partriche. Howe be it, the common name for all is Spanniell, as if theſe kindes of Dogges had bene brought hyther out of Spaine. In like ſort we haue of water Span|niels in theyr kinde. The third ſort of Dogs of the gentle kinde is the Spaniell gentle, or conforter: or as the common terme is the [...]ſtinghound, and called Melitri, of the Iland Malta, frõ whence they were brought hither. Theſe Dogges are little and prettie, proper and [...]ine, and ſought out far and néere to ſa|tiſfie the nice delicatie of daintie dames, and wanton womens willes. Inſtrumẽts of fol|ly to play and dally withal, in trifling away the treaſure of time to wythdrawe theyr mindes from more commendable exerciſes, and to content theyr corrupt concupiſcences wyth vaine diſp [...]rt, a ſilly poore ſhift to them theyr irkeſome ydleneſſe. Thoſe puppies the ſmaller they be (and thereto if they haue an hole in the forepartes of theyr heads) the but|ter they are accepted, the more pleaſure alſo they prouoke as méere plane [...]owes for min|ſing miſtreſſes to beare in theyr boſomes, to keepe company wyth all in theyr chambers, to ſuccour wyth ſléepe in bedde, and nouryſh wyth meate at bord [...], to lye in theyr lappes; and licke theyr lippes as they lie (like yonge Dianaes) in their wagons. And good reaſon it ſhould be ſo, for courſeneſſe wyth fineneſſe hath no fellowſhip, but featneſſe wt neatneſſe hath neighborh [...]ad inough. That plauſible prouerbe therfore verifies ſometime vpon a tyrant, namely yt he loued hys Some better then hys ſonne, may well [...]e applied to ſome of thys kinde of people, who delight more in theyr dogges, that are depriued of all poſſibi|litye EEBO page image 122 of reaſon, then they doe in children that are capable of wiſdom and iudgement. Yea, they ofte féede them of the beſt, where the poore mans child at theyr dores can hard|ly come by the worſt. But the former abuſe peraduenture raigneth where there hath ben long want of iſſue, els where harẽnes is the beſt bloſſom of beauty: or finally, where pore mens children for want of theyr owne iſſue are not redy to be had. It is thought of ſome that it is very holeſome for a weake ſtomake to beare ſuch a Dogge in ones boſome, as it is for hym that hath the palſie to féele the dai|ly ſmell of a Foxe. But how truly thys is af|firmed let the learned iudge: onely it ſhall ſuffi [...]e for D. Caius to haue ſayd thus much of Spaniels and Dogges of the gentle kinde.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Dogs of ye homely kinde, are eyther ſhep|heardes curres, or Maſtiffes. The firſt are ſo common, that it néedeth me not to ſpeake of them: Theyr vſe alſo is ſo well known in ke|ping ye herd together (either when they graſe or go before the ſhepheard,) that it ſhould be but in vaine to ſpend any time about them. Wherfore I will leaue thys curre vnto hys owne kinde, and goe in hande wyth the Ma|ſtiffe or banddogge, which is an huge dogge, ſtubborne, ougly, eagre, burthenous of bo|dy, (and therfore but of litle ſwiftneſſe,) ter|rible and feareful to behold, and more fearſe and fell then any Archadien curre. Our En|gliſh men to the enfe [...]t that theſe Dogges maye be more fell and fearſe, aſſiſt nature wyth ſome art, vſe & cuſtome. For although thys kinde of dogge be capeable of courage, violent, valiant, ſtout and bolde: yet wil they increaſe theſe theyr ſtomackes by teaching them to bait the Beare, the Bull, the Lyon, and other ſuch lyke cruell and bloudy beaſts wythout any coller to defende theyr throtes, and oftentimes thereto, they traine them vp in fighting and wraſtling wyth a man, ha|uing for the ſauegard of his life either a pike ſtaffe, olubbe, ſword, or priuie coate, wherby they become the more fearſe and cruell vnto ſtraungers. Of Maſtiffes, ſome barke onely with fearſe and open mouth but wil not bite, ſome do both barke and bite, but the cruelleſt doeth eyther not barke at all, or bite be|fore they barke, and therefore are more to be feared then any of the other. They take alſo theyr name of the word maſe and théefe (or maſter théefe if you will) becauſe they often put ſuch perſones to theyr ſhiftes in townes and villages, and are the principall cauſes of theyr apprehenſion and taking. The force whych is in them ſurmoũteth all beléefe, and ye faſt holde whych they take with theyr téeth excedeth all credite, for thrée of them againſt a Boare, fowre againſt a Lion are ſuffici [...] both to [...]rie maſtries with them, and vtter [...] ouermatch them. King Henrye the ſeuent [...] as the reporte goeth, commaunded all ſuch [...] curres to be hanged, becauſe they durſt p [...]+ſume to fight againſt the Lion: who is th [...] king and ſoueraigne. The like he did with [...] excellent Falcon, becauſe he feared not h [...] to hand to match wyth an Eagle, willing [...] Falconers in his owne preſence to plucke [...] hys heade after he was taken downe, ſayin [...] that it was not méete for any ſubiect to off [...] ſuch wrong vnto his Lord and ſuperior [...] if king Henrye the ſeuenth had liued in [...] time, what would he haue done to one Eng|liſh Maſtiffe, which alone and wythout an [...] help at al, pulled downe firſt an huge Beare [...] then a Parde, and laſt of al a Lyon, eache af+ter other before the Frenche King in one day: wherof if I ſhould wryte the circumſtã+ces, that is, how he toke his aduantage being let loſe vnto them, and finally draue them [...] to ſuch exceding feare, that they were al [...] to runne away when he was taken frõ them I ſhould take much paines, and yet rea [...] but ſmall credite, wherfore yt ſhall ſuffice [...] haue ſayd thus much thereof. Some of our Maſtiffes will rage onely in the nyght, ſome are to be tied vp both day and night. Such [...] ſo as are ſuffered to go loſe about the [...] and yarde, are ſo gentle in the day time; th [...] children may ride vpon theyr backes & pl [...] with thẽ at theyr pleaſures. Some of them alſo will ſuffer a ſtraunger to come in and walke about the houſe or yarde where him li|ſteth, without giuing ouer to folow him. Bu [...] if he put forth his hand to touche any thyng then wil they flie vpon him & kill hym if they may. I had one my ſelfe once, whych woulde not ſuffer any man to bring in hys weaping farder then my gate: neither thoſe that were of my houſe to be touched in his preſence. Or if I had beaten any of my children, he would gently haue aſſayed to catch the rodde in hys téethe and take it out of my hande, or elſe plucke downe theyr clothes to ſaue them t [...] yt ſtripes: which in my opinion is worthy to be noted, & thus much of our Maſtiffes. The laſt ſort of Dogges conſiſteth of the curriſh kinde méete for many toyes: of whyche the wap or prickeard curre is one. Some mẽ cal them warners, becauſe they are good for no|thing elſe but to giue warning when any bo|dy doth ſturre or lie in waite about the houſe in the nyght ſeaſon. It is vnpoſſible to de|ſcribe theſe curres in any order, becauſe they haue no one kinde proper vnto themſelues, but are a confuſed companye mixte of all the reſt. The ſeconde ſorte of them are called EEBO page image 131 turne ſpiltes, whoſe office is not [...] to any. And as theſe are onely reſerued for this purpoſe, ſo in manye places our Maſ|tiffes are made to drawe water in greate whéeles out of déepe welles; going much li [...]e vnto thoſe which are framed for ouer t [...]ne ſpittes, as is to be ſéene at Royſton, where this feate is often practiſed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 The laſt kind, of toyiſh curres, are named dauncers, and thoſe being of a m [...]ngerel ſor [...] alſo, are taught & exerciſed to daunce in mea|ſure at ye muſicall ſound of an inſtrument, [...] at the iuſt ſtroke of a drownie, ſwéete acco [...] of the Citharne, and pleaſaunt harmony of the Harpe, ſhewing many tryckes by the geſture of theyr bodyes. As to ſtand bolt vp|ryght, to lye flat vpon the grounde, to tourne round as a ryng holding their tayles in their téeth, to ſaw and begge for meate, & ſundrye ſuch properties, which they learne of theyr ydle rogiſhe maiſters, whoſe inſtrumentals they are to gather gaine, as olde Apes [...]l [...]|thed in motley, and colloured ſhort waſtes Iacketes are for the lyke vagaboundes, who ſéeke no better lyuing, then that which they may get by fonde paſtime and ydleneſſe. I myght here intreat of other Dogges, as of thoſe which are bredde betwéene a bytche & a Woolfe, and betwéene a [...]yche a & foxe, or a beare and a maſtife. But as we vtterly want the firſt ſort, except they be brought vnto vs, ſo it happeneth ſometime, that the other tw [...] are ingendred and ſéene amongſt vs. But of all the reſt heretofore remembred, in this Chapter there is none more vglye in ſight, cruell and fearce in déede, nor vntrac|table in hande, then yt which is begotten be|twéen the Beare & the banddoge. For what|ſouer he catcheth hould of, he taketh it ſo faſt that a man may ſooner teare & rend his body in ſunder, then get open his mouth to ſepa|rate his chappes. Certes he regardeth ney|ther Woolfe, Beare, nor Lyon, and therfore may wel be compared with thoſe twoo dogs which were ſent to Alexander out of India (and procreate as it is thought betwéene a Maſtiffe and male Tyger as bée thoſe alſo of Hyrcania) or to them that are bred in Ar|chada, where copulation is oft ſéene betwéen Lions and Byches, as the like is in fraunce betwéene the Woolfes and Dogges, where|of let this ſuffise.

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