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3.9. Of vvilde and tame Fowles. Cap. 9.

Of vvilde and tame Fowles. Cap. 9.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 ORder requireth that I ſpeake ſomewhat of the Fowles alſo of Englande, which I may eaſily deuide into the wilde and tame, but alas ſuch is my ſmall ſkill in Fowles, that to ſay the truth I cã neyther recite their nombers nor well diſtinguiſhe one kinde of them from an other. Yet thys I haue by generall knowledge, that there is no nation vnder the ſunne which hath in time of ye yere more plentie of wild Fowle then we, for ſo many kindes as our Iland doth bring forth: We haue therfore the Crane, the Bitter, the wilde and tame Swanne, the Buſtarde, the Hieron, the Curlew, the Snite, the Wilde|gooſe, Dotcrel, Brant, Larke, Plouer, Lap|wing, Téele, Wigeon, Mallard, Sheldrake, Shoueler, Pewet, Seamewe, Barnacle, Quaile, Woodcocke, Partrich and Feaſant, beſides diuers other, whoſe names to [...]e are vtterly vnknowne, and much more the taſte of theyr fleſh wherewt I was neuer acquain|ted. But as theſe ſerue not at al ſeaſons, ſo in theyr ſeuerall turnes, there is no plentye of them wanting, wherby the tables of the No|bilitie and Gentrie ſhould ſéeme to be dayly vnfurnyſhed. But of all theſe the production of none is more maruellous then that of the Barnacle, whoſe place of generatiõ we haue fought oft times ſo farre as the Orchades, where as peraduẽture we myght haue found the ſame nearer home, and not onely vppon the coaſtes of Ireland, but euen in our owne riuers. If I ſhoulde ſaye howe either theſe or ſome ſuch other Fowle not muche vnlyke vnto them doe bréede yéerely in the Thames mouth, I doe not thincke that many will be|leue me, [...]e more [...]he. 11. [...]pter of [...] deſcrip+ [...]n of [...]cotland. yet ſuch a thing is there to be ſéene, where a kinde of Fowle hath hys beginning vpon a ſhort tender ſhrubbe ſtanding vppon the ſhore from whẽce when theyr time com|meth they fall downe either into the ſalt wa|ter and liue, or vpon the dry land and periſh, as Pena the French Herbarien hath alſo no|ted in the very ende of hys Her [...]all. As for Egretes, Pawperes and ſuch like, they are daily brought vnto vs from beyonde the ſea, as if all the Fowle of our countrey could not ſu [...]fice to ſatiſfie our delicate appetites. Our tame Fowle are ſuch for the moſt parte as are common both to vs and to other Coun|treys, as Cockes, H [...]rnes, Géeſe, Duckes, Pecockes of Inde, blew Pecocks, Pigeons and ſuch lyke whereof there is great plenty in euery Fermours year [...]. They are kepte there alſo to be ſolde eyther for ready money in the open markeſtes, or elſe to be ſpent at home in good company amongſt theyr neigh|bours wythout reprehenſion or [...]n [...]s. Ney|ther are we ſo miſerable in England (a thing only graunted vnto vs by the eſpeciall grace of God and liberty of our Princes) as to dine or ſuppe wyth a quarter of a Hen, or to make ſo great a repaſt with a cocks combe as they doe in ſome other Countreys: but if occaſion ſerue the whole carcaſes of many Capo [...]s, Hennes, Pigeons and ſuch lyke doe oft goe to wracke, beſide Béefe, Mutton, Veale and Lambe: all which at euery feaſt are taken for neceſſary diſhes amongſt the comminal|tye of England. The gelding of Cockes, where by Capons are made, is an auncient practiſe brought in of olde time by the Ro|maines when they dwelt here in thys lande: but the gelding of Turkies or Indiſh Pea|cockes is a newer deuiſe: and certainely not vſed amiſſe, ſith the rancknes of that byrde is very much abated therby, and the taſt of the fleſh in ſundry wiſe amended. If I ſhould ſay that ga [...]s growe alſo to be gelded, I ſup|poſe that no man will beleue me, neyther haue I taſte [...] a [...] any tyme of ſuch a fowle ſo ſerued, yet haue I heard it more then once to [...] vſed in the Countrey, where theyr Géeſe are driuen to the fielde like herdes of cattell by a Gooſeheard, a toy alſo [...]le [...] to be mer|uailed at then the other. For as it is rare to heare of a gelded gander, ſo it is ſtraunge to me, to ſée or heare of Géeſe to be ledde to the field lyke ſhéepe: yet ſo it is, and theyr Goſe|herd caryeth a cattle of paper or parchement wyth hym when he goeth about in the mor|ning to gather the Goſlings together, the noyſe whereof commeth no ſooner to their eares, then they fall to gaggling, and haſ [...]n to goe wyth hym. If it happen that the gates be not yet open, or that none of the houſe be ſtirring, it is ridiculous to ſée how they will péepe vnder the dores, and neuer leaue cry|ing and gagling til they be let out vnto him to ouer take theyr fellowes. I might héere EEBO page image 120 make mention of other fowles which we re|pute vncleane, as Crowes, Pies, Choughs, Rookes, &c: but ſith they abound in all coun|tries, (though peraduenture moſt of all in Englande by reaſon of our negligence) I ſhall not néede to ſpend any tyme in ye reher|ſall of them. Neyther are they cheriſhed of purpoſe to catch vp the woormes that breede in our ſoyles, (as Pollidore ſuppoſeth,) ſith there are no vplandiſhe townes but haue or ſhoulde haue nettes of their owne in ſtore to catche them withall. Sundrie actes of Par|liament are likewyſe made for their vtter deſtruction. Nothing therefore can be more vnlykely to be true, then that theſe rauinous and noyſome foules are nouriſhed amongſt vs to deuour our Woormes, whych doe not abounde much more in Englande then elſe where in other countries of the mayne.

3.10. Of fiſhe taken vpon our Coaſtes. Cap. 10.

Of fiſhe taken vpon our Coaſtes. Cap. 10.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 AS our foules haue their ſeaſons, ſo lyke|wiſe haue all ſorts of fiſh, wherby it co|meth to paſſe that none, or at the leaſtwyſe very few of them are to be had at all tymes. For my part I am greatly acquainted ney|ther with the ſeaſons nor yet with the fiſh it ſelfe, and therefore yf I ſhoulde take vppon me to deſcribe or ſpeak of either of them ab|ſolutely, I ſhould enterpriſe more then I am able to performe, & go in hande with a grea|ter matter then I can well bring about. It ſhall ſuffice therefore to declare what ſortes of fiſhes I haue moſt often ſéene, to the ende I may not altogither paſſe ouer this chapter without ye rehearſall of ſome thing, although the whole ſomme of that which I haue to ſay be nothing in déede, yf the full diſcourſe hereof be any thing duly conſidered.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 Of fiſhes therfore as I finde fiue ſorts, the flat, the roũd, the long, the legged & ſhelled, ſo the flat are deuided into the ſmoothe, ſcaled & tailed. Of the firſt are the Plaice, the Butte, the Turbut, Dorrey, Dabbe, &c. Of the ſe|conde, the Soles, &c. Of the thirde, oure Chaites, Maidens, Kingſones, Flathe and Thornebacke, whereof the greater be for the moſt parte eyther dryed and caryed into o|ther countries, or ſoddẽ, ſowſed, & eaten here at home, whyleſt the leſſer be fryed or butte|red, ſone after they be takẽ, as prouiſion not to be kept long for feare of putrefaction. Vn|der the round kindes are commonly compre|hended Lumpes an vgly fiſh to ſighte, and yet very delicate in eating, yf it be kindlye dreſſed. The Whighting, (an olde waiter or ſeruitor in the Court) the Rochet, Gurnard, Hadocke, Codde, Herring, Pilchard, Sprat, & ſuch like. And theſe are they wherof I haue beſt knowledge and be commonly to be had in their tymes vppon our coaſtes. Vnder this kinde alſo are all the great fiſhe contai|ned as the Seale, the Dolphin, the Porpaſſe, the Thirlepole, Whale, and whatſoeuer is round of body, be it neuer ſo great and huge. Of the long ſort are Cungres, Eles, Gare|fiſhe and ſuche other of that forme. Fi|nallye of the legged kinde we haue not ma|nye, neyther haue I ſéene any more of thys ſort then the Polipus, called in Engliſhe the Lobſtar, the Craifiſh, and ye Crabbe. As for the little Craifiſhes, they are not taken in the ſea, but plentyfully in our freſhe ryuers in banckes and vnder ſtones where they kepe themſelues in moſt ſecret maner, and oft by lykeneſſe of coulour with the ſtones among which they lye, they deceiue euen the ſkilful takers of them, except they vſe great dili|gence. I might here ſpeake of ſundrie other fiſhes nowe and then taken alſo vppon our coaſtes, but ſi [...]h my minde is onely to touche eyther all ſuch as are vſually gotten, or ſo many of them onely as I can well rehearſe vpon certayne knowledge, I thincke it good at thys tyme to forbeare the further intrea|tye of them. As touching the ſhelly ſorte we haue plentie of Oyſters, Muſcles and Co|cles. We haue in lyke ſort no ſmall ſtore of great Whelkes, and Perewincles, & eache of them brought farre into the land from the ſea coaſt in their ſeuerall ſeaſons. And albe|it our Oyſters are generally forborne in the foure hote monethes of the yeare, that is to ſay, May, Iune, Iuly, & Auguſt. Yet in ſome places they be continallye eaten, where they be kept in pittes as I haue knowen by experience. And thus much of our ſea fiſhe, as a man in maner vtterlye vnacquainted with their diuerſitie of kindes: yet ſo much haue I yéelded to do, hoping hereafter to ſay ſomewhat more, and more orderly of them, if it ſhall pleaſe God that I may liue and haue leaſure once againe to peruſe this treatize, & ſo make vp a perfit péece of work of yt, which as you now ſée is very ſlenderly begunne.

3.11. Of Hawkes and Rauenous foules. Cap. 11.

Of Hawkes and Rauenous foules. Cap. 11.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 I Can not make as yet any iuſt report howe many ſortes of Hawkes are bredde wyth|in this realme. Howbeit which of thoſe that are vſually had amongeſt vs are diſcloſed with this lande, I thincke it more eaſie and leſſe difficulte to ſet downe. Firſt of all ther|fore that we haue the Eagle, common expe|rience EEBO page image 111 doth euidently confirmed and diuers of our rockes whereon they brede, yf ſpeach did ſerue, could wel teſtifie the ſame. But the moſt excellent [...]ry of all is not much from Cheſter at a caſtle called D [...]s Br [...]n ſome|time buylded by Brennuis, as our writters do coniecture. Certes this caſtell is no great thing, but yet a pyle very ſtrong and in ac|ceſſible for enemyes, though nowe all rui|nous as many other are. It ſtandeth vpon a harde rocke in the ſide whereof an Eagle bréedeth euery yeare. Certes this is notable in the ouerthrow of hir neaſt (a thing oft at|tempted) that he which goeth thither muſt be ſure of two large baſkets, and ſo prouide to be let downe thereto, that he may ſitte in the one and be couered with the other: for other|wyſe the Egle would kill hym and teare the fleſhe from his bones with their ſharpe ta|lons though his apparell were neuer ſo good. Next vnto ye Egle we haue the Irõ or Erne (as the Scottes doe write) who call the E|gle by ye name. Certes it is a Rauenous bird & not much inferiour to the Egle in déede. For though they be black of colour & ſome|what leſſe of bodie, yet ſuch is their great|neſſe that they are brought by diuers into ſundrie partes of this realme and ſhewed as Egles onely for hope of [...]aine, which is got|ten by the ſight of thẽ. Their chiefe bréeding is in the Weſt country, where the commons complaine of great harme to be done by thẽ in their fieldes, for they are able to beare a yong lambe or kidde vnto their neaſtes, ther|with to feede their yong and come againe for more. Some call thẽ Gripes. We haue alſo the Lanner & the Lanneret: the Tercell and the Goſehawke: the Muſket and the Spar|hawke: the Iacke and the Hobby: and final|lye ſome though very fewe Marlions. And theſe are all the Hawkes that I doe here to be bredde within this Iſlande. Howbeit as theſe are not wanting with vs, ſo are they not very plentifull: wherfore ſuch as delite in Hawking doe make their chiefe prouiſion for the ſame out of Danſke, Germany, and the Eaſtcountries, from whence w [...] haue thẽ in great aboundaunce & at exceſſiue prices, whereas at home and where they be bredde they are ſolde for almoſt right [...]ght and vſually brought to the markets as chickins, pullets and Pigeons are with vs, and there bought vp to be eaten (as we doe the afore|ſayde foules) almoſt of euery man. But to procede with ye reſt. Other rauenous birdes we haue alſo in very great plentye, as the Buſſarde, the Kite, the Ringtaile Di [...]te, and ſuch as often annoye oure Countrie dames by ſpoyling of their yong broodes of chickins, Duckes and G [...]in [...] wherevn|to our very [...] and [...] and Cr [...]wes haue lear|ned alſo the way: and ſo much are [...] rauẽs giuen to this kinde of ſp [...]yle that ſome of ſet purpoſe haue [...] and vſed there in ſtéede of Hawkes, when other could [...] had. I haue ſéene Crowes ſo cunning alſo of theyr owne ſelues that they haue vſed to [...] great riuers (as the Thames for example) & ſodenly comming downe haue caught a ſmall fiſhe in their féete and gone away withall wtout wetting of their wings. And euen at this preſent the aforeſayde ry|u [...]r is not without ſome of them, a thing in my opiniõ not a litle to be wondred at. There is no cauſe wherfore I ſhoulde deſcribe the Cormorant amõgſt Hawkes (except I ſhold call him a Water Hawke) but ſith ſuch dea|ling is not conuenient, let vs nowe ſée what may be ſayde of our venemous Wormes, & how many kindes we haue of them within our realme and countrie.

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