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3.10. Of fiſhe taken vpon our Coaſtes. Cap. 10.

Of fiſhe taken vpon our Coaſtes. Cap. 10.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 AS our foules haue their ſeaſons, ſo lyke|wiſe haue all ſorts of fiſh, wherby it co|meth to paſſe that none, or at the leaſtwyſe very few of them are to be had at all tymes. For my part I am greatly acquainted ney|ther with the ſeaſons nor yet with the fiſh it ſelfe, and therefore yf I ſhoulde take vppon me to deſcribe or ſpeak of either of them ab|ſolutely, I ſhould enterpriſe more then I am able to performe, & go in hande with a grea|ter matter then I can well bring about. It ſhall ſuffice therefore to declare what ſortes of fiſhes I haue moſt often ſéene, to the ende I may not altogither paſſe ouer this chapter without ye rehearſall of ſome thing, although the whole ſomme of that which I haue to ſay be nothing in déede, yf the full diſcourſe hereof be any thing duly conſidered.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Of fiſhes therfore as I finde fiue ſorts, the flat, the roũd, the long, the legged & ſhelled, ſo the flat are deuided into the ſmoothe, ſcaled & tailed. Of the firſt are the Plaice, the Butte, the Turbut, Dorrey, Dabbe, &c. Of the ſe|conde, the Soles, &c. Of the thirde, oure Chaites, Maidens, Kingſones, Flathe and Thornebacke, whereof the greater be for the moſt parte eyther dryed and caryed into o|ther countries, or ſoddẽ, ſowſed, & eaten here at home, whyleſt the leſſer be fryed or butte|red, ſone after they be takẽ, as prouiſion not to be kept long for feare of putrefaction. Vn|der the round kindes are commonly compre|hended Lumpes an vgly fiſh to ſighte, and yet very delicate in eating, yf it be kindlye dreſſed. The Whighting, (an olde waiter or ſeruitor in the Court) the Rochet, Gurnard, Hadocke, Codde, Herring, Pilchard, Sprat, & ſuch like. And theſe are they wherof I haue beſt knowledge and be commonly to be had in their tymes vppon our coaſtes. Vnder this kinde alſo are all the great fiſhe contai|ned as the Seale, the Dolphin, the Porpaſſe, the Thirlepole, Whale, and whatſoeuer is round of body, be it neuer ſo great and huge. Of the long ſort are Cungres, Eles, Gare|fiſhe and ſuche other of that forme. Fi|nallye of the legged kinde we haue not ma|nye, neyther haue I ſéene any more of thys ſort then the Polipus, called in Engliſhe the Lobſtar, the Craifiſh, and ye Crabbe. As for the little Craifiſhes, they are not taken in the ſea, but plentyfully in our freſhe ryuers in banckes and vnder ſtones where they kepe themſelues in moſt ſecret maner, and oft by lykeneſſe of coulour with the ſtones among which they lye, they deceiue euen the ſkilful takers of them, except they vſe great dili|gence. I might here ſpeake of ſundrie other fiſhes nowe and then taken alſo vppon our coaſtes, but ſi [...]h my minde is onely to touche eyther all ſuch as are vſually gotten, or ſo many of them onely as I can well rehearſe vpon certayne knowledge, I thincke it good at thys tyme to forbeare the further intrea|tye of them. As touching the ſhelly ſorte we haue plentie of Oyſters, Muſcles and Co|cles. We haue in lyke ſort no ſmall ſtore of great Whelkes, and Perewincles, & eache of them brought farre into the land from the ſea coaſt in their ſeuerall ſeaſons. And albe|it our Oyſters are generally forborne in the foure hote monethes of the yeare, that is to ſay, May, Iune, Iuly, & Auguſt. Yet in ſome places they be continallye eaten, where they be kept in pittes as I haue knowen by experience. And thus much of our ſea fiſhe, as a man in maner vtterlye vnacquainted with their diuerſitie of kindes: yet ſo much haue I yéelded to do, hoping hereafter to ſay ſomewhat more, and more orderly of them, if it ſhall pleaſe God that I may liue and haue leaſure once againe to peruſe this treatize, & ſo make vp a perfit péece of work of yt, which as you now ſée is very ſlenderly begunne.

3.11. Of Hawkes and Rauenous foules. Cap. 11.

Of Hawkes and Rauenous foules. Cap. 11.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 I Can not make as yet any iuſt report howe many ſortes of Hawkes are bredde wyth|in this realme. Howbeit which of thoſe that are vſually had amongeſt vs are diſcloſed with this lande, I thincke it more eaſie and leſſe difficulte to ſet downe. Firſt of all ther|fore that we haue the Eagle, common expe|rience EEBO page image 111 doth euidently confirmed and diuers of our rockes whereon they brede, yf ſpeach did ſerue, could wel teſtifie the ſame. But the moſt excellent [...]ry of all is not much from Cheſter at a caſtle called D [...]s Br [...]n ſome|time buylded by Brennuis, as our writters do coniecture. Certes this caſtell is no great thing, but yet a pyle very ſtrong and in ac|ceſſible for enemyes, though nowe all rui|nous as many other are. It ſtandeth vpon a harde rocke in the ſide whereof an Eagle bréedeth euery yeare. Certes this is notable in the ouerthrow of hir neaſt (a thing oft at|tempted) that he which goeth thither muſt be ſure of two large baſkets, and ſo prouide to be let downe thereto, that he may ſitte in the one and be couered with the other: for other|wyſe the Egle would kill hym and teare the fleſhe from his bones with their ſharpe ta|lons though his apparell were neuer ſo good. Next vnto ye Egle we haue the Irõ or Erne (as the Scottes doe write) who call the E|gle by ye name. Certes it is a Rauenous bird & not much inferiour to the Egle in déede. For though they be black of colour & ſome|what leſſe of bodie, yet ſuch is their great|neſſe that they are brought by diuers into ſundrie partes of this realme and ſhewed as Egles onely for hope of [...]aine, which is got|ten by the ſight of thẽ. Their chiefe bréeding is in the Weſt country, where the commons complaine of great harme to be done by thẽ in their fieldes, for they are able to beare a yong lambe or kidde vnto their neaſtes, ther|with to feede their yong and come againe for more. Some call thẽ Gripes. We haue alſo the Lanner & the Lanneret: the Tercell and the Goſehawke: the Muſket and the Spar|hawke: the Iacke and the Hobby: and final|lye ſome though very fewe Marlions. And theſe are all the Hawkes that I doe here to be bredde within this Iſlande. Howbeit as theſe are not wanting with vs, ſo are they not very plentifull: wherfore ſuch as delite in Hawking doe make their chiefe prouiſion for the ſame out of Danſke, Germany, and the Eaſtcountries, from whence w [...] haue thẽ in great aboundaunce & at exceſſiue prices, whereas at home and where they be bredde they are ſolde for almoſt right [...]ght and vſually brought to the markets as chickins, pullets and Pigeons are with vs, and there bought vp to be eaten (as we doe the afore|ſayde foules) almoſt of euery man. But to procede with ye reſt. Other rauenous birdes we haue alſo in very great plentye, as the Buſſarde, the Kite, the Ringtaile Di [...]te, and ſuch as often annoye oure Countrie dames by ſpoyling of their yong broodes of chickins, Duckes and G [...]in [...] wherevn|to our very [...] and [...] and Cr [...]wes haue lear|ned alſo the way: and ſo much are [...] rauẽs giuen to this kinde of ſp [...]yle that ſome of ſet purpoſe haue [...] and vſed there in ſtéede of Hawkes, when other could [...] had. I haue ſéene Crowes ſo cunning alſo of theyr owne ſelues that they haue vſed to [...] great riuers (as the Thames for example) & ſodenly comming downe haue caught a ſmall fiſhe in their féete and gone away withall wtout wetting of their wings. And euen at this preſent the aforeſayde ry|u [...]r is not without ſome of them, a thing in my opiniõ not a litle to be wondred at. There is no cauſe wherfore I ſhoulde deſcribe the Cormorant amõgſt Hawkes (except I ſhold call him a Water Hawke) but ſith ſuch dea|ling is not conuenient, let vs nowe ſée what may be ſayde of our venemous Wormes, & how many kindes we haue of them within our realme and countrie.

3.12. ¶ Of venemous beaſtes. &c. Cap. 12.

¶ Of venemous beaſtes. &c. Cap. 12.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 IF I ſhoulde go about to make any long diſcourſe of venemous Beaſtes, or Wor|mes bredde in Englande, I ſhould attempt more then occaſion it ſelfe woulde offer, ſith wée haue very fewe Wormes but no Bea|ſtes at all, that are thought by nature to bée eyther venemous or hurtfull. Firſt of all therefore wée haue the Adder, which ſome men doe not raſhely take to bée the Vyper. Certes if it bée ſo, then is not the Vyper Authour of the death of hir Galenus de Theria|ca ad Piſo|nem. Plin. lib. 10. cap. 62. Parents, as ſome hyſtories affyrme. And it may well be, for I remember that I haue reade in Philoſtrate, howe he ſawe a Vyper lycking of hyr yong. I did ſée an Adder once my ſelf that laye as I thought ſléeping on a moule|hyll, out of whoſe mouth came aleuen yong Adders of twelue or thirtéene ynches in length a péece, which plaied to and fro in the Graſſe one wyth another, tyll ſome of thm [...] eſpyed me.Se Ariſto|tle, Anima|lium lib. 5. cap. vltimo & Theo|phraſt lib. 7 cap. 13. So ſoone therefore as they ſawe me, they ran againe into the mouth of theyr damme whome I kylled, and then founde eache of them ſhrowded in a [...]ſtinct celle, or pa [...]uirle in hyr belly, much like vnto a ſoft white tally, which maketh one to be of the o|pinion that out Adder [...] the Viper in dée [...]. Their colour is for ye moſt part ruddy blew, and their ſtinging bryngeth death wythout preſent remedie be at hand, the wounded ne|uer ceaſing to ſwell, neyther the venyme to worke till the ſkin of the one breake, and the other aſcende vpwarde to the hart, where it EEBO page image 121 finiſheth. The effect, the length of thẽ is moſt commonly twoo foote and ſomewhat more, but ſeldome doth it extende vnto twoo foote ſixe ynches, except it be in ſome rare and monſterous Adder: whereas our Snakes are much bygger and ſéene ſometymes to ſurmount a yarde, or thrée foote, although their poyſon be nothing ſo grieuous & deadly as ye others. Our Adders lie in winter vnder ſtones in wholes of the yearth, rotten ſtubs of trées, & amõgſt the dead leaues: but in the heate of the ſommer they come abroade, and lye eyther rounde in heapes, or at length vp|on ſome hillocke, or elſe where in the graſſe. They are found only in our woodland coun|tryes and higheſt groundes: as for our ſna|kes they commonlye are ſéene in moores, fennes, and low bottomes. And as we haue great ſtore of Todes where Adders cõmon|ly are found, ſo doe Frogges abound where Snakes doe kéepe their reſidence. We haue alſo the Sloworme, which is black & grayiſh of colour, and ſomewhat ſhorter then an Ad|der. We haue in lyke ſort Eftes, both of the land and water, & likewiſe Swiftes, wherof to ſay any more it ſhould be but loſſe of time, ſithe they are well knowne and no regyon voyd of many of them. As for flies (ſith it ſhal not be amyſſe a lyttle to touch them alſo) wée haue none that can doe hurt or hynderance naturally vnto any, for whether they be cut waſted, or whole bodyed, they are voyde of poyſon & all venimous inclination. The cut waſted, for ſo I Engliſhe the worde Inſecta are the Hornettes, Waſpes, Bées, and ſuch lyke whereof wée haue great ſtore, and of which an opinion is conceiued, that the firſt doe bréede of the corruption of deade horſes, the ſecond of Peares and Apples corrupted, and the laſt of Kine and Oxen: which maye be true, eſpecially the firſt and latter in ſome partes of the beaſt, and not their whole ſub|ſtaunces, as alſo in the ſeconde, ſith we haue neuer Waſpes, but whẽ our frute beginneth to waxe rype. In déede Virgill and others ſpeake of a generatiõ of Bées, by kyllyng or ſmouthering of a brouſed bullocke or calfe, and laying hys bowels or hys fleſhe wrap|ped vp in hys hyde in a cloſe houſe for a cer|taine ſeaſon, but how true it is as yet I haue not tryed. Yet ſure I am of thys that no one liuing creature corrupteth with out the pro|ductiõ of an other as we may ſée in ſhepe alſo for exceſſiue numbers of fleſh flies, if they be ſuffered to lye vnburyed or vneaten by the dogges and Swine, who often preuent ſuch néedeleſſe generations.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Thus much farder wyll I adde of Bées, that whereas ſome ancient wryters affirme thẽ to be a cõmodity wanting in our Iſ [...] it is nowe founde to be nothing ſo. In [...] time peraduenture we had none in déede, but in my dayes there is ſuch plenty of them [...] maner euery where, that in ſome vplandyſh Townes, there are one hundreth, or two hun|dreth hiues of them, although the ſaide hiues are not ſo huge as they of the eaſt countrey; but farre leſſe, as not able to containe aboue one buſhel of corne, or fiue peckes at ye [...] Our hony alſo is taken and reputed to be the beſt bycauſe it is harder, better wrought & clenlyer veſſelled vp, thẽ that which cõmeth from beyond the ſea, where they ſtampe and ſtraine their combes, Bées, & young Blow|inges altogither into the ſtuffe, as I haue béene informed. In vſe alſo of medicine our Phiſitions and Appothicaries eſchewe the forren, & chooſe the home made, as bréeding leſſe cholo [...], which is oftentimes (and I haue ſéene by experience) ſo white as ſuger, and corned as if it were ſalt. Our hiues are made commonly of Rye ſtraw, and wadled about with bramble quarters. But ſome make thẽ of wicker and caſt them ouer with clay. We cheriſh none in trées, but ſet our hiues ſome|where on the warmeſt ſide of the houſe, pro|uyding that they may ſtande drye and: with out daũger of the mouſe. This furthermore is to bée noted, that whereas in veſſelles of oyle, that which is néereſt the toppe is ac|counted the beſt, and of wine that in the m [...]|deſt, ſo of hony the beſt is alwaies next the bottome, which euermore caſteth and dry|ueth his dragges vpwarde toward the very top, contrary to the natures of other liquide ſubſtaunces, whoſe groundes and lies, doe generally ſettle downewardes. And thus much as by the waye of our Bées and Eng|liſhe Hony.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 As for the whole bodied, as the Cantharides and ſuch venymous creatures, we here not of them. Yet haue we Bettles, Horſeflyes, Turdbugges (called in latine Scarabei) the Locuſt or the Greſhopper and ſuch lyke, whereof let other intreate, that make an ex|erciſe in catching of Flyes, but a farre greater ſport in offering them to ſpyders as did Caligula ſometyme and an other Prince yet lyuing, who delyted ſo much to ſée the io|ly combattes betwixt a ſtout flye and an old Spider, that diuers men haue had great re|wardes giuen them for their paineful proui|ſion of flyes made onely for thys purpoſe, Some alſo in the time of Caligula coulde de|uyſe to ſet their Lorde on worke, by lettyng fleſhe flies into his chamber, which he forth|with: woulde egerly haue hunted all other buſineſſe ſet apart, & neuer ceaſed til he had EEBO page image 112 caught hir into his fingers. There are ſome Cockeſcombes here and there in England [...]eruing [...]broadde men [...]nfregi| [...]te. which make account alſo of this paſtime as of a notable matter, telling what a fight is ſéene betwéene thẽ, if either of them be luſty and couragious in his kinde. One alſo hath made a booke of the Spider & the Fly, wher|in he dealeth ſo profoundly and beyonde all meaſure of ſkill, that neyther he himſelf that made it, neither any one ſhal readeth it, can reache vnto the meaning therof. But if thoſe iolly fellowes in ſtéede of the ſtraw that they thruſt into the Flies tayle (a great iniurie no doubt to ſuch a noble champion) woulde beſtow the coſt to ſet a fooles cap vpon there owne heades: then might they with more ſe|curitie, and leſſe reprehenſion beholde theſe notable battayles.

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