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3.1. ¶ Of the foode and diet of the Engliſhe. Cap. 1.

¶ Of the foode and diet of the Engliſhe. Cap. 1.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 THe ſcituation of our region, lying néere vnto the north, doth cauſe the heate of our ſtomaches ſomewhat to increaſe, and become of greater force, wherefore our bodies doe craue ſome|what more ample nouriſhment, then the in|habitantes of the hotter regions are accu|ſtomed wythall: whoſe dygeſtyue force is not altogither ſo vehement, becauſe theyr internall heate is not ſo ſtrong as ours, which is kept in by the coldneſſe of the ayre, that from time to tyme eſpecially in winter doth enuiron our bodies.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 It is no marueyle therfore that our tables are oftẽtimes more plẽtifully garniſhed thẽ thoſe of other nations, & this trade hath con|tinued with vs euen ſithence the very begin|ning, for before the Romaines founde out & knewe the waye vnto our country, our pre|deceſſours fedde largely vpon fleſhe & m [...]ke, whereof there was great abundance in thys Iſle, becauſe they applyed their chief ſtudies vnto paſturage and féeding. After this ma|ner alſo did our Welch Brytons order thẽ|ſelues in theyr dyet ſo long as they liued of themſelues, but after they became to be vni|ted & made equal with the Engliſh, they fra|med their appetites to liue after our maner, ſo that at thys day there is very litle diffe|rence betwéene vs in our dyets. In olde time the north Brytons did giue themſelues generally to great abſtinence, and in tyme of warres their ſouldiours would often feede but once or twice at the moſt in two or thrée dayes, eſpecially if they helde themſelues in ſecrete, or coulde haue no iſſue out of theyr Bogges and maryſes, thorowe the preſence of the enimie. In this penurye alſo they vſed to créepe into the water or mooriſh plots vp vnto the chinnes, and there remaine a long tyme, only to quallify the heates of their ſto|mackes by violence, which otherwyſe would haue wrought and béene readye to oppreſſe them for hunger and want of ſuſtinance. In thoſe daies likewiſe it was taken for a great offence amongſt them, to eate eyther gooſe, hare, or henne, bicauſe of a certaine ſuperſti|cious opinion which they had conceyued of thoſe thrée creatures, howbeit after that the Romaynes had once founde an entraunce in|to this Iſland, it was not long ere open ſhip|wracke EEBO page image 104 was made of this religious obſerua|tion, ſo that in proceſſe of time, ſo well the Brytons as ye Romaines, gaue ouer to make anye ſuch difference in meates, as they had done before time.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 From thenceforth alſo vnto our dayes, & euen in this ſeaſon wherein we liue, there is no reſtraint of any meate, eyther for re|ligions ſake, or publike order, but it is law|full for euery man to féede vpon whatſoeuer he is able to purchaſe, except it be vpon thoſe dayes whereon eating of fleſhe is eſpecially forbidden, by the lawes of the realme, which order is taken only to the ende our numbers of cattell maye be the better increaſed, and that abundaunce of fiſhe which the ſea yéel|deth, more generally receyued. Beſide this there is great conſideration had in making of this law for the preſeruatiõ of the nauy, & maintenaunce of conuenient numbers of ſea faryng men, both which woulde otherwyſe greatlye decaye, if ſome meanes were not found, wherby they might be increaſed. But howſouer this caſe ſtandeth, white meates, as milk, butter & chéeſe, which were woont to be accoũted of as one of the chiefe ſtayes tho|rowout the Iſland, are now reputed as foode appertinent only to the inferiour ſort, why|leſt ſuch as are more wealthie, doe féede vp|pon the fleſhe of all kindes of cattell accuſto|med to be eaten, all ſortes of fiſhe taken vpõ our coaſtes and in our freſhe ryuers, & ſuch diuerſitie of wilde and tame foules as are eyther bredde in our Iſlande or brought ouer vnto vs from other countries of the maine.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 In number of diſhes and change of meate, the nobilitie of Englande doe moſt excéede, ſith there is no daye in maner that paſſeth o|uer their heades, wherein they haue not one|ly béefe, mutton, veale, lambe, kidde, porke, conie, capon, pigge, or ſo many of theſe as the ſeaſon yeldeth: but alſo ſome portiõ of the redde or fallow déere, beſide great varietie of fiſhe and wildefowle, and thereto ſundrie o|ther delicates wherin the ſwéet hande of the Portingale is not wãting: ſo that for a man to dine with one of them, and to taſt of euery diſhe that ſtandeth before him (which fewe vſe to doe, but to féede vppon that him beſt li|keth for the time) is rather to yéelde vnto a conſpiracie with a great deale of meate for the ſpéedie ſuppreſſion of naturall health, thẽ to ſatiſfie himſelfe with a competent repaſt, to ſuſtayne his lyfe withall. But as thys large feeding is not ſéene in their geſtes, no more is it in their owne perſons, for ſith they haue dayly much reſort vnto their tables, (& many tymes vnlooked for) and thereto re|tayne great numbers of ſeruaunts, it is very requiſite for them to be ſomewhat plentifull in this behalfe. The chiefe part lykewyſe of their dayly prouiſiõ is brought in before thẽ, & placed on their tables, whereof when they haue takẽ what it pleaſeth thẽ, the reſt is re|ſerued & afterward ſent downe, to their ſer|uing men & waiters, who fed thereon in lyke ſort with conuenient moderatiõ, their reuer|ſion alſo being beſtowed vpõ the poore, which lye ready at their gates in great numbers to receyue the ſame. This is ſpokẽ of the chiefe tables whereat the nobleman, his ladie and gueſtes are accuſtomed to ſit, beſide which they haue a certayne ordinarie allowaunce dayly appointed for their halles, where the chiefe officers, and houſholde ſeruaunts, (for all are not permitted to wayte vppon theyr maiſter) & with them ſuch inferiour gueſtes do féede as are not of calling to aſſociate the noble mã himſelf: ſo that beſides thoſe afore mencioned which are called to the principall table, there are commonly fourtie or thrée ſcore perſons fed in thoſe halles to the great reliefe of ſuch ſtrãgers, as oft be partakers thereof. As for drincke it is not vſually ſet on the table in pottes or cruſes, but each one calleth for a cup of ſuch as he liſteth to haue, or as neceſſitie vrgeth him: ſo yt whẽ he hath taſted of it he deliuereth the cuppe againe to ſome one of the ſtanders by, who making it cleane, reſtoreth it to the cubborne frõ whẽce he fetched the ſame. By this occaſion much ydle tippling is furthermore cut of, for whereas if the full pottes ſhoulde continual|lye ſtande néere the trencher, diuers woulde alwayes be dealing with them, whereas now they drincke ſeldome only to auoide the note of great drinkers, or often troubling of ye ſeruitours. Neuertheleſſe in the noble mẽs halles, this order is not vſed, neyther in any mans houſe commonly vnder the degrée of a knight or Squire of great reuenues. The gentlemen and marchant kéepe much about one rate, and eache of them contenteth him|ſelfe with foure, or fiue or ſixe diſhes, when they haue but ſmall reſorte, or peraduenture with one or two, or thrée at the moſt, when they haue no ſtraungers to accompanie them at their owne table. And yet their ſer|uauntes haue their ordinarye dyet aſſigned, beſide ſuch as is left at their maſters bordes, and not appointed to be brought thither the ſeconde time, which is often ſéene generally in veniſon, or ſome eſpeciall diſhe, whereon the Marchaunte man himſelfe lyketh to féede whẽ it is colde, or peraduenture is bet|ter ſo then yf it were warme or hote. To be ſhort, at ſuch time as the marchauntes doe make their ordinarie or voluntarie feaſts, it EEBO page image 95 is a worlde to ſée what great prouiſion is made of all maner of delicate meates, from euery quarter of the country, wherein beſide that they are oftẽ comparable herein to the nobilitie of the lande, they will ſeldome re|garde any thing that the butcher vſually kil|leth, but reiect the ſame as not woorthie to come in place. In ſuch caſes alſo geliffes, conſerues, ſuckeites, codinacs, marmilates, marchepaine, ſugred bread, gingerbreade, florentines, wildfowle, veniſon of all ſortes, & outlandiſh confectiõs do generally beare ye ſway, with other infinite deuiſes of our owne not poſſible for me to remember. But amõg all theſe, the kinde of meate which is obtay|ned with moſt difficultie is commonly taken for the moſt delicate, & thervpon eache gueſt will ſooneſt deſire to féede. And as all eſtates doe excéede herein, (I meane for number of coſtly diſhes) ſo theſe forget not to vſe ye like exceſſe in wine, inſomuch as there is no kind to be had (neither any where more ſtore of al ſortes then in Englãd) wherof at ſuch great méetinges there is not ſome portion proui|ded. Furthermore when theſe haue had their courſe which nature yeldeth, ſundry ſortes of artificial ſtuffe, imuſt in like maner ſuccéede in their turnes, beſide Ale & béere which ne|uertheleſſe beare the greateſt brunt in drinc|king, and are of ſo many ſortes & ages as it pleaſeth the Bruer to make them. The bere that is vſed at noble mens tables is commõ|lye of a yeare olde, (or peraduenture of twoo yeres tunning or more, but this is not ge|nerall) it is alſo brued in Marche & therefore called Marche bere, but for the houſholde it is vſually not vnder a monethes age, eache one coueting to haue ye ſame ſtale as he may ſo that it be not ſoure, and his breade new as is poſſible, ſo that it be not hote. The arti|ficer, and huſbandman, make greateſt ac|compt of ſuch meate, as they maye ſooneſt come by and haue it quicklyeſt readie: their foode alſo conſiſteth principally in Béefe and ſuch meate as the Butcher ſelleth, that is to ſay Mutton, Veale, Lamb, Porke. &c. wher|of the Artificer findeth great ſtore in the markets adioyning, beſide Souſe, Brawne, Bacon, Fruite, Pyes of fruite, Foules of ſundrie ſortes, Chéeſe, Butter, Egges. &c. as the other wãteth it not at home, by his owne prouiſion, which is at the beſt hande, & com|monly leaſt charge. In feſting alſo this lat|ter ſort doe excéede after their maner: eſpe|cially at Brydales, purifications of women, and ſuch like odde méetinges, where it is in|credible to tell what meate is conſumed and ſpent, eache one bringing ſuch a diſhe, or ſo many, as hys wyfe and he doe conſult vpon, but alwayes with this conſideration that the léefer friende, ſhall haue the beſt intertaine|ment. This alſo is commonly ſéene at theſe bankets, that the goodman of the houſe is not charged with any thing ſauing bread, drinke, houſe rowme and fire. But the artificers in cities and good townes doe deale farre other|wyſe, for albeit that ſome of them doe ſuffer their iawes to go oft before their clawes, & diuers of thẽ by making good cheare do hin|der themſelues and other men, yet the wiſer ſort can handle the matter well ynough in theſe Iunkettinges, and therefore their fru|galitie deſerueth commendation. To con|clude both the arficer and the huſbandman, are ſufficiently liberall, and very friendly at their tables, and when they méete, they are ſo merie without malice, and plaine without inwarde craft & ſubtilty that it woulde doe a man good to be in companie among them. Herein onely are the inferiour ſort to be bla|med, that being thus aſſembled their talke is now and then ſuch as ſauoureth of ſcurrilitie and ribaldrye a thing naturallye incident to carters, & clownes, who thincke themſelues not to be merie and welcome, yf their fooliſh vaines in this behalfe be neuer ſo little re|ſtrayned. This is moreouer to be added in theſe aſſembles, that if they happen to ſtum|ble vpon a péece of veniſon and a cup of wine or very ſtrong béere or ale, which latter they commonly prouide agaynſt their appoynted dayes, they thincke their cheare ſo great, and thẽſelues to haue fared ſo well,I haue dined ſo well as my Lorde Mayor. as the Lorde Mayor of London, with whome when their bellies be full they will often make compa|riſon. I might here talke ſomewhat of the great ſilence that is vſed at the tables of the honorable & wyſer ſort, generally ouer all ye realme, likewyſe of the moderate eating and drincking that is dayly ſéene, and finally of the regard that eache one hath to kéepe him|ſelfe from the note of ſurffetting and drunc|kenneſſe, (for which cauſe ſalt meate except béefe, bacon, and porke are not any white e|ſtéemed, and yet theſe three may not be much powdered) but as in rehearſall thereof I ſhould commende the noble man, marchant, and frugall artificer, ſo I coulde not cleare the meaner ſort of huſbandmen, and country inhabitaunts of very much babbling (except it be here and there ſome odde man) & nowe & then ſurfeting and drunkenneſſe, which they rather fall into for want of héede taking, thẽ wilfully following or delighting in thoſe er|rours of ſet minde and purpoſe. The breade thorowout the lande is made of ſuch graine as the ſoyle yeldeth, neuertheleſſe the genti|litie commõly prouide themſelues ſufficient|ly EEBO page image 105 of wheate for their owne tables, whyleſt their houſhold and poore neighbours are in|forced to content themſelues with Rye, or Barley, yea & in tyme of dearth with breade made eyther of beanes, peaſon, or Otes, or of al togither, of which ſcourge the pooreſt do ſooneſt taſt, ſith they are leaſt able to prouide themſelues of better. I will not ſay that this extremitie is oft ſo well to be ſéen in tyme of plentie, as of dearth but if I ſhould I could eaſily bring my trial: for albeit that there be much more grounde eared nowe almoſt in e|uerye place, then hath béene of late yeares, yet ſuch a price of corne continueth in eache towne and markete wythout any iuſt cauſe, that the artificer and poore laboring man, is not able to reach vnto it, but is driuen to cõ|tent hymſelfe with horſecorne, I meane, beanes, peaſon, otes, tares, and lintelles: and therefore it is a true prouerbe, and neuer ſo well verified as now,A famine at hand is firſt ſéene in ye horſe maunger, when the poore doe fall to horſecorne that hunger ſetteth his firſt foote into the horſe manger. If the world laſt a while after this rate, wheate and rye will be no graine for poore men to féede on, & ſome catterpillers there are that can ſaye ſo much already. Of breade made of wheat we haue ſundry ſortes, daily brought to the ta|ble, wherof the firſt and moſt excellent is the manchet, which we commonlye call white breade, in latin primarius panis, Primarius panis. whereof Bu|deus alſo ſpeaketh, in his firſt booke de aſſe. The ſecond is the cheate, or wheaton bread, ſo named becauſe the colour thereof reſem|bleth the graie wheat, and out of this is the courſeſt of the brennes (vſually called gurge|ons or pollarde) taken. The raueled is a kinde of chete breade alſo, but it reteyneth more of the groſſe, and leſſe of the pure ſub|ſtance of the wheate: and this beyng more ſleightly wrought vp, is vſed in the houſes of the nobilitie, and gentry onely, whereas the other is baked in cities and good townes of an appointed ſize (according to ſuch price as the corne doth beare) by a ſtatute prouided in that behalfe.The ſize of breade is very ill kept or not at all loo|ked vnto in the coũ|trey townes & markets. Panis Ci|barius. The next ſort is named browne breade of the colour, of which we haue twoo ſortes, one baked vp as it commeth from the mille, ſo that neyther the brennes nor the floure, are any whit diminiſhed, thys Celſus called Autopirus panis. lib. 2. and putteth it in the ſeconde place of nouriſhment. The o|ther hath little or no floure left therein at al, howbeit he calleth it panem Cibarium, and it is not onely the woorſt and weakeſt of all the other ſortes, but alſo appointed in olde tyme for ſeruants, and the inferiour kinde of peo|ple. Hereunto likewiſe becauſe it is dry and brickle in the working (for it will hardely be made vp handſomely into loues) ſome adde a portion of rye meale, wherby the rough dry|neſſe or drie roughneſſe thereof is ſomewhat quallified, and then it is named miſſelen, that is, bread made of mingled corne, albeit that dyuers doe mingle wheate and rye of pur|poſe at the mille, & ſell the ſame at the mar|kettes vnder the aforeſayde name.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 In champeigne countryes much rye and barly breade it eaten,Sspan [...] but eſpeciallye where wheate is ſcant and geſon. As for the diffe|rence that is betwéene the ſummer & winter wheate, moſt huſbandmen knowe it not, ſith they are neyther acquainted with ſummer wheat, nor winter barley: yet here and there I finde of both ſortes, but in ſo ſmall quanti|ties, as that I dare not pronounce them to be any thing common among vs.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 Our drinke whoſe force and continuance is partly touched already, is made of barley,Dr [...]n [...] water, and hoppes, ſodden and mingled to|gither, by the induſtry of our bruers, in a certaine exact proportion. But before our barley doe come vnto their handes, it ſuſtai|neth great alteration, and is conuerted into mault, ye making wherof,M [...] I wil her ſet down in ſuch order, as my ſkill therein may extend vnto, (for I am ſcarſe a good maultſter) chief|ly for that forreine writers haue attẽpted to deſcribe the ſame, & the making of our béere, wherein they haue ſhot ſo farre wyde as the quantity of ground was betwéene thẽſelues and their marke. In the meane tyme beare with me gentle reader, (I beſéech thée) that leade thee from the deſcription of the plenty|full dyet of our countrey, vnto the fonde re|porte of a ſeruyle trade, or rather from a ta|ble delicately furniſhed, into a muſtye mault houſe, but ſuch is now thy hap, wherefore I praye thée be contented.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 Our Mault is made of the beſt Barley,Ma [...] of [...] which is ſtéeped in a cyſterne, in greater or leſſe quantitye, by the ſpace of thrée dayes, and thrée nyghtes, vntyll it be thorowelye ſoked. This beyng done the water is dray|ned from it by lyttle and lyttle, tyll it bée quite gone. Afterwarde they take it out, and laying it vpon the cleane floure on a rounde heape, it reſteth ſo vntill it be ready to ſhoote at the roote ende, which maltſters call com|ming. When it beginneth therefore to ſhoote in thys maner, they ſaye it is come, and then foorthwith they ſpreade it abroade, firſt thick and afterwarde thinner and thinner vppon the ſayde flower (as it commeth) and there it lyeth (with turning euery daye foure or fiue times) by the ſpace of one and twenty daies at the leaſt, the workeman not ſuffring it in any wiſe to take any heate, whereby the bud ende ſhoulde ſpire, that bringeth foorth the EEBO page image 96 blade, and by which out [...]ght [...]he maulte woulde be ſpoyl [...]d, and to its [...]o ſmall como|ditie. When it hath gone or [...] turned ſo long vpon the floure, they carye it to a hyll couered wyth heire cloth, where they gyue it gentle heates (after they haue ſprede it there very thinne abroad) till it be drye, and in the meane while they turne it o [...]ten, that it may be vniformly dried. For the more it be dryed the better the mault is and the longer it will continue, whereas if it be not dryed downe (as they call it) but ſlackely handled, it wyll bréed a kind of worme, called a wiuel, which groweth in the flowre of the corne, and in proceſſe of time, will ſo eate out it ſelfe, that nothing ſhal remaine of the graine but euen the rinde or huſke. The beſt mault is tryed by the hardneſſe & colour, for if it will write lyke a péece of chalke, after you haue bytten a kyrnell in ſunder in the middeſt, then you may aſſure your ſelf yt it is dryed downe. In ſome places it is dryed with woode alone, or ſtrawe alone, in other with woode and ſtraw togither, but of all the ſtrawe dryed is the moſt excellent. For the woode dryed mault when it is brued, beſide that if is higher of collour, it doth hurt and annoye the heade of him that is not vſed thereto becauſe of the ſmoke. Such alſo as vſe both indifferẽtly do cleane and drye theyr woode, to remooue all moyſture that ſhoulde procure the ſmoke, & thys mault is in the ſeconde place, and with the ſame likewiſe, that which is made wyth dryed fyrze, brome, &c. whereas if they alſo bée occupyed gréene, they are in manner ſo preiudiciall to the corne, as the moiſt woode. And thus much of our Maultes in bruyng whereof they grynde the ſame ſomewhat groſelye, [...]ruing Béere. and in ſéethyng well the liquour that ſhall bée put vnto it, they adde to euerye nine quarters of mault one of headecorne, which cõſiſteth of ſundry graine, as wheate, Otes, Peaſon. &c. They ſéeth theyr woort al|ſo twiſe, that is once before they maſhe, or mixe it with the mault, and once after after, adding furthermore vnto this later ſeething, a certeine number of engliſhe hops, (for the outlandiſh are founde nowe to be the woorſt) according to whoſe quantitie, the continu|aunce of the drinke is determined. For it fée|deth vpon the hoppe, and laſteth ſo long as the force of the ſame continueth, which being extinguiſhed the drinke dyeth, and becõmeth of no value. In this trade alſo our bruers obſerue very diligently the nature of the wa|ter which they daily occupye, for all waters are not of lyke goodneſſe in thys buſyneſſe, wherefore the diligent workeman doth re|déeme the iniquity of that element, by chan|ging of his proportions, which trouble in ale (ſometime our onelye, but nowe taken with many only for olde & ſ [...]ct [...]ens drinke) is neuer ſeene nor harde of. Howbeit as the béere well brued and ſtale, is c [...]ere and well coloured as mu [...]a [...]ell or m [...]l [...]eſey, ſo our ale which is not at all or verye little ſodden, and without hoppes, is more thicke, fulſome and of no ſuch continuance, which are thrée o [...]able thynges, to bée conſidered in that liquor, but what for that. Certes I knewe ſome ale knightes ſo much addicted therevn|to, that they will not ceaſe from morow vn|tyll euen, to [...]iſt [...]e the ſame, clenſing houſe after houſe, till they deale themſelues. Such ſleights alſo haue the alewines for the vtter|raunce of this drinke, that they wyll mixe it with roſen and ſalt, but if you heate a knyfe redde hotte, and quench it in the ale, ſo néere the bottome of the pot as you can put it, you ſhal ſée the roſe hanging on the knife. As for the force of ſalt, it is well knowne by the ef|fecte, for the more the drinker tipleth ye more he may, and ſo doth hée cary a dry drunken ſoule to bed with him, except his lucke be the better, but to my purpoſe. In ſome places of england, there is a kind of drink, made of ap|ples, which they call cidar or pomage,Cidar. Perry. but yt of peares is named pirry. Certs theſe 2. are very common in Kent, Worceſter, & other ſtéedes, where theſe kindes of fruites doe abounde, howbeit they are not theyr onelye dryncke, at all tymes, but referred vnto the delicate ſortes of drinke, as Metheglin is in Wales,Methe|glin. wherof the welchmen make no leſſe accompt, then the Gréekes did of theyr Ambroſia, or Nectar, which for the pleaſant|neſſe thereof, was ſuppoſed to bée ſuch as the goddeſſe themſelues did vſe. There is a kind of ſwiſh ſwaſh made alſo in Eſſex, and dy|uers other places, wyth Hony and water, which the countrey wines putting ſome pep|per & a little other ſpice among, call meade,Mede. verye good in myne opinion for ſuch as loue to bée loſſe bodied, otherwiſe it differeth ſo much from the true Metheglin, as chalke doth from chéeſe. Truely it is nothing elſe but the waſhing of the combes, whẽ the hony is wrong out, and one of the beſt things that I knowe belonging thereto is, yt they ſpend but little labour and leſſe coſt in making of the ſame, and therefore no great loſſe if it were neuer occupyed.

Compare 1587 edition: 1 2 3 4 Hetherto of the dyet of my Countrey|menne, and ſome what more at large peraduenture then manye menne will like of, wherefore I thinke good nowe to fyniſhe thys chapter, and ſo will I when I haue ad|ded a few other thinges incident vnto that EEBO page image 106 which goeth before, wherevy the whole pro|ceſſe of the ſame ſhall fully be deliuered, and my promiſe to my friend in this behalfe per|formed. Heretofore there hath béene much more tyme ſpent in eating and drincking thẽ commonly is in theſe dayes,Leſſe time ſpent in eating thẽ heretofore. for whereas of olde we had breakfaſtes in the forenoone, be|uerages, or nuritions after dinner, & therto rere ſuppers generally when it was tyme to go to reſt (a toy brought in by hard Canutus) nowe theſe odde repaſtes thancked be God are verye well left, and eache one in maner (except here in there ſome young hungry ſtomacke that cannot faſt till dinner tyme,) contenteth himſelfe with dinner and ſupper onely. The Normans miſlyking the gur|mandize of Canutus, ordayned after their ar|riualle, that no table ſhoulde be couered a|boue once in the day, which Huntingdon im|puteth to their auarice: but in the ende either wexing weary of their owne frugalitie, or ſuffering the cockle of olde cuſtome to ouer|growe the good corne of their newe conſtitu|tion, they fell to ſuch libertie, that in often féeding they ſurmounted Canutus ſurnamed the hardy. Canutus a gloutton but the Normans at the laſt excéeded him in that vice. For wheras he couered his table, but thrée or foure times in the day, they ſpred their clothes fiue or ſixe tymes, and in ſuch wiſe as I before rehearſed. They brought in alſo the cuſtome of long and ſtately ſitting at meate, which is not yet left, although it be a great expence of tyme, and woorthye reprehenſion. For the nobilitie gentlemen & marchant men, eſpecially at great méetings doe ſit cõmonly till two or thrée of the clocke at afternoone, ſo that with many it is an hard matter,Long fit|ting repre|hended. to ryſe from the table to go to eue|ning prayer, & returne from thence to come tyme ynough to ſupper. For my part I am perſwaded that the purpoſe of the Normans at the firſt was to reduce the auncient Ro|maine order in féeding once in the day, and towarde the euening as I haue reade & no|ted. In déede the Romaines had ſuch a cu|ſtome, and lykewyſe the Gretians as maye appeare by the wordes of Socrates, who ſayd vnto ye Atheniens Oriente ſole conſilium, oc|cidente conuiuium eſt cogitandum. Plato called the Siciliens monſters in that they v|ſed to eate twiſe in the day. Among the Per|ſians onelye the king dined when the ſonne was at the higheſt, and ſhadowe of the ſtile at the ſhorteſt: the reaſt (as it is reported) went alwayes to meate as their ſtomackes craued it. Howbeit at the laſt they fell gene|rally to allow of ſuppers toward the ſetting of the ſunne, bycauſe they woulde haue all their family to go to meate togither, & wher|vnto they woulde appoynt their gueſtes to come at a certayne length of the ſhadow, to be perceyued in their dialles. Their ſlaues in lyke ſort were glad, when it grewed to the tenth foote for then were they ſure ſoone af|ter to go to meate. In the ſcripture we read of many ſuppers and fewe dinners, only for that dining was not greatly vſed in Chriſts tyme, but taken as a thing lately ſprong vp, when pampering of the belly began to take holde, occaſioned by ydleneſſe and great a|bundaunce of riches. It is pretie to note in Iuuenall, how he taunteth Marius for that he gaue himſelf to drincking before the T [...] at t [...] the [...] at [...]. ninth houre of the day, for thincking thrée houres to be to litle for the filling of his belly, he be|ganne commonly at eyght, which was an houre to ſoone. Afterwards ſixe houres one|ly were appointed to worke and conſult in, and the other ſixe of the day to féede & drincke in, as the Verſe ſayeth.

Sex horae tanto rebus tribuantur agendus
viuere poſt illas littera zetha monet.
But how Martial deuided his day, and with him the whole trowpe of the learned and wi|ſer ſort, theſe verſes following doe more eui|dently declare.
Prima ſalutantes, atque altera continet horas,L [...]. 4. [...] 8
Exercet raucos tertia cauſidicos.
In quintam varios extendit Roma labores,
Sexta quies laſsis, Septima finis erit.
Sufficit in nonam nitidis octaua paleſtris,
Imperat extructos frangere nona thoros.
Hora libellorum decima eſt Eupheme meorũ,
Temperat Ambroſias, cum tua cura dapes.
Et bonus ethereo laxatur Nectare Caeſar,
Ingentique tenet pocula parca manu.
Tunc admitte iocos: greſſu timet ire licenti,
Ad matutinum noſtra Thaleia Iouem.
Thus we ſée how the auncient maner of the gentils was to féede but once in the day and that towarde night, till glotonie grewe on, and altered that good cuſtome. With vs the nobilitie, gentrie and ſtudents, doe ordinari|ly go to dinner at a leauen before noone, and to ſupper at fiue, or betwéene fiue and ſixe at afternoone. The marchaunts dine and ſuppe ſeldome before 12. at noone, & ſixe at night e|ſpecially in London. The huſbandmen dine alſo at high noone as they call it, & ſup at ſea|uen or eyght: but out of the terme in our V|niuerſities the ſchoolers dine at tenne. As for the pooreſt ſort they generally dine and ſup when they, may ſo that to talke of their order of repaſt, it were but néedeleſſe matter.

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